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The Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018

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PART 1PRELIMINARY

Citation and Commencement

1.  This Order may be cited as the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018 and comes into force on 24th August 2018.

Interpretation

2.—(1) In this Order—

“the 1961 Act” means the Land Compensation Act 1961(1);

“the 1965 Act” means the Compulsory Purchase Act 1965(2);

“the 1980 Act” means the Highways Act 1980(3);

“the 1981 Act” means the Compulsory Purchase (Vesting Declarations) Act 1981(4);

“the 1990 Act” means the Town and Country Planning Act 1990(5);

“the 1991 Act” means the New Roads and Street Works Act 1991(6);

“the 2003 Act” means the Communications Act 2003(7);

“address” includes any number or address used for the purposes of electronic transmission;

“authorised works” means the scheduled works and any other works authorised by this Order or any part of them;

“the book of reference” means the book of reference certified by the Secretary of State as the book of reference for the purposes of this Order;

“bridleway” has the same meaning as in the 1980 Act;

“building” includes any structure or erection or any part of a building, structure or erection;

“carriageway” has the same meaning as in the 1980 Act;

“cycle track” has the same meaning as in the 1980 Act;

“deposited plans” means the plans certified by the Secretary of State as the deposited plans for the purposes of this Order;

“deposited sections” means the sections certified as the sections by the Secretary of State for the purposes of this Order;

“electronic transmission” means a communication transmitted—

(a)

by means of an electronic communications network; or

(b)

by other means but while in electronic form;

“footpath” and “footway” have the same meanings as in the 1980 Act;

“highway” and “highway authority” have the same meaning as in the 1980 Act;

“limits of deviation” means the limits of deviation for the scheduled works shown on the deposited plans;

“maintain” includes inspect, repair, adjust, alter, remove, reconstruct and replace, and “maintenance” is to be construed accordingly;

“Network Rail” means Network Rail Infrastructure Limited (company registration number 02904587) whose registered office is at 1 Eversholt Street, London, NW1 2DN;

“Order land” means the land shown on the deposited plans which is within the limits of land to be acquired or used and described in the book of reference;

“Order limits” means the limits of deviation and the limits of land to be acquired or used shown on the deposited plans;

“owner”, in relation to land, has the same meaning as in section 7 (interpretation) of the Acquisition of Land Act 1981(8);

“road hump” has the same meaning as in the 1980 Act;

“the scheduled works” means the works specified in Schedule 1 (scheduled works) or any part of them;

“statutory undertaker” means—

(a)

any person who is a statutory undertaker for any of the purposes of the 1990 Act; and

(b)

any public communications provider within the meaning of section 151(1)(9) of the 2003 Act;

“street” includes part of a street;

“street authority”, in relation to a street, has the same meaning as in Part 3 of the 1991 Act;

“the tribunal” means the Lands Chamber of the Upper Tribunal; and

“watercourse” includes all rivers, streams, ditches, drains, canals, cuts, culverts, dykes, sluices, sewers and passages through which water flows except a public sewer or drain.

(2) References in this Order to rights over land include references to rights to do, or to place and maintain, anything in, on or under land or in the air-space above its surface and references in this Order to the imposition of restrictive covenants are references to the creation of rights over land which interfere with the interests or rights of another and are for the benefit of land which is acquired under this Order or is otherwise comprised in Network Rail’s railway undertaking.

(3) References in this Order to numbered plots are references to plot numbers on the deposited plans.

(4) All distances, directions and lengths referred to in this Order are approximate and distances between points on a scheduled work are taken to be measured along that work.

(5) References in this Order to points identified by letters with or without numbers, are construed as references to points so lettered on the deposited plans.

(6) References in this Order to numbered works are references to the scheduled works as numbered in Schedule 1.

Incorporation of the Railway Clauses Acts

3.—(1) The following provisions of the Railways Clauses Consolidation Act 1845(10) are incorporated in this Order—

  • section 58(11)(company to repair roads used by them), except for the words from “and if any question” to the end;

  • section 61 (company to make sufficient approaches and fences to highways crossing on the level);

  • section 68 (accommodation works by company);

  • section 71 (additional accommodation works by owners), except for the words “or directed by such justices to be made by the company” and “or, in case of difference, as shall be authorised by two justices”;

  • sections 72 and 73 (supplementary provisions relating to accommodation works);

  • section 77 (presumption that minerals excepted from acquisition of land);

  • sections 78 to 83, 85 to 85E and Schedules 1 to 3 (minerals under railways), as respectively substituted and inserted by section 15 of the Mines (Working Facilities and Support) Act 1923(12);

  • section 103(13) (refusal to quit carriage at destination);

  • section 105 (carriage of dangerous goods on railway), except for the words from “and if any person” to “for every such offence”; and

  • section 145(14) (recovery of penalties).

(2) Section 12 (signals, watchmen etc.) of the Railways Clauses Act 1863(15) is incorporated in this Order.

(3) In those provisions, as incorporated in this Order—

“the company” means Network Rail;

“goods” includes any thing conveyed on the railway authorised to be constructed by this Order;

“lease” includes an agreement for a lease;

“prescribed”, in relation to any such provision, means prescribed by this Order for the purposes of that provision;

“the railway” means any railway authorised to be constructed by this Order and any other authorised work; and

“the special Act” means this Order.

Application of the 1991 Act

4.—(1) Works executed under this Order in relation to a highway which consists of or includes a carriageway are to be treated for the purposes of Part 3 (street works in England and Wales) of the 1991 Act as major transport works if—

(a)they are of a description mentioned in any of paragraphs (a), (c) to (e), (g) and (h) of section 86(3) of that Act (which defines what highway authority works are major highway works); or

(b)they are works which, had they been executed by the highway authority, might have been carried out in exercise of the powers conferred by section 64(16) (dual carriageways and roundabouts) of the Highways Act 1980.

(2) The provisions of the 1991 Act mentioned in paragraph (3) (which, together with other provisions of that Act, apply in relation to the carrying out of street works) and any regulations made or code of practice issued or approved under those provisions apply (with the necessary modifications) in relation to the temporary stopping up, temporary alteration or temporary diversion of a street by Network Rail under the powers conferred by article 11 (temporary stopping up of streets) and the carrying out of works under article 9 (power to execute street works) whether or not the stopping up, alteration or diversion, or the carrying out of such works, constitutes street works within the meaning of that Act.

(3) The provisions of the 1991 Act referred to in paragraph (2) are—

  • section 59(17) (general duty of street authority to co-ordinate works);

  • section 60 (general duty of undertakers to co-operate);

  • section 68 (facilities to be afforded to street authority);

  • section 69 (works likely to affect other apparatus in the street);

  • section 76 (liability for cost of temporary traffic regulation); and

  • section 77 (liability for cost of use of alternative route), and

all such other provisions as apply for the purposes of the provisions mentioned above.

(4) Nothing in article 12 (construction and maintenance of new or altered streets)—

(a)prejudices the operation of section 87 (prospectively maintainable highways) of the 1991 Act; and Network Rail is not, by reason of any duty under that article to maintain a street, to be taken to be a street authority in relation to that street for the purposes of Part 3 of that Act; or

(b)has effect in relation to street works with regard to which the provisions of Part 3 of the 1991 Act apply.

Disapplication of legislative provisions

5.—(1) The following provisions do not apply in relation to any works executed under the powers conferred by this Order—

(a)regulation 12(1)(a) (environmental permit required for operating a regulated facility) of the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2016(18) in relation to the carrying out of a relevant flood risk activity;

(b)section 23 (prohibition on obstacles etc. in watercourses) of the Land Drainage Act 1991(19); and

(c)the provisions of any byelaws made under, or having effect as if made under, section 66 (powers to make byelaws) of that Act, which require consent or approval for the carrying out of the works.

(2) In article 5(1)(a) “relevant flood risk activity” means an activity within paragraph 3(1)(a), (b) or (c) of Schedule 25 (flood risk activities and excluded flood risk activities) to the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2016.

PART 2WORKS PROVISIONS

Principal powers

Power to construct and maintain works

6.—(1) Network Rail may construct and maintain the scheduled works.

(2) Subject to article 7 (power to deviate) the scheduled works may only be constructed in the lines or situations shown on the deposited plans and in accordance with the levels shown on the sections.

(3) Subject to paragraph (5), Network Rail may carry out and maintain such of the following works as may be necessary or expedient for the purposes of, or for purposes ancillary to, the construction of the scheduled works, namely—

(a)electrical equipment and signalling works;

(b)ramps, means of access and footpaths, bridleways and cycle tracks;

(c)embankments, aprons, abutments, retaining walls, wing walls and culverts;

(d)works to install or alter the position of apparatus, including mains, sewers, drains and cables;

(e)demolition of—

(i)Monkhams, Hurn Road, Werrington, PE6 7HU;

(ii)1549 Lincoln Road, Werrington, PE6 7HH; and

(iii)1551 Lincoln Road, Werrington, PE6 7HH;

(f)partial demolition of the boundary wall running parallel with Brook Drain to the rear of properties at Coningsby Road; and

(g)a retention pond to the southwest of the East Coast Mainline railway corridor.

(4) Subject to paragraph (5), Network Rail may carry out such other works (of whatever nature) as may be necessary or expedient for the purposes of, or for purposes ancillary to, the construction of the authorised works.

(5) Paragraphs (3) and (4) only authorise the carrying out or maintenance of works outside the limits of deviation if such works are carried out on—

(a)land specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 2 (acquisition of land for ancillary works) for the purpose specified in column (3) of that Schedule;

(b)land specified in column (1) of Schedule 8 (land in which only new rights etc. may be acquired) for the purposes specified in column (2) of that Schedule; or

(c)land specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 10 (land of which temporary possession may be taken) for the purposes specified in column (3) of that Schedule and in relation to the authorised works specified in column (4) of that Schedule.

(6) Network Rail may, within the Order limits—

(a)carry out and maintain landscaping and other works to mitigate any adverse effects of the construction, maintenance and operation of the authorised works (other than works authorised by this paragraph); and

(b)carry out and maintain works for the benefit or protection of land affected by the authorised works (other than works authorised by this paragraph).

Power to deviate

7.  In constructing or maintaining any of the scheduled works, Network Rail may—

(a)deviate laterally from the lines or situations shown on the deposited plans to the extent of the limits of deviation for that work; and

(b)deviate vertically from the levels shown on the sections—

(i)to any extent upwards not exceeding 3 metres; or

(ii)to any extent downwards as may be found to be necessary or convenient.

Streets

Power to alter layout etc. of streets

8.—(1) Network Rail may for the purposes of the authorised works alter the layout of, or carry out any works in, the street specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 3 (streets subject to alteration of layout) in the manner specified in relation to that street in column (3).

(2) Without limitation on the scope of the specific powers conferred by paragraph (1) but subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), Network Rail may, for the purposes of constructing and maintaining any scheduled work, alter the layout of any street within the Order limits and the layout of any street having a junction with such a street; and, without limitation on the scope of that power, Network Rail may—

(a)increase the width of the carriageway of the street by reducing the width of any kerb, footpath, footway, cycle track or verge within the street;

(b)alter the level or increase the width of any such kerb, footpath, footway, cycle track or verge;

(c)reduce the width of the carriageway of the street; and

(d)temporarily remove any road hump within the street.

(3) Network Rail must restore to the reasonable satisfaction of the street authority any street which has been temporarily altered under this article.

(4) The powers conferred by paragraph (2) are not to be exercised without the consent of the street authority, but such consent must not be unreasonably withheld.

(5) If within 28 days of receiving an application for consent under paragraph (4) a street authority fails to notify Network Rail of its decision or refuses consent without giving any grounds for its refusal that street authority is deemed to have granted consent.

Power to execute street works

9.—(1) Network Rail may, for the purposes of the authorised works, enter on any of the streets specified in Schedule 4 (streets subject to street works) as are within the Order limits and may—

(a)break up or open the street, or any sewer, drain or tunnel under it;

(b)place apparatus in the street;

(c)maintain apparatus in the street or change its position; and

(d)execute any works required for or incidental to any works referred to in sub-paragraphs (a), (b) and (c).

(2) In this article “apparatus” has the same meaning as in Part 3 of the 1991 Act.

Stopping up of streets

10.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this article, Network Rail may, in connection with the construction, maintenance and operation of the authorised works, stop up each of the streets specified in columns (1) and (2) of Parts 1 and 2 of Schedule 5 (streets to be stopped up) to the extent specified in column (3) of those Parts of that Schedule.

(2) No street specified in columns (1) and (2) of Part 1 of Schedule 5 is to be wholly or partly stopped up under this article unless—

(a)the new street to be constructed and substituted for it, which is specified in column (4) of that Part of that Schedule, has been constructed and completed to the reasonable satisfaction of the street authority and is open for use; or

(b)a temporary alternative route for the passage of such traffic as could have used the street to be stopped up is first provided and subsequently maintained by Network Rail, to the reasonable satisfaction of the street authority, between the commencement and termination points for the stopping up of the street until the completion and opening of the new street in accordance with sub-paragraph (a).

(3) No street specified in columns (1) and (2) of Part 2 of Schedule 5 (being a street to be stopped up for which no substitute is to be provided) is to be wholly or partly stopped up under this article unless the condition specified in paragraph (4) is satisfied in relation to all the land which abuts on either side of the street to be stopped up.

(4) The condition referred to in paragraph (3) is that—

(a)Network Rail is in possession of the land; or

(b)there is no right of access to the land from the street concerned; or

(c)there is reasonably convenient access to the land otherwise than from the street concerned; or

(d)the owners and occupiers of the land have agreed to the stopping up.

(5) Where a street has been stopped up under this article—

(a)all rights of way over or along the street so stopped up are extinguished; and

(b)Network Rail may appropriate and use for the purposes of its railway undertaking so much of the site of the street as is bounded on both sides by land owned by Network Rail.

(6) Any person who suffers loss by the suspension or extinguishment of any private right of way under this article is entitled to compensation to be determined, in case of dispute, under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

Temporary stopping up of streets

11.—(1) Network Rail, during and for the purposes of the execution of the authorised works, may temporarily stop up, alter or divert any street and may for any reasonable time—

(a)divert the traffic from the street; and

(b)subject to paragraph (3), prevent all persons from passing along the street.

(2) Without limitation on the scope of paragraph (1), Network Rail may use any street stopped up under the powers conferred by this article within the Order limits as a temporary working site.

(3) Network Rail must provide reasonable access for pedestrians going to or from premises abutting on a street affected by the temporary stopping up, alteration or diversion of a street under this article if there would otherwise be no such access.

(4) Without limitation on the scope of paragraph (1), Network Rail may temporarily stop up, alter or divert the streets specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 6 (streets to be temporarily stopped up) to the extent specified, by reference to the letters and numbers shown on the deposited plans, in column (3) of that Schedule.

(5) Network Rail must not exercise the powers conferred by this article—

(a)in relation to any street specified as mentioned in paragraph (4) without first consulting the street authority; and

(b)in relation to any other street without the consent of the street authority which may attach reasonable conditions to any consent, but such consent must not be unreasonably withheld.

(6) Any person who suffers loss by the suspension of any private right of way under this article is entitled to compensation to be determined, in case of dispute, under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

(7) If within 28 days of receiving an application for consent under paragraph (5)(b) a street authority fails to notify Network Rail of its decision or refuses consent without giving any grounds for its refusal that street authority is deemed to have granted consent.

Construction and maintenance of new or altered streets

12.—(1) Any street to be constructed under this Order must be completed to the reasonable satisfaction of the highway authority and, unless otherwise agreed between Network Rail and the highway authority, must be maintained by and at the expense of Network Rail for a period of 12 months from its completion and from the expiry of that period by and at the expense of the highway authority.

(2) Where a street is altered or diverted under this Order, the altered or diverted part of the street must, when completed to the reasonable satisfaction of the street authority, unless otherwise agreed with the street authority, be maintained by and at the expense of Network Rail for a period of 12 months from its completion and from the expiry of that period by and at the expense of the street authority.

(3) Paragraphs (1) and (2) do not apply in relation to the structure of any bridge or tunnel carrying a street over or under any railway of Network Rail and except as provided in those paragraphs Network Rail is not liable to maintain the surface of any street under or over which the scheduled works are constructed, or the immediate approaches to any such street.

(4) In any action against Network Rail in respect of loss or damage resulting from any failure by it to maintain a street under this article, it is a defence (without affecting any other defence or the application of the law relating to contributory negligence) to prove that Network Rail had taken such care as in all the circumstances was reasonably required to secure that the part of the street to which the action relates was not dangerous to traffic.

(5) For the purposes of a defence under paragraph (4), the court must in particular have regard to the following matters—

(a)the character of the street and the traffic which was reasonably to be expected to use it;

(b)the standard of maintenance appropriate for a street of that character and used by such traffic;

(c)the state of repair in which a reasonable person would have expected to find the street;

(d)whether Network Rail knew, or could reasonably have been expected to know, that the condition of the part of the street to which the action relates was likely to cause danger to users of the street; and

(e)where Network Rail could not reasonably have been expected to repair that part of the street before the cause of action arose, what warning notices of its condition had been displayed,

but for the purposes of such a defence it is not relevant to prove that Network Rail had arranged for a competent person to carry out or supervise the maintenance of the part of the street to which the action relates unless it is also proved that Network Rail had given the competent person proper instructions with regard to the maintenance of the street and that the competent person had carried out those instructions.

Access to works

13.—(1) Network Rail may, for the purposes of the authorised works—

(a)form and lay out means of access, or improve existing means of access, in the locations specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 7 (access to works); and

(b)with the approval of the highway authority, form and lay out such other means of access or improve existing means of access, at such locations within the Order limits as Network Rail reasonably requires for the purposes of the authorised works.

(2) If a highway authority fails to notify Network Rail of its decision within 28 days of receiving an application for approval under paragraph (1), that highway authority is deemed to have granted approval.

Agreements with street authorities

14.—(1) A street authority and Network Rail may enter into agreements with respect to—

(a)the construction of any new street (including any structure carrying the street over or under a railway) under the powers conferred by this Order;

(b)the strengthening, improvement, repair or reconstruction of any street under the powers conferred by this Order;

(c)the maintenance of the structure of any bridge constructed under the powers conferred by this Order;

(d)any stopping up, alteration or diversion of a street under the powers conferred by this Order; or

(e)the execution in the street of any of the works referred to in article 9(1) (power to execute street works).

(2) Such an agreement may, without limitation on the scope of paragraph (1)—

(a)make provision for the street authority to carry out any function under this Order which relates to the street in question; and

(b)contain such terms as to payment and otherwise as the parties consider appropriate.

Construction of bridges

15.—(1) Any bridge to be constructed under this Order for carrying a highway over or under a railway must be constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications approved by the highway authority (such approval not to be unreasonably withheld).

(2) If within 28 days of receiving an application for approval under paragraph (1) a highway authority fails to notify Network Rail of its decision or refuses approval without giving any grounds for its refusal that highway authority is deemed to have granted approval.

Supplemental powers

Discharge of water

16.—(1) Network Rail may use any watercourse or any public sewer or drain for the drainage of water in connection with the construction, operation or maintenance of the authorised works and for that purpose may lay down, take up and alter pipes and may, on any land within the Order limits, make openings into, and connections with, the watercourse, public sewer or drain.

(2) Any dispute arising from the making of connections to or the use of a public sewer or drain by Network Rail under paragraph (1) is to be determined as if it were a dispute under section 106 (right to communicate with public sewers) of the Water Industry Act 1991(20).

(3) Network Rail must not discharge any water into any watercourse, public sewer or drain except with the consent of the person to whom it belongs; and such consent may be given subject to such terms and conditions as that person may reasonably impose, but must not be unreasonably withheld.

(4) Network Rail must not make any opening into any public sewer or drain except—

(a)in accordance with plans approved by the person to whom the sewer or drain belongs, but such approval must not be unreasonably withheld; and

(b)where that person has been given the opportunity to supervise the making of the opening.

(5) Network Rail must not, in the exercise of the powers conferred by this article, damage or interfere with the bed or banks of any watercourse forming part of a main river.

(6) Network Rail must take such steps as are reasonably practicable to secure that any water discharged into a watercourse or public sewer or drain under the powers conferred by this article is as free as may be practicable from gravel, soil or other solid substance, oil or matter in suspension.

(7) Nothing in this article overrides the requirement for an environmental permit under regulation 12(1)(b) of the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2016(21).

(8) If a person who receives an application for consent or approval fails to notify Network Rail of a decision within 28 days of receiving an application for consent under paragraph (3) or approval under paragraph (4)(a) that person is deemed to have granted consent or given approval, as the case may be.

(9) In this article—

(a)“public sewer or drain” means a sewer or drain which belongs to a sewerage undertaker, the Environment Agency, an internal drainage board, or a local authority; and

(b)other expressions, excluding watercourse, used both in this article and in the Water Resources Act 1991(22) have the same meaning as in that Act.

Power to survey and investigate land

17.—(1) Network Rail may for the purposes of this Order—

(a)survey or investigate any land shown within the Order limits;

(b)without limitation on the scope of sub-paragraph (a), make trial holes in such positions on the land as Network Rail thinks fit to investigate the nature of the surface layer and subsoil and remove soil samples;

(c)without limitation on the scope of sub-paragraph (a), carry out ecological or archaeological investigations on such land;

(d)place on, leave on and remove from the land apparatus for use in connection with the survey and investigation of land and making of trial holes; and

(e)enter on the land for the purpose of exercising the powers conferred by sub-paragraphs (a) to (d).

(2) No land may be entered or equipment placed or left on or removed from the land under paragraph (1), unless at least 7 days’ notice has been served on every owner and occupier of the land.

(3) Notice given in accordance with paragraph (2) must include—

(a)a statement of the recipient’s rights under paragraph (15); and

(b)a copy of any warrant issued under paragraph (8).

(4) If Network Rail proposes to do any of the following, the notice must include details of what is proposed—

(a)searching, boring or excavating;

(b)leaving apparatus on the land;

(c)taking samples;

(d)an aerial survey;

(e)carrying out any other activities that may be required to facilitate compliance with the instruments mentioned in paragraph (5).

(5) The instruments referred to in paragraph (4)(e) are—

(a)Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment(23); or

(b)Council Directive 92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 of the on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora(24).

(6) If Network Rail obtains a warrant after giving notice in accordance with paragraph (2) it must give a copy of the warrant to all those to whom it gave that notice.

(7) Any person entering land under this article on behalf of Network Rail—

(a)must, if so required, before or after entering the land produce written evidence of authority to do so including any warrant issued under paragraph (8); and

(b)may not use force unless a justice of the peace has issued a warrant under paragraph (8) authorising the person to do so;

(c)may take onto the land such vehicles and equipment as are necessary to carry out the survey or investigation or to make the trial holes;

(d)may only enter and survey land at a reasonable time; and

(e)must, if the land is unoccupied or the occupier is absent from the land when the person enters it, leave it as secure against trespassers as when the person entered it.

(8) A justice of the peace may issue a warrant authorising a person to use force in the exercise of the power conferred by this article if satisfied—

(a)that another person has prevented or is likely to prevent the exercise of that power, and

(b)that it is reasonable to use force in the exercise of that power.

(9) The force that may be authorised by a warrant is limited to that which is reasonably necessary.

(10) A warrant authorising the person to use force must specify the number of occasions on which Network Rail can rely on the warrant when entering and surveying or investigating land.

(11) The number specified must be the number which the justice of the peace considers appropriate to achieve the purpose for which the entry and survey or investigation are required.

(12) Any evidence in proceedings for a warrant under this article must be given on oath.

(13) No trial holes are to be made under this article—

(a)in a carriageway or footway without the consent of the highway authority; or

(b)in a private street without the consent of the street authority,

but such consent must not be unreasonably withheld.

(14) If either a highway authority or a street authority which receives an application for consent fails to notify Network Rail of its decision within 28 days of receiving the application for consent—

(a)under paragraph (13)(a) in the case of a highway authority; or

(b)under paragraph (13)(b) in the case of a street authority,

that authority is deemed to have granted consent.

(15) Network Rail must compensate the owners and occupiers of the land for any loss or damage arising by reason of the exercise of the powers conferred by this article, such compensation to be determined, in case of dispute, under Part 1 (determination of questions of disputed compensation) of the 1961 Act.

(16) Paragraphs (1) to (15) apply in relation to Crown land, however a person may only exercise the power conferred by paragraph (1) in relation to Crown land if the person has the permission of the appropriate authority.

(17) In this article, “Crown land” and “the appropriate authority” have the meaning given in section 293(25) (preliminary definitions) of the 1990 Act.

PART 3ACQUISITION AND POSSESSION OF LAND

Powers of Acquisition

Power to acquire land

18.—(1) Network Rail may acquire compulsorily—

(a)so much of the land shown on the deposited plans within the limits of deviation and described in the book of reference as may be required for the purposes of the authorised works; and

(b)so much of the land specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 2 (acquisition of land for ancillary works) (being land shown on the deposited plans and described in the book of reference) as may be required for the purpose specified in relation to that land in column (3) of that Schedule,

and may use any land so acquired for those purposes, or for any other purposes that are ancillary to its railway undertaking.

(2) This article is subject to paragraph (3) of article 21 (power to acquire new rights) and paragraph (8) of article 24 (temporary use of land for construction of works).

Application of Part 1 of the 1965 Act

19.—(1) Part 1 of the 1965 Act, in so far as not modified by or inconsistent with the provisions of this Order, applies to the acquisition of land under this Order—

(a)as it applies to a compulsory purchase to which the Acquisition of Land Act 1981(26) applies; and

(b)as if this Order were a compulsory purchase order under that Act.

(2) Part 1 the 1965 Act, as applied by paragraph (1), has effect with the following modifications.

(3) Omit section 4 (which provides a time limit for compulsory purchase of land).

(4) In section 4A(1)(27) (extension of time limit during challenge) for “section 23 of the Acquisition of Land Act 1981 (application to the High Court in respect of compulsory purchase order), the three year period mentioned in section 4”, substitute “section 22 of the Transport and Works Act 1992 (validity of orders under section 1 or 3), the five year period mentioned in article 28 (time limit for exercise of powers of acquisition) of the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018(28)”.

(5) In section 11(1B)(29) (powers of entry) in a case where the notice to treat relates only to the acquisition of an easement or other right over land, for “3 months” substitute “1 month”.

(6) In section 11A(30) (powers of entry: further notices of entry)—

(a)in subsection (1)(a), after “land” insert “under that provision”;

(b)in subsection (2), after “land” insert “under that provision”.

(7) In section 22(2) (expiry of time limit for exercise of compulsory purchase power not to affect acquisition of interests omitted from purchase), for “section 4 of this Act” substitute “article 28 of the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018(31)”.

(8) In Schedule 2A(32) (counter-notice requiring purchase of land not in notice to treat)—

(a)for paragraphs 1(2) and 14(2) substitute—

(2) But see article 22(3) (power to acquire subsoil or air-space only) of the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018, which excludes acquisition of subsoil or air-space only from this Schedule.; and

(b)after paragraph 29 insert—

PART 4INTERPRETATION

30.  In this Schedule, references to entering on and taking possession of land do not include doing so under articles 24 (temporary use of land for construction of works) and 25 (temporary use of land for maintenance of works) of the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018.

Application of the 1981 Act

20.—(1) The 1981 Act applies as if this Order were a compulsory purchase order.

(2) The 1981 Act, as applied by paragraph (1), has effect with the following modifications.

(3) In section 5 (earliest date for execution of declaration), in subsection (2), omit the words from “, and this subsection” to the end.

(4) Omit section 5A(33) (time limit for general vesting declaration).

(5) In section 5B(1) (extension of time limit during challenge) for “section 23 of the Acquisition of Land Act 1981 (application to High Court in respect of compulsory purchase order), the three year period mentioned in section 5A” substitute “section 22 of the Transport and Works Act 1992 (validity of orders under section 1 or 3), the five year period mentioned in article 28 of the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018”.

(6) In section 6(34) (notices after execution of general vesting declaration), in subsection (1)(b), for “section 15 of, or paragraph 6 of Schedule 1 to, the Acquisition of Land Act 1981” substitute “section 14A(35) of the Transport and Works Act 1992”.

(7) In section 7(36) (constructive notice to treat), in subsection (1)(a), omit “(as modified by section 4 of the Acquisition of Land Act 1981)”.

(8) In Schedule A1(37) (counter-notice requiring purchase of land not in general vesting declaration), for paragraph 1(2) substitute—

(2) But see article 22(3) (power to acquire subsoil or air-space only) of the Network Rail (Werrington Grade Separation) Order 2018, which excludes acquisition of subsoil or air-space only from this Schedule.

(9) References to the 1965 Act are to be construed as references to that Act as applied to the acquisition of land under article 18 (power to acquire land).

Power to acquire new rights

21.—(1) Subject to paragraph (3) Network Rail may acquire compulsorily such easements or other rights over any land which it is authorised to acquire under article 18 (power to acquire land) as may be required for any purpose for which that land may be acquired under that provision, by creating them as well as by acquiring easements or other rights already in existence.

(2) Network Rail may impose restrictive covenants affecting any part of the Order land which lies beneath or adjoins, or will on completion of the authorised works lie beneath or adjoin, any bridge or viaduct or tunnel comprised in Works Nos. 2, 3, 6 and 8 as may be required for the purpose of protecting the authorised works.

(3) In the case of the Order land specified in column (1) of Schedule 8 (land in which only new rights etc. may be acquired) Network Rail may compulsorily acquire such new rights as may be required for the purpose specified in relation to that land in column (2) of that Schedule.

(4) Subject to Schedule 2A to the 1965 Act (as substituted by paragraph 5(8) of Schedule 9 (modification of compensation and compulsory purchase enactments for creation of new rights)) where Network Rail acquires a right over land under paragraphs (1) or (3) Network Rail is not required to acquire a greater interest in that land.

(5) Schedule 9 has effect for the purpose of modifying the enactments relating to compensation and the provisions of the 1965 Act in their application in relation to the compulsory acquisition under this article of a right over land by the creation of a new right or the imposition of a restrictive covenant.

(6) In any case where the acquisition of new rights under paragraph (1) or (3) or the imposition of restrictive covenants under paragraph (2) is required for the purpose of diverting, replacing or protecting apparatus of a statutory undertaker Network Rail may, with the consent of the Secretary of State, transfer the power to acquire such rights or impose such covenants to the statutory undertaker in question.

(7) The exercise by a statutory undertaker of any power in accordance with a transfer under paragraph (6) is subject to the same restrictions, liabilities and obligations as would apply under this Order if that power were exercised by Network Rail.

Power to acquire subsoil or air-space only

22.—(1) Network Rail may acquire compulsorily so much of, or such rights in, the subsoil of or the air-space over the land referred to in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) of article 18 (power to acquire land) as may be required for any purpose for which that land may be acquired under that provision instead of acquiring the whole of the land.

(2) Where Network Rail acquires any part of, or rights in, the subsoil of or the air-space over land under paragraph (1), Network Rail is not required to acquire an interest in any other part of the land.

(3) The following do not apply in connection with the exercise of the power under paragraph (1) in relation to subsoil or air-space only—

(a)Schedule 2A (counter-notice requiring purchase of land not in notice to treat) to the 1965 Act;

(b)Schedule A1 (counter-notice requiring purchase of land not in general vesting declaration) to the 1981 Act; and

(c)section 153(4A) (blighted land: proposed acquisition of part interest; material detriment test) of the 1990 Act.

(4) Paragraphs (2) and (3) are to be disregarded where Network Rail acquires a cellar, vault, arch or other construction forming part of a house, building or manufactory or air-space above a house, building or manufactory.

Rights under or over streets

23.—(1) Network Rail may enter upon and appropriate so much of the subsoil of, or air-space over, any street within the Order limits as may be required for the purposes of the authorised works and may use the subsoil or air-space for those purposes or any other purpose ancillary to its railway undertaking.

(2) Subject to paragraph (4), Network Rail may exercise any power conferred by paragraph (1) in relation to a street without Network Rail being required to acquire any part of the street or any easement or right in the street.

(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply in relation to—

(a)any subway or underground building; or

(b)any cellar, vault, arch or other construction in, on or under a street which forms part of a building fronting onto the street.

(4) Subject to paragraph (5), any person who is an owner or occupier of land in respect of which the power of appropriation conferred by paragraph (1) is exercised without Network Rail acquiring any part of that person’s interest in the land, and who suffers loss by the exercise of that power, is entitled to compensation to be determined, in case of dispute, under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

(5) Compensation is not payable under paragraph (4) to any person who is an undertaker to whom section 85 (sharing of cost of necessary measures) of the 1991 Act applies in respect of measures of which the allowable costs are to be borne in accordance with that section.

Temporary possession of land

Temporary use of land for construction of works

24.—(1) Network Rail may, in connection with the carrying out of the authorised works—

(a)enter on and take temporary possession of—

(i)the land specified in columns (1) and (2) of Schedule 10 (land of which temporary possession may be taken) for the purpose specified in relation to that land in column (3) of that Schedule relating to the authorised works specified in column (4) of that Schedule; and

(ii)subject to paragraph (11), any other Order land in respect of which no notice of entry has been served under section 11(38) (powers of entry) of the 1965 Act (other than in connection with the acquisition of rights only) and no declaration has been made under section 4(39) of the 1981 Act;

(b)remove any buildings and vegetation from that land;

(c)construct temporary works (including the provision of means of access) and buildings on that land; and

(d)construct any permanent works specified in relation to that land in column (3) of Schedule 10 or any mitigation works on that land.

(2) Not less than 28 days before entering on and taking temporary possession of land under this article Network Rail must serve notice of the intended entry on the owners and occupiers of the land.

(3) Network Rail may not, without the agreement of the owners of the land, remain in possession of any land under this article—

(a)in the case of land specified in paragraph (1)(a)(i) after the end of the period of one year beginning with the date of completion of the work specified in relation to that land in column (4) of Schedule 10; or

(b)in the case of land referred to in paragraph (1)(a)(ii), after the end of the period of one year beginning with the date of completion of the work for which temporary possession of this land was taken unless Network Rail has, before the end of that period, served a notice of entry under section 11 of the 1965 Act or made a declaration under section 4 of the 1981 Act.

(4) Before giving up possession of land of which temporary possession has been taken under this article, Network Rail must remove all temporary works and restore the land to the reasonable satisfaction of the owners of the land; but Network Rail is not be required to—

(a)replace a building removed under this article;

(b)restore the land on which any works have been constructed under paragraph (1)(d); or

(c)remove any ground strengthening works which have been placed in that land to facilitate construction of the authorised works.

(5) Network Rail must pay compensation to the owners and occupiers of land of which temporary possession is taken under this article for any loss or damage arising from the exercise in relation to the land of the powers conferred by this article.

(6) Any dispute as to a person’s entitlement to compensation under paragraph (5), or as to the amount of the compensation, is to be determined under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

(7) Without affecting article 39 (no double recovery), nothing in this article affects any liability to pay compensation under section 10(2)(40) (further provision as to compensation for injurious affection) of the 1965 Act or under any other enactment in respect of loss or damage arising from the execution of any works, other than loss or damage for which compensation is payable under paragraph (5).

(8) The powers of compulsory acquisition of land conferred by this Order do not apply in relation to the land referred to in paragraph (1)(a)(i) except that Network Rail is not precluded from—

(a)acquiring new rights or imposing restrictive covenants over any part of that land under article 21 (power to acquire new rights); or

(b)acquiring any part of the subsoil of or air-space over (or rights in the subsoil of or air-space over) that land under article 22 (power to acquire subsoil or air-space only).

(9) Where Network Rail takes possession of land under this article, Network Rail is not required to acquire the land or any interest in it.

(10) Section 13(41) (refusal to give possession to acquiring authority) of the 1965 Act applies to the temporary use of land under this article to the same extent as it applies to the compulsory acquisition of land under this Order by virtue of article 19 (application of Part 1 of the 1965 Act).

(11) Paragraph (1)(a)(ii) does not authorise Network Rail to take temporary possession of any land which it is not authorised to acquire under article 18 (power to acquire land) or any land specified in Schedule 8 (land in which only new rights etc. may be acquired).

Temporary use of land for maintenance of works

25.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), at any time during the maintenance period relating to any of the scheduled works, Network Rail may—

(a)enter upon and take temporary possession of any Order land if such possession is reasonably required for the purpose of maintaining the work or any ancillary works connected with it; and

(b)construct such temporary works (including the provision of means of access) and buildings on the land as may be reasonably necessary for that purpose.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not authorise Network Rail to take temporary possession of—

(a)any house or garden belonging to a house; or

(b)any building (other than a house) if it is for the time being occupied.

(3) Not less than 28 days before entering upon and taking temporary possession of land under this article Network Rail must serve notice of the intended entry on the owners and occupiers or the land.

(4) Network Rail may only remain in possession of land under this article for so long as may be reasonably necessary to carry out the maintenance of works for which possession of the land was taken.

(5) Before giving up possession of land of which temporary possession has been taken under this article, Network Rail must remove all temporary works and restore the land to the reasonable satisfaction of the owners of the land.

(6) Network Rail must pay compensation to the owners and occupiers of land of which temporary possession is taken under this article for any loss or damage arising from the exercise in relation to the land of the powers conferred by this article.

(7) Any dispute as to a person’s entitlement to compensation under paragraph (6), or as to the amount of the compensation, is to be determined under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

(8) Without affecting article 39 (no double recovery), nothing in this article affects any liability to pay compensation under section 10(2) (further provision as to compensation for injurious affection) of the 1965 Act or under any other enactment in respect of loss or damage arising from the execution of any works, other than loss or damage for which compensation is payable under paragraph (6).

(9) Where Network Rail takes possession of land under this article, it is not required to acquire the land or any interest in it.

(10) Section 13 (refusal to give possession to the acquiring authority) of the 1965 Act applies to the temporary use of land under this article to the same extent as it applies to the compulsory acquisition of land under this Order by virtue of article 19 (application of Part 1 of the 1965 Act).

(11) In this article “the maintenance period” in relation to a scheduled work means the period of 5 years beginning with the date on which the work is opened for use.

Compensation

Disregard of certain interests and improvements

26.  In assessing the compensation payable to any person on the acquisition from that person of any land under this Order, the tribunal must not take into account—

(a)any interest in land; or

(b)any enhancement of the value of any interest in land by reason of any building erected, works executed or improvement or alteration made on relevant land,

if the tribunal is satisfied that the creation of the interest, the erection of the building, the execution of the works or the making of the improvement or alteration was not reasonably necessary and was undertaken with a view to obtaining compensation or increased compensation.

(2) In paragraph (1) “relevant land” means the land acquired from the person concerned or any other land with which that person is, or was at the time when the building was erected, the works executed or the improvement or alteration made, directly or indirectly concerned.

Extinction or suspension of private rights of way

27.—(1) Subject to paragraph (6), all private rights of way over land subject to compulsory acquisition under this Order are extinguished—

(a)as from the date of acquisition of the land by Network Rail, whether compulsorily or by agreement; or

(b)on the date of entry on the land by Network Rail under section 11(1) (powers of entry) of the 1965 Act,

whichever is the sooner.

(2) Subject to paragraph (6), all private rights of way over land owned by Network Rail which, being within the Order limits, is required for the purposes of this Order are extinguished on the appropriation of the land for any of those purposes by Network Rail.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this article, all private rights of way over land subject to the compulsory acquisition of rights or the imposition of restrictive covenants under this Order are extinguished in so far as their continuance would be inconsistent with the exercise of the right or the burden of the restrictive covenant—

(a)as from the date of the acquisition of the right or the benefit of the restrictive covenant by Network Rail, whether compulsorily or by agreement; or

(b)on the date of entry on the land by Network Rail under section 11(1) of the 1965 Act,

whichever is the sooner.

(4) Subject to paragraph (6), all private rights of way over land of which Network Rail takes temporary possession under this Order are suspended and unenforceable for as long as Network Rail remains in lawful possession of the land.

(5) Any person who suffers loss by the extinguishment or suspension of any private right of way under this article is entitled to compensation to be determined, in case of dispute, under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

(6) This article does not apply in relation to any right of way to which section 271 or 272(42) of the 1990 Act (extinguishment of rights of statutory undertakers etc.) or paragraph 2 of Schedule 11 (provisions relating to statutory undertakers etc.) applies.

(7) Paragraphs (1), (2), (3) and (4) have effect subject to—

(a)any notice given by Network Rail before—

(i)completion of the acquisition of;

(ii)Network Rail’s appropriation of;

(iii)Network Rail’s entry onto; or

(iv)Network Rail’s taking temporary possession of,

the land, that any or all of those paragraphs do not apply to any right of way specified in the notice; and

(b)any agreement made between Network Rail and the person in or to whom the right of way in question is vested or belongs which makes reference to this article; whether that agreement was made before or after any of the events mentioned in sub-paragraph (a), or before or after the coming into force of this Order.

(8) If any such agreement as is mentioned in sub-paragraph (7)(b) is expressed to have effect also for the benefit of those deriving title from or under the person in or to whom the right of way in question is vested or belongs, it is effective in respect of the persons so deriving title, whether the title was derived before or after the making of the agreement.

Time limit for exercise of powers of acquisition

28.—(1) After the end of the period of 5 years beginning on the day on which this Order comes into force—

(a)no notice to treat is to be served under Part 1 of the 1965 Act as applied to the acquisition of land by article 19 (application of part 1 of the 1965 Act); and

(b)no declaration is to be executed under section 4 (execution of declaration) of the 1981 Act (43) as applied by article 20 (application of the 1981 Act).

(2) The powers conferred by article 24 (temporary use of land for construction of works) cease at the end of the period referred to in paragraph (1), except that nothing in this paragraph prevents Network Rail remaining in possession of land after the end of that period, if the land was entered and possession was taken before the end of that period.

PART 4MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL

Defence to proceedings in respect of statutory nuisance

29.—(1) Where proceedings are brought under section 82(1) (summary proceedings by person aggrieved by statutory nuisance) of the Environmental Protection Act 1990(44) in relation to a nuisance falling within paragraph (g) of section 79(1)(45) of that Act (noise emitted from premises so as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance) no order is to be made, and no fine may be imposed, under section 82(2) of that Act if—

(a)the defendant shows that the nuisance—

(i)relates to premises used by Network Rail for the purposes of or in connection with the exercise of the powers conferred by this Order with respect to the authorised works and that the nuisance is attributable to the carrying out of the authorised works in accordance with a notice served under section 60 (control of noise on construction site), or a consent given under section 61 (prior consent for work on construction site), of the Control of Pollution Act 1974(46); or

(ii)is a consequence of the operation of the authorised works and that it cannot reasonably be avoided.

(2) Section 61(9) (consent for work on construction site to include statement that it does not of itself constitute a defence to proceedings under section 82 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990) of the Control of Pollution Act 1974 and section 65(8) of that Act (corresponding provision in relation to consent for registered noise level to be exceeded), do not apply where the consent relates to the use of premises by Network Rail for the purposes of or in connection with the exercise of the powers conferred by this Order with respect to works.

Power to lop trees overhanging the authorised works

30.—(1) Network Rail may fell or lop any tree or shrub near any part of the authorised works, or cut back its roots, if it reasonably believes it to be necessary to do so to prevent the tree or shrub—

(a)from obstructing or interfering with the construction, maintenance or operation of the authorised works or any apparatus used on the authorised works; or

(b)from constituting a danger to passengers or other persons using the authorised works.

(2) In exercising the powers conferred by paragraph (1), Network Rail must not cause unnecessary damage to any tree or shrub and must pay compensation to any person for any loss or damage arising from the exercise of those powers.

(3) Any dispute as to a person’s entitlement to compensation under paragraph (2), or as to the amount of compensation, is to be determined under Part 1 of the 1961 Act.

Power to operate and use railway

31.—(1) Network Rail may operate and use the railway and other authorised works as a system, or part of a system, of transport for the carriage of passengers and goods.

(2) Nothing in this Order, or in any enactment incorporated with or applied by this Order, affects the operation of Part 1 (the provision of railway services) of the Railways Act 1993(47).

Planning permission

32.  Planning permission which is deemed by a direction under section 90(2A)(48) of the 1990 Act to be granted in relation to the authorised works is to be treated as specific planning permission for the purposes of section 264(3)(a) of that Act (cases in which land is to be treated as operational land for the purposes of that Act).

Obstruction of construction of authorised works

33.  Any person who, without reasonable excuse—

(a)obstructs any person acting under the authority of Network Rail in setting out the lines of the scheduled works or in constructing any authorised work; or

(b)interferes with, moves or removes any apparatus belonging to any person acting under the authority of Network Rail,

is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

Disclosure of confidential information

34.  A person who—

(a)enters a factory, workshop or workplace in pursuance of the provisions of article 17 (power to survey and investigate land); and

(b)discloses to any person any information obtained as a result of that entry and relating to any manufacturing process or trade secret,

is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale unless the disclosure is made in the course of that person’s performance of a duty in connection with the purposes for which the person was authorised to enter the land.

Statutory undertakers etc.

35.  The provisions of Schedule 11 (provisions relating to statutory undertakers etc.) have effect.

Certification of plans etc.

36.  Network Rail must, as soon as practicable after the making of this Order, submit copies of the book of reference, the deposited sections and the deposited plans to the Secretary of State for certification that they are, respectively, true copies of the book of reference, the deposited sections and the deposited plans referred to in this Order; and a document so certified is admissible in any proceedings as evidence of the contents of the document of which it is a copy.

Service of notices

37.—(1) A notice or other document required or authorised to be served for the purposes of this Order may be served—

(a)by post; or

(b)with the consent of the recipient and subject to paragraphs (6) to (8) by electronic transmission.

(2) Where the person on whom a notice or other document to be served for the purposes of this Order is a body corporate, the notice or document is duly served if it is served on the secretary or clerk of that body.

(3) For the purposes of section 7 (references to service by post) of the Interpretation Act 1978(49) as it applies for the purposes of this article, the proper address of any person in relation to the service on that person of a notice or document under paragraph (1) is, if that person has given an address for service, that address, and otherwise—

(a)in the case of the secretary or clerk of a body corporate, the registered or principal office of that body; and

(b)in any other case, the last known address of that person at the time of service.

(4) Where for the purposes of this Order a notice or other document is required or authorised to be served on a person as having any interest in, or as the occupier of, land and the name or address of that person cannot be ascertained after reasonable enquiry, the notice may be served by—

(a)addressing it to that person by name or by the description of “owner”, or as the case may be “occupier”, of the land (describing it); and

(b)either leaving it in the hands of a person who is or appears to be resident or employed on the land or leaving it conspicuously affixed to some building or object on or near the land.

(5) Where a notice or other document required to be served or sent for the purposes of this Order is served or sent by electronic transmission the requirement is taken to be fulfilled where the recipient of the notice or other document to be transmitted has given consent to the use of electronic transmission either in writing or by electronic transmission.

(6) Where the recipient of a notice or other document served or sent by electronic transmission notifies the sender within 7 days of receipt that the recipient requires a paper copy of all or part of that notice or other document the sender must provide such a copy as soon as reasonably practicable.

(7) Any consent to the use of electronic communication given by a person may be revoked by that person in accordance with paragraph (8).

(8) Where a person is no longer willing to accept the use of electronic transmission for any of the purposes of this Order—

(a)that person must give notice in writing or by electronic transmission revoking any consent given by that person for that purpose; and

(b)such revocation is final and takes effect on a date specified by the person in the notice but that date must not be less than 7 days after the date on which the notice is given.

(9) This article does not exclude the employment of any method of service not expressly provided for by it.

Protection of interests

38.  Schedule 12 (protective provisions) has effect.

No double recovery

39.  Compensation is not payable in respect of the same matter both under this Order and under any other enactment, any contract or any rule of law.

Arbitration

40.  Any difference under any provision of this Order, unless otherwise provided for, must be referred to and settled by a single arbitrator to be agreed between the parties or, failing agreement, to be appointed on the application of either party (after giving notice in writing to the other) by the President of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

Signed by the authority of the Secretary of State

Natasha Kopala

Head of the Transport and Works Act Orders Unit

Department for Transport

3rd August 2018

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