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Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988

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PART XVIIIDOUBLE TAXATION RELIEF

CHAPTER ITHE PRINCIPAL RELIEFS

788Relief by agreement with other countries

(1)If Her Majesty by Order in Council declares that arrangements specified in the Order have been made with the government of any territory outside the United Kingdom with a view to affording relief from double taxation in relation to—

(a)income tax,

(b)corporation tax in respect of income or chargeable gains, and

(c)any taxes of a similar character to those taxes imposed by the laws of that territory,

and that it is expedient that those arrangements should have effect, then those arrangements shall have effect in accordance with subsection (3) below.

(2)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) above, if it appears to Her Majesty to be appropriate, the arrangements specified in an Order in Council under this section may include provisions with respect to the exchange of information necessary for carrying out the domestic laws of the United Kingdom and the laws of the territory to which the arrangements relate concerning taxes covered by the arrangements including, in particular, provisions about the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to those taxes; and where arrangements do include any such provisions, the declaration in the Order in Council shall state that fact.

(3)Subject to the provisions of this Part, the arrangements shall, notwithstanding anything in any enactment, have effect in relation to income tax and corporation tax in so far as they provide—

(a)for relief from income tax, or from corporation tax in respect of income or chargeable gains; or

(b)for charging the income arising from sources, or chargeable gains accruing on the disposal of assets, in the United Kingdom to persons not resident in the United Kingdom; or

(c)for determining the income or chargeable gains to be attributed—

(i)to persons not resident in the United Kingdom and their agencies, branches or establishments in the United Kingdom; or

(ii)to persons resident in the United Kingdom who have special relationships with persons not so resident; or

(d)for conferring on persons not resident in the United Kingdom the right to a tax credit under section 231 in respect of qualifying distributions made to them by companies which are so resident.

(4)The provisions of Chapter II of this Part shall apply where arrangements which have effect by virtue of this section provide that tax payable under the laws of the territory concerned shall be allowed as a credit against tax payable in the United Kingdom.

(5)For the purposes of this section and, subject to section 795(3), Chapter II of this Part in its application to relief under this section, any amount of tax which would have been payable under the law of a territory outside the United Kingdom but for a relief to which this subsection applies given under the law of that territory shall be treated as having been payable; and references in this section and that Chapter to double taxation, to tax payable or chargeable, or to tax not chargeable directly or by deduction shall be construed accordingly.

This subsection applies—

(a)to any relief given with a view to promoting industrial, commercial, scientific, educational or other development in a territory outside the United Kingdom, being a relief with respect to which provision is made in the arrangements in question for double taxation relief; and

(b)to any relief provided under and in accordance with the arrangements, where the latter expressly contemplate that the relief is to fall within this subsection.

(6)Except in the case of a claim for an allowance by way of credit in accordance with Chapter II of this Part, a claim for relief under subsection (3)(a) above shall be made to the Board.

(7)Where—

(a)under any arrangements which have effect by virtue of this section, relief may be given, either in the United Kingdom or in the territory with the government of which the arrangements are made, in respect of any income or chargeable gains, and

(b)it appears that the assessment to income tax or corporation tax made in respect of the income or chargeable gains is not made in respect of the full amount thereof, or is incorrect having regard to the credit, if any, which falls to be given under the arrangements,

any such assessments may be made as are necessary to ensure that the total amount of the income or chargeable gains is assessed, and the proper credit, if any, is given in respect thereof, and, where the income is, or the chargeable gains are, entrusted to any person in the United Kingdom for payment, any such assessment may be made on the recipient of the income or gains, and, in the case of an assessment in respect of income, may be assessed under Case VI of Schedule D.

(8)Any arrangements to which effect is given under this section may include provision for relief from tax for periods before the passing of this Act, or before the making of the arrangements, and provisions as to income or chargeable gains which is or are not subject to double taxation, and the preceding provisions of this section shall have effect accordingly.

(9)Any Order in Council made under this section revoking an earlier such Order in Council may contain such transitional provisions as appear to Her Majesty to be necessary or expedient.

(10)Before any Order in Council proposed to be made under this section is submitted to Her Majesty in Council, a draft of the Order shall be laid before the House of Commons, and the Order shall not be so submitted unless an Address is presented to Her Majesty by that House praying that the Order be made.

789Arrangements made under old law

(1)Notwithstanding section 793(2), any arrangements made in relation to the profits tax under section 347 of the [1952 c. 10.] Income Tax Act 1952 or any earlier enactment corresponding to that section shall, except in so far as arrangements made after the passing of the [1965 c. 25.] Finance Act 1965 provide otherwise, have effect in relation to corporation tax and income and gains chargeable to corporation tax as they are expressed to have effect in relation to the profits tax and profits chargeable to the profits tax, with the substitution of accounting periods for chargeable accounting periods (and not as they had effect in relation to income tax).

(2)In so far as any arrangements made before 30th March 1971 provide for the exemption of any income from surtax they shall have effect, unless otherwise modified by subsequent arrangements, as if they provided for that income to bear income tax at the basic rate and to be disregarded for the purpose of computing total income, except in so far as the computation affects the matters mentioned in section 835(5).

(3)Any reference in the Tax Acts (including this Part) to arrangements under or by virtue of section 788 includes a reference to arrangements having effect by virtue of this section.

790Unilateral relief

(1)To the extent appearing from the following provisions of this section, relief from income tax and corporation tax in respect of income and chargeable gains shall be given in respect of tax payable under the law of any territory outside the United Kingdom by allowing that tax as a credit against income tax or corporation tax, notwithstanding that there are not for the time being in force any arrangements under section 788 providing for such relief.

(2)Relief under subsection (1) above is referred to in this Part as “unilateral relief”.

(3)Unilateral relief shall be such relief as would fall to be given under Chapter II of this Part if arrangements with the government of the territory in question containing the provisions specified in subsections (4) to (10) below were in force by virtue of section 788, but subject to any particular provision made with respect to unilateral relief in that Chapter; and any expression in that Chapter which imports a reference to relief under arrangements for the time being having effect by virtue of that section shall be deemed to import also a reference to unilateral relief.

(4)Credit for tax paid under the law of the territory outside the United Kingdom and computed by reference to income arising or any chargeable gain accruing in that territory shall be allowed against any United Kingdom income tax or corporation tax computed by reference to that income or gain (profits from, or remuneration for, personal or professional services performed in that territory being deemed for this purpose to be income arising in that territory).

(5)Subsection (4) above shall have effect subject to the following modifications, that is to say—

(a)where the territory is the Isle of Man or any of the Channel Islands, the limitation to income or gains arising in the territory shall not apply;

(b)where arrangements with the government of the territory are for the time being in force by virtue of section 788, credit for tax paid under the law of the territory shall not be allowed by virtue of subsection (4) above in the case of any income or gains if any credit for that tax is allowable under those arrangements in respect of that income or those gains; and

(c)credit shall not be allowed by virtue of subsection (4) above for overseas tax on a dividend paid by a company resident in the territory unless—

(i)the overseas tax is directly charged on the dividend, whether by charge to tax, deduction of tax at source or otherwise, and the whole of it represents tax which neither the company nor the recipient would have borne if the dividend had not been paid; or

(ii)the dividend is paid to a company within subsection (6) below; or

(iii)the dividend is paid to a company to which section 802(1) applies and is a dividend of the kind described in that subsection.

(6)Where a dividend paid by a company resident in the territory is paid to a company resident in the United Kingdom which either directly or indirectly controls, or is a subsidiary of a company which directly or indirectly controls—

(a)not less than 10 per cent. of the voting power in the company paying the dividend; or

(b)less than 10 per cent. of the voting power in the company paying the dividend if—

(i)it has been reduced below that percentage on or after 1st April 1972; or

(ii)it has been acquired on or after that date in exchange for voting power in another company in respect of which relief under this subsection by virtue of paragraph (a) above was due prior to the exchange;

and the company receiving the dividend shows that the conditions specified in subsection (7) below are satisfied;

any tax in respect of its profits paid under the law of the territory by the company paying the dividend shall be taken into account in considering whether any, and if so what, credit is to be allowed in respect of the dividend.

In this subsection references to one company being a subsidiary of another are to be construed in accordance with section 792(2).

(7)The conditions referred to in subsection (6)(b) above are as follows—

(a)that the reduction below the 10 per cent. limit (and any further reduction) or, as the case may be, the exchange (and any reduction thereafter) could not have been prevented by any reasonable endeavours on the part of the company receiving the dividend and was due to a cause or causes not reasonably foreseeable by it when control of the relevant voting power was acquired; and

(b)no reasonable endeavours on the part of that company could have restored or, as the case may be, increased the voting power to not less than 10 per cent.

(8)In subsection (7) above references to the company receiving the dividend include references—

(a)to any company of which it is a subsidiary within the meaning of section 792(2); and

(b)where prior to the reduction or exchange the voting power in question was controlled otherwise than directly by the company receiving the dividend, to each other company relevant for determining whether that voting power was controlled as required by subsection (6)(a) above.

(9)In subsection (7) above “the relevant voting power” means the voting power by virtue of which relief was due under subsection (6)(a) above prior to the reduction or exchange or, where control of the whole of that voting power was not acquired at the same time, that part of the voting power of which control was last acquired.

(10)In any case in which relief in respect of a dividend is due by virtue of subsection (6)(b) above, there shall be taken into account, as if it were tax payable under the law of the territory in which the company paying the dividend is resident, any tax that would be so taken into account under section 801 if the company paying the dividend and the company receiving it were related to each other within the meaning of section 801(5).

(11)Where—

(a)unilateral relief may by given in respect of any income or chargeable gain, and

(b)it appears that the assessment to income tax or corporation tax made in respect of the income or chargeable gain is not made in respect of the full amount thereof, or is incorrect having regard to the credit, if any, which falls to be given by way of unilateral relief,

any such assessments may be made as are necessary to ensure that the total amount of the income or chargeable gain is assessed, and the proper credit, if any, is given in respect thereof, and, where the income is, or the chargeable gain is, entrusted to any person in the United Kingdom for payment, any such assessment may be made on the recipient of the income or gain, and, in the case of an assessment in respect of income, may be assessed under Case VI of Schedule D.

(12)In this section and in Chapter II of this Part in its application to unilateral relief, references to tax payable or paid under the law of a territory outside the United Kingdom include only references—

(a)to taxes which are charged on income and which correspond to United Kingdom income tax, and

(b)to taxes which are charged on income or chargeable gains and which correspond to United Kingdom corporation tax;

but for this purpose tax under the law of any such territory shall not be treated as not corresponding to income tax or corporation tax by reason only that it is payable under the law of a province, state or other part of a country, or is levied by or on behalf of a municipality or other local body.

791Power to make regulations for carrying out section 788

The Board may from time to time make regulations generally for carrying out the provisions of section 788 or any arrangements having effect thereunder, and may in particular by those regulations provide—

(a)for securing that relief from taxation imposed by the laws of the territory to which any such arrangements relate does not enure for the benefit of persons not entitled to such relief; and

(b)for authorising, in cases where tax deductible from any payment has, in order to comply with any such arrangements, not been deducted, and it is discovered that the arrangements did not apply to that payment, the recovery of the tax by assessment on the person entitled to the payment or by deduction from subsequent payments.

CHAPTER IIRULES GOVERNING RELIEF BY WAY OF CREDIT

General

792Interpretation of credit code

(1)In this Chapter, except where the context otherwise requires—

  • “arrangements” means any arrangements having effect by virtue of section 788;

  • “foreign tax” means, in relation to any territory, arrangements with the government of which have effect by virtue of section 788, any tax chargeable under the laws of that territory for which credit may be allowed under the arrangements;

  • “the United Kingdom taxes” means income tax and corporation tax;

  • “underlying tax” means, in relation to any dividend, tax which is not chargeable in respect of that dividend directly or by deduction; and

  • “unilateral relief” means relief under section 790.

(2)For the purposes of this Chapter one company is a subsidiary of another if the other company controls, directly or indirectly, not less than 50 per cent. of the voting power in the first company.

(3)Any reference in this Chapter to foreign tax shall be construed in relation to credit to be allowed under any arrangements as a reference only to tax chargeable under the laws of the territory with the government of which the arrangements were made.

793Reduction of United Kingdom taxes by amount of credit due

(1)Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, where under any arrangements credit is to be allowed against any of the United Kingdom taxes chargeable in respect of any income or chargeable gain, the amount of the United Kingdom taxes so chargeable shall be reduced by the amount of the credit.

(2)Nothing in subsection (1) above authorises the allowance of credit against any United Kingdom tax against which credit is not allowable under the arrangements.

794Requirement as to residence

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, credit shall not be allowed under any arrangements against any of the United Kingdom taxes for any chargeable period unless the person in respect of whose income or chargeable gains the United Kingdom tax is chargeable is resident in the United Kingdom for that period.

(2)Credit may be allowed by way of unilateral relief—

(a)for tax paid under the law of the Isle of Man or any of the Channel Islands, if the person in question is, for the chargeable period in question, resident either in the United Kingdom or in the Isle of Man or any of the Channel Islands, as the case may be;

(b)for tax paid under the law of any territory and computed by reference to income from an office or employment the duties of which are performed wholly or mainly in that territory, against income tax chargeable under Schedule E and computed by reference to that income, if the person in question is for the year of assessment in question resident either in the United Kingdom or that territory; and

(c)for tax paid under the law of any territory in respect of interest on a loan where the following conditions are fulfilled, namely—

(i)that the person in question is a company which, for the chargeable period in question, carries on a banking business in the United Kingdom through a branch or agency;

(ii)that the loan was made by the company through the branch or agency in the United Kingdom;

(iii)that the territory under whose law the tax was paid is not one in which the company is liable to tax by reason of domicile, residence or place of management; and

(iv)that the amount of relief claimed does not exceed (or is by the claim expressly limited to) that which would have been available if the branch or agency had been a company resident in the United Kingdom and the loan had been made by it in the course of its banking business.

795Computation of income subject to foreign tax

(1)Where credit for foreign tax falls under any arrangements to be allowed in respect of any income and income tax is payable by reference to the amount received in the United Kingdom, the amount received shall be treated for the purposes of income tax as increased by the amount of the foreign tax in respect of the income, including in the case of a dividend any underlying tax which under the arrangements is to be taken into account in considering whether any and if so what credit is to be allowed in respect of the dividend.

(2)Where credit for foreign tax falls under any arrangements to be allowed in respect of any income or gain and subsection (1) above does not apply, then, in computing the amount of the income or gain for the purposes of income tax or corporation tax—

(a)no deduction shall be made for foreign tax, whether in respect of the same or any other income or gain; and

(b)the amount of the income shall, in the case of a dividend, be treated as increased by any underlying tax which, under the arrangements, is to be taken into account in considering whether any and if so what credit is to be allowed in respect of the dividend.

(3)The amount of any income or gain shall not be treated as increased under this section by reference to any foreign tax which, although not payable, falls to be taken into account for the purposes of section 788(5).

796Limits on credit: income tax

(1)The amount of the credit for foreign tax which, under any arrangements, is to be allowed to a person against income tax for any year of assessment shall not exceed the difference between the amounts of income tax which would be borne by him for the year (no credit being allowed for foreign tax)—

(a)if he were charged to tax on his total income for the year, computed in accordance with section 795; and

(b)if he were charged to tax on the same income, computed in the same way, but excluding the income in respect of which the credit is to be allowed.

(2)Where credit for foreign tax is to be allowed in respect of income from more than one source, subsection (1) above shall be applied successively to the income from each source, but so that on each successive application, paragraph (a) shall apply to the total income exclusive of the income to which the subsection has already been applied.

(3)Without prejudice to subsections (1) and (2) above, the total credit for foreign tax to be allowed to a person against income tax for any year of assessment under all arrangements having effect by virtue of section 788 shall not exceed the total income tax payable by him for that year of assessment, less any income tax which he is entitled to charge against any other person.

797Limits on credit: corporation tax

(1)The amount of the credit for foreign tax which under any arrangements is to be allowed against corporation tax in respect of any income or chargeable gain (“the relevant income or gain”) shall not exceed the corporation tax attributable to the relevant income or gain, determined in accordance with subsections (2) and (3) below.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, the amount of corporation tax attributable to the relevant income or gain shall be treated as equal to such proportion of the amount of that income or gain as corresponds to the rate of corporation tax payable by the company (before any credit under this Part) on its income or chargeable gains for the accounting period in which the income arises or the gain accrues (“the relevant accounting period”).

(3)Where in the relevant accounting period there is any deduction to be made for charges on income, expenses of management or other amounts which can be deducted from or set against or treated as reducing profits of more than one description—

(a)the company may for the purposes of this section allocate the deduction in such amounts and to such of its profits for that period as it thinks fit; and

(b)the amount of the relevant income or gain shall be treated for the purposes of subsection (2) above as reduced or, as the case may be, extinguished by so much (if any) of the deduction as is allocated to it.

(4)Where in accordance with section 239 any advance corporation tax falls to be set against the company’s liability to corporation tax on its profits (within the meaning of that section) for the relevant accounting period—

(a)so far as that liability relates to the relevant income or gain, it shall be taken to be reduced by the amount of the credit for foreign tax attributable to that income or gain, as determined in accordance with subsections (2) and (3) above; and

(b)the amount of advance corporation tax which may be set against that liability, so far as it relates to the relevant income or gain, shall not exceed whichever is the lower of the limits specified in subsection (5) below;

and section 239(2) shall have effect in relation only to so much of the profits of the company chargeable to corporation tax for that period as does not include the relevant income or gain.

(5)In relation to an amount of income or gain in respect of which the company’s liability to corporation tax is taken to be reduced as mentioned in paragraph (a) of subsection (4) above, the limits referred to in paragraph (b) of that subsection are—

(a)the limit which would apply under section 239(2) if that amount of income or gain were the company’s only income or gain for the relevant accounting period; and

(b)the amount of corporation tax for which, after taking account of that reduction, the company is liable in respect of that amount of income or gain.

798Interest on certain overseas loans

(1)This section applies in a case where—

(a)in any chargeable period the profits of any person (“the lender”) which are brought into charge to income tax or corporation tax include an amount computed in accordance with section 795 in respect of interest (“foreign loan interest”) on a loan made to a person resident outside the United Kingdom; and

(b)in determining the liability of the lender to income tax or corporation tax, expenditure related to the earning of the foreign loan interest is deductible in computing the profits referred to in paragraph (a) above; and

(c)the lender is entitled in accordance with this Chapter to credit for foreign tax chargeable on or by reference to the foreign loan interest;

and for the purpose only of determining whether the condition in paragraph (b) above is fulfilled in a case where the lender has in fact incurred no expenditure related to the earning of the foreign loan interest, it shall be assumed that he has incurred such expenditure.

(2)In subsection (1) above “interest”, in relation to a loan, includes any introductory or other fee or charge which is payable in accordance with the terms on which the loan is made or is otherwise payable in connection with the making of the loan; and any reference in this section to foreign loan interest shall be construed accordingly.

(3)If in a case where this section applies the foreign tax referred to in subsection (1)(c) above is or includes an amount of spared tax, then for the purposes of income tax or corporation tax the amount which apart from this subsection would be the amount of the foreign loan interest shall be treated as increased by so much of the spared tax as does not exceed the permitted amount, as defined in subsection (4) below; but nothing in this subsection prejudices the operation of section 795 in relation to foreign tax which is not spared tax.

(4)In this section “spared tax” means foreign tax which although not payable falls to be taken into account for the purposes of credit by virtue of section 788(5); and the permitted amount, in relation to spared tax which is referable to the whole or any part of the foreign loan interest, is an amount which does not exceed—

(a)15 per cent. of the interest to which the spared tax is referable, computed without regard to any increase under subsection (3) above; or

(b)if it is less, the amount of that spared tax for which, in accordance with any arrangements applicable to the case in question, credit falls to be given as mentioned in subsection (1)(c) above.

(5)If in a case where this section applies—

(a)the foreign tax referred to in subsection (1)(c) above is or includes an amount of tax which is not spared tax; and

(b)the amount of tax exceeds—

(i)the amount of the credit which, by virtue of this Chapter (but disregarding subsection (6) below), is allowed for that foreign tax against income tax or corporation tax; or

(ii)if it is less, 15 per cent. of the foreign loan interest, computed without regard to any increase or reduction under this section,

then, for the purposes of income tax or corporation tax, the amount which, apart from this subsection, would be the amount of the foreign loan interest shall be treated as reduced by a sum equal to the excess.

(6)Where this section applies, the amount of the credit for foreign tax referred to in subsection (1)(c) above which, in accordance with this Chapter, is to be allowed against income tax or corporation tax—

(a)shall be limited by treating the amount of the foreign loan interest (as increased or reduced under subsection (3) or (5) above) as reduced (or further reduced) for the purposes of this Chapter by an amount equal to so much of the lender’s financial expenditure in relation to the loan concerned as is properly attributable to the period for which the interest is paid; and

(b)shall not exceed 15 per cent. of the foreign loan interest, computed without regard to paragraph (a) above or to any increase under subsection (3) above or any reduction under subsection (5) above.

(7)For the purposes of this section the lender’s financial expenditure in relation to a loan is the aggregate of—

(a)the financial expenses (consisting of interest or similar sums) incurred by the lender in or in connection with the provision of the loan, so far as those expenses consist of payments which either are charges on income for the purposes of corporation tax or are deductible in computing profits of the lender which are brought into charge to income tax or corporation tax; and

(b)where the loan is financed by the issue of securities at a discount by the lender, so much of the amount of the discount as either constitutes such a charge as is mentioned in paragraph (a) above or is deductible as mentioned in that paragraph; and

(c)so much as it is just and reasonable to attribute to the loan of any interest or other return foregone by a person connected or associated with the lender in connection with the provision of funds to the lender, either interest free or in other circumstances more favourable to the lender than if the parties were at arm’s length; and

(d)any other sum, whether paid by way of refund of tax or interest or by way of commission, which—

(i)is paid by the lender or a person connected or associated with him;

(ii)is paid directly or indirectly to the borrower or a person connected or associated with him;

(iii)is deductible as mentioned in paragraph (a) above;

(iv)would not, apart from this paragraph, be taken into account in determining the amount of the foreign loan interest; and

(v)it is reasonable to regard as referable to the loan or the foreign loan interest (or both).

(8)In a case where the amount of the lender’s financial expenditure in relation to a loan is not readily ascertainable, that amount shall be taken, subject to subsection (9) below, to be such sum as it is just and reasonable to attribute to the financing of the loan, having regard, in particular, to any market rates of interest by reference to which the rate of interest on the loan is determined.

(9)The Board may by regulations supplement subsection (8) above—

(a)by specifying matters to be taken into account in determining such a just and reasonable attribution as is referred to in that subsection; and

(b)by making provision with respect to the determination of market rates of interest for the purposes of that subsection;

and any such regulations may make different provision for different cases.

(10)For the purposes of this section—

(a)section 839 applies; and

(b)subsection (10) of section 783 applies as it applies for the purposes of that section.

(11)Where the loan on which the foreign loan interest is payable was made pursuant to an agreement entered into before 1st April 1987, this section shall have effect subject to the following modifications in relation to interest payable before 1st April 1989—

(a)in subsection (1) in paragraph (a) the words “in a territory” shall be inserted after “resident” and the words following paragraph (c) shall be omitted;

(b)subsection (2) shall be omitted;

(c)in subsection (5) for paragraph (b) there shall be substituted—

(b)that amount of tax exceeds the amount of the credit which, by virtue of this Chapter and in particular subsection (6) below, is allowed for that foreign tax against income tax or corporation tax;and

(d)for subsections (6) to (10) there shall be substituted—

(6)Where this section applies, the amount of the credit for foreign tax referred to in subsection (1)(c) above which, in accordance with this Chapter, is to be allowed against income tax or corporation tax shall not exceed 15 per cent. of the foreign loan interest, computed without regard to any increase under subsection (3) or any reduction under subsection (5) above.;

but subject to that, this section applies whether the loan was made before or after the passing of this Act.

Tax underlying dividends

799Computation of underlying tax

(1)Where in the case of any dividend arrangements provide for underlying tax to be taken into account in considering whether any and if so what credit is to be allowed against the United Kingdom taxes in respect of the dividend, the tax to be taken into account by virtue of that provision shall be so much of the foreign tax borne on the relevant profits by the body corporate paying the dividend as is properly attributable to the proportion of the relevant profits represented by the dividend.

(2)Where under the foreign tax law the dividend has been increased for tax purposes by an amount to be set off against the recipient’s own tax under that law or, to the extent that it exceeds his own tax thereunder, paid to him, then, from the amount of the underlying tax to be taken into account under subsection (1) above there is to be subtracted the amount of that increase.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (1) above the relevant profits, subject to subsection (4) below, are—

(a)if the dividend is paid for a specified period, the profits of that period;

(b)if the dividend is not paid for a specified period, but is paid out of specified profits, those profits; and

(c)if the dividend is paid neither for a specified period nor out of specified profits, the profits of the last period for which accounts of the body corporate were made up which ended before the dividend became payable.

(4)If, in a case falling under paragraph (a) or (c) of subsection (3) above, the total dividend exceeds the profits available for distribution of the period mentioned in that paragraph the relevant profits shall be the profits of that period plus so much of the profits available for distribution of preceding periods (other than profits previously distributed or previously treated as relevant profits for the purposes of this section or section 506 of the 1970 Act) as is equal to the excess; and for the purposes of this subsection the profits of the most recent preceding period shall first be taken into account, then the profits of the next most recent preceding period, and so on.

800Dividends paid between related companies but not covered by arrangements

Where—

(a)arrangements provide, in relation to dividends of some classes but not in relation to dividends of other classes, that underlying tax is to be taken into account in considering whether any, and if so what, credit is to be allowed against the United Kingdom taxes in respect of the dividends; and

(b)a dividend is paid which is not of a class in relation to which the arrangements so provide;

then, if the dividend is paid to a company which controls directly or indirectly, or is a subsidiary of a company which controls directly or indirectly, not less than 10 per cent. of the voting power in the company paying the dividend, credit shall be allowed as if the dividend were a dividend of a class in relation to which the arrangements so provide.

801Dividends paid between related companies: relief for U.K. and third country taxes

(1)Where a company resident outside the United Kingdom (“the overseas company”) pays a dividend to a company resident in the United Kingdom (“the United Kingdom company”) and the overseas company is related to the United Kingdom company, then for the purpose of allowing credit under any arrangements against corporation tax in respect of the dividend, there shall be taken into account, as if it were tax payable under the law of the territory in which the overseas company is resident—

(a)any United Kingdom income tax or corporation tax payable by the overseas company in respect of its profits; and

(b)any tax which, under the law of any other territory, is payable by the overseas company in respect of its profits.

(2)Where the overseas company has received a dividend from a third company and the third company is related to the overseas company, then, subject to subsection (4) below, there shall be treated for the purposes of subsection (1) above as tax paid by the overseas company in respect of its profits any underlying tax payable by the third company, to the extent that it would be taken into account under this Part if the dividend had been paid by a company resident outside the United Kingdom to a company resident in the United Kingdom and arrangements had provided for underlying tax to be taken into account.

(3)Where the third company has received a dividend from a fourth company and the fourth company is related to the third company, then, subject to subsection (4) below, tax payable by the fourth company shall similarly be treated for the purposes of subsection (2) above as tax paid by the third company; and so on for successive companies each of which is related to the one before.

(4)Subsections (2) and (3) above are subject to the following limitations—

(a)no tax shall be taken into account in respect of a dividend paid by a company resident in the United Kingdom except United Kingdom corporation tax and any tax for which that company is entitled to credit under this Part; and

(b)no tax shall be taken into account in respect of a dividend paid by a company resident outside the United Kingdom to another such company unless it could have been taken into account under the other provisions of this Part had the other company been resident in the United Kingdom.

(5)For the purposes of this section a company is related to another company if that other company—

(a)controls directly or indirectly, or

(b)is a subsidiary of a company which controls directly or indirectly,

not less than 10 per cent. of the voting power in the first-mentioned company.

802U.K. insurance companies trading overseas

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, where—

(a)a company resident in the United Kingdom is charged to tax under Case I of Schedule D in respect of any insurance business carried on by it, and

(b)that business or any part of it is carried on through a branch or agency in a territory outside the United Kingdom,

then, in respect of dividends referable to that business which are paid to the company by companies resident in that territory, any tax payable by those companies in respect of their profits under the law of that or any other territory outside the United Kingdom, and any United Kingdom income tax or corporation tax so payable, shall, in considering whether any and if so what credit is to be allowed under any arrangements, be taken into account as tax so payable under the law of the first-mentioned territory is taken into account in a case falling within section 799.

(2)Credit shall not be allowed to a company by virtue of subsection (1) above for any financial year in respect of a greater amount of dividends paid by companies resident in any overseas territory than is equal to any excess of—

(a)the relevant fraction of the company’s total income in that year from investments (including franked investment income and group income) so far as referable to the business referred to in subsection (1) above;

over

(b)the amount of the dividends so referable which are paid to it in the year by companies resident in that territory and in respect of which credit may, apart from subsection (1) above, be allowed to it for underlying tax.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) above the relevant fraction, in relation to any overseas territory, is—

Formula - A divide by B

where—

  • A is the company’s local premium income in the financial year so far as referable to the business referred to in subsection (1) above;

  • B is the company’s total premium income in the financial year so far as referable to that business;

and premium income shall be deemed to be local premium income in so far as it consists of premiums under contracts entered into at or through a branch or agency in that territory by persons not resident in the United Kingdom.

803Underlying tax reflecting interest on loans

(1)This section applies in a case where—

(a)a bank or a company connected with a bank makes a claim for an allowance by way of credit in accordance with this Chapter; and

(b)the claim relates to underlying tax on a dividend paid by the overseas company, within the meaning of section 801; and

(c)that underlying tax is or includes tax payable under the law of a territory outside the United Kingdom on or by reference to interest on a loan made in the course of its business by that overseas company or by such third, fourth or successive company as is referred to in subsection (2) or (3) of that section; and

(d)if the company which made the loan had been resident in the United Kingdom, then, in determining its liability to corporation tax, expenditure related to the earning of the interest on the loan would be deductible in computing the profits of the company brought into charge to tax.

(2)In a case where this section applies, the amount of the credit for that part of the foreign tax which consists of the tax referred to in subsection (1)(c) above shall not exceed an amount determined under subsection (3) below.

(3)The amount referred to in subsection (2) above is a sum equal to corporation tax, at the rate in force at the time the foreign tax referred to in paragraph (c) of subsection (1) above was chargeable, on so much of the interest on the loan as exceeds the amount of the lender’s relevant expenditure which is properly attributable to the period for which that interest is paid.

(4)In subsection (3) above—

(a)“interest”, subject to subsection (5) below, has the meaning assigned to it by section 798(2); and

(b)“the lender’s relevant expenditure” means the amount which, if the company referred to in subsection (1)(d) above were resident in the United Kingdom (and liable to tax accordingly) would be its financial expenditure in relation to the loan, as determined in accordance with section 798(6) to (10).

(5)If, in accordance with subsection (6) or subsection (8) below, the amount of the dividend would be treated for the purposes of corporation tax as increased or reduced by any amount, then the amount which, apart from this subsection, would be the amount of the interest referred to in subsection (3) above shall be taken to be increased or reduced by the same amount as the dividend is so treated as increased or reduced.

(6)If, in a case where this section applies, the underlying tax is or includes an amount of spared tax, then, for the purposes of corporation tax, the amount which apart from this subsection would be the amount of the dividend shall be treated as increased by an amount equal to so much of that spared tax as does not exceed the permitted amount; but nothing in this subsection prejudices the operation of section 795 in relation to foreign tax which is not spared tax.

(7)In this section—

(a)“spared tax” has the same meaning as in section 798; and

(b)the permitted amount, in relation to spared tax which is referable to the whole or any part of the interest referred to in subsection (1)(c) above, is an amount which does not exceed—

(i)15 per cent. of the interest to which that spared tax is referable; or

(ii)if it is less, the amount of that spared tax which under any arrangements is to be taken into account for the purpose of allowing credit against corporation tax in respect of the dividend concerned.

(8)If, in a case where this section applies—

(a)the underlying tax is or includes an amount of tax which is not spared tax, and

(b)that amount of tax exceeds 15 per cent. of the interest to which it is referable,

then, for the purposes of corporation tax, the amount which would apart from this subsection be the amount of the dividend shall be treated as reduced by a sum equal to the excess.

(9)Where this section applies, the amount of the credit referred to in paragraph (a) of subsection (1) above which is referable to the underlying tax payable as mentioned in paragraph (c) of that subsection shall not exceed 15 per cent. of so much of the interest referred to in that paragraph as is included in the relevant profits of the company paying the dividend; and for the purposes of this subsection—

(a)“relevant profits” has the same meaning as, by virtue of section 799, it has for the purposes of the computation of underlying tax; and

(b)the amount of the interest shall be determined without making any deduction in respect of any foreign tax.

(10)In subsection (1) above “bank” means a company carrying on, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere—

(a)a banking business; or

(b)another business which includes the making of loans where the circumstances of the business are such that, in determining the liability of the company to corporation tax, expenditure related to the earning of the interest on those loans is deductible in computing the profits brought into charge to tax;

and section 839 applies for the purposes of subsection (1) above.

(11)Where the loan referred to in subsection (1)(c) was made pursuant to an agreement entered into before 1st April 1987, subsections (2) to (5) above shall not apply in relation to tax payable as mentioned in subsection (1)(c) above by reference to interest payable before 1st April 1989, but subject to that, this section applies whenever the loan referred to in subsection (1)(c) was made.

Miscellaneous rules

804Relief against income tax in respect of income arising in years of commencement

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, credit for overseas tax paid in respect of any income arising in the years of commencement shall be allowed under this Part against United Kingdom income tax chargeable for any year of assessment in respect of that income if it would have been so allowed but for the fact that credit for that overseas tax had been allowed against the United Kingdom income tax chargeable in respect of that income for a previous year of assessment.

(2)The amount of credit to be allowed in respect of any income by virtue of this section for any year of assessment shall not exceed the difference between—

(a)the total credit allowable against income tax in respect of that income under this Part (including this section) for all years of assessment for which credit is so allowable; and

(b)the amount of credit which was in fact so allowed in respect of that income for any earlier year or years of assessment.

(3)The total credit so allowable in respect of any income for all those years of assessment shall be taken to be the amount of the overseas tax charged on that income, adjusted where the number of the United Kingdom periods of assessment exceeds the number of foreign periods of assessment, in the proportion which the former number bears to the latter, a period for which part only of the income is charged to tax being counted not as one period but as a fraction equal to the proportion which that part of the income bears to the whole of the income.

(4)Where the same income is charged to different overseas taxes for different foreign periods of assessment, subsection (3) above, so far as it relates to the adjustment of overseas tax, shall be applied separately to each of the overseas taxes, and the total credit allowable shall be the aggregate of those taxes after the making of any adjustments in accordance with that subsection as so applied.

(5)Where credit against income tax for any year of assessment is allowed by virtue of subsection (1) above in respect of any income (“the original income”) and subsequently by reason of the enactments relating to cessations, income arising in a non-basis period from the same source as the original income is not assessed to income tax, then if the amount of credit allowed against income tax in respect of the original income under this Part (including this section) for all years of assessment for which credit is so allowable exceeds the aggregate of the following amounts—

(a)the amount of the credit against income tax which would have been allowed apart from subsection (1) above for all those years in respect of the original income; and

(b)the amount of the overseas tax for which, under this Part, credit would have been allowable against income tax in respect of income arising in the non-basis period from the same source as the original income,

the person chargeable in respect of income (if any) from the same source in the year of assessment following the non-basis period shall be treated as having received in that year a payment chargeable under Case VI of Schedule D of an amount such that income tax thereon at the basic rate is equal to the excess.

(6)Any payment which a person is treated by virtue of subsection (5) above as having received shall not on that account constitute income of his for any of the purposes of the Income Tax Acts other than that subsection and in particular no part thereof shall constitute profits or gains brought into charge to income tax for the purposes of section 348.

(7)Any claim for relief by way of credit under subsection (1) above against income tax for any year of assessment shall be made within six years of the end of that year or, where there is more than one year of assessment in respect of which such relief may be given, within six years of the end of the later of them.

(8)In this section—

  • “overseas tax” means tax under the law of a territory outside the United Kingdom;

  • “non-basis period” means a period the income arising in which is, by reason only of the operation of the enactments relating to cessations, not chargeable to United Kingdom income tax for any year of assessment;

  • “United Kingdom period of assessment” and “foreign period of assessment”, in relation to any income, mean respectively a year or other period for which under the relevant law the income falls to be charged to the relevant tax;

  • “years of commencement”, in relation to income from any source, means the first three years of assessment for which income from that source falls to be assessed to income tax, and also, in the case of profits or gains chargeable to tax under Case I or II of Schedule D, the whole of any period falling partly within those years such that the profits or gains arising in the period fall to be assessed to income tax for a year of assessment later than those years;

    • references to the enactments relating to cessations are references to sections 63, 67 and 113; and

    • references to income arising in any year include, in relation to income the income tax on which is to be computed by reference to the amount of income received in the United Kingdom, references to income received in that year.

805Elections against credit

Credit shall not be allowed under any arrangements against the United Kingdom taxes chargeable in respect of any income or chargeable gains of any person if he elects that credit shall not be allowed in respect of that income or those gains.

806Time limit for claims etc

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below and section 804(7), any claim for an allowance under any arrangements by way of credit for foreign tax in respect of any income or chargeable gain shall be made not later than six years from the end of the chargeable period for which the income or the gain falls to be charged to income tax or corporation tax, or would fall to be so charged if any income tax or corporation tax were chargeable in respect of the income or gain.

(2)Where the amount of any credit given under the arrangements is rendered excessive or insufficient by reason of any adjustment of the amount of any tax payable either in the United Kingdom or under the laws of any other territory, nothing in the Tax Acts limiting the time for the making of assessments or claims for relief shall apply to any assessment or claim to which the adjustment gives rise, being an assessment or claim made not later than six years from the time when all such assessments, adjustments and other determinations have been made, whether in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, as are material in determining whether any and if so what credit falls to be given.

CHAPTER IIIMISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

807Sale of securities with or without accrued interest

(1)In any case where—

(a)a person is treated under section 714(2) as receiving annual profits or gains on the day an interest period ends; and

(b)assuming that, in the chargeable period in which the day falls, he were to become entitled to any interest on the securities concerned, he would be liable in respect of the interest to tax chargeable under Case IV or V of Schedule D; and

(c)he is liable under the law of a territory outside the United Kingdom to tax in respect of interest payable on the securities at the end of the interest period or he would be so liable if he were entitled to that interest,

credit of an amount equal to the relevant proportion of the profits or gains shall be allowed against any United Kingdom income tax or corporation tax computed by reference to the profits or gains, and shall be treated as if it were allowed under section 790(4).

In this subsection the relevant proportion is the rate of tax to which the person is or would be liable as mentioned in paragraph (c) above.

(2)In any case where—

(a)a person is entitled to credit against United Kingdom tax under section 790(4) or any corresponding provision of arrangements under section 788; and

(b)the tax is computed by reference to income consisting of interest which falls due on securities at the end of an interest period and which is treated as reduced by virtue of section 714(5);

then the amount of that credit shall be a proportion of the amount it would be apart from this subsection, and the proportion is to be found by applying the formula—

Formula - I subtract R divide by I

where—

  • I is the amount of the interest; and

  • R is the amount by which it is treated as reduced.

(3)Where the person entitled to the credit is an individual, subsection (2) above does not apply unless the interest arises from securities to which the person either became or ceased to be entitled during the interest period.

(4)Where section 811(1) applies to any income and, if credit were allowable in respect of it the credit would be reduced by virtue of subsection (2) above, section 811(1) shall have effect in relation to the income as if the reference to any sum paid in respect of tax on it were a reference to the amount which would be the amount of the credit if it were allowable and subsection (2) above applied.

(5)Sections 710 and 711 shall apply for the interpretation of this section.

808Restriction on deduction of interest or dividends from trading income

In the case of a person not resident in the United Kingdom who carries on in the United Kingdom a banking business, an insurance business or a business consisting wholly or partly in dealing in securities, receipts of interest or dividend which have been treated as tax-exempt under arrangements having effect by virtue of section 788 are not to be excluded from trading income or profits of the business so as to give rise to losses to be set off (under section 393 or 436) against income or profits.

In this section “securities” includes stocks and shares.

809Relief in respect of discretionary trusts

(1)In any case where—

(a)a payment made by trustees falls to be treated as a net amount in accordance with section 687(2) and the income arising under the trust includes any taxed overseas income, and

(b)the trustees certify that—

(i)the income out of which the payment was made was or included taxed overseas income of an amount and from a source stated in the certificate, and

(ii)that amount arose to them not earlier than six years before the end of the year of assessment in which the payment was made;

then the person to whom the payment was made may claim that the payment, up to the amount so certified, shall be treated for the purposes of this Part as income received by him from that source and so received in the year in which the payment was made.

(2)In subsection (1) above “taxed overseas income”, in relation to any trust, means income in respect of which the trustees are entitled to credit for overseas tax under this Part.

810Postponement of capital allowances to secure double taxation relief

(1)Where—

(a)a person chargeable to tax under Schedule D in respect of a trade is liable to overseas tax in respect of any income arising from the trade, being overseas tax for which relief may be given by way of credit, repayment or set off under the preceding provisions of this Part, and

(b)the conditions specified in subsection (2) below are satisfied,

he may, in claiming the relief in respect of that income, claim a postponement under this section of the relevant capital allowances operating to reduce that income for the purposes of tax for any chargeable period.

(2)The conditions are—

(a)that the law under which the overseas tax is chargeable provides for deductions or allowances to be given corresponding to capital allowances, but on a different basis such that they operate to reduce the income in question (if at all) to a less extent than the capital allowances to which the claim relates, but are calculated to operate to a greater extent than the corresponding capital allowances to reduce income arising subsequently; and

(b)that the relief falling to be so given in respect of the income in question is less than it would be if the capital allowances to which the claim relates operated to reduce the income to the same extent only as the deductions or allowances so provided for.

(3)Where a person claims a postponement under this section of capital allowances for any chargeable period, then—

(a)for the purposes of making the assessment for that period, the amount of those allowances shall be reduced by such amount as may be necessary to secure that they operate to reduce the income only to the extent mentioned in subsection (2)(b) above (or such less amount as the claimant may require); and

(b)for the purpose of making the assessment for the following period that amount shall be added to the amount of the allowances for that period, and shall be deemed to be part of those allowances or, if there are no such allowances for that period, shall be deemed to be the allowances for that period.

(4)For the purposes of any claim under this section—

(a)there shall be taken into account such only of the relevant capital allowances, and the deductions or allowances operating to reduce the income in question for purposes of the overseas tax, as are calculated to give relief in respect of the same expenditure or the same assets; and

(b)no account shall be taken of expenditure incurred or treated for the purposes of Chapter I of Part III of the [1971 c. 68.] Finance Act 1971 as incurred on or after 27th October 1970.

(5)In this section “overseas tax” means tax chargeable under the laws of any territory outside the United Kingdom, and “relevant capital allowances”, in relation to any trade, means capital allowances falling to be made in taxing the trade.

(6)This section applies (with any necessary adaptations) in relation to a profession, employment, vocation or office, and in relation to the occupation of woodlands the profits or gains of which are assessable under Schedule D, as it applies in relation to a trade.

811Deduction for foreign tax where no credit allowable

(1)For the purposes of the Tax Acts, the amount of any income arising in any place outside the United Kingdom shall, subject to subsection (2) below, be treated as reduced by any sum which has been paid in respect of tax on that income in the place where the income has arisen (that is to say, tax payable under the law of a territory outside the United Kingdom).

(2)Subsection (1) above—

(a)shall not apply to income the tax on which is to be computed by reference to the amount of income received in the United Kingdom; and

(b)shall not affect section 278(3); and

(c)shall not affect the liability to tax of an overseas life insurance company for any accounting period for which a charge to corporation tax under Case III of Schedule D arises under section 445 in respect of any of its income from the investments of its life assurance fund (excluding the pension fund and general annuity fund, if any) or for which such a charge would arise if there were such income;

and this section has effect subject to section 795(2).

812Withdrawal of right to tax credit of certain non-resident companies connected with unitary states

(1)In any case where—

(a)a company has, or is an associated company of a company which has, a qualifying presence in a unitary state, and

(b)at any time when it or its associated company has such a qualifying presence, the company is entitled by virtue of arrangements having effect under section 788(1) to a tax credit in respect of qualifying distributions made to it by companies which are resident in the United Kingdom which is equal to one half of the tax credit to which an individual resident in the United Kingdom would be entitled in respect of such distributions,

then, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the arrangements, the company shall not be entitled to claim under section 231(3) to have that tax credit set against the income tax chargeable on its income for the year of assessment in which the distribution is made or, where the credit exceeds that income tax, to have the excess paid to it.

(2)In this section and sections 813 and 814, “unitary state” means a province, state or other part of a territory outside the United Kingdom with the government of which the arrangements referred to in subsection (1) above have been made which, in taxing the income or profits of companies from sources within that province, state or other part, takes into account, or is entitled to take into account, income, receipts, deductions, outgoings or assets of such companies, or associated companies of such companies, arising, expended or situated, as the case may be, outside that territory and which has been prescribed under subsection (6) below as a unitary state for the purposes of this subsection.

(3)A company shall be treated as having a qualifying presence in a unitary state if it is a member of a group and, in any period for which members of the group make up their accounts ending after the relevant date, 7½ per cent. or more in value of the property, payroll or sales of such members situated in, attributable to or derived from the territory outside the United Kingdom, of which that state is a province, state or other part, are situated in, attributable to or derived from that state.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3) above—

(a)7½ per cent. or more in value of such property, payroll or sales as are referred to in that subsection shall be treated as being situated in, attributable to or derived from the state there referred to, unless, on making any claim under section 231(3), the claimant proves otherwise to the satisfaction of the Board; and

(b)the value of the property, payroll or sales of a company shall be taken to be the value as shown in its accounts for the period in question and for this purpose the value of any property consisting of an interest in another member of the group or of any sales made to another such member shall be disregarded.

(5)Except where the context otherwise requires, in this section and sections 813 to 815—

(a)“arrangements” means the arrangements referred to in subsection (1) above;

(b)“group” and “member of a group” shall be construed in accordance with section 272(1) of the 1970 Act with the omission of the restriction in paragraph (a) of that subsection and the substitution of the words “51 per cent.” for the words “75 per cent.” wherever they occur;

(c)section 839 applies;

(d)section 416 applies with the substitution of the words “six years” for “one year” in subsection (1); and

(e)“the relevant date” means the earliest of the following dates—

(i)the date on which this section comes into force;

(ii)the earliest date on which a distribution could have been made in relation to which the provisions of this section and sections 813 and 814 are applied by an order under this section;

(iii)the earliest date on which a distribution could have been made in relation to which the provisions of section 54 of the [1985 c. 54.] Finance Act 1985 were applied by an order under that section.

(6)The Treasury may by order prescribe those provinces, states or other parts of a territory outside the United Kingdom which are to be treated as unitary states for the purposes of subsection (2) above, but no province, state or other part of such a territory shall be so prescribed which only takes into account such income, receipts, deductions, outgoings or assets as are mentioned in that subsection—

(a)if the associated company was incorporated under the law of the territory; or

(b)for the purpose of granting relief in taxing dividends received by companies.

(7)The Treasury may by order prescribe that for subsections (3) and (4) above (or for those subsections as they have effect at any time) there shall be substituted either the following provisions—

(3)A company shall be treated as having a qualifying presence in a unitary state if it is subject to tax in such a state for any period ending after the relevant date for which that state charges tax.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3) above a company shall be regarded as subject to tax in a unitary state if it is liable there to a tax charged on its income or profits by whatever name called and shall be treated as so charged unless it proves otherwise to the satisfaction of the Board.;

or the following provisions—

(3)A company shall be treated as having a qualifying presence in a unitary state if it has its principal place of business in such a state at any time after the relevant date.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3) above—

(a)a company shall be treated as having its principal place of business in a unitary state unless it proves otherwise to the satisfaction of the Board; and

(b)the principal place of business of a company shall include both the place where central management and control of the company is exercised and the place where the immediate day-to-day management of the company as a whole is exercised..

(8)The provisions of this section and sections 813 to 815 shall come into force on such date as the Treasury may by order appoint and the Treasury may in the order prescribe that those provisions shall apply in relation to distributions made, in accounting periods ending after 5th April 1988, before the date on which the order is made.

(9)No order shall be made under this section unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by a resolution of the House of Commons.

813Recovery of tax credits incorrectly paid

(1)Where—

(a)section 812 applies so as to withdraw the entitlement of a company to claim to have a tax credit in respect of a qualifying distribution set against the income tax chargeable on its income and to have the excess of the credit over that income tax paid to it; and

(b)the company (“the recipient company”) has either had that excess paid to it, or has received an additional amount in accordance with arrangements made under Regulation 2(1) of the [S.I. 1973/317.] Double Taxation Relief (Taxes on Income) (General) (Dividend) Regulations 1973;

the recipient company shall be liable to a fine for the violation of the provisions of section 812 equal to twice the amount of the excess or the additional amount, as the case may be.

(2)Any fine payable under subsection (1) above—

(a)shall be payable to the Board;

(b)shall be treated as having become payable at the date when the excess or additional amount was paid to the recipient company; and

(c)may be recovered in accordance with subsections (3) to (7) below;

and any such fine is referred to below as “the recoverable amount”.

(3)The recoverable amount may be assessed and recovered as if it were unpaid tax and section 30 of the Management Act (recovery of overpayment of tax etc.) shall apply accordingly.

(4)Any amount which may be assessed and recovered as if it were unpaid tax by virtue of this section shall carry interest at the rate of 9 per cent. per annum from the date when it was payable in accordance with subsection (1) above until the date it is paid.

(5)It is hereby declared that this section applies to a recoverable amount which is paid without the making of an assessment (but is paid after it is due) and that, where the recoverable amount is charged by any assessment (whether or not any part of it has been paid when the assessment is made), this section applies in relation to interest running before, as well as after, the making of the assessment.

(6)Where the recoverable amount is not paid by the recipient company within six months from the date on which it became payable—

(a)the recoverable amount may at any time within six years from the date on which it became payable be assessed and recovered as if it were unpaid tax due from any person who—

(i)is or was at any time prior to the expiration of that six year period connected with the recipient company, or

(ii)would have been connected on the assumption that all the facts and circumstances relating to the recipient company at the time the excess or additional amount, as the case may be, was paid continued to apply for six years thereafter,

and section 30 of the Management Act shall apply accordingly; and

(b)as respects its accounting periods beginning with that in which the excess or additional amount referred to in subsection (1) above was paid and ending with that following that in which the recoverable amount is paid in accordance with the provisions of this section, the company which made the qualifying distribution in respect of which the recipient company received the excess or additional amount shall not be entitled—

(i)to set any advance corporation tax paid by it against its liability to corporation tax for such periods in accordance with section 239; nor

(ii)to surrender the benefit of the whole or any part of any amount of advance corporation tax to a subsidiary in accordance with section 240 in such periods.

(7)Where a recoverable amount is assessed and recovered from a person connected with the recipient company in accordance with subsection (6)(a) above, that person shall be liable for the interest payable in accordance with subsection (4) above, and until the interest is so paid, subsection (6)(b) above shall apply as if the words “the interest due in accordance with subsection (4) above is paid” were substituted for the words “the recoverable amount is paid in accordance with the provisions of this section”.

(8)Interest payable under this section shall be paid without any deduction of income tax and shall not be allowed as a deduction in computing any income, profits or losses for any tax purposes.

(9)Where under the law in force in a territory outside the United Kingdom interest is payable subject to a deduction in respect of taxation and such deduction applies to an amount of interest paid in accordance with subsection (4) above, the reference to the rate of 9 per cent. per annum in that subsection shall be deemed to be a reference to such rate of interest as after such deduction shall be equal to the rate of 9 per cent. per annum.

814Arrangements to avoid section 812

(1)In any case where arrangements are made, whether before or after the coming into force of this section, as a result of which interest is paid or a discount is allowed by or through a person who is resident in the United Kingdom, or carries on business in the United Kingdom through a branch or agency, and it is reasonable to suppose that, if such payment or allowance had not been made, a qualifying distribution would have been made by that person, or by another company resident in the United Kingdom to a company which has, or is an associated company of a company which has, a qualifying presence in a unitary state at the time when the payment or allowance is made, then—

(a)no person who receives that payment or allowance shall be entitled to relief from income tax or corporation tax thereon by virtue of arrangements having effect under section 788(1); and

(b)the payment or allowance shall not be allowed as a deduction in computing any income, profits or losses for any tax purposes.

(2)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) above, where a payment or allowance is not of itself a payment or allowance to which that subsection applies, but is made in conjunction with other payments of whatever nature and taken together with those payments has substantially similar effect to a distribution, then, for the purposes of subsection (1) above it shall be treated as a payment or allowance within that subsection.

(3)Any company which has received such a payment of interest as is referred to in subsection (1) above, from which income tax has not been deducted by the person making the payment, and has a qualifying presence in a unitary state at the time of the payment, shall be treated for the purposes of section 813 as a company—

(a)from which the entitlement to claim payment of the excess of a tax credit over the income tax chargeable on its income has been withdrawn by section 812(1), and

(b)which has had paid to it such an excess in an amount equal to the income tax which should have been deducted from the payment of interest.

815Power to inspect documents

Where it appears to the Board that the provisions of sections 812 to 814 may apply to a company resident outside the United Kingdom (“the foreign parent”), the Board may, by notice given to the foreign parent or any associated company of the foreign parent, require that company within such time (not being less than 30 days) as may be specified in the notice to make available for inspection any books, accounts or other documents or records whatsoever of that company where in the opinion of the Board it is proper that they should inspect such documents for the purposes of ascertaining whether those provisions apply to the foreign parent or such associated company notwithstanding that in the opinion of the person to whom the notice is given those provisions do not apply to that company or any associated company of that company.

816Disclosure of information

(1)Where under the law in force in any territory outside the United Kingdom provision is made for the allowance, in respect of the payment of United Kingdom income tax or corporation tax, of relief from tax payable under that law, the obligation as to secrecy imposed by the Tax Acts upon persons employed in relation to Inland Revenue shall not prevent the disclosure to the authorised officer of the government of the territory in question of such facts as may be necessary to enable the proper relief to be given under that law.

Section 790(12) shall apply for the interpretation of this subsection as it applies for the interpretation of that section.

(2)Where any arrangements have effect by virtue of section 788, the obligation as to secrecy imposed by any enactment shall not prevent the Board, or any authorised officer of the Board, from disclosing to any authorised officer of the government with which the arrangements are made such information as is required to be disclosed under the arrangements.

(3)Where a person beneficially entitled to income from any securities as defined by section 24 of the Management Act (information as to income from securities) is resident in a territory to which arrangements having effect under section 788 with respect to income tax or corporation tax relate, section 24(3) of that Act shall not exempt any bank from the duty of disclosing to the Board particulars relating to the income of that person.

(4)The obligation as to secrecy imposed by any enactments with regard to income tax or corporation tax shall not prevent the disclosure, to any authorised officer of any country to which a declaration made under section 514 of the 1970 Act (agreements about shipping etc.) relates, of such facts as may be necessary to enable relief to be duly given in accordance with the arrangements specified in the declaration.

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