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Geneva Conventions Act 1957

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  1. Introductory Text

  2. Punishment of offenders against conventions

    1. 1. Grave breaches of scheduled conventions.

    2. 1A. Trial and punishment of offences under s.1

  3. Provisions as to certain legal proceedings

    1. 2. Notice of trial of protected persons to be served on protecting power, etc.

    2. 3. Legal representation of certain persons.

    3. 4. Appeals by protected persons.

    4. 5. Reduction of sentence and custody of protected persons.

  4. Prevention of abuse of Red Cross and other emblems

    1. 6. Use of Red Cross and other emblems.

    2. 6A. Regulations.

  5. General

    1. 7. Interpretation.

    2. 8. Short title and extent.

  6. SCHEDULES

    1. FIRST SCHEDULE

      GENEVA CONVENTION FOR THE AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE WOUNDED AND SICK IN ARMED FORCES IN THE FIELD

      1. Geneva, 12th August, 1949

        1. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic...

      2. CHAPTER I.—GENERAL PROVISIONS

        1. ARTICLE 1

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure...

        2. ARTICLE 2

          1. In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in...

          2. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial...

          3. Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be...

        3. ARTICLE 3

          1. In the case of armed conflict not of an international...

          2. 1.Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members...

          3. 2.The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for....

        4. ARTICLE 4

          1. Neutral Powers shall apply by analogy the provisions of the...

        5. ARTICLE 5

          1. For the protected persons who have fallen into the hands...

        6. ARTICLE 6

          1. In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles...

          2. Wounded and sick, as well as medical personnel and chaplains,...

        7. ARTICLE 7

          1. Wounded and sick, as well as members of the medical...

        8. ARTICLE 8

          1. The present Convention shall be applied with the co-operation and...

          2. The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest...

          3. The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not...

        9. ARTICLE 9

          1. The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to...

        10. ARTICLE 10

          1. The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to...

          2. When wounded and sick or medical personnel and chaplains do...

          3. If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall...

          4. Any neutral Power, or any organisation invited by the Power...

          5. No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by...

          6. Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a...

        11. ARTICLE 11

          1. In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest...

          2. For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either...

      3. CHAPTER II.—WOUNDED AND SICK

        1. ARTICLE 12

          1. Members of the armed forces and other persons mentioned in...

          2. They shall be treated humanely and cared for by the...

          3. Only urgent medical reasons will authorise priority in the order...

          4. Women shall be treated with all consideration due to their...

          5. The Party to the conflict which is compelled to abandon...

        2. ARTICLE 13

          1. The present Convention shall apply to the wounded and sick...

          2. 1.Members of the armed forces of a Party to the...

          3. 2.Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps,...

          4. 3.Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a...

          5. 4.Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members...

          6. 5.Members of crews including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the...

          7. 6.Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who on the approach of...

        3. ARTICLE 14

          1. Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the wounded and...

        4. ARTICLE 15

          1. At all times, and particularly after an engagement, Parties to...

          2. Whenever circumstances permit, an armistice or a suspension of fire...

          3. Likewise, local arrangements may be concluded between Parties to the...

        5. ARTICLE 16

          1. Parties to the conflict shall record as soon as possible,...

          2. These records should if possible include:

          3. (a) designation of the Power on which he depends;

        6. ARTICLE 17

          1. Parties to the conflict shall ensure that burial or cremation...

          2. Bodies shall not be cremated except for imperative reasons of...

          3. They shall further ensure that the dead are honourably interred,...

          4. As soon as circumstances permit, and at latest at the...

        7. ARTICLE 18

          1. The military authorities may appeal to the charity of the...

          2. The military authorities shall permit the inhabitants and relief societies,...

          3. No one may ever be molested or convicted for having...

          4. The provisions of the present Article do not relieve the...

      4. CHAPTER III.—MEDICAL UNITS AND ESTABLISHMENTS

        1. ARTICLE 19

          1. Fixed establishments and mobile medical units of the Medical Service...

          2. The responsible authorities shall ensure that the said medical establishments...

        2. ARTICLE 20

          1. Hospital ships entitled to the protection of the Geneva Convention...

        3. ARTICLE 21

          1. The protection to which fixed establishments and mobile medical units...

        4. ARTICLE 22

          1. The following conditions shall not be considered as depriving a...

          2. 1.That the personnel of the unit or establishment are armed,...

          3. 2.That in the absence of armed orderlies, the unit or...

          4. 3.That small arms and ammunition taken from the wounded and...

          5. 4.That personnel and material of the veterinary service are found...

          6. 5.That the humanitarian activities of medical units and establishments or...

        5. ARTICLE 23

          1. In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after...

          2. Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the...

          3. The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red...

      5. CHAPTER IV.—PERSONNEL

        1. ARTICLE 24

          1. Medical personnel exclusively engaged in the search for, or the...

        2. ARTICLE 25

          1. Members of the armed forces specially trained for employment, should...

        3. ARTICLE 26

          1. The staff of national Red Cross societies and that of...

          2. Each High Contracting Party shall notify to the other, either...

        4. ARTICLE 27

          1. A recognised society of a neutral country can only lend...

          2. The neutral Government shall notify this consent to the adversary...

          3. In no circumstances shall this assistance be considered as interference...

          4. The members of the personnel named in the first paragraph...

        5. ARTICLE 28

          1. Personnel designated in Articles 24 and 26 who fall into...

          2. Personnel thus retained shall not be deemed prisoners of war....

          3. (a) They shall be authorised to visit periodically the prisoners...

        6. ARTICLE 29

          1. Members of the personnel designated in Article 25 who have...

        7. ARTICLE 30

          1. Personnel whose retention is not indispensable by virtue of the...

          2. Pending their return, they shall not be deemed prisoners of...

          3. On their departure, they shall take with them the effects,...

        8. ARTICLE 31

          1. The selection of personnel for return under Article 30 shall...

          2. As from the outbreak of hostilities, Parties to the conflict...

        9. ARTICLE 32

          1. Persons designated in Article 27 who have fallen into the...

          2. Unless otherwise agreed, they shall have permission to return to...

          3. Pending their release, they shall continue their work under the...

          4. On their departure, they shall take with them their effects,...

          5. The Parties to the conflict shall secure to this personnel,...

      6. CHAPTER V.—BUILDINGS AND MATERIAL

        1. ARTICLE 33

          1. The material of mobile medical units of the armed forces...

          2. The buildings, material and stores of fixed medical establishments of...

          3. The material and stores defined in the present Article shall...

        2. ARTICLE 34

          1. The real and personal property of aid societies which are...

          2. The right of requisition recognised for belligerents by the laws...

      7. CHAPTER VI.—MEDICAL TRANSPORTS

        1. ARTICLE 35

          1. Transports of wounded and sick or of medical equipment shall...

          2. Should such transports or vehicles fall into the hands of...

          3. The civilian personnel and all means of transport obtained by...

        2. ARTICLE 36

          1. Medical aircraft, that is to say, aircraft exclusively employed for...

          2. They shall bear, clearly marked, the distinctive emblem prescribed in...

          3. Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are...

          4. Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the...

          5. In the event of an involuntary landing in enemy or...

        3. ARTICLE 37

          1. Subject to the provisions of the second paragraph, medical aircraft...

          2. The neutral Powers may, however, place conditions or restrictions on...

          3. Unless agreed otherwise between the neutral Power and the Parties...

      8. CHAPTER VII.—THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

        1. ARTICLE 38

          1. As a compliment to Switzerland, the heraldic emblem of the...

          2. Nevertheless, in the case of countries which already use as...

        2. ARTICLE 39

          1. Under the direction of the competent military authority, the emblem...

        3. ARTICLE 40

          1. The personnel designated in Article 24 and in Articles 26...

          2. Such personnel, in addition to the identity disc mentioned in...

          3. The identity card shall be uniform throughout the same armed...

          4. In no circumstances may the said personnel be deprived of...

        4. ARTICLE 41

          1. The personnel designated in Article 25 shall wear, but only...

          2. Military identity documents to be carried by this type of...

        5. ARTICLE 42

          1. The distinctive flag of the Convention shall be hoisted only...

          2. In mobile units, as in fixed establishments, it may be...

          3. Nevertheless, medical units which have fallen into the hands of...

          4. Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary steps, in...

        6. ARTICLE 43

          1. The medical units belonging to neutral countries, which may have...

          2. Subject to orders to the contrary by the responsible military...

        7. ARTICLE 44

          1. With the exception of the cases mentioned in the following...

          2. Furthermore, national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun)...

          3. The international Red Cross organisations and their duly authorised personnel...

          4. As an exceptional measure, in conformity with national legislation and...

      9. CHAPTER VIII.—EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

        1. ARTICLE 45

          1. Each Party to the conflict, acting through its commanders-in-chief, shall...

        2. ARTICLE 46

          1. Reprisals against the wounded, sick, personnel, buildings or equipment protected...

        3. ARTICLE 47

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as...

        4. ARTICLE 48

          1. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through...

      10. CHAPTER IX.—REPRESSION OF ABUSES AND INFRACTIONS

        1. ARTICLE 49

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary...

          2. Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to...

          3. Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the...

          4. In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards...

        2. ARTICLE 50

          1. Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be...

        3. ARTICLE 51

          1. No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself...

        4. ARTICLE 52

          1. At the request of a Party to the conflict, an...

          2. If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for...

          3. Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the...

        5. ARTICLE 53

          1. The use by individuals, societies, firms or companies either public...

          2. By reason of the tribute paid to Switzerland by the...

          3. Nevertheless, such High Contracting Parties as were not party to...

          4. The prohibition laid down in the first paragraph of the...

        6. ARTICLE 54

          1. The High Contracting Parties shall, if their legislation is not...

      11. FINAL PROVISIONS

        1. ARTICLE 55

          1. The present Convention is established in English and in French....

          2. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of...

        2. ARTICLE 56

          1. The present Convention, which bears the date of this day,...

        3. ARTICLE 57

          1. The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible...

          2. A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of...

        4. ARTICLE 58

          1. The present Convention shall come into force six months after...

          2. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting...

        5. ARTICLE 59

          1. The present Convention replaces the Conventions of 22nd August, 1864,...

        6. ARTICLE 60

          1. From the date of its coming into force, it shall...

        7. ARTICLE 61

          1. Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal...

          2. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all...

        8. ARTICLE 62

          1. The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall...

        9. ARTICLE 63

          1. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty...

          2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss...

          3. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification...

          4. The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the...

        10. ARTICLE 64

          1. The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with...

          2. In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full...

          3. Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August, 1949, in...

          4. [Here follow the signatures and Annexes.]

    2. SECOND SCHEDULE

      GENEVA CONVENTION FOR THE AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF WOUNDED, SICK AND SHIPWRECKED MEMBERS OF ARMED FORCES AT SEA

      1. Geneva, 12th August, 1949

        1. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic...

      2. CHAPTER I.—GENERAL PROVISIONS

        1. ARTICLE 1

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure...

        2. ARTICLE 2

          1. In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in...

          2. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial...

          3. Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be...

        3. ARTICLE 3

          1. In the case of armed conflict not of an international...

          2. 1.Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members...

          3. 2.The wounded, sick and shipwrecked shall be collected and cared...

        4. ARTICLE 4

          1. In case of hostilities between land and naval forces of...

          2. Forces put ashore shall immediately become subject to the provisions...

        5. ARTICLE 5

          1. Neutral Powers shall apply by analogy the provisions of the...

        6. ARTICLE 6

          1. In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles...

          2. Wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, as well as medical personnel...

        7. ARTICLE 7

          1. Wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, as well as members of...

        8. ARTICLE 8

          1. The present Convention shall be applied with the co-operation and...

          2. The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest...

          3. The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not...

        9. ARTICLE 9

          1. The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to...

        10. ARTICLE 10

          1. The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to...

          2. When wounded, sick and shipwrecked, or medical personnel and chaplains...

          3. If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall...

          4. Any neutral Power, or any organisation invited by the Power...

          5. No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by...

          6. Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a...

        11. ARTICLE 11

          1. In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest...

          2. For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either...

      3. CHAPTER II.—WOUNDED, SICK AND SHIPWRECKED

        1. ARTICLE 12

          1. Members of the armed forces and other persons mentioned in...

          2. Such persons shall be treated humanely and cared for by...

          3. Only urgent medical reasons will authorise priority in the order...

          4. Women shall be treated with all consideration due to their...

        2. ARTICLE 13

          1. The present Convention shall apply to the wounded, sick and...

          2. 1.Members of the armed forces of a Party to the...

          3. 2.Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps,...

          4. 3.Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a...

          5. 4.Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members...

          6. 5.Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the...

          7. 6.Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory who, on the approach of...

        3. ARTICLE 14

          1. All warships of a belligerent Party shall have the right...

        4. ARTICLE 15

          1. If wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons are taken on board...

        5. ARTICLE 16

          1. Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the wounded, sick...

        6. ARTICLE 17

          1. Wounded, sick or shipwrecked persons who are landed in neutral...

          2. The costs of hospital accommodation and internment shall be borne...

        7. ARTICLE 18

          1. After each engagement, Parties to the conflict shall, without delay,...

          2. Whenever circumstances permit, the Parties to the conflict shall conclude...

        8. ARTICLE 19

          1. The Parties to the conflict shall record as soon as...

          2. (a) designation of the Power on which he depends;

        9. ARTICLE 20

          1. Parties to the conflict shall ensure that burial at sea...

          2. If dead persons are landed, the provisions of the Geneva...

        10. ARTICLE 21

          1. The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the charity...

          2. Vessels of any kind responding to this appeal, and those...

          3. They may, in no case, be captured on account of...

      4. CHAPTER III.—HOSPITAL SHIPS

        1. ARTICLE 22

          1. Military hospital ships, that is to say, ships built or...

          2. The characteristics which must appear in the notification shall include...

        2. ARTICLE 23

          1. Establishments ashore entitled to the protection of the Geneva Convention...

        3. ARTICLE 24

          1. Hospital ships utilised by national Red Cross societies, by officially...

          2. These ships must be provided with certificates of the responsible...

        4. ARTICLE 25

          1. Hospital ships utilised by national Red Cross societies, officially recognised...

        5. ARTICLE 26

          1. The protection mentioned in Articles 22, 24 and 25 shall...

        6. ARTICLE 27

          1. Under the same conditions as those provided for in Articles...

          2. The same shall apply so far as possible to fixed...

        7. ARTICLE 28

          1. Should fighting occur on board a warship, the sick-bays shall...

        8. ARTICLE 29

          1. Any hospital ship in a port which falls into the...

        9. ARTICLE 30

          1. The vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27...

          2. The High Contracting Parties undertake not to use these vessels...

          3. Such vessels shall in no wise hamper the movements of...

          4. During and after an engagement, they will act at their...

        10. ARTICLE 31

          1. The Parties to the conflict shall have the right to...

          2. They may put a commissioner temporarily on board whose sole...

          3. As far as possible, the Parties to the conflict shall...

          4. Parties to the conflict may, either unilaterally or by particular...

        11. ARTICLE 32

          1. Vessels described in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 are...

        12. ARTICLE 33

          1. Merchant vessels which have been transformed into hospital ships cannot...

        13. ARTICLE 34

          1. The protection to which hospital ships and sick-bays are entitled...

          2. In particular, hospital ships may not possess or use a...

        14. ARTICLE 35

          1. The following conditions shall not be considered as depriving hospital...

          2. 1.The fact that the crews of ships or sick-bays are...

          3. 2.The presence on board of apparatus exclusively intended to facilitate...

          4. 3.The discovery on board hospital ships or in sick-bays of...

          5. 4.The fact that the humanitarian activities of hospital ships and...

          6. 5.The transport of equipment and of personnel intended exclusively for...

      5. CHAPTER IV.—PERSONNEL

        1. ARTICLE 36

          1. The religious, medical and hospital personnel of hospital ships and...

        2. Article 37

          1. The religious, medical and hospital personnel assigned to the medical...

          2. If, however, it prove necessary to retain some of this...

          3. Retained personnel shall be subject, on landing, to the provisions...

      6. CHAPTER V.—MEDICAL TRANSPORTS

        1. ARTICLE 38

          1. Ships chartered for that purpose shall be authorised to transport...

          2. By agreement amongst the Parties to the conflict, neutral observers...

        2. ARTICLE 39

          1. Medical aircraft, that is to say, aircraft exclusively employed for...

          2. They shall be clearly marked with the distinctive emblem prescribed...

          3. Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are...

          4. Medical aircraft shall obey every summons to alight on land...

          5. In the event of alighting involuntarily on land or water...

        3. ARTICLE 40

          1. Subject to the provisions of the second paragraph, medical aircraft...

          2. The neutral Powers may, however, place conditions or restrictions on...

          3. Unless otherwise agreed between the neutral Powers and the Parties...

      7. CHAPTER VI.—THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

        1. ARTICLE 41

          1. Under the direction of the competent military authority, the emblem...

          2. Nevertheless, in the case of countries which already use as...

        2. ARTICLE 42

          1. The personnel designated in Articles 36 and 37 shall wear,...

          2. Such personnel, in addition to the identity disc mentioned in...

          3. The identity card shall be uniform throughout the same armed...

          4. In no circumstances may the said personnel be deprived of...

        3. ARTICLE 43

          1. The ships designated in Articles 22, 24, 25 and 27...

          2. (a) All exterior surfaces shall be white.

        4. ARTICLE 44

          1. The distinguishing signs referred to in Article 43 can only...

        5. ARTICLE 45

          1. The High Contracting Parties shall, if their legislation is not...

      8. CHAPTER VII.—EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

        1. ARTICLE 46

          1. Each Party to the conflict, acting through its Commanders-in-Chief, shall...

        2. ARTICLE 47

          1. Reprisals against the wounded, sick and shipwrecked persons, the personnel,...

        3. ARTICLE 48

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as...

        4. ARTICLE 49

          1. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through...

      9. CHAPTER VIII.—REPRESSION OF ABUSES AND INFRACTIONS

        1. ARTICLE 50

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary...

          2. Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to...

          3. Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the...

          4. In all circumstances the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards...

        2. ARTICLE 51

          1. Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be...

        3. ARTICLE 52

          1. No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself...

        4. ARTICLE 53

          1. At the request of a Party to the conflict, an...

          2. If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for...

          3. Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the...

      10. FINAL PROVISIONS

        1. ARTICLE 54

          1. The present Convention is established in English and in French....

          2. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of...

        2. ARTICLE 55

          1. The present Convention, which bears the date of this day,...

        3. ARTICLE 56

          1. The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible...

          2. A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of...

        4. ARTICLE 57

          1. The present Convention shall come into force six months after...

          2. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting...

        5. ARTICLE 58

          1. The present Convention replaces the Xth Hague Convention of 18th...

        6. ARTICLE 59

          1. From the date of its coming into force, it shall...

        7. ARTICLE 60

          1. Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal...

          2. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all...

        8. ARTICLE 61

          1. The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall...

        9. ARTICLE 62

          1. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty...

          2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss...

          3. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification...

          4. The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the...

        10. ARTICLE 63

          1. The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with...

          2. In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full...

          3. Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August, 1949, in...

          4. [Here follow the signatures and Annex.]

    3. THIRD SCHEDULE

      GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR

      1. Geneva, 12th August, 1949

        1. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic...

      2. PART I.—GENERAL PROVISIONS

        1. ARTICLE 1

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure...

        2. ARTICLE 2

          1. In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in...

          2. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial...

          3. Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be...

        3. ARTICLE 3

          1. In the case of armed conflict not of an international...

          2. 1.Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members...

          3. 2.The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for....

        4. ARTICLE 4

          1. A.Prisoners of war, in the sense of the present Convention,...

          2. 1.Members of the armed forces of a Party to the...

          3. 2.Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps,...

          4. 3.Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a...

          5. 4.Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members...

          6. 5.Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices of the...

          7. 6.Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach of...

          8. B.he following shall likewise be treated as prisoners of war...

          9. 1.Persons belonging, or having belonged, to the armed forces of...

          10. 2.The persons belonging to one of the categories enumerated in...

          11. C.This Article shall in no way affect the status of...

        5. ARTICLE 5

          1. The present Convention shall apply to the persons referred to...

          2. Should any doubt arise as to whether persons, having committed...

        6. ARTICLE 6

          1. In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles...

          2. Prisoners of war shall continue to have the benefit of...

        7. ARTICLE 7

          1. Prisoners of war may in no circumstances renounce in part...

        8. ARTICLE 8

          1. The present Convention shall be applied with the co-operation and...

          2. The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest...

          3. The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not...

        9. ARTICLE 9

          1. The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to...

        10. ARTICLE 10

          1. The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to...

          2. When prisoners of war do not benefit or cease to...

          3. If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall...

          4. Any neutral Power or any organisation invited by the Power...

          5. No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by...

          6. Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a...

        11. ARTICLE 11

          1. In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest...

          2. For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either...

      3. PART II.—GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRISONERS OF WAR

        1. ARTICLE 12

          1. Prisoners of war are in the hands of the enemy...

          2. Prisoners of war may only be transferred by the Detaining...

          3. Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions...

        2. ARTICLE 13

          1. Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated....

          2. Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected,...

          3. Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.

        3. ARTICLE 14

          1. Prisoners of war are entitled in all circumstances to respect...

          2. Women shall be treated with all the regard due to...

          3. Prisoners of war shall retain the full civil capacity which...

        4. ARTICLE 15

          1. The Power detaining prisoners of war shall be bound to...

        5. ARTICLE 16

          1. Taking into consideration the provisions of the present Convention relating...

      4. PART III.—CAPTIVITY

        1. SECTION 1.-BEGINNING OF CAPTIVITY

          1. ARTICLE 17

          2. Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is...

          3. If he wilfully infringes this rule, he may render himself...

          4. Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the...

          5. No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of...

          6. Prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental...

          7. The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried out...

          8. ARTICLE 18

          9. All effects and articles of personal use, except arms, horses,...

          10. At no time should prisoners of war be without identity...

          11. Badges of rank and nationality, decorations and articles having above...

          12. Sums of money carried by prisoners of war may not...

          13. The Detaining Power may withdraw articles of value from prisoners...

          14. Such objects, likewise sums taken away in any currency other...

          15. ARTICLE 19

          16. Prisoners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible...

          17. Only those prisoners of war who, owing to wounds or...

          18. Prisoners of war shall not be unnecessarily exposed to danger...

          19. ARTICLE 20

          20. The evacuation of prisoners of war shall always be effected...

          21. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who are...

          22. If prisoners of war must, during evacuation, pass through transit...

        2. Section II.—Internment of Prisoners of War

          1. Chapter I.—General Observations

            1. ARTICLE 21

            2. The Detaining Power may subject prisoners of war to internment....

            3. Prisoners of war may be partially or wholly released on...

            4. Upon the outbreak of hostilities, each Party to the conflict...

            5. ARTICLE 22

            6. Prisoners of war may be interned only in premises located...

            7. Prisoners of war interned in unhealthy areas, or where the...

            8. The Detaining Power shall assemble prisoners of war in camps...

            9. ARTICLE 23

            10. No prisoner of war may at any time be sent...

            11. Prisoners of war shall have shelters against air bombardment and...

            12. Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary...

            13. Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be...

            14. ARTICLE 24

            15. Transit or screening camps of a permanent kind shall be...

          2. Chapter II.—Quarters, Food and Clothing of Prisoners of War

            1. ARTICLE 25

            2. Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favourable...

            3. The foregoing provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories...

            4. The premises provided for the use of prisoners of war...

            5. In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as...

            6. ARTICLE 26

            7. The basic daily food rations shall be sufficient in quantity,...

            8. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who work...

            9. Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war....

            10. Prisoners of war shall, as far as possible, be associated...

            11. Adequate premises shall be provided for messing.

            12. Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited.

            13. ARTICLE 27

            14. Clothing, underwear and footwear shall be supplied to prisoners of...

            15. The regular replacement and repair of the above articles shall...

            16. ARTICLE 28

            17. Canteens shall be installed in all camps, where prisoners of...

            18. The profits made by camp canteens shall be used for...

            19. When a camp is closed down, the credit balance of...

          3. Chapter III.—Hygiene and Medical Attention

            1. ARTICLE 29

            2. The Detaining Power shall be bound to take all sanitary...

            3. Prisoners of war shall have for their use, day and...

            4. Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the...

            5. ARTICLE 30

            6. Every camp shall have an adequate infirmary where prisoners of...

            7. Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease, or whose condition...

            8. Prisoners of war shall have the attention, preferably, of medical...

            9. Prisoners of war may not be prevented from presenting themselves...

            10. The costs of treatment, including those of any apparatus necessary...

            11. ARTICLE 31

            12. Medical inspections of prisoners of war shall be made at...

            13. ARTICLE 32

            14. Prisoners of war who, though not attached to the medical...

          4. Chapter IV.—Medical Personnel and Chaplains Retained to Assist Prisoners of War

            1. ARTICLE 33

            2. Members of the medical personnel and chaplains while retained by...

            3. They shall continue to exercise their medical and spiritual functions...

            4. (a) They shall be authorised to visit periodically prisoners of...

          5. Chapter V.—Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities

            1. ARTICLE 34

            2. Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise...

            3. Adequate premises shall be provided where religious services may be...

            4. ARTICLE 35

            5. Chaplains who fall into the hands of the enemy Power...

            6. ARTICLE 36

            7. Prisoners of war who are ministers of religion, without having...

            8. ARTICLE 37

            9. When prisoners of war have not the assistance of a...

            10. ARTICLE 38

            11. While respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner, the Detaining...

            12. Prisoners shall have opportunities for taking physical exercise including sports...

          6. Chapter VI—Discipline

            1. ARTICLE 39

            2. Every prisoner of war camp shall be put under the...

            3. Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute...

            4. Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers...

            5. ARTICLE 40

            6. The wearing of badges of rank and nationality, as well...

            7. ARTICLE 41

            8. In every camp the text of the present Convention and...

            9. Regulations, orders notices and publications of every kind relating to...

            10. ARTICLE 42

            11. The use of weapons against prisoners of war, especially against...

          7. Chapter VII.—Rank of Prisoner of War

            1. ARTICLE 43

            2. Upon the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties to the conflict...

            3. The Detaining Power shall recognise promotions in rank which have...

            4. ARTICLE 44

            5. Officers and prisoners of equivalent rank shall be treated with...

            6. In order to ensure service in officers’ camps, other ranks...

            7. Supervision of the mess by the officers themselves shall be...

            8. ARTICLE 45

            9. Prisoners of war other than officers and prisoners of equivalent...

            10. Supervision of the mess by the prisoners themselves shall be...

          8. Chapter VIII.—Transfer of Prisoners of War after their arrival in camp

            1. ARTICLE 46

            2. The Detaining Power, when deciding upon the transfer of prisoners...

            3. The transfer of prisoners of war shall always be effected...

            4. The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war during transfer...

            5. ARTICLE 47

            6. Sick or wounded prisoners of war shall not be transferred...

            7. If the combat zone draws closer to a camp, the...

            8. ARTICLE 48

            9. In the event of transfer, prisoners of war shall be...

            10. They shall be allowed to take with them their personal...

            11. Mail and parcels addressed to their former camp shall be...

            12. The costs of transfers shall be borne by the Detaining...

        3. Section III.—Labour of Prisoners of War

          1. ARTICLE 49

            1. The Detaining Power may utilise the labour of prisoners of...

            2. Non-commissioned officers who are prisoners of war shall only be...

            3. If officers or persons of equivalent status ask for suitable...

          2. ARTICLE 50

            1. Besides work connected with camp administration, installation or maintenance, prisoners...

            2. (a) agriculture; (b) industries connected with the production or the...

          3. ARTICLE 51

            1. Prisoners of war must be granted suitable working conditions, especially...

            2. The Detaining Power, in utilising the labour of prisoners of...

            3. Prisoners of war shall receive training and be provided with...

            4. Conditions of labour shall in no case be rendered more...

          4. ARTICLE 52

            1. Unless he be a volunteer, no prisoner of war may...

            2. No prisoner of war shall assigned to labour which would...

            3. The removal of mines or similar devices shall be considered...

          5. ARTICLE 53

            1. The duration of the daily labour of prisoners of war,...

            2. Prisoners of war must be allowed, in the middle of...

            3. If methods of labour such as piece work are employed,...

          6. ARTICLE 54

            1. The working pay due to prisoners of war shall be...

            2. Prisoners of war who sustain accidents in connection with work,...

          7. ARTICLE 55

            1. The fitness of prisoners of war for work shall be...

            2. If any prisoner of war considers himself incapable of working,...

          8. ARTICLE 56

            1. The organisation and administration of labour detachments shall be similar...

            2. Every labour detachment shall remain under the control of and...

            3. The camp commander shall keep an up-to-date record of the...

          9. ARTICLE 57

            1. The treatment of prisoners of war who work for private...

            2. Such prisoners of war shall have the right to remain...

        4. Section IV.—Financial Resources of Prisoners of War

          1. ARTICLE 58

            1. Upon the outbreak of hostilities, and pending an arrangement on...

            2. If prisoners of war are permitted to purchase services or...

          2. ARTICLE 59

            1. Cash which was taken from prisoners of war, in accordance...

            2. The amounts, in the currency of the Detaining Power, due...

          3. ARTICLE 60

            1. The Detaining Power shall grant all prisoners of war a...

            2. However, the Parties to the conflict concerned may by special...

            3. Furthermore, if the amounts indicated in the first paragraph above...

            4. (a) shall continue to credit the accounts of the prisoners...

          4. ARTICLE 61

            1. The Detaining Power shall accept for distribution as supplementary pay...

          5. ARTICLE 62

            1. Prisoners of war shall be paid a fair working rate...

            2. Working pay shall likewise be paid by the detaining authorities...

            3. The working pay of the prisoners’ representative, of his advisers,...

          6. ARTICLE 63

            1. Prisoners of war shall be permitted to receive remittances of...

            2. Every prisoner of war shall have at his disposal the...

            3. In any event, and subject to the consent of the...

            4. To apply the foregoing provisions, the Detaining Power may usefully...

          7. ARTICLE 64

            1. The Detaining Power shall hold an account for each prisoner...

            2. 1.The amounts due to the prisoner or received by him...

            3. 2.The payments made to the prisoner in cash, or in...

          8. ARTICLE 65

            1. Every item entered in the account of a prisoner of...

            2. Prisoners of war shall at all times be afforded reasonable...

            3. When prisoners of war are transferred from one camp to...

            4. The Parties to the conflict concerned may agree to notify...

          9. ARTICLE 66

            1. On the termination of captivity, through the release of a...

            2. Any of the above provisions of this Article may be...

            3. The Power on which the prisoner of war depends shall...

          10. ARTICLE 67

            1. Advances of pay, issued to prisoners of war in conformity...

          11. ARTICLE 68

            1. Any claim by a prisoner of war for compensation in...

            2. Any claim from a prisoner of war for compensation in...

        5. Section V.—Relations of Prisoners of War with the Exterior

          1. ARTICLE 69

            1. Immediately upon prisoners of war falling into its power, the...

          2. ARTICLE 70

            1. Immediately upon capture, or not more than one week after...

          3. ARTICLE 71

            1. Prisoners of war shall be allowed to send and receive...

            2. Prisoners of war who have been without news for a...

            3. As a general rule, the correspondence of prisoners of war...

            4. Sacks containing prisoner of war mail must be securely sealed...

          4. ARTICLE 72

            1. Prisoners of war shall be allowed to receive by post...

            2. Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power...

            3. The only limits which may be placed on these shipments...

            4. The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective...

          5. ARTICLE 73

            1. In the absence of special agreements between the Powers concerned...

            2. The special agreements referred to above shall in no case...

            3. Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of...

          6. ARTICLE 74

            1. All relief shipments for prisoners of war shall be exempt...

            2. Correspondence, relief shipments and authorised remittances of money addressed to...

            3. If relief shipments intended for prisoners of war cannot be...

            4. In the absence of special agreements between the Parties concerned,...

            5. The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far...

          7. ARTICLE 75

            1. Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their...

            2. Such transport may also be used to convey:

            3. (a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information...

          8. ARTICLE 76

            1. The censoring of correspondence addressed to prisoners of war or...

            2. The examination of consignments intended for prisoners of war shall...

            3. Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by Parties to the conflict,...

          9. ARTICLE 77

            1. The Detaining Powers shall provide all facilities for the transmission,...

            2. In all cases they shall facilitate the preparation and execution...

        6. Section VI.—Relations between Prisoners of War and the Authorities

          1. Chapter I.—Complaints of Prisoners of War respecting the Conditions of Captivity

            1. ARTICLE 78

            2. Prisoners of war shall have the right to make known...

            3. They shall also have the unrestricted right to apply to...

            4. These requests and complaints shall not be limited nor considered...

            5. Prisoners’ representatives may send periodic reports on the situation in...

          2. Chapter II.—Prisoners of War Representatives

            1. ARTICLE 79

            2. In all places where there are prisoners of war, except...

            3. In camps for officers and persons of equivalent status or...

            4. Officer prisoners of war of the same nationality shall be...

            5. Every representative elected must be approved by the Detaining Power...

            6. In all cases the prisoners’ representative must have the same...

            7. ARTICLE 80

            8. Prisoners’representatives shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being of...

            9. In particular, where the prisoners decide to organise amongst themselves...

            10. Prisoners’ representatives shall not be held responsible, simply by reason...

            11. ARTICLE 81

            12. Prisoners’ representatives shall not be required to perform any other...

            13. Prisoners’ representatives may appoint from amongst the prisoners such assistants...

            14. Prisoners’ representatives shall be permitted to visit premises where prisoners...

            15. All facilities shall likewise be accorded to the prisoners’ representatives...

            16. Prisoners’ representatives who are transferred shall be allowed a reasonable...

            17. In case of dismissal, the reason therefor shall be communicated...

          3. Chapter III.—Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions

            1. 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

            2. ARTICLE 82

            3. A prisoner of war shall be subject to the laws,...

            4. If any law, regulation or order of the Detaining Power...

            5. ARTICLE 83

            6. In deciding whether proceedings in respect of an offence alleged...

            7. ARTICLE 84

            8. A prisoner of war shall be tried only by a...

            9. In no circumstances whatever shall a prisoner of war be...

            10. ARTICLE 85

            11. Prisoners of war prosecuted under the laws of the Detaining...

            12. ARTICLE 86

            13. No prisoner of war may be punished more than once...

            14. ARTICLE 87

            15. Prisoners of war may not be sentenced by the military...

            16. When fixing the penalty, the courts or authorities of the...

            17. Collective punishment for individual acts, corporal punishment, imprisonment in premises...

            18. No prisoner of war may be deprived of his rank...

            19. ARTICLE 88

            20. Officers, non-commissioned officers and men who are prisoners of war...

            21. A woman prisoner of war shall not be awarded or...

            22. In no case may a woman prisoner of war be...

            23. Prisoners of war who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences...

            24. II. DISCIPLINARY SANCTIONS

            25. ARTICLE 89

            26. The disciplinary punishments applicable to prisoners of war are the...

            27. 1.a fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent, of...

            28. 2.discontinuance or privileges granted over and above the treatment provided...

            29. 3.fatigue duties not exceeding two hours daily;

            30. 4.confinement. The punishment referred to under (3) shall not be...

            31. 1.he has joined the armed forces of the Power on...

            32. 2.he has left the territory under the control of the...

            33. 3.he has joined a ship flying the flag of the...

            34. 1.surname and first names of the prisoner of war, his...

            35. 2.place of internment or confinement;

            36. 3.specification of the charge or charges on which the prisoner...

            37. 4.designation of the court which will try the case, likewise...

            38. 1.the precise wording of the finding and sentence;

            39. 2.a summarised report of any preliminary investigation and of the...

            40. 3.notification, where applicable, of the establishment where the sentence will...

      5. PART IV.—TERMINATION OF CAPTIVITY

        1. Section I.—Direct Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries

          1. ARTICLE 109

            1. Subject to the provisions of the third paragraph of this...

            2. Throughout the duration of hostilities, Parties to the conflict shall...

            3. No sick or injured prisoner of war who is eligible...

          2. ARTICLE 110

            1. The following shall be repatriated direct:

            2. 1.incurably wounded and sick whose mental or physical fitness seems...

            3. 2.wounded and sick who, according to medical opinion, are not...

            4. 3.wounded and sick who have recovered, but whose mental or...

            5. 1.wounded and sick whose recovery may be expected within one...

            6. 2.prisoners of war whose mental or physical health, according to...

            7. 1.those whose state of health has deteriorated so as to...

            8. 2.those whose mental or physical powers remain, even after treatment,...

          3. ARTICLE 111

            1. The Detaining Power, the Power on which the prisoners of...

          4. ARTICLE 112

            1. Upon the outbreak of hostilities, Mixed Medical Commissions shall be...

            2. However, prisoners of war who, in the opinion of the...

          5. ARTICLE 113

            1. Besides those who are designated by the medical authorities of...

            2. 1.wounded and sick proposed by a physician or surgeon who...

            3. 2.wounded and sick proposed by their prisoners’ representative;

            4. 3.wounded and sick proposed by the Power on which they...

          6. ARTICLE 114

            1. Prisoners of war who meet with accidents shall, unless the...

          7. ARTICLE 115

            1. No prisoner of war on whom a disciplinary punishment has...

            2. Prisoners of war detained in connexion with a judicial prosecution...

            3. Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other the...

          8. ARTICLE 116

            1. The costs of repatriating prisoners of war or of transporting...

          9. ARTICLE 117

            1. No repatriated person may be employed on active military service....

        2. Section II.—Release and Repatriation of Prisoners of War at the close of Hostilities

          1. ARTICLE 118

            1. Prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay...

            2. In the absence of stipulations to the above effect in...

            3. In either case, the measures adopted shall be brought to...

            4. The costs of repatriation of prisoners of war shall in...

            5. (a) If the two Powers are contiguous, the Power on...

          2. ARTICLE 119

            1. Repatriation shall be effected in conditions similar to those laid...

            2. On repatriation, any articles of value impounded from prisoners of...

            3. Prisoners of war shall be allowed to take with them...

            4. The other personal effects of the repatriated prisoner shall be...

            5. Prisoners of war against whom criminal proceedings for an indictable...

            6. Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other the...

            7. By agreement between the Parties to the conflict, commissions shall...

        3. Section III.—Death of Prisoners of War

          1. ARTICLE 120

            1. Wills of prisoners of war shall be drawn up so...

            2. Death certificates, in the form annexed to the present Convention,...

            3. The burial or cremation of a prisoner of war shall...

            4. The detaining authorities shall ensure that prisoners of war who...

            5. Deceased prisoners of war shall be buried in individual graves...

            6. In order that graves may always be found, all particulars...

          2. ARTICLE 121

            1. Every death or serious injury of a prisoner of war...

            2. A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to...

            3. If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more...

      6. PART V.—INFORMATION BUREAUX AND RELIEF SOCIETIES FOR PRISONERS OF WAR

        1. ARTICLE 122

          1. Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases...

          2. Within the shortest possible period, each of the Parties to...

          3. The Bureau shall immediately forward such information by the most...

          4. This information shall make it possible quickly to advise the...

          5. The Information Bureau shall receive from the various departments concerned...

          6. Likewise, information regarding the state of health of prisoners of...

          7. The Information Bureau shall also be responsible for replying to...

          8. All written communications made by the Bureau shall be authenticated...

          9. The Information Bureau shall furthermore be charged with collecting all...

        2. ARTICLE 123

          1. A Central Prisoners of War Information Agency shall be created...

          2. The function of the Agency shall be to collect all...

          3. The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals...

          4. The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as...

        3. ARTICLE 124

          1. The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall...

        4. ARTICLE 125

          1. Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider...

          2. The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and...

          3. The special position of the International Committee of the Red...

          4. As soon as relief supplies or material intended for the...

      7. PART VI.—EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

        1. Section 1.—General Provisions

          1. ARTICLE 126

            1. Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission...

            2. Representatives and delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have full...

            3. The Detaining Power and the Power on which the said...

            4. The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross...

          2. ARTICLE 127

            1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as...

            2. Any military or other authorities, who in time of war...

          3. ARTICLE 128

            1. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through...

          4. ARTICLE 129

            1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary...

            2. Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to...

            3. Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the...

            4. In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards...

          5. ARTICLE 130

            1. Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be...

          6. ARTICLE 131

            1. No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself...

          7. ARTICLE 132

            1. At the request of a Party to the conflict, an...

            2. If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for...

            3. Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the...

        2. SECTION II.—Final Provisions

          1. ARTICLE 133

            1. The present Convention is established in English and in French....

            2. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of...

          2. ARTICLE 134

            1. The present Convention replaces the Convention of 27th July, 1929,...

          3. ARTICLE 135

            1. In the relations between the Powers which are bound by...

          4. ARTICLE 136

            1. The present Convention, which bears the date of this day,...

          5. ARTICLE 137

            1. The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible...

            2. A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of...

          6. ARTICLE 138

            1. The present Convention shall come into force six months after...

            2. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting...

          7. ARTICLE 139

            1. From the date of its coming into force, it shall...

          8. ARTICLE 140

            1. Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal...

            2. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all...

          9. ARTICLE 141

            1. The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall...

          10. ARTICLE 142

            1. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty...

            2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss...

            3. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification...

            4. The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the...

          11. ARTICLE 143

            1. The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with...

            2. In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full...

            3. Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August, 1949, in...

            4. [Here follow the signatures and Annexes.]

    4. FOURTH SCHEDULE

      GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIAN PERSONS IN TIME OF WAR

      1. Geneva, 12th August, 1949

        1. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic...

      2. PART I.—GENERAL PROVISIONS

        1. ARTICLE 1

          1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure...

        2. ARTICLE 2

          1. In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in...

          2. The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial...

          3. Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be...

        3. ARTICLE 3

          1. In the case of armed conflict not of an international...

          2. 1.Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members...

          3. 2.The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for....

        4. ARTICLE 4

          1. Persons protected by the Convention are those who, at a...

          2. Nationals of a State which is not bound by the...

          3. The provisions of Part II are, however, wider in application,...

          4. Persons protected by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of...

        5. ARTICLE 5

          1. Where, in the territory of a Party to the conflict,...

          2. Where in occupied territory an individual protected person is detained...

          3. In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with...

        6. ARTICLE 6

          1. The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any...

          2. In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application...

          3. In the case of occupied territory, the application of the...

          4. Protected persons whose release, repatriation or re-establishment may take place...

        7. ARTICLE 7

          1. In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles...

          2. Protected persons shall continue to have the benefit of such...

        8. ARTICLE 8

          1. Protected persons may in no circumstances renounce in part or...

        9. ARTICLE 9

          1. The present Convention shall be applied with the co-operation and...

          2. The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest...

          3. The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not...

        10. ARTICLE 10

          1. The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to...

        11. ARTICLE 11

          1. The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to...

          2. When persons protected by the present Convention do not benefit...

          3. If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall...

          4. Any neutral Power, or any organisation invited by the Power...

          5. No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by...

          6. Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a...

          7. The provisions of this Article shall extend and be adapted...

        12. ARTICLE 12

          1. In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest...

          2. For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either...

      3. PART II.—GENERAL PROTECTION OF POPULATIONS AGAINST CERTAIN CONSEQUENCES OF WAR

        1. ARTICLE 13

          1. The provisions of Part II cover the whole of the...

        2. ARTICLE 14

          1. In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after...

          2. Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the...

          3. The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red...

        3. ARTICLE 15

          1. Any Party to the conflict may, either direct or through...

          2. (a) wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants;

        4. ARTICLE 16

          1. The wounded and sick, as well as the infirm, and...

          2. As far as military considerations allow, each Party to the...

        5. ARTICLE 17

          1. The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local...

        6. ARTICLE 18

          1. Civilian hospitals organised to give care to the wounded and...

          2. States which are Parties to a conflict shall provide all...

          3. Civilian hospitals shall be marked by means of the emblem...

          4. The Parties to the conflict shall, in so far as...

          5. In view of the dangers to which hospitals may be...

        7. ARTICLE 19

          1. The protection to which civilian hospitals are entitled shall not...

          2. The fact that sick or wounded members of the armed...

        8. ARTICLE 20

          1. Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and administration...

          2. In occupied territory and in zones of military operations, the...

          3. Other personnel who are engaged in the operation and administration...

          4. The management of each hospital shall at all times hold...

        9. ARTICLE 21

          1. Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land or specially...

        10. ARTICLE 22

          1. Aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick...

          2. They may be marked with the distinctive emblem provided for...

          3. Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are...

          4. Such aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the...

        11. ARTICLE 23

          1. Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of...

          2. The obligation of a High Contracting Party to allow the...

          3. (a) that the consignments may be diverted from their destination,...

        12. ARTICLE 24

          1. The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures...

          2. The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of...

          3. They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange for all children under...

        13. ARTICLE 25

          1. All persons in the territory of a Party to the...

          2. If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes difficult or...

          3. If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary to...

        14. ARTICLE 26

          1. Each Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by...

      4. PART III.—STATUS AND TREATMENT OF PROTECTED PERSONS

        1. Section I.—Provisions Common to the Territories of the Parties to the Conflict and to Occupied Territories

          1. ARTICLE 27

            1. Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect for...

            2. Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their...

            3. Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of...

            4. However, the Parties to the conflict may take such measures...

          2. ARTICLE 28

            1. The presence of a protected person may not be used...

          3. ARTICLE 29

            1. The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons...

          4. ARTICLE 30

            1. Protected persons shall have every facility for making application to...

            2. These several organisations shall be granted all facilities for that...

            3. Apart from the visits of the delegates of the Protecting...

          5. ARTICLE 31

            1. No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected...

          6. ARTICLE 32

            1. The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that each of them...

          7. ARTICLE 33

            1. No protected person may be punished for an offence he...

            2. Pillage is prohibited.

            3. Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.

          8. ARTICLE 34

            1. The taking of hostages is prohibited.

        2. Section II.—Aliens in the Territory of a Party to the Conflict

          1. ARTICLE 35

            1. All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory...

            2. If any such person is refused permission to leave the...

            3. Upon request, representatives of the Protecting Power shall, unless reasons...

          2. ARTICLE 36

            1. Departures permitted under the foregoing Article shall be carried out...

            2. The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may...

          3. ARTICLE 37

            1. Protected persons who are confined pending proceedings or serving a...

            2. As soon as they are released, they may ask to...

          4. ARTICLE 38

            1. With the exception of special measures authorised by the present...

            2. 1.they shall be enabled to receive the individual or collective...

            3. 2.they shall, if their state of health so requires, receive...

            4. 3.they shall be allowed to practise their religion and to...

            5. 4.if they reside in an area particularly exposed to the...

            6. 5.children under fifteen years, pregnant women and mothers of children...

          5. ARTICLE 39

            1. Protected persons who, as a result of the war, have...

            2. Where a Party to the conflict applies to a protected...

            3. Protected persons may in any case receive allowances from their...

          6. ARTICLE 40

            1. Protected persons may be compelled to work only to the...

            2. If protected persons are of enemy nationality, they may only...

            3. In the cases mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs, protected...

            4. If the above provisions are infringed, protected persons shall be...

          7. ARTICLE 41

            1. Should the Power in whose hands protected persons may be...

            2. In applying the provisions of Article 39, second paragraph, to...

          8. ARTICLE 42

            1. The internment or placing in assigned residence of protected persons...

            2. If any person, acting through the representatives of the Protecting...

          9. ARTICLE 43

            1. Any protected person who has been interned or placed in...

            2. Unless the protected persons concerned object, the Detaining Power shall,...

          10. ARTICLE 44

            1. In applying the measures of control mentioned in the present...

          11. ARTICLE 45

            1. Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which...

            2. This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to...

            3. Protected persons may be transferred by the Detaining Power only...

            4. In no circumstances shall a protected person be transferred to...

            5. The provisions of this Article do not constitute an obstacle...

          12. ARTICLE 46

            1. In so far as they have not been previously withdrawn,...

            2. Restrictive measures affecting their property shall be cancelled, in accordance...

        3. Section III.—Occupied Territories

          1. ARTICLE 47

            1. Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be...

          2. ARTICLE 48

            1. Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose...

          3. ARTICLE 49

            1. Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of...

            2. Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial evacuation...

            3. The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall ensure,...

            4. The Protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and...

            5. The Occupying Power shall not detain protected persons in an...

            6. The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of...

          4. ARTICLE 50

            1. The Occupying Power shall, with the co-operation of the national...

            2. The Occupying Power shall take all necessary steps to facilitate...

            3. Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the...

            4. A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance...

            5. The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any...

          5. ARTICLE 51

            1. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to serve...

            2. The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work...

            3. The work shall be carried out only in the occupied...

            4. In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a...

          6. ARTICLE 52

            1. No contract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right of...

            2. All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the...

          7. ARTICLE 53

            1. Any destruction by the Occupying Power of real or personal...

          8. ARTICLE 54

            1. The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public...

            2. This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second...

          9. ARTICLE 55

            1. To the fullest extent of the means available to it,...

            2. The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical...

            3. The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty...

          10. ARTICLE 56

            1. To the fullest extent of the means available to it,...

            2. If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and...

            3. In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their...

          11. ARTICLE 57

            1. The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitals only temporarily and...

            2. The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned...

          12. ARTICLE 58

            1. The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to give...

            2. The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and...

          13. ARTICLE 59

            1. If the whole or part of the population of an...

            2. Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or...

            3. All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these...

            4. A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way...

          14. ARTICLE 60

            1. Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying Power...

          15. ARTICLE 61

            1. The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in the...

            2. Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all...

            3. All contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and...

          16. ARTICLE 62

            1. Subject to imperative reasons of security, protected persons in occupied...

          17. ARTICLE 63

            1. Subject to temporary and exceptional measures imposed for urgent reasons...

            2. (a) recognised national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and...

          18. ARTICLE 64

            1. The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in...

            2. The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the...

          19. ARTICLE 65

            1. The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not...

          20. ARTICLE 66

            1. In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated...

          21. ARTICLE 67

            1. The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which...

          22. ARTICLE 68

            1. Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely intended...

            2. The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in accordance...

            3. The death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected...

            4. In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced...

          23. ARTICLE 69

            1. In all cases, the duration of the period during which...

          24. ARTICLE 70

            1. Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or convicted by...

            2. Nationals of the Occupying Power who, before the outbreak of...

          25. ARTICLE 71

            1. No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of...

            2. Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall...

            3. The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in...

            4. (a) description of the accused; (b) place of residence or...

          26. ARTICLE 72

            1. Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence necessary...

            2. Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may...

            3. Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be...

          27. ARTICLE 73

            1. A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided...

            2. The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply,...

          28. ARTICLE 74

            1. Representatives of the Protecting Power shall have the right to...

            2. Any judgment involving a sentence of death, or imprisonment for...

          29. ARTICLE 75

            1. In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived...

            2. No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration...

            3. The six months period of suspension of the death sentence...

          30. ARTICLE 76

            1. Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in the...

            2. They shall receive the medical attention required by their state...

            3. They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual...

            4. Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be...

            5. Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due...

            6. Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to...

            7. Such persons shall have the right to receive at least...

          31. ARTICLE 77

            1. Protected persons who have been accused of offences or convicted...

          32. ARTICLE 78

            1. If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative reasons...

            2. Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be made...

            3. Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus required...

        4. Section IV.—Regulations for the Treatment of Internees

          1. Chapter I.—General Provisions

            1. ARTICLE 79

            2. The Parties to the conflict shall not intern protected persons,...

            3. ARTICLE 80

            4. Internees shall retain their full civil capacity and shall exercise...

            5. ARTICLE 81

            6. Parties to the conflict who intern protected persons shall be...

            7. No deduction from the allowances, salaries or credits due to...

            8. The Detaining Power shall provide for the support of those...

            9. ARTICLE 82

            10. The Detaining Power shall, as far as possible, accommodate the...

            11. Throughout the duration of their internment, members of the same...

            12. Wherever possible, interned members of the same family shall be...

          2. Chapter II.—Places of Internment

            1. ARTICLE 83

            2. The Detaining Power shall not set up places of internment...

            3. The Detaining Power shall give the enemy Powers, through the...

            4. Whenever military considerations permit, internment camps shall be indicated by...

            5. ARTICLE 84

            6. Internees shall be accommodated and administered separately from prisoners of...

            7. ARTICLE 85

            8. The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and...

            9. The premises shall be fully protected from dampness, adequately heated...

            10. Internees shall have for their use, day and night, sanitary...

            11. Whenever it is necessary, as an exceptional and temporary measure,...

            12. ARTICLE 86

            13. The Detaining Power shall place at the disposal of interned...

            14. ARTICLE 87

            15. Canteens shall be installed in every place of internment, except...

            16. Profits made by canteens shall be credited to a welfare...

            17. When a place of internment is closed down, the balance...

            18. ARTICLE 88

            19. In all places of internment exposed to air raids and...

            20. All due precautions must be taken in places of internment...

          3. Chapter III.—Food and Clothing

            1. ARTICLE 89

            2. Daily food rations for internees shall be sufficient in quantity,...

            3. Internees shall also be given the means by which they...

            4. Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to internees. The use...

            5. Internees who work shall receive additional rations in proportion to...

            6. Expectant and nursing mothers and children under fifteen years of...

            7. ARTICLE 90

            8. When taken into custody, internees shall be given all facilities...

            9. The clothing supplied by the Detaining Power to internees and...

            10. Workers shall receive suitable working outfits, including protective clothing, whenever...

          4. Chapter IV.—Hygiene and Medical Attention

            1. ARTICLE 91

            2. Every place of internment shall have an adequate infirmary, under...

            3. Maternity cases and internees suffering from serious diseases, or whose...

            4. Internees shall, for preference, have the attention of medical personnel...

            5. Internees may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the...

            6. Treatment, including the provision of any apparatus necessary for the...

            7. ARTICLE 92

            8. Medical inspections of internees shall be made at least once...

          5. Chapter V.—Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities

            1. ARTICLE 93

            2. Internees shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their...

            3. Ministers of religion who are interned shall be allowed to...

            4. When internees do not have at their disposal the assistance...

            5. ARTICLE 94

            6. The Detaining Power shall encourage intellectual, educational and recreational pursuits,...

            7. All possible facilities shall be granted to internees to continue...

            8. Internees shall be given opportunities for physical exercise, sports and...

            9. ARTICLE 95

            10. The Detaining Power shall not employ internees as workers, unless...

            11. After a working period of six weeks, internees shall be...

            12. These provisions constitute no obstacle to the right of the...

            13. The Detaining Power shall take entire responsibility for all working...

            14. ARTICLE 96

            15. All labour detachments shall remain part of and dependent upon...

          6. Chapter VI.—Personal Property and Financial Resources

            1. ARTICLE 97

            2. Internees shall be permitted to retain articles of personal use....

            3. The amounts shall be paid into the account of every...

            4. Articles which have above all a personal or sentimental value...

            5. A woman internee shall not be searched except by a...

            6. On release or repatriation, internees shall be given all articles,...

            7. Family or identity documents in the possession of internees may...

            8. Internees may keep on their persons a certain amount of...

            9. ARTICLE 98

            10. All internees shall receive regular allowances, sufficient to enable them...

            11. Furthermore, internees may receive allowances from the Power to which...

            12. The Detaining Power shall open a regular account for every...

          7. Chapter VII.—Administration and Discipline

            1. ARTICLE 99

            2. Every place of internment shall be put under the authority...

            3. The text of the present Convention and the texts of...

            4. Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind shall be...

            5. Every order and command addressed to internees individually must likewise...

            6. ARTICLE 100

            7. The disciplinary regime in places of internment shall be consistent...

            8. In particular, prolonged standing and roll-calls, punishment drill, military drill...

            9. ARTICLE 101

            10. Internees shall have the right to present to the authorities...

            11. They shall also have the right to apply without restriction...

            12. Such petitions and complaints shall be transmitted forthwith and without...

            13. Periodic reports on the situation in places of internment and...

            14. ARTICLE 102

            15. In every place of internment, the internees shall freely elect...

            16. Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their...

            17. ARTICLE 103

            18. The Internee Committees shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual...

            19. In case the internees decide, in particular, to organise a...

            20. ARTICLE 104

            21. Members of Internee Committees shall not be required to perform...

            22. Members of Internee Committees may appoint from amongst the internees...

            23. All facilities shall likewise be accorded to members of Internee...

            24. Members of Internee Committees who are transferred shall be allowed...

          8. Chapter VIII.—Relations with the Exterior

            1. ARTICLE 105

            2. Immediately upon interning protected persons, the Detaining Powers shall inform...

            3. ARTICLE 106

            4. As soon as he is interned, or at the latest...

            5. ARTICLE 107

            6. Internees shall be allowed to send and receive letters and...

            7. Internees who have been a long time without news, or...

            8. As a rule, internees’ mail shall be written in their...

            9. ARTICLE 108

            10. Internees shall be allowed to receive, by post or by...

            11. Should military necessity require the quantity of such shipments to...

            12. The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective...

            13. ARTICLE 109

            14. In the absence of special agreements between Parties to the...

            15. The special agreements provided for above shall in no case...

            16. Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of...

            17. ARTICLE 110

            18. All relief shipments for internees shall be exempt from import,...

            19. All matter sent by mail, including relief parcels sent by...

            20. The cost of transporting relief shipments which are intended for...

            21. Costs connected with the transport of such shipments, which are...

            22. The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far...

            23. ARTICLE 111

            24. Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their...

            25. Such transport may also be used to convey:

            26. (a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information...

          9. Chapter IX.—Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions

            1. ARTICLE 117

            2. Subject to the provisions of the present Chapter, the laws...

            3. If general laws, regulations or orders declare acts committed by...

            4. No internee may be punished more than once for the...

            5. ARTICLE 118

            6. The courts or authorities shall in passing sentence take as...

            7. Imprisonment in premises without daylight and, in general, all forms...

            8. Internees who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences shall not...

            9. The duration of preventive detention undergone by an internee shall...

            10. Internee Committees shall be informed of all judicial proceedings instituted...

            11. ARTICLE 119

            12. The disciplinary punishments applicable to internees shall be the following:...

            13. 1.a fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent. of...

            14. 2.discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment provided...

            15. 3.fatigue duties, not exceeding two hours daily, in connexion with...

            16. 4.confinement. In no case shall disciplinary penalties be inhuman, brutal...

          10. Chapter X.—Transfers of Internees

            1. ARTICLE 127

            2. The transfer of internees shall always be effected humanely. As...

            3. The Detaining Power shall supply internees during transfer with drinking...

            4. Sick, wounded or infirm internees and maternity cases shall not...

            5. If the combat zone draws close to a place of...

            6. When making decisions regarding the transfer of internees, the Detaining...

            7. ARTICLE 128

            8. In the event of transfer, internees shall be officially advised...

            9. They shall be allowed to take with them their personal...

            10. Mail and parcels addressed to their former place of internment...

            11. The commandant of the place of internment shall take, in...

          11. Chapter XI.—Deaths

            1. ARTICLE 129

            2. The wills of internees shall be received for safe-keeping by...

            3. Deaths of internees shall be certified in every case by...

            4. An official record of the death, duly registered, shall be...

            5. ARTICLE 130

            6. The detaining authorities shall ensure that internees who die while...

            7. Deceased internees shall be buried in individual graves unless unavoidable...

            8. As soon as circumstances permit, and not later than the...

            9. ARTICLE 131

            10. Every death or serious injury of an internee, caused or...

            11. A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to...

            12. If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more...

          12. Chapter XII.—Release, Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries

            1. ARTICLE 132

            2. Each interned person shall be released by the Detaining Power...

            3. The Parties to the conflict shall, moreover, endeavour during the...

            4. ARTICLE 133

            5. Internment shall cease as soon as possible after the close...

            6. Internees in the territory of a Party to the conflict...

            7. By agreement between the Detaining Power and the Powers concerned,...

            8. ARTICLE 134

            9. The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour, upon the close of...

            10. ARTICLE 135

            11. The Detaining Power shall bear the expense of returning released...

            12. Where a Detaining Power refuses permission to reside in its...

            13. If internees are transferred in accordance with Article 45, the...

            14. The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may...

        5. Section V.—Information Bureaux and Central Agency

          1. ARTICLE 136

          2. Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases...

          3. Each of the Parties to the conflict shall, within the...

          4. ARTICLE 137

          5. Each national Bureau shall immediately forward information concerning protected persons...

          6. Information Bureaux shall transmit information concerning a protected person unless...

          7. All communications in writing made by any Bureau shall be...

          8. ARTICLE 138

          9. The information received by the national Bureau and transmitted by...

          10. Likewise, information regarding the state of health of internees who...

          11. ARTICLE 139

          12. Each national Information Bureau shall, furthermore, be responsible for collecting...

          13. ARTICLE 140

          14. A Central Information Agency for protected persons, in particular for...

          15. The function of the Agency shall be to collect all...

          16. The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals...

          17. The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as...

          18. ARTICLE 141

          19. The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall...

      5. PART IV.—EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION

        1. Section I.—General Provisions

          1. ARTICLE 142

            1. Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider...

            2. The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and...

            3. The special position of the International Committee of the Red...

          2. ARTICLE 143

            1. Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission...

            2. They shall have access to all premises occupied by protected...

            3. Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of...

            4. Such representatives and delegates shall have full liberty to select...

            5. The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross...

          3. ARTICLE 144

            1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as...

            2. Any civilian, military, police or other authorities, who in time...

          4. ARTICLE 145

            1. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through...

          5. ARTICLE 146

            1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary...

            2. Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to...

            3. Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the...

            4. In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards...

          6. ARTICLE 147

            1. Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be...

          7. ARTICLE 148

            1. No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself...

          8. ARTICLE 149

            1. At the request of a Party to the conflict, an...

            2. If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for...

            3. Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the...

        2. Section II.—Final Provisions

          1. ARTICLE 150

            1. The present Convention is established in English and in French....

            2. The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of...

          2. ARTICLE 151

            1. The present Convention, which bears the date of this day,...

          3. ARTICLE 152

            1. The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible...

            2. A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of...

          4. ARTICLE 153

            1. The present Convention shall come into force six months after...

            2. Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting...

          5. ARTICLE 154

            1. In the relations between the Powers who are bound by...

          6. ARTICLE 155

            1. From the date of its coming into force, it shall...

          7. ARTICLE 156

            1. Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal...

            2. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accession to all...

          8. ARTICLE 157

            1. The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall...

          9. ARTICLE 158

            1. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty...

            2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss...

            3. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification...

            4. The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the...

          10. ARTICLE 159

            1. The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with...

            2. In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full...

            3. Done at Geneva this twelfth day August, 1949, in the...

            4. [Here follow the signatures and Annexes.]

    5. FIFTH SCHEDULE

      PROTOCOL I

      1. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I)

        1. PREAMBLE

          1. The High Contracting Parties,

          2. Proclaiming their earnest wish to see peace prevail among peoples,...

          3. Recalling that every State has the duty, in conformity with...

          4. Believing it necessary nevertheless to reaffirm and develop the provisions...

          5. Expressing their conviction that nothing in this Protocol or in...

          6. Reaffirming further that the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of...

          7. Have agreed on the following:

      2. PART I General Provisions

        1. Article 1— General principles and scope of application

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure...

          2. 2.In cases not covered by this Protocol or by other...

          3. 3.This Protocol, which supplements the Geneva Conventions of 12 August...

          4. 4.The situations referred to in the preceding paragraph include armed...

        2. Article 2— Definitions

          1. For the purposes of this Protocol:

          2. (a) “ First Convention ”, “ Second Convention ”, “...

        3. Article 3— Beginning and end of application

          1. Without prejudice to the provisions which are applicable at all...

          2. (a) the Conventions and this Protocol shall apply from the...

        4. Article 4— Legal status of the Parties to the conflict

          1. The application of the Conventions and of this Protocol, as...

        5. Article 5— Appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute

          1. 1.It is the duty of the Parties to a conflict...

          2. 2.From the beginning of a situation referred to in Article...

          3. 3.If a Protecting Power has not been designated or accepted...

          4. 4.If, despite the foregoing, there is no Protecting Power, the...

          5. 5.In accordance with Article 4, the designation and acceptance of...

          6. 6.The maintenance of diplomatic relations between Parties to the conflict...

          7. 7.Any subsequent mention in this Protocol of a Protecting Power...

        6. Article 6— Qualified persons

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties shall, also in peacetime, endeavour, with...

          2. 2.The recruitment and training of such personnel are within domestic...

          3. 3.The International Committee of the Red Cross shall hold at...

          4. 4.The conditions governing the employment of such personnel outside the...

        7. Article 7— Meetings

          1. The depositary of this Protocol shall convene a meeting of...

      3. PART II Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked

        1. SECTION I— GENERAL PROTECTION

        2. Article 8— Terminology

          1. For the purposes of this Protocol:

          2. (a) “ wounded ” and “ sick ” means persons,...

          3. The attachment of religious personnel may be either permanent or...

          4. (e) “ medical units ” means establishments and other units,...

        3. Article 9— Field of application

          1. 1.This Part, the provisions of which are intended to ameliorate...

          2. 2.The relevant provisions of Articles 27 and 32 of the...

        4. Article 10— Protection and care

          1. 1.All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to whichever Party they...

          2. 2.In all circumstances they shall be treated humanely and shall...

        5. Article 11— Protection of persons

          1. 1.The physical or mental health and integrity of persons who...

          2. 2.It is, in particular, prohibited to carry out on such...

          3. 3.Exceptions to the prohibition in paragraph 2(c) may be made...

          4. 4.Any wilful act or omission which seriously endangers the physical...

          5. 5.The persons described in paragraph 1 have the right to...

          6. 6.Each Party to the conflict shall keep a medical record...

        6. Article 12— Protection of medical units

          1. 1.Medical units shall be respected and protected at all times...

          2. 2.Paragraph 1 shall apply to civilian medical units, provided that...

          3. 3.The Parties to the conflict are invited to notify each...

          4. 4.Under no circumstances shall medical units be used in an...

        7. Article 13— Discontinuance of protection of civilian medical units

          1. 1.The protection to which civilian medical units are entitled shall...

          2. 2.The following shall not be considered as acts harmful to...

        8. Article 14— Limitations on requisition of civilian medical units

          1. 1.The Occupying Power has the duty to ensure that the...

          2. 2.The Occupying Power shall not, therefore, requisition civilian medical units,...

          3. 3.Provided that the general rule in paragraph 2 continues to...

        9. Article 15— Protection of civilian medical and religious personnel

          1. 1.Civilian medical personnel shall be respected and protected.

          2. 2.If needed, all available help shall be afforded to civilian...

          3. 3.The Occupying Power shall afford civilian medical personnel in occupied...

          4. 4.Civilian medical personnel shall have access to any place where...

          5. 5.Civilian religious personnel shall be respected and protected. The provisions...

        10. Article 16— General protection of medical duties

          1. 1.Under no circumstances shall any person be punished for carrying...

          2. 2.Persons engaged in medical activities shall not be compelled to...

          3. 3.No person engaged in medical activities shall be compelled to...

        11. Article 17— Role of the civilian population and of aid societies

          1. 1.The civilian population shall respect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked,...

          2. 2.The Parties to the conflict may appeal to the civilian...

        12. Article 18— Identification

          1. 1.Each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that...

          2. 2.Each Party to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt...

          3. 3.In occupied territory and in areas where fighting is taking...

          4. 4.With the consent of the competent authority, medical units and...

          5. 5.In addition to the distinctive emblem, a Party to the...

          6. 6.The application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 5...

          7. 7.This Article does not authorise any wider use of the...

          8. 8.The provisions of the Conventions and of this Protocol relating...

        13. Article 19— Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict

          1. Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict shall...

        14. Article 20— Prohibition of reprisals

          1. Reprisals against the persons and objects protected by this Part...

        15. SECTION II— MEDICAL TRANSPORTATION

        16. Article 21— Medical vehicles

          1. Medical vehicles shall be respected and protected in the same...

        17. Article 22— Hospital ships and coastal rescue craft

          1. 1.The provisions of the Conventions relating to:

          2. 2.The protection provided by the Conventions to vessels described in...

          3. 3.Small craft described in Article 27 of the Second Convention...

        18. Article 23— Other medical ships and craft

          1. 1.Medical ships and craft other than those referred to in...

          2. 2.The ships and craft referred to in paragraph 1 shall...

          3. 3.The protection provided in paragraph 1 shall cease only under...

          4. 4.A Party to the conflict may notify any adverse Party...

          5. 5.The provisions of Article 37 of the Second Convention shall...

          6. 6.The provisions of the Second Convention shall apply to the...

        19. Article 24— Protection of medical aircraft

          1. Medical aircraft shall be respected and protected, subject to the...

        20. Article 25— Medical aircraft in areas not controlled by an adverse Party

          1. In and over land areas physically controlled by friendly forces,...

        21. Article 26— Medical aircraft in contact or similar zones

          1. 1.In and over those parts of the contact zone which...

          2. 2.“ Contact zone ” means any area on land where...

        22. Article 27— Medical aircraft in areas controlled by an adverse Party

          1. 1.The medical aircraft of a Party to the conflict shall...

          2. 2.A medical aircraft which flies over an area physically controlled...

        23. Article 28— Restrictions on operations of medical aircraft

          1. 1.The Parties to the conflict are prohibited from using their...

          2. 2.Medical aircraft shall not be used to collect or transmit...

          3. 3.Medical aircraft shall not carry any armament except small-arms and...

          4. 4.While carrying out the flights referred to in Articles 26...

        24. Article 29— Notifications and agreements concerning medical aircraft

          1. 1.Notifications under Article 25, or requests for prior agreement under...

          2. 2.A Party which receives a notification given under Article 25...

          3. 3.A Party which receives a request for prior agreement under...

          4. 4.The Parties shall take the necessary measures to ensure that...

          5. 5.The Parties shall also take the necessary measures to disseminate...

        25. Article 30— Landing and inspection of medical aircraft

          1. 1.Medical aircraft flying over areas which are physically controlled by...

          2. 2.If such an aircraft lands or alights on water, whether...

          3. 3.If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:

          4. 4.If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:

        26. Article 31— Neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict

          1. 1.Except by prior agreement, medical aircraft shall not fly over...

          2. 2.Should a medical aircraft, in the absence of an agreement...

          3. 3.If a medical aircraft, either by agreement or in the...

          4. 4.The wounded, sick and shipwrecked disembarked, otherwise than temporarily, from...

          5. 5.Neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict shall...

        27. SECTION III— MISSING AND DEAD PERSONS

        28. Article 32— General principle

          1. In the implementation of this Section, the activities of the...

        29. Article 33— Missing persons

          1. 1.As soon as circumstances permit, and at the latest from...

          2. 2.In order to facilitate the gathering of information pursuant to...

          3. 3.Information concerning persons reported missing pursuant to paragraph 1 and...

          4. 4.The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to agree on...

        30. Article 34— Remains of deceased

          1. 1.The remains of persons who have died for reasons related...

          2. 2.As soon as circumstances and the relations between the adverse...

          3. 3.In the absence of the agreements provided for in paragraph...

          4. 4.A High Contracting Party in whose territory the gravesites referred...

      4. PART III Methods and Means of Warfare Combatant and Prisoner-of-War Status

        1. SECTION I— METHODS AND MEANS OF WARFARE

        2. Article 35— Basic rules

          1. 1.In any armed conflict, the right of the Parties to...

          2. 2.It is prohibited to employ weapons, projectiles and material and...

          3. 3.It is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare...

        3. Article 36— New weapons

          1. In the study, development, acquisition or adoption of a new...

        4. Article 37— Prohibition of perfidy

          1. 1.It is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary...

          2. 2.Ruses of war are not prohibited. Such ruses are acts...

        5. Article 38— Recognised emblems

          1. 1.It is prohibited to make improper use of the distinctive...

          2. 2.It is prohibited to make use of the distinctive emblem...

        6. Article 39— Emblems of nationality

          1. 1.It is prohibited to make use in an armed conflict...

          2. 2.It is prohibited to make use of the flags or...

          3. 3.Nothing in this Article or in Article 37, paragraph 1(d),...

        7. Article 40— Quarter

          1. It is prohibited to order that there shall be no...

        8. Article 41— Safeguard of an enemy hors de combat

          1. 1.A person who is recognised or who, in the circumstances,...

          2. 2.A person is hors de combat if:

          3. 3.When persons entitled to protection as prisoners of war have...

        9. Article 42— Occupants of aircraft

          1. 1.No person parachuting from an aircraft in distress shall be...

          2. 2.Upon reaching the ground in territory controlled by an adverse...

          3. 3.Airborne troops are not protected by this Article.

        10. SECTION II— COMBATANT AND PRISONER-OF-WAR STATUS

        11. Article 43— Armed forces

          1. 1.The armed forces of a Party to a conflict consist...

          2. 2.Members of the armed forces of a Party to a...

          3. 3.Whenever a Party to a conflict incorporates a paramilitary or...

        12. Article 44— Combatants and prisoners of war

          1. 1.Any combatant, as defined in Article 43, who falls into...

          2. 2.While all combatants are obliged to comply with the rules...

          3. 3.In order to promote the protection of the civilian population...

          4. 4.A combatant who falls into the power of an adverse...

          5. 5.Any combatant who falls into the power of an adverse...

          6. 6.This Article is without prejudice to the right of any...

          7. 7.This Article is not intended to change the generally accepted...

          8. 8.In addition to the categories of persons mentioned in Article...

        13. Article 45— Protection of persons who have taken part in hostilities

          1. 1.A person who takes part in hostilities and falls into...

          2. 2.If a person who has fallen into the power of...

          3. 3.Any person who has taken part in hostilities, who is...

        14. Article 46— Spies

          1. 1.Notwithstanding any other provision of the Conventions or of this...

          2. 2.A member of the armed forces of a Party to...

          3. 3.A member of the armed forces of a Party to...

          4. 4.A member of the armed forces of a Party to...

        15. Article 47— Mercenaries

          1. 1.A mercenary shall not have the right to be a...

          2. 2.A mercenary is any person who: (a) is specially recruited...

      5. PART IV Civilian Population

        1. SECTION I— GENERAL PROTECTION AGAINST EFFECTS OF HOSTILITIES

        2. CHAPTER I— BASIC RULE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION

        3. Article 48— Basic rule

          1. In order to ensure respect for and protection of the...

        4. Article 49— Definition of attacks and scope of application

          1. 1.“ Attacks ” means acts of violence against the adversary,...

          2. 2.The provisions of this Protocol with respect to attacks apply...

          3. 3.The provisions of this Section apply to any land, air...

          4. 4.The provisions of this Section are additional to the rules...

        5. CHAPTER II— CIVILIANS AND CIVILIAN POPULATION

        6. Article 50— Definition of civilians and civilian population

          1. 1.A civilian is any person who does not belong to...

          2. 2.The civilian population comprises all persons who are civilians.

          3. 3.The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do...

        7. Article 51— Protection of the civilian population

          1. 1.The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection...

          2. 2.The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians,...

          3. 3.Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this Section, unless...

          4. 4.Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited. Indiscriminate attacks are:

          5. 5.Among others, the following types of attacks are to be...

          6. 6.Attacks against the civilian population or civilians by way of...

          7. 7.The presence or movements of the civilian population or individual...

          8. 8.Any violation of these prohibitions shall not release the Parties...

        8. CHAPTER III— CIVILIAN OBJECTS

        9. Article 52— General protection of civilian objects

          1. 1.Civilian objects shall not be the object of attack or...

          2. 2.Attacks shall be limited strictly to military objectives. In so...

          3. 3.In case of doubt whether an object which is normally...

        10. Article 53— Protection of cultural objects and of places of worship

          1. Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for...

          2. (a) to commit any acts of hostility directed against the...

        11. Article 54— Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population

          1. 1.Starvation of civilians as a method of warfare is prohibited....

          2. 2.It is prohibited to attack, destroy, remove or render useless...

          3. 3.The prohibitions in paragraph 2 shall not apply to such...

          4. 4.These objects shall not be made the object of reprisals....

          5. 5.In recognition of the vital requirements of any Party to...

        12. Article 55— Protection of the natural environment

          1. 1.Care shall be taken in warfare to protect the natural...

          2. 2.Attacks against the natural environment by way of reprisals are...

        13. Article 56— Protection of works and installations containing dangerous forces

          1. 1.Works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and...

          2. 2.The special protection against attack provided by paragraph 1 shall...

          3. 3.In all cases, the civilian population and individual civilians shall...

          4. 4.It is prohibited to make any of the works, installations...

          5. 5.The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to avoid locating...

          6. 6.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

          7. 7.In order to facilitate the identification of the objects protected...

        14. CHAPTER IV— PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

        15. Article 57— Precautions in attack

          1. 1.In the conduct of military operations, constant care shall be...

          2. 2.With respect to attacks, the following precautions shall be taken:...

          3. 3.When a choice is possible between several military objectives for...

          4. 4.In the conduct of military operations at sea or in...

          5. 5.No provision of this Article may be construed as authorising...

        16. Article 58— Precautions against the effects of attacks

          1. The Parties to the conflict shall, to the maximum extent...

          2. (a) without prejudice to Article 49 of the Fourth Convention,...

        17. CHAPTER V— LOCALITIES AND ZONES UNDER SPECIAL PROTECTION

        18. Article 59— Non-defended localities

          1. 1.It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to...

          2. 2.The appropriate authorities of a Party to the conflict may...

          3. 3.The presence, in this locality, of persons specially protected under...

          4. 4.The declaration made under paragraph 2 shall be addressed to...

          5. 5.The Parties to the conflict may agree on the establishment...

          6. 6.The Party which is in control of a locality governed...

          7. 7.A locality loses its status as a non-defended locality when...

        19. Article 60— Demilitarised zones

          1. 1.It is prohibited for the Parties to the conflict to...

          2. 2.The agreement shall be an express agreement, may be concluded...

          3. 3.The subject of such an agreement shall normally be any...

          4. 4.The presence, in this zone, of persons specially protected under...

          5. 5.The Party which is in control of such a zone...

          6. 6.If the fighting draws near to a demilitarised zone, and...

          7. 7.If one of the Parties to the conflict commits a...

        20. CHAPTER VI— CIVIL DEFENCE

        21. Article 61— Definitions and scope

          1. For the purposes of this Protocol:

          2. (a) “ civil defence ” means the performance of some...

        22. Article 62— General protection

          1. 1.Civilian civil defence organisations and their personnel shall be respected...

          2. 2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to civilians...

          3. 3.Buildings and mategriel used for civil defence purposes and shelters...

        23. Article 63— Civil defence in occupied territories

          1. 1.In occupied territories, civilian civil defence organisations shall receive from...

          2. 2.The Occupying Power shall not compel, coerce or induce civilian...

          3. 3.The Occupying Power may disarm civil defence personnel for reasons...

          4. 4.The Occupying Power shall neither divert from their proper use...

          5. 5.Provided that the general rule in paragraph 4 continues to...

          6. 6.The Occupying Power shall neither divert nor requisition shelters provided...

        24. Article 64— Civilian civil defence organisations of neutral or other States not Parties to the conflict and international co-ordinating organisations

          1. 1.Articles 62, 63, 65 and 66 shall also apply to...

          2. 2.The Parties to the conflict receiving the assistance referred to...

          3. 3.In occupied territories, the Occupying Power may only exclude or...

        25. Article 65— Cessation of protection

          1. 1.The protection to which civilian civil defence organisations, their personnel,...

          2. 2.The following shall not be considered as acts harmful to...

          3. 3.It shall also not be considered as an act harmful...

          4. 4.The formation of civilian civil defence organisations along military lines,...

        26. Article 66— Identification

          1. 1.Each Party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that...

          2. 2.Each Party to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt...

          3. 3.In occupied territories and in areas where fighting is taking...

          4. 4.The international distinctive sign of civil defence is an equilateral...

          5. 5.In addition to the distinctive sign, Parties to the conflict...

          6. 6.The application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4...

          7. 7.In time of peace, the sign described in paragraph 4...

          8. 8.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

          9. 9.The identification of civil defence medical and religious personnel, medical...

        27. Article 67— Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to civil defence organisations

          1. 1.Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to...

          2. 2.Military personnel serving within civil defence organisations shall, if they...

          3. 3.The buildings and major items of equipment and transports of...

          4. 4.The mategriel and buildings of military units permanently assigned to...

        28. SECTION II— RELIEF IN FAVOUR OF THE CIVILIAN POPULATION

        29. Article 68— Field of application

          1. The provisions of this Section apply to the civilian population...

        30. Article 69— Basic needs in occupied territories

          1. 1.In addition to the duties specified in Article 55 of...

          2. 2.Relief actions for the benefit of the civilian population of...

        31. Article 70— Relief actions

          1. 1.If the civilian population of any territory under the control...

          2. 2.The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party...

          3. 3.The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party...

          4. 4.The Parties to the conflict shall protect relief consignments and...

          5. 5.The Parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party...

        32. Article 71— Personnel participating in relief actions

          1. 1.Where necessary, relief personnel may form part of the assistance...

          2. 2.Such personnel shall be respected and protected.

          3. 3.Each Party in receipt of relief consignments shall, to the...

          4. 4.Under no circumstances may relief personnel exceed the terms of...

        33. SECTION III— TREATMENT OF PERSONS IN THE POWER OF A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT

        34. CHAPTER I— FIELD OF APPLICATION AND PROTECTION OF PERSONS AND OBJECTS

        35. Article 72— Field of application

          1. The provisions of this Section are additional to the rules...

        36. Article 73— Refugees and stateless persons

          1. Persons who, before the beginning of hostilities, were considered as...

        37. Article 74— Reunion of dispersed families

          1. The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

        38. Article 75— Fundamental guarantees

          1. 1.In so far as they are affected by a situation...

          2. 2.The following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any...

          3. 3.Any person arrested, detained or interned for actions related to...

          4. 4.No sentence may be passed and no penalty may be...

          5. 5.Women whose liberty has been restricted for reasons related to...

          6. 6.Persons who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons related...

          7. 7.In order to avoid any doubt concerning the prosecution and...

          8. 8.No provision of this Article may be construed as limiting...

        39. CHAPTER II— MEASURES IN FAVOUR OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN

        40. Article 76— Protection of women

          1. 1.Women shall be the object of special respect and shall...

          2. 2.Pregnant women and mothers having dependant infants who are arrested,...

          3. 3.To the maximum extent feasible, the Parties to the conflict...

        41. Article 77— Protection of children

          1. 1.Children shall be the object of special respect and shall...

          2. 2.The Parties to the conflict shall take all feasible measures...

          3. 3.If, in exceptional cases, despite the provisions of paragraph 2,...

          4. 4.If arrested, detained or interned for reasons related to the...

          5. 5.The death penalty for an offence related to the armed...

        42. Article 78— Evacuation of children

          1. 1.No Party to the conflict shall arrange for the evacuation...

          2. 2.Whenever an evacuation occurs pursuant to paragraph 1, each child’s...

          3. 3.With a view to facilitating the return to their families...

        43. CHAPTER III— JOURNALISTS

        44. Article 79— Measures of protection for journalists

          1. 1.Journalists engaged in dangerous professional missions in areas of armed...

          2. 2.They shall be protected as such under the Conventions and...

          3. 3.They may obtain an identity card similar to the model...

      6. PART V Execution of the Conventions and of this Protocol

        1. SECTION I— GENERAL PROVISIONS

        2. Article 80— Measures for execution

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

          2. 2.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

        3. Article 81— Activities of the Red Cross and other humanitarian organisations

          1. 1.The Parties to the conflict shall grant to the International...

          2. 2.The Parties to the conflict shall grant to their respective...

          3. 3.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

          4. 4.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

        4. Article 82— Legal advisers in armed forces

          1. The High Contracting Parties at all times, and the Parties...

        5. Article 83— Dissemination

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as...

          2. 2.Any military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed...

        6. Article 84— Rules of application

          1. The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another, as...

        7. SECTION II— REPRESSION OF BREACHES OF THE CONVENTIONS AND OF THIS PROTOCOL

        8. Article 85— Repression of breaches of this Protocol

          1. 1.The provisions of the Conventions relating to the repression of...

          2. 2.Acts described as grave breaches in the Conventions are grave...

          3. 3.In addition to the grave breaches defined in Article 11,...

          4. 4.In addition to the grave breaches defined in the preceding...

          5. 5.Without prejudice to the application of the Conventions and of...

        9. Article 86— Failure to act

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

          2. 2.The fact that a breach of the Conventions or of...

        10. Article 87— Duty of commanders

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties and the Parties to the conflict...

          2. 2.In order to prevent and suppress breaches, High Contracting Parties...

          3. 3.The High Contracting Parties and Parties to the conflict shall...

        11. Article 88— Mutual assistance in criminal matters

          1. 1.The High Contracting Parties shall afford one another the greatest...

          2. 2.Subject to the rights and obligations established in the Conventions...

          3. 3.The law of the High Contracting Party requested shall apply...

        12. Article 89— Co-operation

          1. In situations of serious violations of the Conventions or of...

        13. Article 90— International Fact-Finding Commission

          1. 1.(a) An International Fact-Finding Commission (hereinafter referred to as “...

          2. 2.(a) The High Contracting Parties may at the time of...

          3. 3.(a) Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties concerned, all enquiries...

          4. 4.(a) The Chamber set up under paragraph 3 to undertake...

          5. 5.(a) The Commission shall submit to the Parties a report...

          6. 6.The Commission shall establish its own rules, including rules for...

          7. 7.The administrative expenses of the Commission shall be met by...

        14. Article 91— Responsibility

          1. A Party to the conflict which violates the provisions of...

      7. PART VI Final Provisions

        1. Article 92— Signature

          1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Parties...

        2. Article 93— Ratification

          1. This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. The...

        3. Article 94— Accession

          1. This Protocol shall be open for accession by any Party...

        4. Article 95— Entry into force

          1. 1.This Protocol shall enter into force six months after two...

          2. 2.For each Party to the Conventions thereafter ratifying or acceding...

        5. Article 96— Treaty relations upon entry into force of this Protocol

          1. 1.When the Parties to the Conventions are also Parties to...

          2. 2.When one of the Parties to the conflict is not...

          3. 3.The authority representing a people engaged against a High Contracting...

        6. Article 97— Amendment

          1. 1.Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol....

          2. 2.The depositary shall invite to that conference all the High...

        7. Article 98— Revision of Annex I

          1. 1.Not later than four years after the entry into force...

          2. 2.The depositary shall convene a conference of the High Contracting...

          3. 3.Amendments to Annex I may be adopted at such a...

          4. 4.The depositary shall communicate any amendment so adopted to the...

          5. 5.An amendment considered to have been accepted in accordance with...

          6. 6.The depositary shall notify the High Contracting Parties and the...

        8. Article 99— Denunciation

          1. 1.In case a High Contracting Party should denounce this Protocol,...

          2. 2.The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary,...

          3. 3.The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the...

          4. 4.Any denunciation under paragraph 1 shall not affect the obligations...

        9. Article 100— Notifications

          1. The depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties as well...

          2. (a) signatures affixed to this Protocol and the deposit of...

        10. Article 101— Registration

          1. 1.After its entry into force, this Protocol shall be transmitted...

          2. 2.The depositary shall also inform the Secretariat of the United...

        11. Article 102— Authentic texts

          1. The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese,...

          2. ANNEX I

            1. [Note: the following text includes amendments to Annex I made...

          3. REGULATIONS CONCERNING IDENTIFICATION

        12. Article 1— General provisions

          1. 1.The regulations concerning identification in this Annex implement the relevant...

          2. 2.These rules do not in and of themselves establish the...

          3. 3.The competent authorities may, subject to the relevant provisions of...

          4. 4.The High Contracting Parties and in particular the Parties to...

        13. CHAPTER I— IDENTITY CARDS

        14. Article 2— Identity card for permanent civilian medical and religious personnel

          1. 1.The identity card for permanent civilian medical and religious personnel...

          2. 2.The identity card shall be uniform throughout the territory of...

          3. 3.In no circumstances may permanent civilian medical and religious personnel...

        15. Article 3— Identity card for temporary civilian medical and religious personnel

          1. 1.The identity card for temporary civilian medical and religious personnel...

          2. 2.When circumstances preclude the provision to temporary civilian medical and...

        16. CHAPTER II— THE DISTINCTIVE EMBLEM

        17. Article 4— Shape

          1. The distinctive emblem (red on a white ground) shall be...

        18. Article 5— Use

          1. 1.The distinctive emblem shall, whenever possible, be displayed on a...

          2. 2.At night or when visibility is reduced, the distinctive emblem...

          3. 3.The distinctive emblem may be made of materials which make...

          4. 4.Medical and religious personnel carrying out their duties in the...

        19. CHAPTER III— DISTINCTIVE SIGNALS

        20. Article 6— Use

          1. 1.All distinctive signals specified in this Chapter may be used...

          2. 2.These signals, at the exclusive disposal of medical units and...

          3. 3.In the absence of a special agreement between the Parties...

          4. 4.Temporary medical aircraft which cannot, either for lack of time...

        21. Article 7— Light signal

          1. 1.The light signal, consisting of a flashing blue light as...

          2. 2.In accordance with the provisions of Chapter XIV, para. 4...

          3. 3.Medical vehicles should exhibit one or more flashing blue lights...

          4. 4.The recommended blue colour is obtained when its chromaticity is...

        22. Article 8— Radio signal

          1. 1.The radio signal shall consist of the urgency signal and...

          2. 2.The radio message preceded by the urgency and distinctive signals...

          3. 3.In order to facilitate the communications referred to in paragraphs...

        23. Article 9— Electronic identification

          1. 1.The Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) system, as specified in Annex...

          2. 2.Protected medical transports may, for their identification and location, use...

          3. 3.It should be possible for medical transports to be identified...

          4. 4.Parties to a conflict may, by special agreement between them,...

        24. CHAPTER IV— COMMUNICATIONS

        25. Article 10— Radiocommunications

          1. 1.The urgency signal and the distinctive signal provided for in...

          2. 2.The medical transports referred to in Articles 40 (Section II,...

        26. Article 11— Use of international codes

          1. Medical units and transports may also use the codes and...

        27. Article 12— Other means of communication

          1. When two-way radiocommunication is not possible, the signals provided for...

        28. Article 13— Flight plans

          1. The agreements and notifications relating to flight plans provided for...

        29. Article 14— Signals and procedures for the interception of medical aircraft.

          1. If an intercepting aircraft is used to verify the identity...

        30. CHAPTER V— CIVIL DEFENCE

        31. Article 15— Identity card

          1. 1.The identity card of the civil defence personnel provided for...

          2. 2.The identity card for civil defence personnel may follow the...

          3. 3.If civil defence personnel are permitted to carry light individual...

          4. 3.If civil defence personnel are permitted to carry light individual...

        32. Article 16— International distinctive sign

          1. 1.The international distinctive sign of civil defence provided for in...

          2. 2.It is recommended that: (a) if the blue triangle is...

          3. 3.The international distinctive sign shall be as large as appropriate...

        33. CHAPTER VI— WORKS AND INSTALLATIONS CONTAINING DANGEROUS FORCES

        34. Article 17— International special sign

          1. 1.The international special sign for works and installations containing dangerous...

          2. 2.The sign shall be as large as appropriate under the...

          3. 3.On a flag, the distance between the outer limits of...

          4. 4.At night or when visibility is reduced, the sign may...

        35. ANNEX II Identity Card for Journalists on Dangerous Professional Missions

    6. SIXTH SCHEDULE

      PROTOCOL II

      1. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II)

        1. Preamble

        2. The High Contracting Parties,

        3. Recalling that the humanitarian principles enshrined in Article 3 common...

        4. Recalling furthermore that international instruments relating to human rights offer...

        5. Emphasising the need to ensure a better protection for the...

        6. Recalling that, in cases not covered by the law in...

        7. Have agreed on the following:

      2. PART I Scope of this Protocol

        1. Article 1— Material field of application

          1. 1.This Protocol, which develops and supplements Article 3 common to...

          2. 2.This Protocol shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances...

        2. Article 2— Personal field of application

          1. 1.This Protocol shall be applied without any adverse distinction founded...

          2. 2.At the end of the armed conflict, all the persons...

        3. Article 3— Non-intervention

          1. 1.Nothing in this Protocol shall be invoked for the purpose...

          2. 2.Nothing in this Protocol shall be invoked as a justification...

      3. PART II Humane Treatment

        1. Article 4— Fundamental guarantees

          1. 1.All persons who do not take a direct part or...

          2. 2.Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the following...

          3. 3.Children shall be provided with the care and aid they...

        2. Article 5— Persons whose liberty has been restricted

          1. 1.In addition to the provisions of Article 4, the following...

          2. 2.Those who are responsible for the internment or detention of...

          3. 3.Persons who are not covered by paragraph 1 but whose...

          4. 4.If it is decided to release persons deprived of their...

        3. Article 6— Penal prosecutions

          1. 1.This Article applies to the prosecution and punishment of criminal...

          2. 2.No sentence shall be passed and no penalty shall be...

          3. 3.A convicted person shall be advised on conviction of his...

          4. 4.The death penalty shall not be pronounced on persons who...

          5. 5.At the end of hostilities, the authorities in power shall...

      4. PART III Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked

        1. Article 7— Protection and care

          1. 1.All the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, whether or not they...

          2. 2.In all circumstances they shall be treated humanely and shall...

        2. Article 8— Search

          1. Whenever circumstances permit, and particularly after an engagement, all possible...

        3. Article 9— Protection of medical and religious personnel

          1. 1.Medical and religious personnel shall be respected and protected and...

          2. 2.In the performance of their duties medical personnel may not...

        4. Article 10— General protection of medical duties

          1. 1.Under no circumstances shall any person be punished for having...

          2. 2.Persons engaged in medical activities shall neither be compelled to...

          3. 3.The professional obligations of persons engaged in medical activities regarding...

          4. 4.Subject to national law, no person engaged in medical activities...

        5. Article 11— Protection of medical units and transports

          1. 1.Medical units and transports shall be respected and protected at...

          2. 2.The protection to which medical units and transports are entitled...

        6. Article 12— The distinctive emblem

          1. Under the direction of the competent authority concerned, the distinctive...

      5. PART IV Civilian Population

        1. Article 13— Protection of the civilian population

          1. 1.The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection...

          2. 2.The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians,...

          3. 3.Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this Part, unless...

        2. Article 14— Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population

          1. Starvation of civilians as a method of combat is prohibited....

        3. Article 15— Protection of works and installations containing dangerous forces

          1. Works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and...

        4. Article 16— Protection of cultural objects and of places of worship

          1. Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention for...

        5. Article 17— Prohibition of forced movement of civilians

          1. 1.The displacement of the civilian population shall not be ordered...

          2. 2.Civilians shall not be compelled to leave their own territory...

        6. Article 18— Relief societies and relief actions

          1. 1.Relief societies located in the territory of the High Contracting...

          2. 2.If the civilian population is suffering undue hardship owing to...

      6. PART V Final Provisions

        1. Article 19— Dissemination

          1. This Protocol shall be disseminated as widely as possible.

        2. Article 20— Signature

          1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Parties...

        3. Article 21— Ratification

          1. This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. The...

        4. Article 22— Accession

          1. This Protocol shall be open for accession by any Party...

        5. Article 23— Entry into force

          1. 1.This Protocol shall enter into force six months after two...

          2. 2.For each Party to the Conventions thereafter ratifying or acceding...

        6. Article 24— Amendment

          1. 1.Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol....

          2. 2.The depositary shall invite to that conference all the High...

        7. Article 25— Denunciation

          1. 1.In case a High Contracting Party should denounce this Protocol,...

          2. 2.The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary,...

        8. Article 26— Notifications

          1. The depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties as well...

          2. (a) signatures affixed to this Protocol and the deposit of...

        9. Article 27— Registration

          1. 1.After its entry into force, this Protocol shall be transmitted...

          2. 2.The depositary shall also inform the Secretariat of the United...

        10. Article 28— Authentic texts

          1. The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese,...

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