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Council Directive 93/14/EEC (repealed)Show full title

Council Directive 93/14/EEC of 5 April 1993 on the braking of two or three-wheel motor vehicles (repealed)

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  1. Introductory Text

  2. Article 1.This Directive applies to the braking of all types of...

  3. Article 2.The procedure for the granting of component type-approval in respect...

  4. Article 3.In accordance with Article 11 of Directive 92/61/EEC, equivalence between...

  5. Article 4.This Directive may be amended in accordance with Article 13...

  6. Article 5.(1.) Member States shall adopt and publish the provisions necessary...

  7. Article 6.This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

  8. Signature

    1. ANNEX

      1. 1. DEFINITIONS

        1. 1.1. Type of vehicle with respect to its braking:

          1. 1.1.1. the vehicle category, as defined in Article 1 of this...

          2. 1.1.2. the maximum mass, as defined in 1.13;

          3. 1.1.3. the distribution of mass among the axles;

          4. 1.1.4. the maximum design speed;

          5. 1.1.5. a different type of braking system;

          6. 1.1.6. number and arrangement of the axles;

          7. 1.1.7. engine type;

          8. 1.1.8. the number of gears and their overall ratio;

          9. 1.1.8a. final drive ratios;

          10. 1.1.9. the tyre dimensions.

        2. 1.2. Braking device:

        3. 1.3. Control:

        4. 1.4. Transmission:

        5. 1.5. Brake:

        6. 1.6. Different types of braking devices:

          1. 1.6.1. components having different characteristics;

          2. 1.6.2. a component made of materials having different characteristics, or a...

          3. 1.6.3. a different assembly of the components.

        7. 1.7. Component(s) of a braking device:

        8. 1.8. Combined braking system means:

          1. 1.8.1. in the case of two-wheel mopeds and two-wheel motorcycles, a...

          2. 1.8.2. in the case of three-wheel mopeds and tricycles, a braking...

          3. 1.8.3. in the case of motorcycles with sidecar, a braking device...

        9. 1.9. Progressive and graduated braking:

          1. 1.9.1. the driver can at any moment increase or decrease the...

          2. 1.9.2. the braking force varies proportionally to the action on the...

          3. 1.9.3. the braking force can be easily regulated with sufficient precision....

        10. 1.10. Maximum design speed:

        11. 1.11. Laden vehicle:

        12. 1.12. Unladen vehicle:

        13. 1.13. Maximum mass:

        14. 1.14. Wet brake:

      2. 2. CONSTRUCTION AND FITTING REQUIREMENTS

        1. 2.1. General

          1. 2.1.1. Braking device

            1. 2.1.1.1. The braking device must be so designed, constructed and fitted...

            2. 2.1.1.2. In particular, the braking device shall be so designed, constructed...

          2. 2.1.2. Functions of the braking device

            1. 2.1.2.1. Service braking

            2. 2.1.2.2. Secondary (emergency) braking (where applicable)

            3. 2.1.2.3. Parking brake (if fitted)

        2. 2.2. Characteristics of braking devices

          1. 2.2.1. Every two-wheel moped or two-wheel motorcycle shall be equipped with...

          2. 2.2.1.1. The two service braking devices may have a common braking...

          3. 2.2.1.2. A parking braking device is not compulsory.

          4. 2.2.2. Every motorcycle with sidecar shall be equipped with the braking...

          5. 2.2.3. Every three-wheel moped must be equipped with:

          6. 2.2.3.1. either two independent service braking devices which together actuate the...

          7. 2.2.3.2. a service braking device which operates on all the wheels,...

          8. 2.2.3.3. In addition, every three-wheel moped must be equipped with a...

          9. 2.2.4. Every tricycle must be equipped with:

          10. 2.2.4.1. a foot-controlled serviced braking device which operates on all wheels,...

          11. 2.2.4.2. a parking braking device acting on the wheels of at...

          12. 2.2.5. The braking devices must act on brake surfacespermanently connected to...

          13. 2.2.6. The component parts of all braking devices, where attached to...

          14. 2.2.7. The braking devices shall operate freely when correctly lubricated and...

          15. 2.2.7.1. Wear of the brakes must be capable of being easily...

          16. 2.2.7.2. The control and the components of the transmission and of...

          17. 2.2.7.3. When correctly adjusted the components of the braking device must...

          18. 2.2.8. In braking devices where the transmission is hydraulic, the receptables...

      3. Appendix 1

        Braking tests and performance of braking devices

        1. 1. BRAKING TESTS

          1. 1.1. General

            1. 1.1.1. The performance prescribed for braking devices is based on the...

            2. 1.1.2. The stopping distance is the distance covered by the vehicle...

            3. 1.1.3. For component type-approval, the braking performance must be measured during...

            4. 1.1.3.1. the vehicle's condition as regards its mass must be as...

            5. 1.1.3.2. the test must be carried out at the speed and...

            6. 1.1.3.3. the prescribed performance must be obtained without locking of the...

            7. 1.1.3.4. during the tests the force applied to the brake control...

            8. 1.1.4. Test conditions

              1. 1.1.4.1. The service braking tests must be carried out under the...

              2. 1.1.4.1.1. at the start of the test or any series of...

              3. 1.1.4.1.2. the vehicle must be loaded, when required to be tested...

              4. 1.1.4.1.3. for all the type-0 tests the brakes must be cold:...

              5. 1.1.4.1.4. the driver must shall be seated on the saddle as...

              6. 1.1.4.1.5. the test area must be level, dry and have a...

              7. 1.1.4.1.6. the test must be performed when there is no wind...

          2. 1.2. Type-0 test (performance test with brakes cold)

            1. 1.2.1. General

              1. 1.2.1.1. The limits prescribed for service braking performance are as laid...

            2. 1.2.2. Type-0 test with engine disconnected

              1. 1.2.2.1. The test must be carried out at the speed prescribed...

              2. 1.2.2.1.1. In the case of a vehicle with a manual gearbox...

              3. 1.2.2.1.2. In the case of a vehicle with other types of...

            3. 1.2.3. Type-0 test with engine connected for motorcycles (with or without...

              1. 1.2.3.1. Tests must be carried out in the unladen condition at...

            4. 1.2.4. Type-0 test with engine disconnected: with wet brakes

              1. 1.2.4.1. This test must (subject to the exemption contained in 1.3.1)...

          3. 1.3. Special provisions relating to testing with wet brakes

            1. 1.3.1. Enclosed brakes: it is not necessary to carry out this...

            2. 1.3.2. The test with brakes subject to wetting must be carried...

            3. 1.3.3. The test equipment must continuously wet the brakes for each...

            4. 1.3.4. For exposed or partly exposed disc brakes, the prescribed amount...

            5. 1.3.4.1. For fully exposed disc brakes, the water must be directed...

            6. 1.3.4.2. For partly exposed disc brakes, the water must be directed...

            7. 1.3.4.3. The water must be directed on to the surface(s) of...

            8. 1.3.5. For fully enclosed disc brakes, where the provisions of 1.3.1...

            9. 1.3.6. Where in 1.3.3 and 1.3.4, it is not possible to...

            10. 1.3.7. For drum brakes, where the requirements of 1.3.1 do not...

            11. 1.3.8. Subject to the requirements of 1.3.7 and to the requirement...

            12. 1.3.9. To ensure the correct wetting of the brake(s), the vehicle...

            13. 1.3.10. For rim brakes, as fitted to some mopeds with a...

            14. Figure 1 Method of water application for disc brakes

            15. Figure 2 Method of water application for rim brakes

          4. 1.4. Type-I test (fade test)

            1. 1.4.1. Special provisions

              1. 1.4.1.1. The service brakes of all motorcycles (with or without sidecar)...

              2. 1.4.1.2. The type-I test is carried out in three parts.

              3. 1.4.1.2.1. A single type-0 test as prescribed by 2.1.2 or 2.2.3.1....

              4. 1.4.1.2.2. A series of 10 repeated stops carried out in accordance...

              5. 1.4.1.2.3. A single type-0 test, carried out as soon as possible...

            2. 1.4.2. Test conditions

              1. 1.4.2.1. The vehicle and the brake(s) to be tested must be...

              2. 1.4.2.2. The initial test speed is:

              3. 1.4.2.2.1. for testing the front brake(s), whichever is the lower of...

              4. 1.4.2.2.2. for testing the rear brake(s), whichever is the lower of...

              5. 1.4.2.2.3. for testing a combined braking system, whichever is the lower...

              6. 1.4.2.3. The distance between the initiation of one stop and the...

              7. 1.4.2.4. The use of the gearbox and/or clutch is as follows:...

              8. 1.4.2.4.1. In the case of a vehicle with a manual gearbox...

              9. 1.4.2.4.2. In the case of a vehicle with a fully automatic...

              10. 1.4.2.5. After each stop, the vehicle must immediately be subjected to...

              11. 1.4.2.6. The force applied to the control shall be so adjusted...

            3. 1.4.3. Residual performance

              1. 1.4.3.1. At the end of the type-I test the residual performance...

              2. 1.4.3.2. This residual performance must not be:

              3. 1.4.3.2.1. if expressed as a deceleration, less than 60 % of...

              4. 1.4.3.2.2. if expressed as a stopping distance, more than the stopping...

        2. 2. PERFORMANCE OF BRAKING DEVICES

          1. 2.1. Provisions relating to tests of vehicles with braking devices operating...

            1. 2.1.1. Test speed V = 40 km/h for mopeds.

            2. 2.1.2. Braking performance with the vehicle laden

              1. 2.1.2.1. For the purposes of the type-I residual performance test (motorcycles...

              2. 2.1.2.2. Braking with the front brake only

              3. 2.1.2.3. Braking with the rear brake only

            3. 2.1.3. Braking performance with the vehicle unladen

              1. 2.1.3.1. A practical test of the vehicle driven by the driver...

          2. 2.2. Provisions relating to tests of vehicles of which (at least)...

            1. 2.2.1. For the purposes of the type-I residual performances test on...

            2. 2.2.2. Test speed V = 40 km/h for mopeds.

            3. 2.2.3. The vehicle is tested both unladen and laden.

            4. 2.2.3.1. Braking with the combined braking system only

            5. 2.2.3.2. Braking with the second service or the secondary (emergency) braking...

          3. 2.3. Braking performance with the parking braking device (if applicable)

            1. 2.3.1. The parking braking device must, even if it is combined...

          4. 2.4. Provisions relating to forces applied to brake controls

            1. 2.4.1. Forces applied to service brake controls

            2. 2.4.2. Forces applied ot the parking brake control (if applicable)

              1. 2.4.3. In the case of handbrake levers, the point of application...

          5. 2.5. Performance levels (minimum and maximum) to be attained with wet...

            1. 2.5.1. The mean deceleration to be attained with wet brake(s) between...

            2. 2.5.2. The control force used, which must be applied as quickly...

            3. 2.5.3. At no time during the type-0 test with wet brake(s)...

      4. Appendix 2

        Requirements applicable to two-wheel mopeds, two-wheel motorcycles and tricycles equipped with anti-lock devices

        1. 1. GENERAL

          1. 1.1. The purpose of these provisions is to define the minimum...

          2. 1.2. The devices known at present comprise a sensor or sensors,...

        2. 2. DEFINITIONS

          1. 2.1. Anti-lock device

          2. 2.2. Sensor

          3. 2.3. Controller

          4. 2.4. Modulator

        3. 3. NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM

          1. 3.1. Each controlled wheel must be such that it can bring...

          2. 3.2. Any break in the supply of electricity to the device...

          3. 3.3. In the event of a failure in an anti-lock device,...

          4. 3.4. The operation of the device must not be affected adversely...

          5. 3.5. Anti-lock devices must maintain their performance when the brake is...

        4. 4. UTILIZATION OF ADHESION

          1. 4.1. General

            1. 4.1.1. In the case of two-wheel motorcycles and tricycles, braking systems...

            2. 4.1.2. The coefficient of adhesion utilization ε must be measured on...

            3. 4.1.3. Tests must be carried out with the vehicle unladen.

            4. 4.1.4. The test procedure to determine the coefficient of adhesion (K)...

        5. 5. ADDITIONAL CHECKS

          1. 5.1. The following additional checks must be carried out with the...

          2. 5.1.1. Any wheel controlled by an anti-lock device must not lock...

          3. 5.1.2. Where a wheel controlled by an anti-lock device passes from...

          4. 5.1.3. Where a vehicle passes from a low-adhesion surface to a...

          5. 5.1.4. Where both independent braking devices are equipped with an anti-lock...

          6. 5.1.5. However, in the tests provided for in 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.1.3...

        6. Addendum

          1. 1. DETERMINATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF ADHESION (K)

            1. 1.1. The coefficient of adhesion is determined from the maximum braking...

            2. 1.2. The braking tests are carried out by applying the brakes...

            3. 1.3. A series of tests may be carried out up to...

            4. 1.4. The braking rate (Z) shall be determined by reference to...

          2. 2. DETERMINATION OF THE ADHESION UTILIZATION (ε).

            1. 2.1. The adhesion utilized is defined as the quotient of the...

            2. 2.2. Zmax is calculated on the on the basis of the...

            3. 2.3. The adhesion utilized is given by the formula

      5. Appendix 3

      6. Appendix 4

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