Search Legislation

Human Rights Act 1998

What Version

 Help about what version

Advanced Features

 Help about advanced features

Changes to legislation:

There are outstanding changes not yet made by the legislation.gov.uk editorial team to Human Rights Act 1998. Any changes that have already been made by the team appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

Close

Changes to Legislation

Revised legislation carried on this site may not be fully up to date. Changes and effects are recorded by our editorial team in lists which can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area. Where those effects have yet to be applied to the text of the legislation by the editorial team they are also listed alongside the legislation in the affected provisions. Use the ‘more’ link to open the changes and effects relevant to the provision you are viewing.

Changes and effects yet to be applied to :

 Help about changes and effects
Close

Changes and effects

This section lists the changes and effects yet to be applied to the specific provision you are viewing.

Commencement Orders yet to be applied to the Human Rights Act 1998

 Help about changes and effects
Close

Commencement Orders

This section lists the commencement orders yet to be applied to the whole Act. These effects are included in this view as they may be (but won’t necessarily be) relevant to the specific provision that you are viewing. Where applicable the commencement orders are listed under two headings, firstly those that bring some part of the Act you are viewing into force and secondly, those that bring into force legislation that affects some part of the legislation you are viewing. If you are viewing a prospective version or there is a prospective version available there may be commencement orders listed here that are relevant to the provision you are viewing.

Commencement Orders bringing legislation that affects this Act into force:

SCHEDULES

Section 1(3).

SCHEDULE 1E+W+S+N.I. The Articles

PART I E+W+S+N.I.The Convention Rights and Freedoms

Article 2 E+W+S+N.I.Right to life

1Everyone’s right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided by law.E+W+S+N.I.

2Deprivation of life shall not be regarded as inflicted in contravention of this Article when it results from the use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary:E+W+S+N.I.

(a)in defence of any person from unlawful violence;

(b)in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

(c)in action lawfully taken for the purpose of quelling a riot or insurrection.

Article 3 E+W+S+N.I.Prohibition of torture

No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 4 E+W+S+N.I.Prohibition of slavery and forced labour

1No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.E+W+S+N.I.

2No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.E+W+S+N.I.

3For the purpose of this Article the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:E+W+S+N.I.

(a)any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention;

(b)any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military service;

(c)any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;

(d)any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations.

Article 5 E+W+S+N.I.Right to liberty and security

1Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law:E+W+S+N.I.

(a)the lawful detention of a person after conviction by a competent court;

(b)the lawful arrest or detention of a person for non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;

(c)the lawful arrest or detention of a person effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;

(d)the detention of a minor by lawful order for the purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal authority;

(e)the lawful detention of persons for the prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;

(f)the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition.

2Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly, in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charge against him.E+W+S+N.I.

3Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1(c) of this Article shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.E+W+S+N.I.

4Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and his release ordered if the detention is not lawful.E+W+S+N.I.

5Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or detention in contravention of the provisions of this Article shall have an enforceable right to compensation.E+W+S+N.I.

Article 6 E+W+S+N.I.Right to a fair trial

1In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interest of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.E+W+S+N.I.

2Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.E+W+S+N.I.

3Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:E+W+S+N.I.

(a)to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;

(b)to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

(c)to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require;

(d)to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(e)to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.

Article 7 E+W+S+N.I.No punishment without law

1No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.E+W+S+N.I.

2This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.E+W+S+N.I.

Article 8 E+W+S+N.I.Right to respect for private and family life

1Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.E+W+S+N.I.

2There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.E+W+S+N.I.

Article 9 E+W+S+N.I.Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

1Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.E+W+S+N.I.

2Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs shall be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety, for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.E+W+S+N.I.

Article 10 E+W+S+N.I.Freedom of expression

1Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This Article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.E+W+S+N.I.

2The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.E+W+S+N.I.

Article 11 E+W+S+N.I.Freedom of assembly and association

1Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.E+W+S+N.I.

2No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This Article shall not prevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration of the State.E+W+S+N.I.

Article 12 E+W+S+N.I.Right to marry

Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right.

Article 14 E+W+S+N.I.Prohibition of discrimination

The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.

Article 16 E+W+S+N.I.Restrictions on political activity of aliens

Nothing in Articles 10, 11 and 14 shall be regarded as preventing the High Contracting Parties from imposing restrictions on the political activity of aliens.

Article 17 E+W+S+N.I.Prohibition of abuse of rights

Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the Convention.

Article 18 E+W+S+N.I.Limitation on use of restrictions on rights

The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed.

Part IIE+W+S+N.I. The First Protocol

Article 1 E+W+S+N.I.Protection of property

Every natural or legal person is entitled to the peaceful enjoyment of his possessions. No one shall be deprived of his possessions except in the public interest and subject to the conditions provided for by law and by the general principles of international law.

The preceding provisions shall not, however, in any way impair the right of a State to enforce such laws as it deems necessary to control the use of property in accordance with the general interest or to secure the payment of taxes or other contributions or penalties.

Article 2 E+W+S+N.I.Right to education

No person shall be denied the right to education. In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions.

Article 3 E+W+S+N.I.Right to free elections

The High Contracting Parties undertake to hold free elections at reasonable intervals by secret ballot, under conditions which will ensure the free expression of the opinion of the people in the choice of the legislature.

[F1PART 3 E+W+S+N.I.ARTICLE 1 OF THE THIRTEENTH PROTOCOLAbolition of the death penalty

Annotations: Help about Annotation
Close

Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

The death penalty shall be abolished. No one shall be condemned to such penalty or executed.]

Part IIIE+W+S+N.I. The Sixth Protocol

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 10.

SCHEDULE 2E+W+S+N.I. Remedial Orders

OrdersE+W+S+N.I.

1(1)A remedial order may—E+W+S+N.I.

(a)contain such incidental, supplemental, consequential or transitional provision as the person making it considers appropriate;

(b)be made so as to have effect from a date earlier than that on which it is made;

(c)make provision for the delegation of specific functions;

(d)make different provision for different cases.

(2)The power conferred by sub-paragraph (1)(a) includes—

(a)power to amend primary legislation (including primary legislation other than that which contains the incompatible provision); and

(b)power to amend or revoke subordinate legislation (including subordinate legislation other than that which contains the incompatible provision).

(3)A remedial order may be made so as to have the same extent as the legislation which it affects.

(4)No person is to be guilty of an offence solely as a result of the retrospective effect of a remedial order.

ProcedureE+W+S+N.I.

2No remedial order may be made unless—E+W+S+N.I.

(a)a draft of the order has been approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament made after the end of the period of 60 days beginning with the day on which the draft was laid; or

(b)it is declared in the order that it appears to the person making it that, because of the urgency of the matter, it is necessary to make the order without a draft being so approved.

Orders laid in draftE+W+S+N.I.

3(1)No draft may be laid under paragraph 2(a) unless—E+W+S+N.I.

(a)the person proposing to make the order has laid before Parliament a document which contains a draft of the proposed order and the required information; and

(b)the period of 60 days, beginning with the day on which the document required by this sub-paragraph was laid, has ended.

(2)If representations have been made during that period, the draft laid under paragraph 2(a) must be accompanied by a statement containing—

(a)a summary of the representations; and

(b)if, as a result of the representations, the proposed order has been changed, details of the changes.

Urgent casesE+W+S+N.I.

4(1)If a remedial order (“the original order”) is made without being approved in draft, the person making it must lay it before Parliament, accompanied by the required information, after it is made.E+W+S+N.I.

(2)If representations have been made during the period of 60 days beginning with the day on which the original order was made, the person making it must (after the end of that period) lay before Parliament a statement containing—

(a)a summary of the representations; and

(b)if, as a result of the representations, he considers it appropriate to make changes to the original order, details of the changes.

(3)If sub-paragraph (2)(b) applies, the person making the statement must—

(a)make a further remedial order replacing the original order; and

(b)lay the replacement order before Parliament.

(4)If, at the end of the period of 120 days beginning with the day on which the original order was made, a resolution has not been passed by each House approving the original or replacement order, the order ceases to have effect (but without that affecting anything previously done under either order or the power to make a fresh remedial order).

DefinitionsE+W+S+N.I.

5In this Schedule—E+W+S+N.I.

  • representations” means representations about a remedial order (or proposed remedial order) made to the person making (or proposing to make) it and includes any relevant Parliamentary report or resolution; and

  • required information” means—

    (a)

    an explanation of the incompatibility which the order (or proposed order) seeks to remove, including particulars of the relevant declaration, finding or order; and

    (b)

    a statement of the reasons for proceeding under section 10 and for making an order in those terms.

Calculating periodsE+W+S+N.I.

6In calculating any period for the purposes of this Schedule, no account is to be taken of any time during which—E+W+S+N.I.

(a)Parliament is dissolved or prorogued; or

(b)both Houses are adjourned for more than four days.

[F57(1)This paragraph applies in relation to–E+W+S+N.I.

(a)any remedial order made, and any draft of such an order proposed to be made,–

(i)by the Scottish Ministers; or

(ii)within devolved competence (within the meaning of the Scotland Act 1998) by Her Majesty in Council; and

(b)any document or statement to be laid in connection with such an order (or proposed order).

(2)This Schedule has effect in relation to any such order (or proposed order), document or statement subject to the following modifications.

(3)Any reference to Parliament, each House of Parliament or both Houses of Parliament shall be construed as a reference to the Scottish Parliament.

(4)Paragraph 6 does not apply and instead, in calculating any period for the purposes of this Schedule, no account is to be taken of any time during which the Scottish Parliament is dissolved or is in recess for more than four days.]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
Close

Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

Sections 14 and 15.

SCHEDULE 3E+W+S+N.I. Derogation and Reservation

F6Part IE+W+S+N.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations: Help about Annotation
Close

Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F6Sch. 3 Pt. I repealed (1.4.2001) by S.I. 2001/1216, art. 4

F7F7 PART IE+W+S+N.I. DEROGATION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations: Help about Annotation
Close

Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

Part IIE+W+S+N.I. Reservation

At the time of signing the present (First) Protocol, I declare that, in view of certain provisions of the Education Acts in the United Kingdom, the principle affirmed in the second sentence of Article 2 is accepted by the United Kingdom only so far as it is compatible with the provision of efficient instruction and training, and the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure.

Dated 20 March 1952

Made by the United Kingdom Permanent Representative to the Council of Europe.

Section 18(6).

SCHEDULE 4E+W+S+N.I. Judicial Pensions

Duty to make orders about pensionsE+W+S+N.I.

1(1)The appropriate Minister must by order make provision with respect to pensions payable to or in respect of any holder of a judicial office who serves as an ECHR judge.E+W+S+N.I.

(2)A pensions order must include such provision as the Minister making it considers is necessary to secure that—

(a)an ECHR judge who was, immediately before his appointment as an ECHR judge, a member of a judicial pension scheme is entitled to remain as a member of that scheme;

(b)the terms on which he remains a member of the scheme are those which would have been applicable had he not been appointed as an ECHR judge; and

(c)entitlement to benefits payable in accordance with the scheme continues to be determined as if, while serving as an ECHR judge, his salary was that which would (but for section 18(4)) have been payable to him in respect of his continuing service as the holder of his judicial office.

ContributionsE+W+S+N.I.

2A pensions order may, in particular, make provision—E+W+S+N.I.

(a)for any contributions which are payable by a person who remains a member of a scheme as a result of the order, and which would otherwise be payable by deduction from his salary, to be made otherwise than by deduction from his salary as an ECHR judge; and

(b)for such contributions to be collected in such manner as may be determined by the administrators of the scheme.

Amendments of other enactmentsE+W+S+N.I.

3A pensions order may amend any provision of, or made under, a pensions Act in such manner and to such extent as the Minister making the order considers necessary or expedient to ensure the proper administration of any scheme to which it relates.E+W+S+N.I.

DefinitionsE+W+S+N.I.

4In this Schedule—E+W+S+N.I.

  • appropriate Minister” means—

    (a)

    in relation to any judicial office whose jurisdiction is exercisable exclusively in relation to Scotland, the Secretary of State; and

    (b)

    otherwise, the Lord Chancellor;

  • ECHR judge” means the holder of a judicial office who is serving as a judge of the Court;

  • judicial pension scheme” means a scheme established by and in accordance with a pensions Act;

  • pensions Act” means—

    (a)

    the M1County Courts Act Northern Ireland) 1959;

    (b)

    the M2Sheriffs’ Pensions (Scotland) Act 1961;

    (c)

    the M3Judicial Pensions Act 1981; or

    (d)

    the M4Judicial Pensions and Retirement Act 1993; and

  • pensions order” means an order made under paragraph 1.

Annotations: Help about Annotation
Close

Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Marginal Citations

Back to top

Options/Help

Print Options

Close

Legislation is available in different versions:

Latest Available (revised):The latest available updated version of the legislation incorporating changes made by subsequent legislation and applied by our editorial team. Changes we have not yet applied to the text, can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area.

Original (As Enacted or Made):The original version of the legislation as it stood when it was enacted or made. No changes have been applied to the text.

Close

See additional information alongside the content

Geographical Extent: Indicates the geographical area that this provision applies to. For further information see ‘Frequently Asked Questions’.

Show Timeline of Changes: See how this legislation has or could change over time. Turning this feature on will show extra navigation options to go to these specific points in time. Return to the latest available version by using the controls above in the What Version box.

Close

Opening Options

Different options to open legislation in order to view more content on screen at once

Close

More Resources

Access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item from this tab. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as enactedversion that was used for the print copy
  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • correction slips
  • links to related legislation and further information resources