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The Air Quality Limit Values Regulations 2003

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Regulations 4(1), 10(2), (3), 11(1), (3), 16(7), (12), (13)

SCHEDULE 1LIMIT VALUES, MARGINS OF TOLERANCE, INFORMATION ANDALERT THRESHOLDS

PART ISulphur Dioxide

Limit values for sulphur dioxide

Averaging periodLimit valueMargin of tolerance(1)Date by which limit value is to be met

1.  Hourly limit value for the protection of human health

1 hour350 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 24 times a calendar year60 µg/m3, reducing to 30 µg/m3 on 1st January 2004 and to 0 µg/m3 on 1st January 20051st January 2005

2.   Daily limit value for the protection of human health

24 hours125 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 3 times a calendar yearNone1st January 2005

3.  Limit value for the protection of ecosystems

Calendar year and winter (1st October to 31st March)20 µg/m3None19th July 2001

Alert threshold for sulphur dioxide

1.2  500 µg/m3 measured over three consecutive hours at locations representative of air quality over at least 100 km2 or an entire zone, whichever is the smaller.

Minimum details to be made available to the public when the alert threshold for sulphur dioxide is exceeded

1.3  Details to be made available to the public should include at least:

  • the date, hour and place of the occurrence and the reasons for the occurrence, where known;

  • any forecasts of:

    • changes in concentration (improvement, stabilisation, or deterioration), together with the reasons for those changes,

    • the geographical area concerned, and

    • the duration of the occurrence;

  • the type of population potentially sensitive to the occurrence;

  • the precautions to be taken by the sensitive population concerned.

PART IINitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

Limit values for nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

Averaging periodLimit valueMargin of toleranceDate by which limit value is to be met

1.  Hourly limit value for the protection of human health

1 hour200 µg/m3 NO2, not to be exceeded more than 18 times a calendar year70 µg/m3, reducing on 1st January 2004 and on 1st January of each following year by equal annual amounts to reach 0 µg/m3by 1st January 20101st January 2010

2.  Annual limit value for the protection of human health

Calendar year40 µg/m3 NO214 µg/m3, reducing on 1st January 2004 and on 1st January of each following year by equal annual amounts to reach 0 µg/m3 by 1st January 20101st January 2010

3.  Annual limit value for the protection of vegetation

Calendar year30 µg/m3 NOxNone19th July 2001

Alert threshold for nitrogen dioxide

1.2  400 µg/m3 measured over three consecutive hours at locations representative of air quality over at least 100 km2 or an entire zone or agglomeration, whichever is the smaller.

Minimum details to be made available to the public when the alert threshold for nitrogen dioxide is exceeded

1.3  Details to be made available to the public should include at least:

  • the date, hour and place of the occurrence and the reasons for the occurrence, where known;

  • any forecasts of:

    • changes in concentration (improvement, stabilisation, or deterioration), together with the reasons for those changes,

    • the geographical area concerned, and

    • the duration of the occurrence;

  • the type of population potentially sensitive to the occurrence;

  • the precautions to be taken by the sensitive population concerned.

PART IIIParticulate Matter (PM10)

Averaging periodLimit value Margin of toleranceDate by which limit value is to be met

1.  24-hour limit value for the protection of human health

24 hours50 µg/m3 PM10, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a calendar year10 µg/m3, reducing on 1st January 2004 and on 1st January of each following year by equal annual amounts to reach 0 µg/m3 by 1st January 20051st January 2005

2.  Annual limit value for the protection of human health

Calendar year40 µg/m3 PM103.2 µg/m3, reducing on 1st January 2004 to 1.6 µg/m3 and on 1st January 2005 to 0 µg/m31st January 2005

PART IVLead

Averaging periodLimit valueMargin of tolerance Date by which limit value is to be met
Annual limit value for the protection of human healthCalendar year0.5 µg/m30.2 µg/m3, reducing on 1st January 2004 to 0.1 µg/m3 and on 1st January 2005 to 0 µg/m31st January 2005

PART VBenzene

Averaging periodLimit valueMargin of toleranceDate by which limit value is to be met
Limit value for the protection of human healthCalendar year5 µg/m35 µg/m3 reducing on 1st January 2006 and every 12 months thereafter by 1 µg/m3 to reach 0 µg/m3 by 1st January 20101st January 2010

PART VICarbon Monoxide

Averaging periodLimit valueMargin of ToleranceDate by which limit value is to be met
The maximum daily 8-hour mean concentration shall be selected by examining 8-hour running averages, calculated from hourly data and updated each hour. Each 8-hour average so calculated shall be assigned to the day on which it ends, i.e. the first calculation period for any one day shall be the period from 17:00 on the previous day to 01:00 on that day; the last calculation period for any one day shall be the period from 16:00 to 24:00 on that day.
Limit value for the protection of human healthMaximum daily 8-hour mean10mg/m34 mg/m3 reducing on 1st January 2004 to 2 mg/m3, and to 0 mg/m3 on 1st January 20051st January 2005

PART VIIOzone

Information and alert thresholds for ozone

ParameterThreshold
(a)

The exceedance of the threshold is to be measured or predicted for three consecutive hours.

Information threshold1 hour average180 µg/m3
Alert threshold1 hour average (a)240 µg/m3

Minimum details to be supplied to the public when the information or alert threshold is exceeded or exceedance is predicted

1.2  Details to be supplied to the public on a sufficiently large scale as soon as possible should include—

1.  Information on any observed exceedance:

(a)the location or area of the exceedance;

(b)the type of threshold exceeded (information threshold or alert threshold);

(c)the time at which the exceedance began and its duration; and

(d)the highest 1-hour and 8-hour mean concentration.

2.  Forecast for the following afternoon, day or days—

(a)the geographical area of expected exceedances of an information threshold or alert threshold;

(b)the expected change in pollution, that is, improvement, stabilisation or deterioration.

3.  Information on the type of population concerned, possible health effects and recommended conduct—

(a)information on population groups at risk;

(b)description of likely symptoms;

(c)recommended precautions to be taken by the population concerned; and

(d)where to find further information.

4.  Information provided under this Schedule shall also include—

(a)information on preventive action to reduce pollution or exposure to it;

(b)an indication of main source sectors; and

(c)recommendations for action to reduce emissions.

Regulations 5, 12(2)

SCHEDULE 2TARGET VALUES AND LONG-TERM OBJECTIVES FOR OZONE CONCENTRATIONS IN AMBIENT AIR

PART IDefinitions and interpretation

In this Schedule—

(a)all values shall be expressed in µg/m3;

(b)the volume shall be standardised at the following conditions of temperature and pressure: 293K and 101,3kPa;

(c)the time shall be specified in Central European Time;

(d)“AOT40” (expressed in (µg/m3) hours) means the sum of the difference between hourly concentrations greater than 80 µg/m3 (which equals 40 parts per billion) and 80 µg/m3 over a given period using only the 1 hour values measured between 8:00 and 20:00 Central European Time each day;

(e)in order to be valid, the annual data on exceedances used to check compliance with the target values and long-term objectives below must meet the criteria set out in Part II of Schedule 8.

PART IITarget values for ozone

ParameterTarget value for 2010(a)
(a)

Compliance with target values will be assessed as of this value. That is, 2010 will be the first year the data for which is used in calculating compliance over three or five years, as appropriate.

(b)

The maximum daily 8-hour mean concentration shall be selected by examining 8-hour running averages, calculated from hourly data and updated each hour. Each 8-hour average so calculated shall be assigned to the day on which it ends, that is, the first calculation period for any one day shall be the period from 17:00 on the previous day to 01:00 on that day; the last calculation period for any one day will be the period from 16:00 to 24:00 on the day.

(c)

If the three or five year averages cannot be determined on the basis of a full and consecutive set of annual data, the minimum annual data required for checking compliance with the target values shall be as follows—

(i)

for the target value for the protection of human health, valid data for one year; and

(ii)

for the target value for the protection of vegetation, valid data for three years.

1.  Target value for the protection of human health

Maximum daily 8-hour mean(b)120 µg/m3 not to be exceeded on more than 25 days per calendar year averaged over three years(c)

2.  Target value for the protection of human health

AOT 40, calculated from 1 h values from May to July18,000 µg/m3.h averaged over five years(c)

PART IIILong-term objectives for ozone

ParameterLong-term objective

1.  Long-term objective for the protection of human health

Maximum daily 8-hour mean within a calendar year120 µg/m3

2.  Long-term objective for the protection of vegetation

AOT40, calculated from 1 h values from May to July6,000 µg/m3.h

Regulations 7(8), 8(1)

SCHEDULE 3UPPER AND LOWER ASSESSMENT THRESHOLDS AND EXCEEDANCES

PART IUpper and lower assessment thresholds

The following upper and lower assessment thresholds will apply:

(a) SULPHUR DIOXIDE

Health protectionEcosystem protection
Upper assessment threshold60% of 24-hour limit value (75 µg/m3), not to be exceeded more than 3 times in any calendar year60% of winter limit value (12 µg/m3)
Lower assessment threshold40% of 24-hour limit value (50 µg/m3), not to be exceeded more than 3 times in any calendar year40% of winter limit value (8 µg/m3)

(b) NITROGEN DIOXIDE AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN

Hourly limit value for the protection of human health (NO2) Annual limit value for the protection of human health (NO2) Annual limit value for the protection of vegetation (NOx)
Upper assessment threshold70% of limit value (140 µg/m3), not to be exceeded more than 18 times in any calendar year80% of limit value (32 µg/m3)80% of limit value (24 µg/m3)
Lower assessment threshold50% of limit value (100 µg/m3), not to be exceeded more than 18 times in any calendar year65% of limit value (26 µg/m3)65% of limit value (19.5 µg/m3)

(c) PARTICULATE MATTER

24-hour averageAnnual average
Upper assessment threshold60% of limit value (30 µg/m3), not to be exceeded more than seven times in any calendar year70% of limit value (14 µg/m3)
Lower assessment threshold40% of limit value (20 µg/m3), not to be exceeded more than seven times in any calendar year50% of limit value (10 µg/m3)

(d) LEAD

Annual average
Upper assessment threshold70% of limit value (0.35 µg/m3)
Lower assessment threshold50% of limit value (0.25 µg/m3)

(e) BENZENE

Annual Average
Upper assessment threshold70% of limit value (3.5 µg/m3)
Lower assessment threshold40% of limit value (2 µg/m3)

(f) CARBON MONOXIDE

Eight-hour average
Upper assessment threshold70% of limit value (7mg/m3)
Lower assessment threshold50% of limit value (5mg/m3)

PART IIDetermination of exceedances of upper and lower assessment thresholds

Exceedances of upper and lower assessment thresholds must be determined on the basis of concentrations during the previous five years where sufficient data are available. An assessment threshold will be deemed to have been exceeded if it has been exceeded during at least three separate years out of the previous five years.

Where fewer than five years' data are available, measurement campaigns of short duration during the period of the year and at locations likely to be typical of the highest pollution levels may be combined with results obtained from emission inventories and modelling to determine exceedances of the upper and lower assessment thresholds.

Regulations 9(3), (5), (12)

SCHEDULE 4LOCATION OF SAMPLING POINTS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF RELEVANT POLLUTANTS AND OZONE IN AMBIENT AIR

The following considerations will apply to fixed measurement.

PART IMacroscale Siting

Protection of human health

(a)  Sampling points directed at the protection of human health should be sited:

(i)to provide data on the areas within zones where the highest concentrations occur to which the population is likely to be directly or indirectly exposed for a period which is significant in relation to the averaging period of the limit value;

(ii)to provide data on levels in other areas within the zones which are representative of the exposure of the general population.

Sampling points should in general be sited to avoid measuring very small micro-environments in their immediate vicinity. As a guideline, a sampling point should be sited to be representative of air quality in a surrounding area of no less than 200 m2 at traffic-orientated sites and of several square kilometres at urban-background sites.

  • Sampling points should also, where possible, be representative of similar locations not in their immediate vicinity.

  • Account should be taken of the need to locate sampling points on islands, where that is necessary for the protection of human health.

Protection of ecosystems and vegetation

(b)  Sampling points targeted at the protection of ecosystems or vegetation should be sited more than 20 km from agglomerations or more than 5 km from other built-up areas, industrial installations or motorways. As a guideline, a sampling point should be sited to be representative of air quality in a surrounding area of at least 1000 km2. A sampling point may be sited at a lesser distance or to be representative of air quality in a less extended area, taking account of geographical conditions.

Account should be taken of the need to assess air quality on islands.

PART IIMacroscale Siting: Ozone

Type of stationObjective of measurementRepresentativeness(a)Macroscale siting criteria
(a)

Sampling points should also, where possible, be representative of similar locations not in their immediate vicinity.

For rural and background stations, consideration should be given, where appropriate, to co-ordination with the monitoring requirements of Commission Regulation 1091/94(2) concerning protection of the Community’s forests against atmospheric pollution.

UrbanProtection of human health: To assess the exposure of the urban population to ozone, i.e. where the population density and ozone concentration are relatively high and representative of the exposure of the general populationA few km2Away from the influence of local emissions such as traffic, petrol stations etc.;

Vented locations where well mixed levels can be measured; Locations such as residential and commercial areas of cities, parks (away from the trees), big streets or squares with very little or no traffic, open areas characteristic of education, sports or recreation facilities

SuburbanProtection of human health and vegetation:

To assess the exposure of the population and vegetation located in the outskirts of the agglomeration, where the highest ozone levels, to which the population and vegetation is likely to be directly or indirectly exposed, occur

Some tens of km2At a certain distance from the area of maximum emissions, downwind following the main wind direction during conditions favourable to ozone formation;

Where population, sensitive crops or natural ecosystems located in the outer fringe of an agglomeration are exposed to high ozone levels;

Where appropriate, some suburban stations also upwind of the area of maximum emissions, in order to determine the regional background levels of ozone.

RuralProtection of human health and vegetation:

To assess the exposure of population, crops and natural ecosystems to sub-regional scale ozone concentrations

Sub-regional levels (a few km2)Stations can be located in small settlements and/or areas with natural ecosystems, forests or crops;

Representative for ozone away from the influence of immediate local emissions such as industrial installations and roads;

At open area sites, but not on higher mountain-tops.

Rural backgroundProtection of vegetation and human health:

To assess the exposure of crops and natural ecosystems to regional-scale ozone concentrations as well as exposure of the populations

Regional/national/continental levels (1,000 to 10,000 km2)Station located in areas with lower population density, e.g. with natural ecosystems, forests, far removed from urban and industrial areas and away from local emissions;

Avoid locations which are subject to locally enhanced formation of near-ground inversion conditions, also summits of higher mountains;

Coastal sites with pronounced diurnal wind cycles of local character are not recommended.

PART IIIMicroscale siting

The following guidelines should be met as far as practicable:

  • the flow around the inlet sampling probe should be unrestricted, (and, for ozone sampling, free in an arc of at least 270°) without any obstructions affecting the airflow in the vicinity of the sampler (normally some metres away from buildings, balconies, trees and other obstacles by more than twice the height the obstacle protrudes above the sampler and at least 0.5 m from the nearest building in the case of sampling points representing air quality at the building line);

  • in general, the inlet sampling point should be between 1.5 m (the breathing zone) and 4 m above the ground. Higher positions (up to 8 m) may be necessary in some circumstances and in wooded areas. Higher siting may also be appropriate if the station is representative of a large area;

  • the inlet probe should not be positioned in the immediate vicinity of sources in order to avoid the direct intake of emissions unmixed with ambient air;

  • the sampler’s exhaust outlet should be positioned so that recirculation of exhaust air to the sampler inlet is avoided;

  • location of traffic-orientated samplers;

    • for all pollutants, such sampling points should be at least 25 m from the edge of major junctions and at least 4 m from the centre of the nearest traffic lane;

    • for nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, inlets should be no more than 5 m from the kerbside;

    • for particulate matter, lead and benzene, inlets should be sited so as to be representative of air quality near to the building line;

  • for ozone, the inlet probe should be positioned well away from such sources as furnaces and incineration flues and more than 10m from the nearest road, with distance increasing as a function of traffic intensity.

The following factors may also be taken into account:

  • interfering sources;

  • security;

  • access;

  • availability of electrical power and telephone communications;

  • visibility of the site in relation to its surroundings;

  • safety of public and operators;

  • the desirability of co-locating sampling points for different pollutants;

  • lanning requirements.

PART IVDocumentation and review of site selection

The site-selection procedures should be fully documented at the classification stage by such means as compass-point photographs of the surrounding area and a detailed map. Sites should be reviewed at regular intervals with repeated documentation to ensure that selection criteria remain valid over time.

For ozone, this requires screening and monitoring of the monitoring data in the context of the meteorological and photochemical processes affecting the ozone concentrations measured at the respective site.

Regulation 9(4), (6), (7), (9), (11)

SCHEDULE 5CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING MINIMUM NUMBERS OF SAMPLING POINTS FOR FIXED MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATIONS OF RELEVANT POLLUTANTS AND OZONE IN AMBIENT AIR

PART IRelevant pollutants: minimum number of sampling points for fixed measurement to assess compliance with limit values for the protection of human health and alert thresholds in zones where fixed measurement is the sole source of information

(a) Diffuse sources

Population of zone (thousands )If concentrations exceed the upper assessment thresholdIf maximum concentrations are between the upper and lower assessment thresholdsFor SO2 and NO2 in agglomerations where maximum concentrations are below the lower assessment thresholds
0-25011not applicable
250-499211
500-749211
750-999311
1,000-1,499421
1,500-1,999521
2,000-2,749632
2,750-3,749732
3,750-4,749842
4,750-5,999942
>6,0001053
For NO2 and particulate matter: to include at least one urban- background station and one traffic-orientated station—this requirement shall also apply to benzene and carbon monoxide provided that it does not increase the number of sampling points

(b) Point sources

For the assessment of pollution in the vicinity of point sources, the number of sampling points for fixed measurement should be calculated taking into account emission densities, the likely distribution patterns of ambient-air pollution and the potential exposure of the population.

PART IIRelevant pollutants: minimum number of sampling points for fixed measurements to assess compliance with limit values for the protection of ecosystems or vegetation in zones other than agglomerations

If maximum concentrations exceed the upper assessment thresholdIf maximum concentrations are between the upper and lower assessment thresholds
1 station every 20,000 km21 station every 40,000 km2

In island zones the number of sampling points for fixed measurement should be calculated taking into account the likely distribution patterns of ambient-air pollution and the potential exposure of ecosystems or vegetation.

PART IIIOzone: minimum number of sampling points for fixed continuous measurement to assess air quality in view of compliance with the target values, long-term objectives and information and alert thresholds where continuous measurement is the sole source of information

Population (× 1,000)Agglomerations (urban and suburban) (a)Other zones (suburban and rural) (a)Rural background
(a)

At least 1 station in suburban areas, where the highest exposure of the population is likely to occur. In agglomerations at least 50% of the stations should be located in suburban areas.

(b)

1 station per 25,000 km2 for complex terrain is recommended.

0-25011 station/50,000 km2 as an average density over all zones in England (b)
251-50012
501-1,00022
1,001-1,50033
1,501-2,00034
2,001-2,75045
2,751-3,75056
>3,7501 additional station per 2 million inhabitants1 additional station per 2 million inhabitants

PART IVOzone: minimum number of sampling points for fixed measurements for zones attaining the long-term objectives

The number of sampling points for ozone must, in combination with other means of supplementary assessment such as air quality modelling and co-located nitrogen dioxide measurements, be sufficient to examine the trend of ozone pollution and check compliance with the long-term objectives. The number of stations located in agglomerations and other zones may be reduced to one-third of the number specified in Part III. Where information from fixed measurement stations is the sole source of information, at least one monitoring station should be kept. If, in zones where there is supplementary assessment, the result of this is that a zone has no remaining station, co-ordination with the number of stations in neighbouring zones must ensure adequate assessment of ozone concentrations against long-term objectives. The number of rural background stations should be 1 per 100,000 km2.

Regulation 9(15)

SCHEDULE 6MEASUREMENTS OF OZONE PRECURSOR SUBSTANCES

(a) Objectives

The main objectives of measurements of ozone precursor substances are to analyse any trend in ozone precursors, to check the efficiency of emission reduction strategies, to check the consistency of emission inventories and to help attribute emission sources to pollution concentration.

An additional aim is to support the understanding of ozone formation and precursor dispersion processes, as well as the application of photochemical models.

Substances

Measurements of ozone precursor substances must include at least nitrogen oxides, and appropriate volatile organic compounds (VOC). A list of volatile organic compounds recommended for measurement is given below.

Ethane1-ButeneIsopreneEthyl benzene
Ethylenetrans-2-Butenen-Hexanem+p-Xylene
Acetylenecis-2-Butenei-Hexaneo-Xylene
Propane1.3-Butadienen-Heptane1,2,4-Trimeth. benzene
Propenen-Pentanen-Octane1,2,3-Trimeth. benzene
n-Butanei-Pentanei-Octane1,3,5-Trimeth. benzene
i-Butane1-PenteneBenzeneFormaldehyde
2-PenteneTolueneTotal non-methane hydrocarbons

Reference methods

The reference method for the analysis of oxides of nitrogen shall be ISO 7996:1985, Ambient air—determination of the mass concentrations of nitrogen oxides—chemiluminescence method: see footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7.

(b) Siting

Measurements should be taken in particular in urban and suburban areas at any monitoring site set up in accordance with the requirements of the Air Quality Limit Values Regulations 2001 and considered appropriate with regard to the monitoring objectives in this Schedule.

Regulation 9(5), (6), (9), (15), (16)

SCHEDULE 7DATA-QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND COMPILATION OF RESULTS OF AIR-QUALITY ASSESSMENT

PART IRelevant pollutants: data-quality objectives

The following data-quality objectives for the required accuracy of assessment methods, of minimum time coverage and of data capture of measurement are laid down to guide quality- assurance programmes.

Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogenParticulate matter and lead

The accuracy of the measurement is defined as laid down in the ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements’ (ISO 1993)(3) or in ISO 5725-1 ‘Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results’ (ISO 1994)(4). The percentages in the table are given for individual measurements averaged, over the period considered, by the limit value, for a 95% confidence interval (bias + two times the standard deviation). The accuracy for continuous measurements should be interpreted as being applicable in the region of the appropriate limit value.

The accuracy for modelling and objective estimation is defined as the maximum deviation of the measured and calculated concentration levels, over the period considered by the limit value, without taking account the timing of the events.

The requirements for minimum data capture and time coverage do not include losses of data due to the regular calibration or the normal maintenance of the instrumentation.

The Secretary of State may allow for random measurements to be made instead of continuous measurements for particulate matter and lead by methods for which accuracy within the 95% confidence interval with respect to continuous monitoring has been demonstrated to be within 10%. Random sampling must be spread evenly over the year.

Continuous measurement
Accuracy15%25%
Minimum data capture90%90%
Indicative measurement
Accuracy25%50%
Minimum data capture90%90%
Minimum time coverage14% (One measurement a week at random, evenly distributed over the year, or eight weeks evenly distributed over the year.)14% (One measurement a week at random, evenly distributed over the year, or eight weeks evenly distributed over the year.)
Modelling
Accuracy:
Hourly averages50%-60%
Daily averages50%
Annual averages30%50%
Objective estimation
Accuracy:75%100%

The following data quality objectives, for allowed uncertainty of assessment methods, of minimum time coverage and of data capture of measurement are provided to guide quality assurance programmes.

BenzeneCarbon monoxide

The uncertainty (on a 95% confidence interval) of the assessment methods shall be evaluated in accordance with the ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements' (ISO 1993)(5) or the methodology of ISO 5725:1994(6). The percentages for uncertainty in the above table are given for individual measurements averaged over the period considered by the limit value, for a 95% confidence interval. The uncertainty for the fixed measurements should be interpreted as being applicable in the region of the appropriate limit value.

The uncertainty for modelling and objective estimation is defined as the maximum deviation of the measured and calculated concentration levels, over the period considered by the limit value, without taking into account the timing of the events.

The requirements for minimum data capture and time coverage do not include losses of data due to the regular calibration or the normal maintenance of the instrumentation.

The Secretary of State may allow for random measurements to be made instead of continuous measurements for benzene if the uncertainty, including the uncertainty due to random sampling, meets the quality objective of 25%. Random sampling must be spread evenly over the year.

Fixed measurements
Uncertainty25%15%
Minimum data capture90%90%
Minimum time coverage35% urban background and traffic sites (distributed over the year to be representative of various conditions for climate and traffic)
90% industrial sites
Indicative measurements
Uncertainty30%25%
Minimum data capture90%90%
Minimum time coverage14% (one day’s measurement a week at random, evenly distributed over the year, or 8 weeks evenly distributed over the year)14% (one measurement a week at random, evenly distributed over the year, or 8 weeks evenly distributed over the year)
Modelling
Uncertainty:50%
Eight-hour averages50%
Annual averages
Objective estimation
Uncertainty100%75%

PART IIRelevant pollutants: results of air quality assessment

The following information should be compiled for zones within which sources other than measurement are employed to supplement information from measurement or as the sole means of air quality assessment:

  • a description of assessment activities carried out;

  • the specific methods used, with references to descriptions of the method;

  • the sources of data and information;

  • a description of results, including accuracies and, in particular, the extent of any area or, if relevant, the length of road within the zone over which concentrations exceed the limit value or, as may be, the limit value plus applicable margin of tolerance and of any area within which concentrations exceed the upper assessment threshold or the lower assessment threshold;

  • for limit values the object of which is the protection of human health, the population potentially exposed to concentrations in excess of the limit value.

Where possible maps shall be compiled showing concentration distributions within each zone.

PART IIIOzone and ozone precursors: data quality objectives

The following data quality objectives, for allowed uncertainty of assessment methods, and of minimum time coverage and of data capture of measurement, are provided to guide quality-assurance programmes.

For ozone, NO and NO2

The uncertainty (on a 95% confidence interval) of the measurement methods shall be evaluated in accordance with the principles laid down in the ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements’ (ISO 1993)(7) of the methodology in ISO 5725-1 ‘Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results’ (ISO 1994)(8) or equivalent. The percentages for uncertainty in the table are given for individual measurements, averaged over the period for calculating target values and long-term objectives, for a 95% confidence interval. The uncertainty for continuous fixed measurements should be interpreted as being applicable in the region of the concentration used for the appropriate threshold.

The uncertainty for modelling and objective estimation means the maximum deviation of the measured and calculated concentration levels, over the period for calculating the appropriate threshold, without taking into account the timing of events.

‘Time coverage’ means the percentage of time considered for settling the threshold value during which the pollutant is measured.

‘Data capture’ means the ratio of the time for which the instrument produces valid data, to the time for which the statistical parameter or aggregated value is to be calculated.

The requirements for minimum data capture and time coverage do not include losses of data due to the regular calibration or normal maintenance of the instrumentation.

Continuous fixed measurement
Uncertainty of individual measurements15%
Minimum data capture90% during summer

75% during winter

Indicative measurement
Uncertainty of individual measurements30%
Minimum data capture90%
Minimum time coverage>10% during summer
Modelling
Uncertainty50%
1 hour averages (daytime)50%
8 hours daily maximum
Objective estimation
Uncertainty75%

PART IVOzone and ozone precursors: results of air quality assessment

The following information should be compiled for zones within which sources other than measurements are employed to supplement information from measurement:

  • a description of the assessment activities carried out;

  • specific methods used, with references to descriptions of the method;

  • sources of data and information;

  • a description of results, including uncertainties and, in particular, the extent of any area within the zone over which concentrations exceed long-term objectives or target values;

  • for long-term objectives or target values whose object is the protection of human health, the population potentially exposed to concentrations in excess of the threshold.

The Secretary of State shall ensure that maps are compiled showing concentration distributions within each zone.

Regulation 9(13)

SCHEDULE 8REFERENCE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF CONCENTRATIONS OF RELEVANT POLLUTANTS AND OZONE

PART IReference method for the analysis of sulphur dioxide

ISO/FDIS 10498 (Standard in draft) Ambient air—determination of sulphur dioxide—ultraviolet fluorescence method(9).

PART IIReference method for the analysis of nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

ISO 7996: 1985 Ambient air—determination of the mass concentrations of nitrogen oxides—chemiluminescence method(10).

PART IIIAReference method for the sampling of lead

The reference method for the sampling of lead will be that described in the Annex to Directive 82/884/EEC(11) until such time as the limit value in Schedule 1 to these Regulations is to be met, when the reference method will be that for PM10 specified in Part IV of this Schedule.

PART IIIBReference method for the analysis of lead

ISO 9855: 1993 Ambient air—Determination of the particulate lead content of aerosols collected in filters. Atomic absorption spectroscopy method(12).

PART IVReference method for the sampling and measurement of PM10

The reference method for the sampling and measurement of PM10 will be that described in EN 12341 ‘Air Quality—Field Test Procedure to Demonstrate Reference Equivalence of Sampling Methods for the PM10 fraction of particulate matter’(13). The measurement principle is based on the collection on a filter of the PM10 fraction of ambient particulate matter and the gravimetric mass determination.

PART VReference method for the sampling and analysis of benzene

The reference method for the measurement of benzene will be a pumped sampling method on a sorbent cartridge followed by gas chromatographic determination.

PART VIReference method for the analysis of carbon monoxide

The reference method for the measurement of carbon monoxide will be a non-dispersive infra-red spectrometric (NDIR) method.

PART VIIReference methods for the analysis of ozone and calibration of ozone instruments

The reference method for analysis of ozone shall be the UV photometric method (ISO FDIS 13964 or equivalent).

The reference method for calibration of ozone instruments shall be the Reference UV photometer method (ISO FDIS 13964, VDI 2468, B1.6 or equivalent).

Regulations 11(4), 12(5)

SCHEDULE 9INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED IN THE PLAN OR PROGRAMME FOR IMPROVEMENT OF AIR QUALITY

1.    Localisation of excess pollution

  • region

  • city (map)

  • measuring station (map, geographical coordinates).

2.    General information

  • type of zone (city, industrial or rural area)

  • estimate of the polluted area (km2) and of the population exposed to the pollution

  • useful climatic data

  • relevant data on topography

  • sufficient information on the type of targets requiring protection in the zone.

3.    Responsible authorities

Names and addresses of persons responsible for the development and implementation of improvement plans.

4.    Nature and assessment of pollution

  • concentrations observed over previous years (before the implementation of the improvement measures)

  • concentrations measured since the beginning of the project

  • techniques used for the assessment.

5.    Origin of pollution

  • list of the main emission sources responsible for pollution (map)

  • total quantity of emissions from these sources (tonnes/year)

  • information on pollution imported from other regions.

6.    Analysis of the situation

  • details of those factors responsible for the excess (transport, including cross-border transport, formation)

  • details of possible measures for improvement of air quality.

7.    Details of those measures or projects for improvement which existed prior to 21st November 1996

  • local, regional, national, international measures

  • observed effects of these measures.

8.    Details of those measures or projects adopted with a view to reducing pollution following 21st November 1996

  • listing and description of all the measures set out in the project

  • timetable for implementation

  • estimate of the improvement of air quality planned and of the expected time required to attain these objectives.

9.    Details of the measures or projects planned or being researched for the long term.

10.    List of the publications, documents, work etc used to supplement information requested in this Schedule.

Regulation 17

SCHEDULE 10REVOCATIONS

Regulations revokedReferenceWith effect from
The Air Quality Standards Regulations 1989, insofar as they apply to England:S.I. 1989/317
Regulation 2(1) (limit values for sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates in the atmosphere)1st January 2005
Regulation 4(1) (limit value for lead in air)1st January 2005
Regulation 6 (limit value for nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere)1st January 2010
The Ozone Monitoring and Information RegulationsS.I. 1994/4409th September 2003
The Air Quality Limit Values Regulations 2001S.I. 2001/23159th September 2003
The Air Quality Limit Values (Amendment) Regulations 2002S.I. 2002/31179th September 2003

Regulation 18

SCHEDULE 11INFORMATION TO BE OBTAINED AND COLLATED ON OZONE CONCENTRATIONS, AND CRITERIA FOR AGGREGATING DATA AND CALCULATING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS

PART IInformation on ozone concentrations

The following information on ozone concentrations shall be obtained and collated—

Type of stationLevelAveraging/accumulation timeProvisional data for each month from April to SeptemberReport for each year
(a)

In this Schedule, “AOT40” has the same meaning as in paragraph (d) of Part I to Schedule 2.

(b)

Maximum daily 8-hour mean.

  • Where they do not do so already, annual reports must also contain—

    (a)

    for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and the sums of ozone and nitrogen dioxide (added as parts per billion and expressed in µg/m3 ozone) the maximum, 99.9th, 98th and 50th percentiles and annual average and number of valid data from hourly series; and

    (b)

    the maximum, 98th and 50th percentile and annual average from a series of daily 8-hour ozone maxima.

Data submitted in monthly reports are considered provisional and shall be updated where necessary in subsequent submissions.

Information thresholdAny180µg/m31 hour—for each day with any exceedance: date, total hours of exceedance, maximum 1 hour ozone and related NO2 values when required—monthly 1 hour maximum ozone—for each day with any exceedance: date, total hours of exceedance, maximum 1 hour ozone and related NO2 values, when required
Alert thresholdAny240µg/m31 hour—for each day with any exceedance: date, total hours of exceedance, maximum 1 hour ozone and related NO2 values, when required—for each day with any exceedance: date, total hours of exceedance, maximum 1 hour ozone and related NO2 values, when required
Health protectionAny120µg/m38 hours—for each day with any exceedance: date, 8 hours maximum (b)—for each day with any exceedance: date, 8 hours maximum (b)
Vegetation protectionSuburban, rural, rural backgroundAOT40 (a) =6,000µg/m3.h1 hour, accumulated from May to JuneValue
Forest protectionSuburban, rural, rural backgroundAOT40 (a) =20,000µg/m3.h1 hour, accumulated from April to SeptemberValue
MaterialsAny40 µg/m31 yearValue

PART IICriteria for aggregating data and calculating statistical parameters

In this Part, percentiles are to be calculated using the method specified in Council Decision 97/101/EC establishing a reciprocal exchange of information and data from networks and individual stations measuring ambient air pollution within Member States(14).

The following criteria are to be used for checking validity when aggregating data and calculating statistical parameters—

ParameterRequired proportion of valid data
(a)

In cases where all possible measured data are not available, the following factor shall be used to calculate AOT40 values:

* being the number of hours within the time period of AOT40 definition (that is, 8:00 to 20:00 Central European Time from 1 May to 31 July each year, for vegetation protection and from 1 April to 30 September each year for forest protection).

1 hour values75% (45 minutes)
8 hour values75% of values (6 hours)
Maximum daily 8 hours mean from hourly running 8 hours averages75% of the hourly running 8 hour averages(8 hours per day)
AOT4090% of the 1 hour values over the time period defined for calculating the AOT40 value (a)
Annual mean75% of the 1 hour values over summer (April to September) and winter (January to March, October to December) seasons separately
Number of exceedances and maximum values per month90% of the daily maximum 8 hours mean value (27 available daily values per month) 90% of the 1 hour values between 8:00 and 20:00 Central European Time
Number of exceedances and maximum values per yearFive out of six summer months over the summer season (April to September)
(1)

The figures for margins of tolerance for each of the relevant pollutants given in this Schedule are calculated from those given in Annexes I to IV of Directive 99/30/EC.

(2)

OJ No. L 125, 18.5.1994, p. 1.

(3)

Copies of these International Standards Organisation publications can be purchased from the British Standards Institution ‘BSI’ sales department either by telephone on 0208-996-9001 or by post from the BSI, Standards House, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL.

(4)

Copies of these International Standards Organisation publications can be purchased from the British Standards Institution ‘BSI’ sales department either by telephone on 0208-996-9001 or by post from the BSI, Standards House, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL.

(5)

See footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7 above for location of ISO publications.

(6)

See footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7 above for location of ISO publications.

(7)

Copies of these International Standards Organisation publications can be purchased from the British Standards Institution ‘BSI’ sales department either by telephone on 020-8996-9001 or by post from the BSI, Standards House, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL.

(8)

Copies of these International Standards Organisation publications can be purchased from the British Standards Institution ‘BSI’ sales department either by telephone on 020-8996-9001 or by post from the BSI, Standards House, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL.

(9)

See footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7 above for location of ISO documents.

(10)

See footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7 above for location of ISO documents.

(11)

OJ No. L 378, 31.12.1982, p. 15.

(12)

See footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7 above for location of ISO documents.

(13)

European Standards Institute ‘CEN’ publication reference BSEN 12341, obtainable from the British Standards Institution: see footnote (a) to Part I of Schedule 7 above.

(14)

OJ No. L035, 5.2.1997, p. 14.

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