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Vulnerable Witnesses (Scotland) Act 2004

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Part 2SCivil proceedings

Evidence of children and other vulnerable witnesses: special measuresS

11Interpretation of this PartS

(1)For the purposes of this Part of this Act, a person who is giving or is to give evidence in or for the purposes of any civil proceedings is a vulnerable witness if—

(a)the person is under the age of [F118] on the date of commencement of the proceedings (such a vulnerable witness being referred to in this Part as a “child witness”), F2...

(b)where the person is not a child witness, there is a significant risk that the quality of the evidence to be given by the person will be diminished by reason of—

(i)mental disorder (within the meaning of section 328 of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 (asp 13)), or

(ii)fear or distress in connection with giving evidence in the proceedings[F3, or

(c)the person is of such description or is a witness in such proceedings as the Scottish Ministers may by order subject to the affirmative procedure prescribe.]

(2)In considering whether a person is a vulnerable witness by virtue of subsection (1)(b) above, the court must take into account—

(a)the nature and circumstances of the alleged matter to which the proceedings relate,

(b)the nature of the evidence which the person is likely to give,

(c)the relationship (if any) between the person and any party to the proceedings,

(d)the person’s age and maturity,

(e)any behaviour towards the person on the part of—

(i)any party to the proceedings,

(ii)members of the family or associates of any such party,

(iii)any other person who is likely to be a party to the proceedings or a witness in the proceedings, and

(f)such other matters, including—

(i)the social and cultural background and ethnic origins of the person,

(ii)the person’s sexual orientation,

(iii)the domestic and employment circumstances of the person,

(iv)any religious beliefs or political opinions of the person, and

(v)any physical disability or other physical impairment which the person has,

as appear to the court to be relevant.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (1)(a) above, proceedings are taken to have commenced when the petition, summons, initial writ or other document initiating the proceedings is served, and, where the document is served on more than one person, the proceedings shall be taken to have commenced when the document is served on the first person on whom it is served.

(4)In subsection (1)(b), the reference to the quality of evidence is to its quality in terms of completeness, coherence and accuracy.

(5)In this Part—

[F4the 2011 Act ” means the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011 (asp 1), ]

  • child witness notice” has the meaning given in section 12(2),

  • civil proceedings” includes, in addition to such proceedings in any of the ordinary courts of law, [F5relevant proceedings],

  • court” is to be construed in accordance with the meaning of “civil proceedings”,

  • [F6relevant proceedings ” means proceedings under Part 10 of the 2011 Act (other than section 98), ]

  • special measure” means any of the special measures set out in, or prescribed under, section 18,

  • vulnerable witness application” has the meaning given in section 12(6)(a).

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Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I1S. 11 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I2S. 11 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

I3S. 11(1)(a)(3)(5) in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I4S. 11(1)(a)(3) in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I5S. 11(5) in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

12Orders authorising the use of special measures for vulnerable witnessesS

(1)Where a child witness is to give evidence in or for the purposes of any civil proceedings, the court must, before the proof or other hearing at which the child is to give evidence, make an order—

(a)authorising the use of such special measure or measures as the court considers to be the most appropriate for the purpose of taking the child witness’s evidence, or

(b)that the child witness is to give evidence without the benefit of any special measure.

(2)The party citing or intending to cite a child witness must lodge with the court a notice (referred to in this Part as a “child witness notice”)—

(a)specifying the special measure or measures which the party considers to be the most appropriate for the purpose of taking the child witness’s evidence, or

(b)if the party considers that the child witness should give evidence without the benefit of any special measure, stating that fact,

and the court must have regard to the child witness notice in making an order under subsection (1) above.

(3)If a child witness notice specifies any of the following special measures, namely—

(a)the use of a live television link in accordance with section 20 where the place from which the child witness is to give evidence by means of the link is another part of the court building in which the court-room is located,

(b)the use of a screen in accordance with section 21, or

(c)the use of a supporter in accordance with section 22 in conjunction with either of the special measures referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) above,

that special measure is, for the purposes of subsection (1)(a) above, to be taken to be the most appropriate for the purposes of taking the child witness’s evidence.

(4)The court may make an order under subsection (1)(b) above only if satisfied—

(a)that the child witness has expressed a wish to give evidence without the benefit of any special measure and that it is appropriate for the child witness so to give evidence, or

(b)that—

(i)the use of any special measure for the purpose of taking the evidence of the child witness would give rise to a significant risk of prejudice to the fairness of the proceedings or otherwise to the interests of justice, and

(ii)that risk significantly outweighs any risk of prejudice to the interests of the child witness if the order is made.

(5)Subsection (6) below applies in relation to a person other than a child witness who is to give evidence in or for the purpose of any civil proceedings (referred to in this section as “the witness”).

(6)The court may—

(a)on an application (referred to in this Part as a “vulnerable witness application”) made to it by the party citing or intending to cite the witness, and

(b)if satisfied that the witness is a vulnerable witness,

make an order authorising the use of such special measure or measures as the court considers most appropriate for the purpose of taking the witness’s evidence.

(7)In deciding whether to make an order under subsection (6) above, the court must—

(a)have regard to—

(i)the possible effect on the witness if required to give evidence without the benefit of any special measure, and

(ii)whether it is likely that the witness would be better able to give evidence with the benefit of a special measure, and

(b)take into account the matters specified in section 11(2)(a) to (f).

[F7(8)In the case of relevant proceedings, the child witness notice or vulnerable witness application—

(a)must be lodged or made before the commencement of the hearing at which the child or, as the case may be, vulnerable witness is to give evidence,

(b)on cause shown, may be lodged or made after the commencement of that hearing.]

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Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I6S. 12 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I7S. 12 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

I8S. 12(1)-(4) in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I9S. 12(1)-(4) in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

13Review of arrangements for vulnerable witnessesS

(1)In any civil proceedings in which a person who is giving or is to give evidence (referred to in this section as “the witness”) appears to the court to be a vulnerable witness, the court may at any stage in the proceedings (whether before or after the commencement of the proof or other hearing at which the witness is giving or is to give evidence or before or after the witness has begun to give evidence)—

(a)on the application of the party citing or intending to cite the witness, or

(b)of its own motion,

review the current arrangements for taking the witness’s evidence and make an order under subsection (2) below.

(2)The order which may be made under this subsection is—

(a)where the current arrangements for taking the witness’s evidence include the use of a special measure or combination of special measures authorised by an order under section 12 or under this subsection (referred to as the “earlier order”), an order varying or revoking the earlier order, or

(b)where the current arrangements for taking the witness’s evidence do not include any special measure, an order authorising the use of such special measure or measures as the court considers most appropriate for the purpose of taking the witness’s evidence.

(3)An order under subsection (2)(a) above varying an earlier order may—

(a)add to or substitute for any special measure authorised by the earlier order such other special measure as the court considers most appropriate for the purpose of taking the witness’s evidence, or

(b)where the earlier order authorises the use of a combination of special measures for that purpose, delete any of the special measures so authorised.

(4)The court may make an order under subsection (2)(a) above revoking an earlier order only if satisfied that—

(a)the witness has expressed a wish to give or, as the case may be, continue to give evidence without the benefit of any special measure and that it is appropriate for the witness so to give evidence, or

(b)that—

(i)the use, or continued use, of the special measure for the purpose of taking the witness’s evidence would give rise to a significant risk of prejudice to the fairness of the proceedings or otherwise to the interests of justice, and

(ii)that risk significantly outweighs any risk of prejudice to the interests of the witness if the order is made.

(5)Subsection (7) of section 12 applies to the making of an order under subsection (2)(b) of this section as it applies to the making of an order under subsection (6) of that section but as if the references to the witness were to the witness within the meaning of this section.

(6)In this section, “current arrangements” means the arrangements in place at the time the review under this section is begun.

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Commencement Information

I10S. 13 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I11S. 13 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I12S. 13 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I13S. 13 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

14Procedure in connection with orders under sections 12 and 13S

(1)In section 5 (power to regulate procedure etc. in the Court of Session by act of sederunt) of the Court of Session Act 1988 (c. 36), after paragraph (d) there is inserted—

(da)to regulate the procedure to be followed in proceedings in the Court in connection with the making of orders under sections 12(1) and (6) and 13(2) of the Vulnerable Witnesses (Scotland) Act 2004 (asp 3) (“the 2004 Act”);

(db)to regulate, so far as not regulated by the 2004 Act, the use in any proceedings in the Court of any special measures authorised by virtue of that Act to be used;.

(2)In section 32(1) (power of Court of Session to regulate civil procedure in the sheriff court) of the Sheriff Courts (Scotland) Act 1971 (c. 58), after paragraph (e) there is inserted—

(ea)regulating the procedure to be followed in connection with the making of orders under sections 12(1) and (6) and 13(2) of the Vulnerable Witnesses (Scotland) Act 2004 (asp 3) (“the 2004 Act”);

(eb)regulating, so far as not regulated by the 2004 Act, the use of special measures authorised by virtue of that Act to be used;.

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Commencement Information

I14S. 14 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I15S. 14 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I16S. 14 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I17S. 14 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

15Vulnerable witnesses: supplementary provisionS

(1)Subsection (2) below applies where—

(a)a party is considering for the purposes of a child witness notice or a vulnerable witness application which of the special measures is or are the most appropriate for the purpose of taking the evidence of the person to whom the notice or application relates, or

(b)the court is making an order under section 12(1) or (6) or 13(2).

(2)The party or, as the case may be, the court must—

(a)have regard to the best interests of the witness, and

(b)take account of any views expressed by—

(i)the witness (having regard, where the witness is a child witness, to the witness’s age and maturity), and

(ii)where the witness is a child witness, the witness’s parent.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2)(b) above, where the witness is a child witness—

(a)the witness is to be presumed to be of sufficient age and maturity to form a view if aged 12 or older, and

(b)in the event that any views expressed by the witness are inconsistent with any views expressed by the witness’s parent, the views of the witness are to be given greater weight.

(4)In this section—

  • parent”, in relation to a child witness, means any person having parental responsibilities within the meaning of section 1(3) of the Children (Scotland) Act 1995 (c. 36) in relation to the child witness,

  • the witness” means—

    (a)

    in the case referred to in subsection (1)(a) above, the person to whom the child witness notice or vulnerable witness application relates,

    (b)

    in the case referred to in subsection (1)(b) above, the person to whom the order would relate.

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Commencement Information

I18S. 15 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I19S. 15 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I20S. 15 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I21S. 15 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

16Party to proceedings as a vulnerable witnessS

Where a child witness or other person who is giving or is to give evidence in or for the purposes of any civil proceedings (referred to in this section as “the witness”) is a party to the proceedings—

(a)sections 12 and 13 have effect in relation to the witness as if references in those sections to the party citing or intending to cite the witness were references to the witness, and

(b)section 15 has effect in relation to the witness as if—

(i)in subsection (1), paragraph (a) were omitted, and

(ii)in subsection (2), the words “The party or, as the case may be,” were omitted.

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Commencement Information

I22S. 16 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I23S. 16 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I24S. 16 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I25S. 16 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

[F816ARelevant proceedings: Principal Reporter's power to act for party to proceedingsS

(1) Subsection (2) applies where a child witness or other person who is giving or is to give evidence in or for the purposes of relevant proceedings (referred to in this section as “ the party ”) is a party to the proceedings.

(2)The Principal Reporter may, on the party's behalf—

(a)lodge a child witness notice under section 12(2),

(b)make a vulnerable witness application for an order under section 12(6),

(c)make an application under section 13(1)(a) for review of the current arrangements for taking a witness's evidence.]

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Amendments (Textual)

17Crown application and saving provisionS

(1)Sections 11 to 15 of this Act apply to the Crown.

(2)Nothing in section 12 or 13 of this Act affects any power or duty which a court has otherwise than by virtue of those sections to make or authorise any special arrangements for taking the evidence of any person in any civil proceedings.

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Commencement Information

I26S. 17 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

I27S. 17(1)(2) in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I28S. 17(2) in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I29S. 17(2) in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

18The special measuresS

(1)The special measures which may be authorised to be used by virtue of section 12 or 13 of this Act for the purpose of taking the evidence of a vulnerable witness are—

(a)taking of evidence by a commissioner in accordance with section 19,

(b)use of a live television link in accordance with section 20,

(c)use of screen in accordance with section 21,

(d)use of a supporter in accordance with section 22, and

(e)such other measures as the Scottish Ministers may, by order made by statutory instrument, prescribe.

(2)An order under subsection (1)(e) above is not to be made unless a draft of the statutory instrument containing the order has been laid before and approved by a resolution of the Scottish Parliament.

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Commencement Information

I30S. 18 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I31S. 18 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I32S. 18(1)(a) in force at 1.11.2007 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

I33S. 18(1)(b)-(e) (2) in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I34S. 18(1)(b)-(e) (2) in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

19Taking of evidence by a commissionerS

(1)Where the special measure to be used is taking of evidence by a commissioner, the court must appoint a commissioner to take the evidence of the vulnerable witness in respect of whom the special measure is to be used.

(2)Proceedings before a commissioner appointed under subsection (1) above must be recorded by video recorder.

(3)A party to the proceedings—

(a)must not, except by leave of the court, be present in the room where such proceedings are taking place, but

(b)is entitled by such means as seem suitable to the court to watch and hear the proceedings.

(4)The recording of the proceedings made in pursuance of subsection (2) above is to be received in evidence without being sworn to by witnesses.

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Commencement Information

I35S. 19 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I36S. 19 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I37S. 19 in force at 1.11.2007 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

20Live television linkS

(1)Where the special measure to be used is a live television link, the court must make such arrangements as seem to it appropriate for the vulnerable witness in respect of whom the special measure is to be used to give evidence by means of such a link.

(2)Where—

(a)the live television link is to be used in proceedings in a sheriff court, but

(b)that court lacks accommodation or equipment necessary for the purpose of receiving such a link,

the sheriff may by order transfer the proceedings to any sheriff court in the same sheriffdom which has such accommodation or equipment available.

(3)An order may be made under subsection (2) above—

(a)at any stage in the proceedings (whether before or after the commencement of the proof or other hearing at which the vulnerable witness is to give evidence), or

(b)in relation to a part of the proceedings.

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Commencement Information

I38S. 20 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I39S. 20 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I40S. 20 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I41S. 20 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

21ScreensS

(1)Where the special measure to be used is a screen, the screen must be used to conceal the parties to the proceedings from the sight of the vulnerable witness in respect of whom the special measure is to be used.

(2)However, the court must make arrangements to ensure that the parties are able to watch and hear the vulnerable witness giving evidence.

(3)Subsections (2) and (3) of section 20 apply for the purposes of use of a screen under this section as they apply for the purposes of use of a live television link under that section but as if—

(a)references to the live television link were references to the screen, and

(b)the reference to receiving such a link were a reference to the use of a screen.

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Commencement Information

I42S. 21 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I43S. 21 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I44S. 21 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I45S. 21 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

22SupportersS

(1)Where the special measure to be used is a supporter, another person (“the supporter”) nominated by or on behalf of the vulnerable witness in respect of whom the special measure is to be used may be present alongside the witness for the purpose of providing support whilst the witness is giving evidence.

(2)Where the person nominated as the supporter is to give evidence in the proceedings, that person may not act as the supporter at any time before giving evidence.

(3)The supporter must not prompt or otherwise seek to influence the vulnerable witness in the course of giving evidence.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I46S. 22 in force at 1.4.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I47S. 22 in force at 30.11.2005 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2005/590, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I48S. 22 in force at 1.4.2006 for specified purposes by S.S.I. 2006/59, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

I49S. 22 in force at 1.11.2007 in so far as not already in force by S.S.I. 2007/447, art. 3, Sch. (with art. 4)

[F922AGiving evidence in chief in the form of a prior statementS

(1)This section applies to proceedings in relation to—

(a)an application made by virtue of section 93 or 94 of the 2011 Act to determine whether the ground mentioned in section 67(2)(j) of that Act is established, or

(b)an application under section 110 of that Act for review of a finding that the ground mentioned in section 67(2)(j) of that Act is established.

(2)The special measures which may be authorised by virtue of section 12 or 13 for the purpose of taking the evidence of a vulnerable witness at a hearing to consider such an application include (in addition to those listed in section 18(1)) the giving of evidence in chief in the form of a prior statement in accordance with subsections (3) to (10).

(3)Where that special measure is to be used, a statement made by the vulnerable witness (a “prior statement”) may be lodged in evidence for the purposes of this section by or on behalf of the party citing the vulnerable witness.

(4)A prior statement is admissible as the witness's evidence in chief, or as part of the witness's evidence in chief, without the witness being required to adopt or otherwise speak to the statement in giving evidence.

(5)A prior statement is admissible as evidence of any matter stated in it of which direct oral evidence by the vulnerable witness would be admissible if given at the hearing.

(6)A prior statement is admissible under this section only if—

(a)it is contained in a document, and

(b)at the time the statement was made, the vulnerable witness would have been a competent witness for the purposes of the hearing.

(7)Subsection (6) does not apply to a prior statement—

(a)contained in a precognition on oath, or

(b)made in other proceedings (whether criminal or civil and whether taking place in the United Kingdom or elsewhere).

(8)A prior statement of a type mentioned in subsection (7) is not admissible for the purposes of this section unless it is authenticated in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations made by statutory instrument by the Scottish Ministers.

(9)This section does not affect the admissibility of any statement made by any person which is admissible otherwise than by virtue of this section.

(10)In this section—

  • document” has the meaning given by section 262(3) of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (c.46),

  • “statement”—

    (a)

    includes—

    (i)

    any representation, however made or expressed, of fact or opinion, and

    (ii)

    any part of a statement, but

    (b)

    does not include a statement in a precognition other than a precognition on oath.

(11)For the purposes of this section, a statement is contained in a document where the person who makes it—

(a)makes the statement in the document personally,

(b)makes a statement which is, with or without the person's knowledge, embodied in a document by whatever means or by any person who has direct personal knowledge of the making of the statement, or

(c)approves a document as embodying the statement.

(12)A statutory instrument containing regulations under subsection (8) is subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of the Scottish Parliament.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

Establishment of grounds of referral to children’s hearings: restrictions on evidenceS

F1023Establishment of grounds of referral to children’s hearings: restrictions on evidenceS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I50S. 23 in force at 1.4.2005 by S.S.I. 2005/168, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 4)

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