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Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988

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Legislation Crest

Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988

1988 CHAPTER 53

An Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to the prosecution and punishment (including the punishment without conviction) of road traffic offences with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission and the Scottish Law Commission.

[15th November 1988]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C4By Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c. 53, SIF 39:1), s. 101(1), Sch. 12 para. 23; S.I. 1991/2208, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 it is provided (14.10.1991) that in relation to any time before the commencement of s. 70 of that 1991 Act (which came into force on 1.10.1992 by S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2) references in any enactment amended by that 1991 Act, to youth courts shall be construed as references to juvenile courts.

C5Act modified (1.6.1997) by 1995 c. 13, s. 5(7) (with s. 8); S.I. 1997/267, art. 2(2)

Act applied (1.7.1997) by 1995 c. 13, s. 9(2) (with s. 8); S.I. 1997/267, art. 2(2)

Commencement Information

I1Act partly in force at 15.5.89; see s. 99(2).

Part IU.K. Trial

IntroductoryE+W+S

1 Requirement of warning etc. of prosecutions for certain offences. E+W+S

(1)Subject to section 2 of this Act, [F1a person shall not be convicted of an offence to which this section applies unless]

(a)he was warned at the time the offence was committed that the question of prosecuting him for some one or other of the offences to which this section applies would be taken into consideration, or

(b)within fourteen days of the commission of the offence a summons (or, in Scotland, a complaint) for the offence was served on him, or

(c)within fourteen days of the commission of the offence a notice of the intended prosecution specifying the nature of the alleged offence and the time and place where it is alleged to have been committed, was—

(i)in the case of an offence under section 28 or 29 of the M1Road Traffic Act 1988 (cycling offences), served on him,

(ii)in the case of any other offence, served on him or on the person, if any, registered as the keeper of the vehicle at the time of the commission of the offence.

[F2(1ZA)In the case of an offence to be prosecuted in England and Wales, a notice required by this section to be served on any person may be served on that person in accordance with Criminal Procedure Rules.

(1ZB)For the purposes of subsection (1ZA)

(a)Criminal Procedure Rules (as they have effect from time to time) apply to the notice as if it were a document to be served in criminal proceedings before a magistrates’ court, and

(b)any magistrates’ court may discharge functions conferred on a court by those Rules in relation to such service.

(1ZC)In the case of an offence to be prosecuted elsewhere, subsections (1A) and (2) apply.]

[F3(1A)A notice required by this section to be served on any person may be served on that person—

(a)by delivering it to him;

(b)by addressing it to him and leaving it at his last known address; or

(c)by sending it by registered post, recorded delivery service or first class post addressed to him at his last known address.]

(2)A notice shall be deemed for the purposes of subsection (1)(c) above to have been served on a person if it was sent by registered post or recorded delivery service addressed to him at his last known address, notwithstanding that the notice was returned as undelivered or was for any other reason not received by him.

(3)The requirement of subsection (1) above shall in every case be deemed to have been complied with unless and until the contrary is proved.

(4)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which this section applies.

Textual Amendments

F3S. 1(1A) inserted (3.2.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 168(1), Sch. 9 para. 6(3); S.I. 1995/127, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 Appendix A

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C11S. 1: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

Marginal Citations

2 Requirement of warning etc: supplementary. E+W+S

(1)The requirement of section 1(1) of this Act does not apply in relation to an offence if, at the time of the offence or immediately after it, an accident occurs owing to the presence on a road of the vehicle in respect of which the offence was committed.

(2)The requirement of section 1(1) of this Act does not apply in relation to an offence in respect of which—

(a)a fixed penalty notice (within the meaning of Part III of this Act) has been given or fixed under any provision of that Part, F4...

F5(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)Failure to comply with the requirement of section 1(1) of this Act is not a bar to the conviction of the accused in a case where the court is satisfied—

(a)that neither the name and address of the accused nor the name and address of the registered keeper, if any, could with reasonable diligence have been ascertained in time for a summons or, as the case may be, a complaint to be served or for a notice to be served or sent in compliance with the requirement, or

(b)that the accused by his own conduct contributed to the failure.

F6[(4)Failure to comply with the requirement of section 1(1) of this Act in relation to an offence is not a bar to the conviction of a person of that offence by virtue of the provisions of—

(a)section 24 of this Act, or

(b)any of the enactments mentioned in section 24(6);

but a person is not to be convicted of an offence by virtue of any of those provisions if section 1 applies to the offence with which he was charged and the requirement of section 1(1) was not satisfied in relation to the offence charged.]

Textual Amendments

F6S. 2(4) substituted (1.7.1992) for s. 2(4)-(6) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 48, Sch. 4 para. 81; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C14S. 2: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

3 Restriction on institution of proceedings for certain offences.E+W+S

[F7(1). . .

.]

(2)In England and Wales, proceedings for an offence under section 94(3) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (notice about relevant or prospective disability) shall not be instituted except by the Secretary of State or by a constable acting with the approval of the Secretary of State.

[F8(2A)In subsection (2) above the reference to section 94(3) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 includes a reference to that section as applied by section 99D [F9or 109C] of that Act.]

Textual Amendments

F8S. 3(2A) inserted (1.1.1997) by S.I. 1996//1974, reg. 3, Sch. 2 para. 1

4 Offences for which local authorities in England and Wales may institute proceedings.E+W

(1)The council of a county, metropolitan district or London Borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for an offence under section [F1015A of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (safety equipment for children in motor vehicles) or under section 17 or 18 of that Act] (helmets and other head-worn appliances for motor cyclists).

(2)The council of a county, metropolitan district or London Borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for an offence under section 27 of that Act (dogs on roads) relating to a road in their area.

(3)The council of a county, district or London borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for offences under section [F1135A(1), (2) or (5)] of the M2Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 which are committed in connection with parking places provided by the council, or provided under any letting arrangements made by the council under section 33(4) of that Act.

(4)The council of a county, metropolitan district or London borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for an offence under section 47 or 52 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 in connection with a designated parking place controlled by the council.

(5)In England, the council of a county or metropolitan district and, in Wales, the council of a county [F12or county borough] may institute proceedings for an offence under section 53 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 in connection with a designated parking place in the council’s area F13. . .

(6)In this section “parking place” means a place where vehicles, or vehicles of any class, may wait and “designated parking place” has the same meaning as in the M3Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984.

(7)This section extends to England and Wales only.

[F14(8)In relation to Wales, any reference in subsections (1) to (4) above to a county shall be read as including a reference to a county borough.]

5 Exemption from Licensing Act offence.E+W+S

A person liable to be charged with an offence under [F15section 3A, 4], 5, 7 or 30 of the M4Road Traffic Act 1988 (drink and drugs) is not liable to be charged under section 12 of the M5Licensing Act 1872 with the offence of being drunk while in charge, on a highway or other public place, of a carriage.

Textual Amendments

Marginal Citations

6 Time within which summary proceedings for certain offences must be commenced.E+W+S

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, summary proceedings for an offence to which this section applies may be brought within a period of six months from the date on which evidence sufficient in the opinion of the prosecutor to warrant the proceedings came to his knowledge.

(2)No such proceedings shall be brought by virtue of this section more than three years after the commission of the offence.

(3)For the purposes of this section, a certificate signed by or on behalf of the prosecutor and stating the date on which evidence sufficient in his opinion to warrant the proceedings came to his knowledge shall be conclusive evidence of that fact.

(4)A certificate stating that matter and purporting to be so signed shall be deemed to be so signed unless the contrary is proved.

(5)In relation to proceedings in Scotland, subsection (3) of [F16section 136 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995] (date of commencement of proceedings) shall apply for the purposes of this section as it applies for the purposes of that.

(6)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which this section applies.

Textual Amendments

F16Words in s. 6(5) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, ss. 5, 7(2), Sch. 4 para. 71(2)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C15S. 6 applied (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 23, s. 51

7 Duty of accused to provide licence. E+W+S

[F17(1)Where—

(a)a person who is the holder of a licence is prosecuted for an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification,

(b)there is a hearing, and

(c)the person attends the hearing,

the person must bring the licence to the hearing.]

F18(1A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F19(1B). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F20(1C). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F21(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C17S. 7 applied with modifications by S.I. 1987/1378, reg. 25(3) (as amended by S.I. 1990/842, reg. 9)

C18S. 7: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

C19S. 7 extended (1.6.1997) by 1995 c. 13, s. 6, Sch. 1 Pt. II, para. 3(2); S.I. 1997/267, art. 2(2)

C20S. 7 applied (with modifications) (12.11.1999) by S.I. 1999/2864, reg. 80(5)(a)

8 Duty to include date of birth and sex in written plea of guilty.E+W+S

A person who—

(a)gives a notification [F22to [F23the designated officer for a magistrates' court] in pursuance of section 12(4)] of the M6Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 (written pleas of guilty),

[F24(aa)serves a written notification on the designated officer for a magistrates' court stating a desire to plead guilty and to be tried in accordance with section 16A of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (trial by single justice on the papers),]

[F25(ab)gives a notification amounting to acceptance of the automatic online conviction option (within the meaning of section 16G of the Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980),] or

(b)gives a written intimation of a plea of guilty in pursuance of section 334(3) of the M7Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975,

in respect of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification or of such other offence as may be prescribed by regulations under section 105 of the M8Road Traffic Act 1988, must include in the notification or intimation a statement of the date of birth and sex of the accused.

Textual Amendments

F22Words in s. 8(a) substituted (1.4.2001) for words “to the clerk of a court in pursuance of section 12(2)" by virtue of 1999 c. 22, s. 90(1), Sch. 13 para. 142 (with s. 107, Sch. 14 para. 7(2)); S.I. 2001/916, art. 2(a)(ii) (with Sch. 2 para. 2)

F23Words in s. 8(a) substituted (1.4.2005) by Courts Act 2003 (c. 39), s. 110(1), Sch. 8 para. 311; S.I. 2005/910, art. 3(y)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C21S. 8: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

Marginal Citations

TrialU.K.

9 Mode of trial.E+W+S

An offence against a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or regulations made under such a provision (the general nature of which offence is indicated in column 2) shall be punishable as shown against the offence in column 3 (that is, on summary conviction or on indictment or in either one way or the other).

10 Jurisdiction of district court in Scotland.E+W+S

(1)Notwithstanding anything in any enactment or rule of law to the contrary, a [F26justice of the peace court] in Scotland may try—

(a)any fixed penalty offence (within the meaning of Part III of this Act), and

(b)any other offence in respect of which a conditional offer (within the meaning of sections 75 to [F2777A] of this Act) may be sent.

F28(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F26Words in s. 10(1) substituted (S.) (10.3.2008 for specified purposes, 2.6.2008 for specified purposes, 8.12.2008 for specified purposes, 23.2.2009 for specified purposes, 14.12.2009 for specified purposes, 22.2.2010 in so far as not already in force) by Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007 (asp 6), s. 84(1), sch. para. 7(a); S.S.I. 2008/42, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/192, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/329, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/362, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2009/432, art. 3, sch. 1, sch. 2

11 Evidence by certificate as to driver, user or owner. E+W+S

(1)In any proceedings in England and Wales for an offence to which this section applies, a certificate in the prescribed form, purporting to be signed by a constable and certifying that a person specified in the certificate stated to the constable—

(a)that a particular [F29mechanically propelled vehicle] was being driven or used by, or belonged to, that person on a particular occasion, or

(b)that a particular [F29mechanically propelled vehicle] on a particular occasion was used by, or belonged to, a firm and that he was, at the time of the statement, a partner in that firm, or

(c)that a particular [F29mechanically propelled vehicle] on a particular occasion was used by, or belonged to, a corporation and that he was, at the time of the statement, a director, officer or employee of that corporation,

shall be admissible as evidence for the purpose of determining by whom the vehicle was being driven or used, or to whom it belonged, as the case may be, on that occasion.

(2)Nothing in subsection (1) above makes a certificate admissible as evidence in proceedings for an offence except in a case where and to the like extent to which oral evidence to the like effect would have been admissible in those proceedings.

(3)Nothing in subsection (1) above makes a certificate admissible as evidence in proceedings for an offence—

(a)unless a copy of it has, not less than seven days before the hearing or trial, been served in the prescribed manner on the person charged with the offence, or

(b)if that person, not later than three days before the hearing or trial or within such further time as the court may in special circumstances allow, serves a notice in the prescribed form and manner on the prosecutor requiring attendance at the trial of the person who signed the certificate.

[F30(3A)[F31Where the proceedings mentioned in subsection (1) above are proceedings before a magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence as examining justices this section shall have effect with the omission of—

(a)subsection (2), and

(b)in subsection (3), paragraph (b) and the word “or” immediately preceding it.]]

(4)In this section “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the Secretary of State by statutory instrument.

(5)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which this section applies.

Textual Amendments

F30S. 11(3A) inserted (8.3.1997) (EW) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II, para. 35 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F31S. 11(3A) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 61(2), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with arts. 3, 4)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C22S. 11 extended by Greater London Council (General Powers) Act 1974 (c. xxxiv, SIF 107:1), s. 15(2)(b) (as amended by Road Traffic (Consequential Provisions) Act 1988 (c. 54, SIF 107:1), s. 4, Sch. 3 para. 12(a) )

12 Proof, in summary proceedings, of identity of driver of vehicle. E+W+S

(1)Where on the summary trial in England and Wales of an information for an offence to which this subsection applies—

(a)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court, on oath or in manner prescribed by [F32Criminal Procedure Rules], that a requirement under section 172(2) of the M9Road Traffic Act 1988 to give information as to the identity of the driver of a particular vehicle on the particular occasion to which the information relates has been served on the accused [F33in accordance with Criminal Procedure Rules], and

(b)a statement in writing is produced to the court purporting to be signed by the accused that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion,

the court may accept that statement as evidence that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion.

(2)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which subsection (1) above applies.

(3)Where on the summary trial in England and Wales of an information for an offence to which section 112 of the M10Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 applies—

(a)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court, on oath or in manner prescribed by [F34Criminal Procedure Rules], that a requirement under section 112(2) of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 to give information as to the identity of the driver of a particular vehicle on the particular occasion to which the information relates has been served on the accused [F35in accordance with Criminal Procedure Rules], and

(b)a statement in writing is produced to the court purporting to be signed by the accused that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion,

the court may accept that statement as evidence that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion.

F36 [( 4 )In summary proceedings in Scotland for an offence to which section 20(2) of the [F37this Act]] applies, where—

(a)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that a requirement under section 172(2) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 to give information as to the identity of a driver on a particular occasion to which the complaint relates has been served on the accused by post, and

(b)a statement in writing is produced to the court, purporting to be signed by the accused, that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion,

that statement shall be sufficient evidence that the accused was the driver of the vehicle on that occasion.

Textual Amendments

F36S. 12(4) added (1.4.1993 only for the purposes of summary criminal proceedings in Scotland which are commenced on or after 1.4.1993) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 48, Sch. 4 para.85; S.I. 1993/975, art. 2 Sch.

F37Words in s. 12(4) (as proposed to be inserted by 1991 c. 40, Sch. 4 para. 85) substituted (S.) (29.3.1993) by 1993 c. 9, s. 47(1), Sch. 5 para. 5 (with s. 47(2), Sch. 6 paras. 1, 2)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C25S. 12 extended by Greater London Council (General Powers) Act 1974 (c. xxiv, SIF 107:1, s. 15(2)(b) (as amended by Road Traffic (Consequential Provisions) Act 1988 (c. 54, SIF 107:1), s. 4, Sch. 3 para. 12(a))

Marginal Citations

13 Admissibility of records as evidence.E+W+S

(1)This section applies to a statement contained in a document purporting to be—

(a)a part of the records maintained by the Secretary of State in connection with any functions exercisable by him by virtue of Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988 or a part of any other records maintained by the Secretary of State with respect to vehicles [or of any records maintained with respect to vehicles by an approved testing authority in connection with the exercise by that authority of any functions conferred on such authorities, or on that authority as such an authority, by or under any enactment], or

(b)a copy of a document forming part of those records, or

(c)a note of any information contained in those records,

and to be authenticated by a person authorised in that behalf by the Secretary of State.

(2)A statement to which this section applies shall be admissible in any proceedings as evidence (in Scotland, sufficient evidence) of any fact stated in it to the same extent as oral evidence of that fact is admissible in those proceedings.

[F38(3)In the preceding subsections, except in Scotland—

  • copy ”, in relation to a document, means anything onto which information recorded in the document has been copied, by whatever means and whether directly or indirectly;

  • document ” means anything in which information of any description is recorded; and

  • statement ” means any representation of fact, however made.

[F39(3A)In any case where—

(a)a person is convicted by a magistrates’ court of a summary offence under the Traffic Acts or the Road Traffic (Driver Licensing and Information Systems) Act 1989,

(b)a statement to which this section applies is produced to the court in the proceedings,

(c)the statement specifies an alleged previous conviction of the accused of an offence involving obligatory endorsement or an order made on the conviction, and

(d)the accused is not present in person before the court when the statement is so produced,

the court may take account of the previous conviction or order as if the accused had appeared and admitted it.

(3B)Section 104 of the Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 (under which previous convictions may be adduced in the absence of the accused after giving him seven days’ notice of them) does not limit the effect of subsection (3A) above.]

(3A) In Scotland, in the preceding subsections “ document ” and “ statement ” have the same meanings as in section 17(3) of the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Scotland) Act 1968, and the reference to a copy of a document shall be construed in accordance with section 17(4) of that Act; but nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting to civil proceedings the references to proceedings in subsection (2) above. ]

(4)In any case where—

(a)a statement to which this section applies is produced to a magistrates’ court in any proceedings for an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, [F40other than a summary offence under any of the enactments mentioned in subsection (3A)(a) above].

(b)the statement specifies an alleged previous conviction of an accused person of any such offence or any order made on the conviction,

(c)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court, on oath or in such manner as may be prescribed by [F41Criminal Procedure Rules], that not less than seven days before the statement is so produced a notice was served on the accused, in such form and manner as may be so prescribed, specifying the previous conviction or order and stating that it is proposed to bring it to the notice of the court in the event of or, as the case may be, in view of his conviction, and

(d)the accused is not present in person before the court when the statement is so produced,

the court may take account of the previous conviction or order as if the accused had appeared and admitted it.

(5)Nothing in the preceding provisions of this section enables evidence to be given in respect of any matter other than a matter of a description prescribed by regulations made by the Secretary of State.

(6)The power to make regulations under this section shall be exercisable by statutory instrument, which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

[F42(7)[F43Where the proceedings mentioned in subsection (2) above are proceedings before a magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence as examining justices this section shall have effect as if—

(a)in subsection (2) the words “to the same extent as oral evidence of that fact is admissible in those proceedings” were omitted;

(b)in subsection (4) the word “and” were inserted at the end of paragraph (a);

(c)in subsection (4), paragraphs (c) and (d) and the words “as if the accused had appeared and admitted it” were omitted.]]

Textual Amendments

F38S. 13(3) substituted for s. 13(3)(3A) (31.1.1997) by 1995 c. 38, s. 15(1), Sch. 1 para. 15; S.I. 1996/3217, art. 2

F39S. 13(3A)(3B) inserted after s. 13(3) (1.9.1998) by 1998 c. 15 s. 2(1); S.I. 1998/1837, arts. 2, 3

F40Words in s. 13(4)(a) inserted (1.9.1998) by 1998 c. 15, s. 2(2); S.I. 1998/1837, arts. 2, 3

F42S. 13(7) inserted (8.3.1997) (EW) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 36; S.i. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F43S. 13(7) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 61(3), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with arts. 3, 4)

14 Use of records kept by operators of goods vehicles.E+W+S

In any proceedings [F44for an offence under section 40A of the Road Traffic Act 1988 or] for a contravention of or failure to comply with construction and use requirements (within the meaning of Part II of the M11Road Traffic Act 1988) or regulations under section 74 of that Act, any record purporting to be made and authenticated in accordance with regulations under that section shall be evidence (and in Scotland sufficient evidence) of the matters stated in the record and of its due authentication.

Textual Amendments

Marginal Citations

15 Use of specimens in proceedings for an offence under [F45any of sections 3A to 5A] of the Road Traffic Act.U.K.

(1)This section and section 16 of this Act apply in respect of proceedings for an offence under [F46[F47any of sections 3A to 5A] of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (driving offences connected with drink or drugs)]; and expressions used in this section and section 16 of this Act have the same meaning as in [F48sections 3A to 10] of that Act.

(2)Evidence of the proportion of alcohol or any drug in a specimen of breath, blood or urine provided by [F49or taken from] the accused shall, in all cases [F50(including cases where the specimen was not provided [F51or taken] in connection with the alleged offence)], be taken into account [F52and—

(a)it is to be assumed, subject to subsection (3) below, that the proportion of alcohol in the accused's breath, blood or urine at the time of the alleged offence was not less than in the specimen;

(b)it is to be assumed, subject to subsection (3A) below, that the proportion of a drug in the accused's blood or urine at the time of the alleged offence was not less than in the specimen.]

[F53(3)[F54The assumption in subsection (2)(a) above] shall not be made if the accused proves—

(a)that he consumed alcohol before he provided the specimen [F55or had it taken from him] and—

(i)in relation to an offence under section 3A, after the time of the alleged offence, and

(ii)otherwise, after he had ceased to drive, attempt to drive or be in charge of a vehicle on a road or other public place, and

(b)that had he not done so the proportion of alcohol in his breath, blood or urine would not have exceeded the prescribed limit and, if it is alleged that he was unfit to drive through drink, would not have been such as to impair his ability to drive properly.]

[F56(3A)The assumption in subsection (2)(b) above is not to be made if the accused proves—

(a)that he took the drug before he provided the specimen or had the specimen taken from him and—

(i)in relation to an offence under section 3A, after the time of the alleged offence, and

(ii)otherwise, after he had ceased to drive, attempt to drive or be in charge of a vehicle on a road or other public place, and

(b)that had he not done so the proportion of the drug in his blood or urine—

(i)in the case of a specified controlled drug, would not have exceeded the specified limit for that drug, and

(ii)if it is alleged that he was unfit to drive through drugs, would not have been such as to impair his ability to drive properly.]

(4)A specimen of blood shall be disregarded [F57unless-

(a)it was taken from the accused with his consent [F58by a medical practitioner or a registered health care professional], or

(b)it was taken from the accused by a medical practitioner [F59or a registered health care professional] under section 7A of the Road Traffic Act 1988 and the accused subsequently gave his permission for a laboratory test of the specimen.]

(5)Where, at the time a specimen of blood or urine was provided by the accused, he asked to be provided with such a specimen, evidence of the proportion of alcohol or any drug found in the specimen is not admissible on behalf of the prosecution unless—

(a)the specimen in which the alcohol or drug was found is one of two parts into which the specimen provided by the accused was divided at the time it was provided, and

(b)the other part was supplied to the accused.

[F60(5A)Where a specimen of blood was taken from the accused under section 7A of the Road Traffic Act 1988, evidence of the proportion of alcohol or any drug found in the specimen is not admissible on behalf of the prosecution unless—

(a)the specimen in which the alcohol or drug was found is one of two parts into which the specimen taken from the accused was divided at the time it was taken; and

(b)any request to be supplied with the other part which was made by the accused at the time when he gave his permission for a laboratory test of the specimen was complied with.]

Textual Amendments

F45Words in s. 15 heading substituted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 10(2) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F47Words in s. 15(1) substituted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 10(3) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F49Words in S. 15(2) inserted (1.10.2002) by 2002 c. 53, s. 57(1), S.I. 2002/2306 art. 2(d)(v)

F51Words in s. 15(2) inserted (1.10.2002) by 2002 c. 53, s. 57(1), S.I 2002/2306, art. 2(d)(v)

F52Words in s. 15(2) substituted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 10(4) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F54Words in s. 15(3) substituted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 10(5) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F55Words in s. 15(3)(a) inserted (1.10.2002) by 2002 c. 53, s. 57(2), S.I. 2002/2306, art. 2(d)(v)

F56S. 15(3A) inserted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 10(6) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F57Words in s. 15(4) substituted (1.10.2002 except for the words “or a registered health care professional”) by 2002 c. 30, s. 57(3), S.I. 2002/2306, art. 2(d)(v)

F58Words in s. 15(4)(a) substituted (10.4.2015) by Deregulation Act 2015 (c. 20), s. 115(7), Sch. 11 para. 10(a); S.I. 2015/994, art. 4

F59Words in s. 15(4)(b) inserted (10.4.2015) by Deregulation Act 2015 (c. 20), s. 115(7), Sch. 11 para. 10(b); S.I. 2015/994, art. 4

F60S. 15(5A) inserted (1.10.2002) by 2002 c. 53, s. 57(4), S.I. 2002/2306, art. 2(d)(v)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C27S. 15 applied (with modifications) (29.3.2004 for specified purposes, 30.3.2004 in so far as not already in force) by Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (c. 20), s. 83(1)(3); S.I. 2004/827, arts. 2, 3(f)

C28S. 15 applied (with modifications) (29.3.2004 for specified purposes, 30.3.2004 in so far as not already in force) by Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (c. 20), s. 96(1)(3); S.I. 2004/827, arts. 2, 3(s)

16 Documentary evidence as to specimens in such proceedings.U.K.

(1)Evidence of the proportion of alcohol or a drug in a specimen of breath, blood or urine may, subject to subsections (3) and (4) below and to section 15(5) [F61and (5A)]of this Act, be given by the production of a document or documents purporting to be whichever of the following is appropriate, that is to say—

(a)a statement automatically produced by the device by which the proportion of alcohol in a specimen of breath was measured and a certificate signed by a constable (which may but need not be contained in the same document as the statement) that the statement relates to a specimen provided by the accused at the date and time shown in the statement, and

(b)a certificate signed by an authorised analyst as to the proportion of alcohol or any drug found in a specimen of blood or urine identified in the certificate.

(2)Subject to subsections (3) and (4) below, evidence that a specimen of blood was taken from the accused with his consent by a medical practitioner [F62or a registered health care professional] may be given by the production of a document purporting to certify that fact and to be signed by a medical practitioner [F62or a registered health care professional].

(3)Subject to subsection (4) below—

(a)a document purporting to be such a statement or such a certificate (or both such a statement and such a certificate) as is mentioned in subsection (1)(a) above is admissible in evidence on behalf of the prosecution in pursuance of this section only if a copy of it either has been handed to the accused when the document was produced or has been served on him not later than seven days before the hearing, and

(b)any other document is so admissible only if a copy of it has been served on the accused not later than seven days before the hearing.

(4)A document purporting to be a certificate (or so much of a document as purports to be a certificate) is not so admissible if the accused, not later than three days before the hearing or within such further time as the court may in special circumstances allow, has served notice on the prosecutor requiring the attendance at the hearing of the person by whom the document purports to be signed.

(5)In Scotland—

(a)a document produced in evidence on behalf of the prosecution in pursuance of subsection (1) or (2) above and, where the person by whom the document was signed is called as a witness, the evidence of that person, shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the document, and

(b)a written execution purporting to be signed by the person who handed to or served on the accused or the prosecutor a copy of the document or of the notice in terms of subsection (3) or (4) above, together with, where appropriate, a post office receipt for the registered or recorded delivery letter shall be sufficient evidence of the handing or service of such a copy or notice.

(6)A copy of a certificate required by this section to be served on the accused or a notice required by this section to be served on the prosecutor may [F63

(a)if the proceedings mentioned in section 15(1) take place in England and Wales, be served in accordance with Criminal Procedure Rules, or

(b)if the proceedings take place elsewhere,] be served personally or sent by registered post or recorded delivery service.

[F64(6A)[F65Where the proceedings mentioned in section 15(1) of this Act are proceedings before a magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence as examining justices this section shall have effect with the omission of subsection (4).]]

(7)In this section “authorised analyst” means—

(a)any person possessing the qualifications prescribed by regulations made under [F66section 27 of the Food Safety Act 1990] as qualifying persons for appointment as public analysts under those Acts, and

(b)any other person authorised by the Secretary of State to make analyses for the purposes of this section.

Textual Amendments

F61Words in s. 16(1) inserted (1.10.2002) by 2002 c. 53, s. 57(5); S.I. 2002/2306 art. 2(d)(v)

F62Words in s. 16(2) inserted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. 57(6), 108(2); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(e)

F64S. 16(6A) inserted (8.3.1997) (E.W.) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II, para. 37, Pt. III para. 39; S.I. 1997/683, art. 1(2)

F65S. 16(6A) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 61(4), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with arts. 3, 4)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C29S. 16 applied (with modifications) (29.3.2004 for specified purposes, 30.3.2004 in so far as not already in force) by Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (c. 20), s. 83(1)(3); S.I. 2004/827, arts. 2, 3(f)

C30S. 16 applied (with modifications) (29.3.2004 for specified purposes, 30.3.2004 in so far as not already in force) by Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (c. 20), s. 96(1)(3); S.I. 2004/827, arts. 2, 3(s)

17 Provisions as to proceedings for certain offences in connection with the construction and use of vehicles and equipment.E+W+S

(1)If in any proceedings for an offence under [F67section 40A, 41A, 41B or 42 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (using vehicle in dangerous condition or contravention] of construction and use regulations)—

(a)any question arises as to a weight of any description specified in the plating certificate for a goods vehicle, and

(b)a weight of that description is marked on the vehicle,

it shall be assumed, unless the contrary is proved, that the weight marked on the vehicle is the weight so specified.

(2)If, in any proceedings for an offence—

(a)under Part II of the Road Traffic Act 1988, except sections 47 and 75, or

(b)under section 174(2) or (5) (false statements and deception) of that Act,

any question arises as to the date of manufacture of a vehicle, a date purporting to be such a date and marked on the vehicle in pursuance of regulations under that Part of that Act shall be evidence (and in Scotland sufficient evidence) that the vehicle was manufactured on the date so marked.

(3)If in any proceedings for the offence of driving a F68. . . vehicle on a road, or causing or permitting a F68. . . vehicle to be so driven, in contravention of a prohibition under section 70(2) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 any question arises whether a weight of any description has been reduced to a limit imposed by construction and use requirements [F69, or so that it has ceased to be excessive,], the burden of proof shall lie on the accused.

(4)If in any proceedings in Scotland for an offence under the Traffic Acts any question arises as to a weight of any description in relation to a vehicle—

(a)a certificate purporting to be signed by an inspector of weights and measures and certifying the accuracy of a weighbridge or other machine for weighing vehicles shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the certificate, and

(b)where the inspector is called as a witness his evidence shall be sufficient evidence of those facts.

In this subsection “inspector of weights and measures” has the same meaning as in the M12Weights and Measures Act 1985, except that it includes a chief inspector within the meaning of that Act.

Textual Amendments

F68Words in s. 17(3) repealed (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 83, Sch.8; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch. Appendix

Marginal Citations

18 Evidence by certificate as to registration of driving instructors and licences to give instruction.E+W+S

(1)A certificate signed by the Registrar and stating that, on any date—

(a)a person’s name was, or was not, in the register,

(b)the entry of a person’s name was made in the register or a person’s name was removed from it,

[F70(ba)a person's registration was, or was not, suspended,]

(c)a person was, or was not, the holder of a current licence under section 129 of the Road Traffic Act 1988, or

(d)a licence under that section granted to a person came into force or ceased to be in force,

shall be evidence, and in Scotland sufficient evidence, of the facts stated in the certificate in pursuance of this section.

(2)A certificate so stating and purporting to be signed by the Registrar shall be deemed to be so signed unless the contrary is proved.

(3)In this section “current licence”, “Registrar” and “register” have the same meanings as in Part V of the M13Road Traffic Act 1988.

19 Evidence of disqualification in Scotland.E+W+S

[F71(1)]In any proceedings in Scotland for an offence under section 103(1)(b) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (driving while disqualified) a conviction or extract conviction—

(a)of which a copy has been served on the accused not less than fourteen days before his trial,

(b)which purports to be signed by the clerk of court, and

(c)which shows that the person named in it is disqualified for holding or obtaining a licence,

shall be sufficient evidence of the application of that disqualification to the accused, unless not [F72more than seven days after the date of service of the copy] he serves notice on the prosecutor that he denies that it applies to him.

[F73(2)A copy of a conviction or extract conviction served on the accused under subsection (1) above shall be served in such manner as may be prescribed by Act of Adjournal, and a written execution purporting to be signed by the person who served such copy conviction or extract conviction together with, where appropriate, the relevant post office receipt shall be sufficient evidence of service of such a copy.]

Textual Amendments

F71S. 19 renumbered s. 19(1) (31.3.1996) by 1995 c. 20, s. 117(1), Sch. 6 Pt. I, para. 171(a); S.I. 1996/517, art. 3(2)

F72Words in s. 19(1) (as renumbered by 1995 c. 20, s. 117(1), Sch. 6 Pt. I, para. 171(a)) inserted (31.3.1996) by 1995 c. 20, s. 117(1), Sch. 6 P. I, para. 171(b); S.I. 1996/517, art. 3(2)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C31S. 19 applied (20.10.1997) by 1997 c. 48, s. 15(1); S.I. 1997/2323, art. 3, Sch. 1

[F7420Speeding offences etc: admissibility of certain evidence.E+W+S

(1)Evidence (which in Scotland shall be sufficient evidence) of a fact relevant to proceedings for an offence to which this section applies may be given by the production of—

(a)a record produced by a prescribed device, and

(b)(in the same or another document) a certificate as to the circumstances in which the record was produced signed by a constable or by a person authorised by or on behalf of the chief officer of police for the police area in which the offence is alleged to have been committed;

but subject to the following provisions of this section.

(2)This section applies to—

(a)an offence under section 16 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 consisting in the contravention of a restriction on the speed of vehicles imposed under section 14 of that Act;

(b)an offence under subsection (4) of section 17 of that Act consisting in the contravention of a restriction on the speed of vehicles imposed under that section;

[F75(ba)an offence under subsection (4) of section 17 of that Act consisting in a contravention of regulation 9 of the Motorways Traffic (England and Wales) Regulations 1982 (restriction on the use of hard shoulders) by the driving of a vehicle on the hard shoulder of a motorway;]

[F76(bb)an offence under subsection (4) of section 17 of that Act consisting in a contravention of article [F772(1) or 3(2)] of the Heavy Commercial Vehicles in Kent (No. 3) Order 2019 (prohibited use of the [F78M20 and M2 Motorways] in Kent by the driver of a heavy commercial vehicle);

(bc)an offence under subsection (5) of section 20 of that Act consisting in a contravention of article F79... 3(1) or 4(1) of the Heavy Commercial Vehicles in Kent (No. 2) Order 2019 (prohibited use of local roads in Kent by the driver of a heavy commercial vehicle);]

(c)an offence under section 88(7) of that Act (temporary minimum speed limits);

(d)an offence under section 89(1) of that Act (speeding offences generally);

(e)an offence under section 36(1) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 consisting in the failure to comply with an indication given by a light signal that vehicular traffic is not to proceed.

[F80(ea)an offence under section 36(1) of that Act consisting in the failure to comply with an indication given by a light signal to vehicular traffic not to enter, or proceed in, a traffic lane;]

[F81(f)an offence under Part I or II of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 of contravening or failing to comply with an order or regulations made under either of those Parts relating to the use of an area of road which is described as a bus lane or a route for use by buses only.]

[F82(g)an offence under section 29(1) of the Vehicle Excise and Registration Act 1994 F83 (using or keeping an unlicensed vehicle on a public road).]

[F84(h)an offence under section 11(1) of the HGV Road User Levy Act 2013 (using or keeping heavy goods vehicle if levy not paid).]

[F85(i)an offence under article 2(6)(b) of the Heavy Commercial Vehicles in Kent (No. 1) Order 2019 (contravention of a direction given by a traffic officer).]

(3)The Secretary of State may by order amend subsection (2) above by making additions to or deletions from the list of offences for the time being set out there; and an order under this subsection may make such transitional provision as appears to him to be necessary or expedient.

(4)A record produced or measurement made by a prescribed device shall not be admissible as evidence of a fact relevant to proceedings for an offence to which this section applies unless—

(a)the device is of a type approved by the Secretary of State, and

(b)any conditions subject to which the approval was given are satisfied.

(5)Any approval given by the Secretary of State for the purposes of this section may be given subject to conditions as to the purposes for which, and the manner and other circumstances in which, any device of the type concerned is to be used.

(6)In proceedings for an offence to which this section applies, evidence (which in Scotland shall be sufficient evidence)—

(a)of a measurement made by a device, or of the circumstances in which it was made, or

(b)that a device was of a type approved for the purposes of this section, or that any conditions subject to which an approval was given were satisfied,

may be given by the production of a document which is signed as mentioned in subsection (1) above and which, as the case may be, gives particulars of the measurement or of the circumstances in which it was made, or states that the device was of such a type or that, to the best of the knowledge and belief of the person making the statement, all such conditions were satisfied.

(7)For the purposes of this section a document purporting to be a record of the kind mentioned in subsection (1) above, or to be a certificate or other document signed as mentioned in that subsection or in subsection (6) above, shall be deemed to be such a record, or to be so signed, unless the contrary is proved.

(8)Nothing in subsection (1) or (6) above makes a document admissible as evidence in proceedings for an offence unless a copy of it has, not less than seven days before the hearing or trial, been served on the person charged with the offence; and nothing in those subsections makes a document admissible as evidence of anything other than the matters shown on a record produced by a prescribed device if that person, not less than three days before the hearing or trial or within such further time as the court may in special circumstances allow, serves a notice on the prosecutor requiring attendance at the hearing or trial of the person who signed the document.

[F86(8A)[F87Where the proceedings for an offence to which this section applies are proceedings before a magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence as examining justices this section shall have effect as if in subsection (8) the words from “and nothing” to the end of the subsection were omitted.]]

F88(8A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(9)In this section “prescribed device” means device of a description specified in an order made by the Secretary of State.

(10)The powers to make orders under subsections (3) and (9) above shall be exercisable by statutory instrument, which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.]

Textual Amendments

F81S. 20(2)(f) inserted (18.3.1997) by S.I. 1997/384, art. 2

F82S. 20(2)(g) added (1.6.2001) by S.I. 2001/1814, art. 3

F831994 c. 22; section 29 was amended by Schedule 2 to the Finance Act 1996 (c. 8).

F86S. 20(8A) inserted (E.W.) (8.3.1997) by 1996 c. 25, s. 47, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 38, Pt. III para. 39 (with s. 78(1)); S.I. 1997/683, art. 1

F87S. 20(8A) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 61(5), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3, 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with arts. 3, 4)

F88S. 20(8A) inserted (31.3.1996) by 1995 c. 20, s. 117(1), Sch. 6 Pt. I para. 172 and repealed (S.) (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, ss. 4, 6, 7(2), Sch. 3 Pt. I para. 16(3), Sch. 5 (with Sch. 3 paras. 1, 3, 6, 16, 17); S.I. 1996/517, art. 3(2)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C32S. 20(4) extended (1.7.1992) by S.I. 1992/1286, art. 4(1)

21 Proceedings in which evidence of one witness sufficient in Scotland.E+W+S

(1)In any proceedings in Scotland for an offence to which this subsection applies the accused may be convicted on the evidence of one witness.

(2)Subsection (1) above applies to any offence created by or under an enactment and punishable on summary conviction, being an offence committed in respect of a vehicle—

(a)by its being on a road during the hours of darkness without the lights or reflectors required by law, or

(b)by its obstructing a road, or waiting, or being left or parked, or being loaded or unloaded, in a road, or

(c)by the non-payment of a charge made at a street parking place, or

(d)by its being used in contravention of any provision of an order made or having effect as if made under section 1 or 9 of the M14Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984, being a provision—

(i)as to the route to be followed by vehicles of the class to which that vehicle belongs, or

(ii)as to roads or parts of carriageways which are not to be used for traffic by such vehicles, or

(iii)as to the places where such vehicles may not turn so as to face in the opposite direction to that in which they were proceeding or as to the conditions under which such vehicles may so turn, or

F89(e). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F89(f). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)Subsection (1) above also applies to any offence under section 35 [F90,36 or 172.]of the M15Road Traffic Act 1988.

(4)In subsection (2) above—

  • hours of darkness” means the time between half-an-hour after sunset and half-an-hour before sunrise, and

  • street parking place” means a parking place on land which forms part of a road.

(5)References in subsection (2) above to a class of vehicles are to be interpreted as references to a class defined or described by reference to any characteristics of the vehicles or to any other circumstances whatsoever.

Textual Amendments

F89S. 21(2)(e)(f) repealed (1.9.1994) by 1994 c. 22, ss. 65, 66, Sch. 5 Pt. I (with s. 57(4), Sch. 4)

Marginal Citations

22 Notification of disability.E+W+S

(1)If in any proceedings for an offence committed in respect of a motor vehicle it appears to the court that the accused may be suffering from any relevant disability or prospective disability (within the meaning of Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988) the court must notify the Secretary of State.

(2)A notice sent by a court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of this section must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C33S. 22: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b)(inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

VerdictE+W+S

23 Alternative verdicts in Scotland.E+W+S

(1)If on the trial on indictment in Scotland of a person for culpable homicide in connection with the driving of a [F91 mechanically propelled vehicle] by him the jury are not satisfied that he is guilty of culpable homicide but are satisfied that he is guilty of [F92any of the relevant offences], they may find him guilty of that offence.

[F93(1A)For the purposes of subsection (1) above the following are the relevant offences—

(a)an offence under section 1 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (causing death by dangerous driving),

[F94(aa)an offence under section 1A of that Act (causing serious injury by dangerous driving),]

(b)an offence under section 2 of that Act (dangerous driving), and

(c)an offence under section 3A of that Act (causing death by careless driving when under influence of drink or drugs).]

F95(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)If on the trial on indictment in Scotland of a person for stealing a motor vehicle the jury are not satisfied that he is guilty of stealing the motor vehicle but are satisfied that he is guilty of an offence under section 178 of that Act (taking motor vehicle without authority etc.), they may find him guilty of an offence under that section.

[F96 24 Alternative verdicts: general.E+W+S

[F97(A1)Where—

(a)a person charged with manslaughter in connection with the driving of a mechanically propelled vehicle by him is found not guilty of that offence, but

(b)the allegations in the indictment amount to or include an allegation of any of the relevant offences,

he may be convicted of that offence.

(A2)For the purposes of subsection (A1) above the following are the relevant offences—

(a)an offence under section 1 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (causing death by dangerous driving),

[F98(aa)an offence under section 1A of that Act (causing serious injury by dangerous driving),]

(b)an offence under section 2 of that Act (dangerous driving),

[F99(ba)an offence under section 3ZC of that Act (causing death by driving: disqualified drivers),

(bb)an offence under section 3ZD of that Act (causing serious injury by driving: disqualified drivers),]

(c)an offence under section 3A of that Act (causing death by careless driving when under influence of drink or drugs), and

(d)an offence under section 35 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 (furious driving).]

(1)Where—

(a)a person charged with an offence under a provision of the Road Traffic Act 1988 specified in the first column of the Table below (where the general nature of the offences is also indicated) is found not guilty of that offence, but

(b)the allegations in the indictment or information (or in Scotland complaint) amount to or include an allegation of an offence under one or more of the provisions specified in the corresponding entry in the second column,

he may be convicted of that offence or of one or more of those offences.

Offence chargedAlternative
Section 1 (causing death by dangerous driving)Section 2 (dangerous driving)
[F100Section 2B (causing death by careless, or inconsiderate, driving)]
Section 3 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving)
[F101Section 1A (causing serious injury by dangerous driving)] [F101Section 2 (dangerous driving)] [F102Section 2C (causing serious injury by careless, or inconsiderate, driving)]
[F101Section 3 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving)]
Section 2 (dangerous driving)Section 3 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving)
[F103Section 2B (causing death by careless, or inconsiderate, driving)][F103Section 3 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving),]
[F104Section 2C (causing serious injury by careless, or inconsiderate, driving) Section 3 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving]
[F105Section 3ZC (causing death by driving: disqualified drivers)] [F105Section 103(1)(b) (driving while disqualified)]
[F105Section 3ZD (causing serious injury by driving: disqualified drivers)] [F105Section 103(1)(b) (driving while disqualified)]
Section 3A (causing death by careless driving when under influence of drink or drugs)[F106Section 2B (causing death by careless, or inconsiderate, driving)]
Section 3 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving)
Section 4(1) (driving when unfit to drive through drink or drugs)
Section 5(1)(a) (driving with excess alcohol in breath, blood or urine)
Section 7(6) (failing to provide specimen)
[F107Section 7A(6) (failing to give permission for laboratory test)]
Section 4(1) (driving or attempting to drive when unfit to drive through drink or drugs)Section 4(2) (being in charge of a vehicle when unfit to drive through drink or drugs)
Section 5(1)(a) (driving or attempting to drive with excess alcohol in breath, blood or urine)Section 5(1)(b) (being in charge of a vehicle with excess alcohol in breath, blood or urine)
[F108Section 5A(1)(a) and (2) (driving or attempting to drive with concentration of specified controlled drug above specified limit)] [F108Section 5A(1)(b) and (2) (being in charge of a vehicle with concentration of specified controlled drug above specified limit)]
Section 28 (dangerous cycling)Section 29 (careless, and inconsiderate, cycling)

(2)Where the offence with which a person is charged is an offence under section 3A of the Road Traffic Act 1988, subsection (1) above shall not authorise his conviction of any offence of attempting to drive.

(3)Where a person is charged with having committed an offence under section 4(1) [F109, 5(1)(a) or 5A(1)(a) and (2)] of the Road Traffic Act 1988 by driving a vehicle, he may be convicted of having committed an offence under the provision in question by attempting to drive.

(4)Where by virtue of this section a person is convicted before the Crown Court of an offence triable only summarily, the court shall have the same powers and duties as a magistrates’ court would have had on convicting him of that offence.

(5)Where, in Scotland, by virtue of this section a person is convicted under solemn procedure of an offence triable only summarily, the penalty imposed shall not exceed that which would have been competent on a conviction under summary procedure.

(6)This section has effect without prejudice to section 6(3) of the Criminal Law Act 1967 (alternative verdicts on trial on indictment), [F110sections 295, 138(4), 256 and 293 of and Schedule 3 to the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995] and section 23 of this Act.]

Textual Amendments

F97S. 24(A1)(A2) inserted (24.9.2007) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 33, 61(1)(10); S.I. 2007/2472, art. 2(k)

F107Words in s. 24(1) inserted (24.9.2007) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 31(4), 61(1)(10); S.I. 2007/2472, art. 2(i)

F108Words in s. 24(1) inserted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 11(2) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F109Words in s. 24(3) substituted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 11(3) (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F110Words in s. 24(6) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, ss. 5, 7(2), Sch. 4 para. 71(3)

After convictionE+W+S

25 Information as to date of birth and sex.E+W+S

(1)If on convicting a person of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification or of such other offence as may be prescribed by regulations under section 105 of the M16Road Traffic Act 1988 the court does not know his date of birth, the court must order him to give that date to the court in writing.

(2)If a court convicting a person of such an offence in a case where—

(a)notification has been given [F111to [F112the designated officer for a magistrates' court] in pursuance of section 12(4)] of the M17Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 (written pleas of guilty), or written intimation of a plea of guilty has been given in pursuance of section 334(3) of the M18Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975, and

(b)the notification or intimation did not include a statement of the person’s sex,

does not know the person’s sex, the court must order the person to give that information to the court in writing.

(3)A person who knowingly fails to comply with an order under subsection (1) or (2) above is guilty of an offence.

F113(4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)Where a person has given his date of birth in accordance with this section or section 8 of this Act, the Secretary of State may serve on that person a notice in writing requiring him to provide the Secretary of State—

(a)with such evidence in that person’s possession or obtainable by him as the Secretary of State may specify for the purpose of verifying that date, and

(b)if his name differs from his name at the time of his birth, with a statement in writing specifying his name at that time.

(6)A person who knowingly fails to comply with a notice under subsection (5) above is guilty of an offence.

(7)A notice to be served on any person under subsection (5) above may be served on him

[F114(a)if the conviction was in England and Wales, in accordance with Criminal Procedure Rules, or

(b)if the conviction was elsewhere,] by delivering it to him or by leaving it at his proper address or by sending it to him by post; and for the purposes of [F115this paragraph] and section 7 of the M19Interpretation Act 1978 in its application to [F115this paragraph] the proper address of any person shall be his latest address as known to the person serving the notice.

Textual Amendments

F111Words in s. 25(2)(a) substituted (1.4.2001) for words “to the clerk of a court in pursuance of section 12(2)" by virtue of 1999 c. 22, s. 90(1), Sch. 13 para. 142 (with s. 107, Sch. 14 para. 7(2)); S.I. 2001/916, art. 2(a)(ii) (with Sch. 2 para. 2)

F112Words in s. 25(2)(a) substituted (1.4.2005) by Courts Act 2003 (c. 39), s. 110(1), Sch. 8 para. 311; S.I. 2005/910, art. 3(y)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C34S. 25: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

Marginal Citations

[F11626 Interim disqualification.E+W+S

(1)Where a magistrates’ court—

(a)commits an offender to the Crown Court under [F117section 20 of the Sentencing Code or any enactment mentioned in subsection (1) of that section], or

(b)remits an offender to another magistrates’ court under [F118section 28 of that Code],

to be dealt with for an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, it may order him to be disqualified until he has been dealt with in respect of the offence.

(2)Where a court in England and Wales—

(a)defers passing sentence on an offender under [F119[F120Chapter 1 of Part 2] of that Act] in respect of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, or

(b)adjourns after convicting an offender of such an offence but before dealing with him for the offence,

it may order the offender to be disqualified until he has been dealt with in respect of the offence.

(3)Where a court in Scotland—

(a)adjourns a case under section 179 or section 380 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (for inquiries to be made or to determine the most suitable method of dealing with the offender);

(b)remands a person in custody or on bail under section 180 or section 381 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (to enable a medical examination and report to be made);

(c)defers sentence under section 219 or section 432 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975;

(d)remits a convicted person to the High Court for sentence under section 104 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975,

in respect of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, it may order the accused to be disqualified until he has been dealt with in respect of the offence.

(4)Subject to subsection (5) below, an order under this section shall cease to have effect at the end of the period of six months beginning with the day on which it is made, if it has not ceased to have effect before that time.

(5)In Scotland, where a person is disqualified under this section where section 219 or section 432 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (deferred sentence) applies and the period of deferral exceeds 6 months, subsection (4) above shall not prevent the imposition under this section of any period of disqualification which does not exceed the period of deferral.

(6)Where a court orders a person to be disqualified under this section (“the first order”), no court shall make a further order under this section in respect of the same offence or any offence in respect of which an order could have been made under this section at the time the first order was made.

(7)Where a court makes an order under this section in respect of any person it must—

(a)require him to produce to the court any licence held by him F121..., and

(b)retain the licence F122... until it deals with him or (as the case may be) cause [F123 it] to be sent to the [F124proper officer] of the court which is to deal with him.

[F125[F126(7A)] In subsection (7) above “ proper officer ” means—

(a)in relation to a magistrates’ court in England and Wales, the [F127designated officer] for the court, and

(b)in relation to any other court, the clerk of the court.]

(8)If the holder of the licence F128... does not produce the licence F129...as required under subsection (7) above, then he is guilty of an offence.

(9)Subsection (8) above does not apply to a person who—

(a)satisfies the court that he has applied for a new licence and has not received itF130...

F131(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(10)Where a court makes an order under this section in respect of any person, sections 44(1) and [F132, 47(2)] [F133, 91ZA(7) and 91A(5) of this Act] shall not apply in relation to the order, but—

(a)the court must send notice of the order to the Secretary of State, and

(b)if the court which deals with the offender determines not to order him to be disqualified under section 34 or 35 of this Act, it must send notice of the determination to the Secretary of State.

(11)A notice sent by a court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of subsection (10) above must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

(12)Where on any occasion a court deals with an offender—

(a)for an offence in respect of which an order was made under this section, or

(b)for two or more offences in respect of any of which such an order was made,

any period of disqualification which is on that occasion imposed under section 34 or 35 of this Act shall be treated as reduced by any period during which he was disqualified by reason only of an order made under this section in respect of any of those offences.

(13)Any reference in this or any other Act (including any Act passed after this Act) to the length of a period of disqualification shall, unless the context otherwise requires, be construed as a reference to its length before any reduction under this section.

F134(14). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

Textual Amendments

F119Words in s. 26(2)(a) substituted (25.8.2000) by 2000 c. 6, ss. 165(1), 168(1), Sch. 9 para. 119(3)

F124Words in s. 26(7)(b) substituted (1.4.2001) by 1999 c. 22, s. 90(1), Sch. 13 para. 143 (with s. 107, Sch. 14 para. 7(2)); S.I. 2001/916, art. 2(a)(ii) (with Sch. 2 para. 2)

F125S. 26(7)(2) inserted (1.4.2001) by 1999 c. 22, s. 90(1), Sch. 13 para. 143 (with s. 107, Sch. 14 para. 7(2)); S.I. 2001/916, art. 2(a)(ii) (with Sch. 2 para. 2) it is provided (1.4.2001) that after subsection (7) there shall be inserted subsection (2)

F126S. 26(7)(2) renumbered as s. 26(7A) (1.4.2005) by Courts Act 2003 (c. 39), s. 110(1), Sch. 8 para. 312(a); S.I. 2005/910, art. 3(y)

F127Words in s. 26(7A) substituted (1.4.2005) by Courts Act 2003 (c. 39), s. 110(1), Sch. 8 para. 312(b); S.I. 2005/910, art. 3(y)

F132Words in s. 26(10) substituted (1.1.1997) by S.I. 1996/1974, reg. 3, Sch. 2 para. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C35S. 26: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

Part IIE+W+S Sentence

IntroductoryE+W+S

27 Production of licence.E+W+S

[F135(1)Where—

(a)a person who is the holder of a licence is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, and

(b)a court proposes to make, or makes, an order disqualifying the person,

the court may require the licence to be produced to it.]

F136(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)If the holder of the licence F137... does not produce it F138... as required [F139under this section or [F140section 40 of the Crime (Sentences) Act 1997, section 146 or 147 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000] or section 223A or 436A of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975][F141, or if the holder of the license does not produce it F138...as required by section 40B of the M20Child Support Act 1991, then,] unless he satisfies the court that he has applied for a new licence and has not received it—

(a)he is guilty of an offence, and

(b)[F142unless the licence is already treated as being revoked under section 37(1),] the licence shall be suspended from the time when its production was required until [F143it F138... [F144is produced] to the court and shall, while suspended, be of no effect.]

F145(4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F146(4A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F147(5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F140Words in s. 27(3) substituted (25.8.2000) by 2000 c. 6, ss. 165(1), 168(1), Sch. 9 para. 120

F141Words in s. 27(3) substituted (2.4.2001) by 2000 c. 19, s. 16(5) (with s. 83(6)); S.I. 2000/3354, art. 2(3)

F144Words in s. 27(3)(b) substituted (8.6.2015) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), s. 61(1)(10), Sch. 3 para. 33(4); S.I. 2015/560, art. 3(a) (with arts. 4-9)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C36S. 27: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

C37S. 27(1)(2) applied with modifications by S.I. 1987/1378, reg. 25(3) (as amended by S.I. 1990/842, reg. 9)

S. 27(1)(3) applied (with modifications) (12.11.1999) by S.I. 1999/2864, reg. 80(5)(b)

C38S. 27(3) applied with modifications by S.I. 1987/1378, reg. 25(3) (as amended by S.I. 1990/842, reg. 9)

S. 27(3) applied with modifications (1.1.1998) (EW) by 1997 c. 43, s. 39(5)(b), 40(6); S.I. 1997/2200, art. 3(b)(c) (with art. 5)

Marginal Citations

F148 [28Penalty points to be attributed to an offence.E+W+S

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, then, subject to the following provisions of this section, the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence is—

(a)the number shown in relation to the offence in the last column of Part I or Part II of Schedule 2 to this Act, or

(b)where a range of numbers is shown, a number within that range.

(2)Where a person is convicted of an offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring, or inciting to the commission of, an offence involving obligatory disqualification, then, subject to the following provisions of this section, the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence is ten.

[F149(3)For the purposes of sections [F15057A(6)] [F151and 77A(8)] of this Act, the number of penalty points to be attributed to an offence is—

(a)where both a range of numbers and a number followed by the words “(fixed penalty)” is shown in the last column of Part 1 of Schedule 2 to this Act in relation to the offence, that number,

(b)where a range of numbers followed by the words “or appropriate penalty points (fixed penalty)” is shown there in relation to the offence, the appropriate number of penalty points for the offence, and

(c)where only a range of numbers is shown there in relation to the offence, the lowest number in the range.

(3A)For the purposes of subsection (3)(b) above the appropriate number of penalty points for an offence is such number of penalty points as the Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument prescribe.

(3B)An order made under subsection (3A) above in relation to an offence may make provision for the appropriate number of penalty points for the offence to be different depending on the circumstances, including (in particular)—

(a)the nature of the contravention or failure constituting the offence,

(b)how serious it is,

(c)the area, or sort of place, where it takes place, and

(d)whether the offender appears to have committed any offence or offences of a description specified in the order during a period so specified.]

(4)Where a person is convicted (whether on the same occasion or not) of two or more offences committed on the same occasion and involving obligatory endorsement, the total number of penalty points to be attributed to them is the number or highest number that would be attributed on a conviction of one of them (so that if the convictions are on different occasions the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offences on the later occasion or occasions shall be restricted accordingly).

(5)In a case where (apart from this subsection) subsection (4) above would apply to two or more offences, the court may if it thinks fit determine that that subsection shall not apply to the offences (or, where three or more offences are concerned, to any one or more of them).

(6)Where a court makes such a determination it shall state its reasons in open court and, if it is a magistrates’ court, or in Scotland a court of summary jurisdiction, shall cause them to be entered in the register (in Scotland, record) of its proceedings.

(7)The Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument—

(a)alter a number or range of numbers shown in relation to an offence in the last column of Part I or Part II of Schedule 2 to this Act (by substituting one number or range for another, a number for a range, or a range for a number),

(b)where a range of numbers is shown in relation to an offence in the last column of Part I, add or delete a number together with the words “(fixed penalty)” [F152or the words “or appropriate penalty points (fixed penalty)”],

[F153(ba)substitute the words “or appropriate penalty points (fixed penalty)” for a number together with the words “(fixed penalty)”, or substitute a number together with the words “(fixed penalty)” for the words “or appropriate penalty points (fixed penalty)”, in relation to an offence in the last column of Part 1 or 2,] and

(c)alter the number of penalty points shown in subsection (2) above;

and an order under this subsection may provide for different numbers or ranges of numbers to be shown in relation to the same offence committed in different circumstances.

(8)Where the Secretary of State exercises his power under subsection (7) above by substituting or adding a number which appears together with the words “(fixed penalty)”, that number shall not exceed the lowest number in the range shown in the same entry.

[F154(8A)Before making any order under subsection (3A) above the Secretary of State must consult with such representative organisations as he thinks fit.]

(9)No order shall be made under [F155this section] unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by resolution of each House of Parliament.]

Textual Amendments

F149S. 28(3)-(3B) substituted for s. 28(3) (31.3.2009) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 4(2), 61(1)(10) (with s. 61(3)); S.I. 2008/3164, art. 3(a)

F152Words in s. 28(7)(b) inserted (31.3.2009) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 4(3), 61(1)(10) (with s. 61(3)); S.I. 2008/3164, art. 3(a)

F155Words in s. 28(9) substituted (31.3.2009) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 4(6), 61(1)(10) (with s. 61(3)); S.I. 2008/3164, art. 3(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C40S. 28: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b)(inserted (1.7.1992)) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

F156[29Penalty points to be taken into account on conviction.E+W+S

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, the penalty points to be taken into account on that occasion are (subject to subsection (2) below)—

(a)any that are to be attributed to the offence or offences of which he is convicted disregarding any offence in respect of which an order under section 34 of this Act is made, and

(b)any that were on a previous occasion ordered to be endorsed on F157...[F158his driving record], unless the offender has since that occasion and before the conviction been disqualified under section 35 of this Act.

(2)If any of the offences was committed more than three years before another, the penalty points in respect of that offence shall not be added to those in respect of the other.

F159(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C42S. 29: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.)

S. 29 modified (1.7.1992) by S.I. 1992/1286, art. 6(3)

30 Penalty points: modification where fixed penalty also in question.E+W+S

[F160(1)Sections 28 and 29 of this Act shall have effect subject to this section in any case where—

(a)a person is convicted of an offence involving [F161obligatory endorsement], and

(b) the court is satisfied that F162... [F163 his driving record] has been or is liable to be endorsed under section [F16457A] [F165or 77A] of this Act in respect of an offence (referred to in this section as the “ connected offence ”) committed on the same occasion as the offence of which he is convicted.

(2)F166 . . . the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence of which he is convicted is—

(a)the number of penalty points to be attributed to that offence under section [F16728]of this Act apart from this section, less

(b)the number of penalty points required to be endorsed F168...[F169on his driving record] under section [F17057A] [F171or 77A] of this Act in respect of the connected offence [F172(except so far as they have already been deducted by virtue of this paragraph)].

F173(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

Textual Amendments

F160S. 30 repealed (S.) (22.7.2004) by Statute Law (Repeals) Act 2004 (c. 14), Sch. 1 Pt. 14

F161Words in s. 30(1)(a) substituted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 48, Sch. 4 para. 92(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.

F172Words in s. 30(2)(b) added (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991(c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 48, Sch. 4 para. 92(3)(c); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.

31 Court may take particulars endorsed F174... into consideration.E+W+S

[F175(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification—

(a)any existing endorsement on F176... his driving record is prima facie evidence of the matters endorsed, and

(b)the court may, in determining what order to make in pursuance of the conviction, take those matters into consideration.]

(2)This section has effect notwithstanding anything in [F177section 166(1) to (6) of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995] (requirements as to notices of penalties and previous convictions).

Textual Amendments

F177Words in s. 31(2) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, ss. 5, 7(2), Sch. 4 para. 71(4)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C43S. 31: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b)(inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

F17832 In Scotland, court may take extract from licensing records into account.E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

Fine and imprisonmentE+W+S

33 Fine and imprisonment.E+W+S

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence against a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or regulations made under any such provision, the maximum punishment by way of fine or imprisonment which may be imposed on him is that shown in column 4 against the offence and (where appropriate) the circumstances or the mode of trial there specified.

(2)Any reference in column 4 of that Part to a period of years or months is to be construed as a reference to a term of imprisonment of that duration.

[F17933A Forfeiture of vehicles: Scotland.S

(1)Where a person commits an offence to which this subsection applies by—

(a)driving, attempting to drive, or being in charge of a vehicle; or

(b)failing to comply with a requirement made under section 7 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (failure to provide specimen for analysis or laboratory test) in the course of an investigation into whether the offender had committed an offence while driving, attempting to drive or being in charge of a vehicle, or

(c)failing, as the driver of a vehicle, to comply with subsections (2) and (3) of section 170 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (duty to stop and give information or report accident),

the court may, on an application under this subsection, make an order forfeiting the vehicle concerned; and any vehicle forfeited under this subsection shall be disposed of as the court may direct.

(2)Subsection (1) above applies—

(a)to an offence under the Road Traffic Act 1988 which is punishable with imprisonment; and

(b)to an offence of culpable homicide.

(3)An application under subsection (1) above shall be at the instance of the prosecutor made when he moves for sentence (or, if the person has been remitted for sentence under section 195 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995) made before sentence is pronounced.

(4)Where—

(a)the court is satisfied, on an application under this subsection by the prosecutor—

(i)that proceedings have been, or are likely to be, instituted against a person in Scotland for an offence to which subsection (1) above applies allegedly committed in the manner specified in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of that subsection; and

(ii)that there is reasonable cause to believe that a vehicle specified in the application is to be found in a place or in premises so specified; and

(b)it appears to the court that there are reasonable grounds for thinking that in the event of the person being convicted of the offence an order under subsection (1) above might be made in relation to the vehicle,

the court may grant a warrant authorising a person named therein to enter and search the place or premises and seize the vehicle.

(5)Where the court has made an order under subsection (1) above for the forfeiture of a vehicle, the court or any justice may, if satisfied on evidence on oath—

(a)that there is reasonable cause to believe that the vehicle is to be found in any place or premises; and

(b)that admission to the place or premises has been refused or that a refusal of such admission is apprehended,

issue a warrant of search which may be executed according to law.

(6)In relation to summary proceedings, the reference in subsection (5) above to a justice includes a reference to the sheriff and to a magistrate.

(7)Part II of the Proceeds of Crime (Scotland) Act 1995 shall not apply in respect of a vehicle in relation to which this section applies.

(8)This section extends to Scotland only.]

Textual Amendments

F179S. 33A inserted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, s. 5, 7(2), Sch. 4 para. 71(6)

DisqualificationE+W+S

34 Disqualification for certain offences.E+W+S

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory disqualification, the court must order him to be disqualified for such period not less than twelve months as the court thinks fit unless the court for special reasons thinks fit to order him to be disqualified for a shorter period or not to order him to be disqualified.

[F180(1A)Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 12A of the Theft Act 1968 (aggravated vehicle-taking), the fact that he did not drive the vehicle in question at any particular time or at all shall not be regarded as a special reason for the purposes of subsection (1) above.]

[F181(2)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving discretionary disqualification, and either—

(a)the penalty points to be taken into account on that occasion number fewer than twelve, or

(b)the offence is not one involving obligatory endorsement,

the court may order him to be disqualified for such period as the court thinks fit.]

(3)M21Where a person convicted of an offence under any of the following provisions of the Road Traffic Act 1988, that is—

[F182(aa)section 3A (causing death by careless driving when under the influence of drink or drugs),]

(a)section 4(1) (driving or attempting to drive while unfit),

(b)section 5(1)(a) (driving or attempting to drive with excess alcohol), F183. . .

[F184(ba)section 5A(1)(a) and (2) (driving or attempting to drive with concentration of specified controlled drug above specified limit),]

(c)section 7(6) (failing to provide a specimen) where that is an offence involving obligatory disqualification,

[F185(d)section 7A(6) (failing to allow a specimen to be subjected to laboratory test) where that is an offence involving obligatory disqualification;]

has within the ten years immediately preceding the commission of the offence [F186(“the new offence”)] been convicted of any such offence, subsection (1) above shall apply in relation to him as if the reference to twelve months were a reference to [F187the period specified in subsection (3A)].

[F188(3A)The period is—

(a)six years, where—

(i)an offence of which the person was convicted within the ten years mentioned in subsection (3) falls within paragraph (aa) of that subsection, and

(ii)the new offence also falls within that paragraph;

(b)in any other case (but subject to subsection (4ZA)), three years.]

[F189(4)Subject to subsection (3) above [F190and subsection (4ZA) below], subsection (1) above shall apply as if the reference to twelve months were a reference to two years—

(a)in relation to a person convicted of—

(i)manslaughter, or in Scotland culpable homicide, or

F191(ii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F192(iia)an offence under section 1A of [F193the Road Traffic Act 1988] (causing serious injury by dangerous driving), or]

[F194(iib)an offence under section 3ZC of that Act (causing death by driving: disqualified drivers), or

(iic)an offence under section 3ZD of that Act (causing serious injury by driving: disqualified drivers), F195...]

F195(iii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and

(b)in relation to a person on whom more than one disqualification for a fixed period of 56 days or more has been imposed within the three years immediately preceding the commission of the offence.

[F196(4ZA)Subsection (1) shall apply as if the reference to twelve months were a reference to five years in relation to a person convicted of—

(a)an offence under section 1 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (causing death by dangerous driving), or

(b)an offence under section 3A of that Act (causing death by careless driving when under the influence of drink or drugs),

but this is subject to subsection (3) in cases within paragraph (a) of subsection (3A).]

(4A)For the purposes of subsection (4)(b) above there shall be disregarded any disqualification imposed under section 26 of this Act or [F197section 147 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000] [F198or section 164 of the Sentencing Code] or section 223A or 436A of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (offences committed by using vehicles) and any disqualification imposed in respect of an offence of stealing a motor vehicle, an offence under section 12 or 25 of the Theft Act 1968, an offence under section 178 of the Road Traffic Act 1988, or an attempt to commit such an offence.]

[F199(4AA)For the purposes of subsection (4)(b), a disqualification is to be disregarded if the period of disqualification would have been less than 56 days but for an extension period added pursuant to—

(a)section 35A or 35C,

(b)section 248D of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, or

(c)section 147A of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 [F200or section 166 of the Sentencing Code].]

[F201(4B) Where a person convicted of an offence under section 40A of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (using vehicle in dangerous condition etc. ) has within the three years immediately preceding the commission of the offence been convicted of any such offence, subsection (1) above shall apply in relation to him as if the reference to twelve months were a reference to six months.]

(5)The preceding provisions of this section shall apply in relation to a conviction of an offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring, or inciting to the commission of, an offence involving obligatory disqualification as if the offence were an offence involving discretionary disqualification.

[F202(5A)In relation to Scotland, references in this section to the court include the [F203justice of the peace court].]

(6)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

Textual Amendments

F180S. 34(1A) inserted (1.4.1992) by Aggravated Vehicle-Taking Act 1992 (c. 11), s. 3(2); S.I. 1992/764, art. 2

F183Word in s. 34(3)(b) omitted (1.10.2002) and repealed (prosp.) by virtue of 2002 c. 30, ss. 56(3)(a), 107, Sch. 8; S.I. 2002/2306, arts. 2(d)(v)(g)(iii)

F184S. 34(3)(ba) inserted (2.3.2015 for E.W., 1.3.2018 for S., 1.3.2018 for N.I.) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(2), Sch. 22 para. 12 (with Sch. 22 para. 14); S.I. 2014/3268, art. 2; S.I. 2018/161, art. 2; S.I. 2018/162, art. 2

F185S. 34(3)(d) inserted (1.10.2002) by 2002 c. 30, s. 56(3)(b); S.I. 2002/2306, art. 2(d)(v)

F189S. 34(4)(4A) substituted (1.7.1992) for s. 34(4) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 29(4); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch (with art. 6(5)).

F197Words in s. 34(4A) substituted (25.8.2000) by 2000 c. 6, ss. 165(1), 168(1), Sch. 9 para. 121

F203Words in s. 34(5A) substituted (S.) (10.3.2008 for specified purposes, 2.6.2008 for specified purposes, 8.12.2008 for specified purposes, 23.2.2009 for specified purposes, 14.12.2009 for specified purposes, 22.2.2010 in so far as not already in force) by Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007 (asp 6), s. 84(1), sch. para. 7(d); S.S.I. 2008/42, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/192, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/329, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/362, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2009/432, art. 3, sch. 1, sch. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C44S. 34: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch (with art. 6(5)).

Marginal Citations

[F20434A Reduced disqualification period for attendance on courses.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person is convicted of a relevant drink offence or a specified offence by or before a court, and

(b)the court makes an order under section 34 of this Act disqualifying him for a period of not less than twelve months.

(2)In this section “relevant drink offence” means—

(a)an offence under paragraph (a) of subsection (1) of section 3A of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (causing death by careless driving when unfit to drive through drink) committed when unfit to drive through drink,

(b)an offence under paragraph (b) of that subsection (causing death by careless driving with excess alcohol),

(c)an offence under paragraph (c) of that subsection (failing to provide a specimen) where the specimen is required in connection with drink or consumption of alcohol,

(d)an offence under section 4 of that Act (driving or being in charge when under influence of drink) committed by reason of unfitness through drink,

(e)an offence under section 5(1) of that Act (driving or being in charge with excess alcohol),

(f)an offence under section 7(6) of that Act (failing to provide a specimen) committed in the course of an investigation into an offence within any of the preceding paragraphs, or

(g)an offence under section 7A(6) of that Act (failing to allow a specimen to be subjected to a laboratory test) in the course of an investigation into an offence within any of the preceding paragraphs.

(3)In this section “specified offence” means—

(a)an offence under section 3 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (careless, and inconsiderate, driving),

(b)an offence under section 36 of that Act (failing to comply with traffic signs),

(c)an offence under section 17(4) of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 (use of special road contrary to scheme or regulations), or

(d)an offence under section 89(1) of that Act (exceeding speed limit).

(4)But the Secretary of State may by regulations amend subsection (3) above by adding other offences or removing offences.

(5)Where this section applies, the court may make an order that the period of disqualification imposed under section 34 of this Act (“the unreduced period”) shall be reduced if, by the relevant date, the offender satisfactorily completes an approved course specified in the order.

(6)In subsection (5) above—

  • an approved course” means a course approved by the appropriate national authority for the purposes of this section in relation to the description of offence of which the offender is convicted, and

  • the relevant date” means such date, at least two months before the last day of the period of disqualification as reduced by the order, as is specified in the order.

(7)The reduction made in a period of disqualification by an order under this section is a period specified in the order of—

(a)not less than three months, and

(b)not more than one quarter of the unreduced period,

(and, accordingly, where the unreduced period is twelve months, the reduced period is nine months).

(8)A court shall not make an order under this section in the case of an offender convicted of a specified offence if—

(a)the offender has, during the period of three years ending with the date on which the offence was committed, committed a specified offence and successfully completed an approved course pursuant to an order made under this section or section 30A of this Act on conviction of that offence, or

(b)the specified offence was committed during his probationary period.

(9)A court shall not make an order under this section in the case of an offender unless—

(a)the court is satisfied that a place on the course specified in the order will be available for the offender,

(b)the offender appears to the court to be of or over the age of 17,

(c)the court has informed the offender (orally or in writing and in ordinary language) of the effect of the order and of the amount of the fees which he is required to pay for the course and when he must pay them, and

(d)the offender has agreed that the order should be made.]

Textual Amendments

F204Ss. 34A-34C substituted for ss. 34A-34C (21.12.2012 for specified purposes, 24.6.2013 for specified purposes) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 35, 61(1)(10); S.I. 2012/2938, art. 2(1)(a)(b) (with art. 3)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F20434B Certificates of completion of courses.E+W+S

(1)An offender shall be regarded for the purposes of section 34A of this Act as having completed a course satisfactorily if (and only if) a certificate that he has done so is received by the proper officer of the supervising court before the end of the unreduced period.

(2)If a certificate under subsection (1) above is so received before the end of the unreduced period but after the end of the period which would (apart from this subsection) be the reduced period, the reduced period is to be taken to end with the day on which the certificate is so received.

(3)A certificate under subsection (1) above is to be given by the course provider and shall be in such form, and contain such particulars, as may be prescribed by, or determined in accordance with, regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

(4)A course provider must give a certificate under subsection (1) above to the offender not later than fourteen days after the date specified in the order as the latest date for the completion of the course unless the offender—

(a)fails to make due payment of fees for the course,

(b)fails to attend the course in accordance with the course provider's reasonable instructions, or

(c)fails to comply with any other reasonable requirement of the course provider.

(5)Where a course provider decides not to give a certificate under subsection (1) above to the offender, he shall give written notice of the decision to the offender as soon as possible, and in any event not later than fourteen days after the date specified in the order as the latest date for completion of the course.

(6)An offender to whom a notice is given under subsection (5) above may, within such period as may be prescribed by rules of court, apply to the supervising court, or (if the supervising court is not the Crown Court, the High Court of Justiciary or the relevant local court) to either the supervising court or the relevant local court, for a declaration that the course provider's decision not to give a certificate under subsection (1) above was contrary to subsection (4) above.

(7)If the court grants the application, section 34A of this Act shall have effect as if the certificate had been duly received by the proper officer of the supervising court.

(8)If fourteen days after the date specified in the order as the latest date for completion of the course the course provider has given neither a certificate under subsection (1) above nor a notice under subsection (5) above, the offender may, within such period as may be prescribed by rules of court, apply to the supervising court, or (if the supervising court is not the Crown Court, the High Court of Justiciary or the relevant local court) to either the supervising court or the relevant local court, for a declaration that the course provider is in default.

(9)If the court grants the application, section 34A of this Act shall have effect as if the certificate had been duly received by the proper officer of the supervising court.

(10)A notice under subsection (5) above shall specify the ground on which it is given; and the appropriate national authority may by regulations make provision as to the form of notices under that subsection and as to the circumstances in which they are to be treated as given.

(11)Where the proper officer of a court receives a certificate under subsection (1) above, or a court grants an application under subsection (6) or (8) above, the proper officer or court must send notice of that fact to the Secretary of State; and the notice must be sent in such manner and to such address, and must contain such particulars, as the Secretary of State may determine.]

Textual Amendments

F204Ss. 34A-34C substituted for ss. 34A-34C (21.12.2012 for specified purposes, 24.6.2013 for specified purposes) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 35, 61(1)(10); S.I. 2012/2938, art. 2(1)(a)(b) (with art. 3)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F20434BAApproval of coursesE+W+S

(1)If an application is made to the appropriate national authority for the approval of a course for the purposes of section 34A of this Act, the appropriate national authority must decide whether to grant or refuse the application.

(2)In reaching that decision the appropriate national authority must have regard to—

(a)the nature of the course, and

(b)whether the course provider is an appropriate person to provide the course and administer its provision efficiently and effectively,

and may take into account any recommendations made by any persons appointed to consider the application.

(3)A course may be approved subject to conditions specified by the appropriate national authority.

(4)An approval of a course is for the period specified by the appropriate national authority (which must not exceed seven years), subject to withdrawal of approval.

(5)Regulations made by the appropriate national authority may make provision in relation to the approval of courses and may, in particular, include provision—

(a)in relation to the making of applications for approval,

(b)for the payment in respect of applications for approval, or of approvals, (or of both) of fees of such amounts as are prescribed by the regulations,

(c)specifying the maximum fees that a person may be required to pay for a course and by when they are to be paid,

(d)for the monitoring of courses and course providers,

(e)in relation to withdrawing approval,

(f)for an appeal to lie to the [F205First-tier Tribunal] against a refusal of an application for approval, the imposition of conditions on the grant of such an application or the withdrawal of approval, and

(g)authorising the appropriate national authority to make available (with or without charge) information about courses and course providers.]

Textual Amendments

F204Ss. 34A-34C substituted for ss. 34A-34C (21.12.2012 for specified purposes, 24.6.2013 for specified purposes) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 35, 61(1)(10); S.I. 2012/2938, art. 2(1)(a)(b) (with art. 3)

F205Words in s. 34BA(5)(f) substituted (1.9.2009) by The Transfer of Functions (Transport Tribunal and Appeal Panel) Order (2009 SI1885), art. 1(1), Sch. 1 para. 16

[F20434C Provisions supplementary to sections 34A and 34B.E+W+S

(1)The appropriate national authority may issue guidance to course providers, or to any category of course provider, as to the conduct of courses approved for the purposes of section 34A of this Act; and—

(a)course providers shall have regard to any guidance given to them under this subsection, and

(b)in determining for the purposes of section 34B of this Act whether any instructions or requirements of a course provider were reasonable, a court shall have regard to any guidance given to him under this subsection.

(2)The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision—

(a)amending section 34A(1)(b) of this Act by substituting for the period for the time being specified there a different period,

(b)amending section 34A(7) of this Act by substituting for the period for the time being specified there a different period, or by substituting for the fraction of the unreduced period for the time being specified there a different fraction of that period, (or by doing both), or

(c)amending section 34A(8)(a) of this Act by substituting for the period for the time being specified there a different period.

(3)In sections 34A to 34BA of this Act and this section—

  • appropriate national authority” means (as respects Wales) the National Assembly for Wales and (otherwise) the Secretary of State;

  • course provider”, in relation to a course, means the person by whom it is, or is to be, provided;

  • probationary period” has the meaning given in section 1 of the Road Traffic (New Drivers) Act 1995;

  • proper officer” means—

    (a)

    in relation to a magistrates' court in England and Wales, the designated officer for the court, and

    (b)

    otherwise, the clerk of the court;

  • relevant local court”, in relation to an order under section 34A of this Act in the case of an offender, means—

    (a)

    in England and Wales, a magistrates' court acting for the local justice area in which the offender resides, and

    (b)

    in Scotland, the sheriff court for the district where the offender resides or, where the order is made by a stipendiary magistrate and the offender resides within his commission area, the district court for that area; and

  • supervising court”, in relation to an order under section 34A of this Act, means—

    (a)

    in England and Wales, if the Crown Court made the order the Crown Court and otherwise a magistrates' court acting for the same local justice area as the court which made the order, and

    (b)

    in Scotland, the court which made the order.

(4)Any power to make regulations under section 34A, 34B or 34BA of this Act or this section includes power to make different provision for different cases, and to make such incidental or supplementary provision as appears necessary or appropriate.

(5)Any power to make regulations under section 34A, 34B or 34BA of this Act or this section shall be exercisable by statutory instrument.

(6)No regulations shall be made under section 34A of this Act or this section unless a draft of the regulations has been laid before, and approved by a resolution of, each House of Parliament.

(7)A statutory instrument containing regulations made under section 34B or 34BA of this Act by the Secretary of State shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.]

Textual Amendments

F204Ss. 34A-34C substituted for ss. 34A-34C (21.12.2012 for specified purposes, 24.6.2013 for specified purposes) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 35, 61(1)(10); S.I. 2012/2938, art. 2(1)(a)(b) (with art. 3)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C48Ss. 34 - 48: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 6(5)))

C49S. 34C: transfer of certain functions (1.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/672, art. 2, Sch. 1

35 Disqualification for repeated offences.E+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a person is convicted of an offence [F206to which this subsection applies], and

(b)the penalty points to be taken into account on that occasion number twelve or more,

the court must order him to be disqualified for not less than the minimum period unless the court is satisfied, having regard to all the circumstances, that there are grounds for mitigating the normal consequences of the conviction and thinks fit to order him to be disqualified for a shorter period or not to order him to be disqualified.

[F207(1A)Subsection (1) above applies to—

(a)an offence involving discretionary disqualification and obligatory endorsement, and

(b)an offence involving obligatory disqualification in respect of which no order is made under section 34 of this Act.]

(2)The minimum period referred to in subsection (1) above is—

(a)six months if no previous disqualification imposed on the offender is to be taken into account, and

(b)one year if one, and two years if more than one, such disqualification is to be taken into account;

and a previous disqualification imposed on an offender is [F208, subject to subsection (2A),] to be taken into account if it [F209was for a fixed period of 56 days or more and was imposed] within the three years immediately preceding the commission of the latest offence in respect of which penalty points are taken into account under section 29 of this Act.

[F210(2A)A previous disqualification imposed on an offender for a fixed period is not to be taken into account for the purposes of subsection (2) if that period would have been less than 56 days but for an extension period added pursuant to—

(a)section 35A or 35C,

(b)section 248D of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, or

(c)section 147A of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 [F211or section 166 of the Sentencing Code].]

(3)Where an offender is convicted on the same occasion of more than one offence [F212to which subsection (1) above applies]

(a)not more than one disqualification shall be imposed on him under subsection (1) above,

(b)in determining the period of the disqualification the court must take into account all the offences, and

(c)for the purposes of any appeal any disqualification imposed under subsection (1) above shall be treated as an order made on the conviction of each of the offences.

(4)No account is to be taken under subsection (1) above of any of the following circumstances—

(a)any circumstances that are alleged to make the offence or any of the offences not a serious one,

(b)hardship, other than exceptional hardship, or

(c)any circumstances which, within the three years immediately preceding the conviction, have been taken into account under that subsection in ordering the offender to be disqualified for a shorter period or not ordering him to be disqualified.

(5)References in this section to disqualification do not include a disqualification imposed under section 26 of this Act or [F213section 147 of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000] [F214or section 164 of the Sentencing Code] [F215or section 223A or 436A of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (offences committed by using vehicles) or a disqualification imposed in respect of an offence of stealing a motor vehicle, an offence under section 12 or 25 of the Theft Act 1968, an offence under section 178 of the Road Traffic Act 1988, or an attempt to commit such an offence].

[F216(5A)The preceding provisions of this section shall apply in relation to a conviction of an offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling, procuring, or inciting to the commission of, an offence involving obligatory disqualification as if the offence were an offence involving discretionary disqualification.]

(6)In relation to Scotland, references in this section to the court include the [F217justice of the peace court].

(7)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

Textual Amendments

F213Words in s. 35(5) substituted (25.8.2000) by 2000 c. 6, ss. 165(1), 168(1), Sch. 9 para. 122

F217Words in s. 35(6) substituted (S.) (10.3.2008 for specified purposes, 2.6.2008 for specified purposes, 8.12.2008 for specified purposes, 23.2.2009 for specified purposes, 14.12.2009 for specified purposes, 22.2.2010 in so far as not already in force) by Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007 (asp 6), s. 84(1), sch. para. 7(d); S.S.I. 2008/42, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/192, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/329, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/362, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2009/432, art. 3, sch. 1, sch. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C50S. 35: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 6(5))).

[F21835AExtension of disqualification where custodial sentence also imposedE+W+S

(1)This section applies where a person is convicted in England and Wales of an offence for which the court—

(a)imposes a custodial sentence, and

(b)orders the person to be disqualified under section 34 or 35.

(2)The order under section 34 or 35 must provide for the person to be disqualified for the appropriate extension period, in addition to the discretionary disqualification period.

(3)The discretionary disqualification period is the period for which, in the absence of this section, the court would have disqualified the person under section 34 or 35.

(4)The appropriate extension period is—

(a)where an order under [F219section 321(2) of the Sentencing Code (life sentence: minimum term order)] is made in relation to the custodial sentence, a period equal to the part of the sentence specified in that order;

(b)in the case of a detention and training order [F220within the meaning given by section 233 of that Code] (offenders under 18: detention and training orders), a period equal to half the term of that order;

F221(c). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F221(d). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(e)where [F222section 266 or 279 of that Code] (extended sentence for certain violent [F223, sexual or terrorism] offences: persons 18 or over) applies in relation to the custodial sentence, [F224but the sentence is not within section 247A(2A) of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (sentences for terrorist offenders in respect of which no early release possible),] a period equal to [F225two-thirds of] the term imposed pursuant to [F226section 266(a) or 279(a) of that Code] F227...;

(f)where [F228section 254 of that Code] (extended sentence for certain violent [F229, sexual or terrorism] offences: persons under 18) applies in relation to the custodial sentence, [F230but the sentence is not within section 247A(2A) of the Criminal Justice Act 2003,] a period equal to [F231two-thirds of] the term imposed pursuant to [F232section 254(a) of that Code] F227...;

[F233(fza)in a case that would fall within paragraph (e) or (f) but for the fact that the custodial sentence falls within section 247A(2A) of the Criminal Justice Act 2003, a period equal to the term imposed under section 266(a) or 279(a) or (as the case may be) section 254(a) of the Sentencing Code;]

[F234(fa)in the case of a sentence under [F235section [F236252A,] 265 or 278 of that Code] (special custodial sentence for certain offenders of particular concern), a period equal to [F237two-thirds] of the term imposed pursuant to [F238section [F239252A(4)(a),] 265(2)(a) or 278(2)(a) of that Code];]

[F240(fb)in the case of a sentence under section 268A or 282A of that Code (serious terrorism sentences), a period equal to the term imposed by the court pursuant to section 268C(2) or 282C(2) of that Code;

(fc)in the case of a sentence in respect of which section 244ZA of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 applies to the offender, a period equal to two-thirds of the sentence;

(fd)in any other case where section 247A of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 applies to the offender in respect of the custodial sentence, a period equal to two-thirds of the sentence;]

F241(g). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(h)in any other case, a period equal to half the custodial sentence imposed F242....

(5)If a period determined under subsection (4) includes a fraction of a day, that period is to be rounded up to the nearest number of whole days.

F243(6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(7)This section does not apply where—

(a)the custodial sentence was a suspended sentence, [F244or]

[F245(b)the court has made a whole life order under section 321(3) of the Sentencing Code in relation to the custodial sentence.]

(8)Subsection (9) applies where an amending order provides that the proportion of a prisoner's sentence referred to in section [F246243A(3)(a),] 244(3)(a) F247... of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (release of prisoners in certain circumstances) is to be read as a reference to another proportion (“the new proportion”).

(9)The Secretary of State may by order—

(a)if the amending order makes provision in respect of section [F248 243A(3)(a) or] 244(3)(a) of that Act, provide that the proportion specified in subsection (4)(h) of this section is to be read, in the case of a custodial sentence to which the amending order applies, as a reference to the new proportion;

F249(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(10)An order under subsection (9) is to be made by statutory instrument and a draft of the statutory instrument containing the order must be laid before, and approved by a resolution of, each House of Parliament.

(11)In this section—

  • amending order” means an order under section 267 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (alteration by order of relevant proportion of sentence);

  • custodial sentence” has the meaning given by [F250section 222 of the Sentencing Code];

  • suspended sentence” has the meaning given by [F251section 286 of the Sentencing Code].

Textual Amendments

F221S. 35A(4)(c)(d) omitted (3.12.2012) by virtue of 2012 c. 10, Sch. 10 para. 5; S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(h)

F225Words in s. 35A(4)(e) substituted (3.12.2012) by 2012 c. 10, Sch. 21 para. 4(2)(b); S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(s)

F231Words in s. 35A(4)(f) substituted (3.12.2012) by 2012 c. 10, Sch. 21 para. 4(3)(b); S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(s)

F245S. 35A(7)(b) substituted for s. 35A(7)(b)(c) (1.12.2020) by Sentencing Act 2020 (c. 17), s. 416(1), Sch. 24 para. 102(3)(b) (with Sch. 24 para. 447, Sch. 27); S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

F246Word in s. 35A(8) inserted (3.12.2012) by 2012 c. 10, Sch. 14 para. 1(a); S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(l)

F247Words in s. 35A(8) omitted (3.12.2012) by virtue of 2012 c. 10, Sch. 21 para. 4(4); S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(s)

F248Words in s. 35A(9)(a) inserted (3.12.2012) by 2012 c. 10, Sch. 14 para. 1(b); S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(l)

F249S. 35A(9)(b) omitted (3.12.2012) by virtue of 2012 c. 10, Sch. 21 para. 4(5); S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(s)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C52S. 35A excluded by 2003 c. 32, s. 54(3A)(a) (as inserted (1.8.2017 as notified in the London Gazette dated 1.8.2017 (Issue 62012, p. 14601)) by Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), s. 95(1), Sch. 7 para. 2(4) (with Sch. 7 para. 27); S.I. 2017/189, art. 3)

C53S. 35A modified in part (1.12.2020 immediately before the consolidation date (see 2020 c. 9, ss. 3, 5(2)(3) and 2020 c. 17, ss. 2, 416)) by Sentencing (Pre-consolidation Amendments) Act 2020 (c. 9), ss. 1, 5(2)(3); S.I. 2012/1236, reg. 2

C54S. 35A(4)(h): power to modify conferred (13.4.2015) by Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (c. 25), s. 182(5), Sch. 22 para. 34(2) (with s. 180); S.I. 2015/819, art. 2(c)

35BEffect of custodial sentence in other casesE+W+S

(1)This section applies where a person is convicted in England and Wales of an offence for which a court proposes to order the person to be disqualified under section 34 or 35 and—

(a)the court proposes to impose on the person a custodial sentence (other than a suspended sentence) for another offence, or

(b)at the time of sentencing for the offence, a custodial sentence imposed on the person on an earlier occasion has not expired.

(2)In determining the period for which the person is to be disqualified under section 34 or 35, the court must have regard to the consideration in subsection (3) if and to the extent that it is appropriate to do so.

(3)The consideration is the diminished effect of disqualification as a distinct punishment if the person who is disqualified is also detained in pursuance of a custodial sentence.

(4)If the court proposes to order the person to be disqualified under section 34 or 35 and to impose a custodial sentence for the same offence, the court may not in relation to that disqualification take that custodial sentence into account for the purposes of subsection (2).

(5)In this section “custodial sentence” and “suspended sentence” have the same meaning as in section 35A.]

[F25235CExtension of disqualification where sentence of imprisonment also imposed: ScotlandE+W+S

(1)This section applies where a person is convicted in Scotland of an offence for which the court—

(a)imposes a sentence of imprisonment, and

(b)orders the person to be disqualified under section 34 or 35.

(2)The order under section 34 or 35 must provide for the person to be disqualified for the appropriate extension period, in addition to the discretionary disqualification period.

(3)The discretionary disqualification period is the period for which, in the absence of this section, the court would have disqualified the person under section 34 or 35.

(4)The appropriate extension period is—

(a)in the case of a life prisoner, a period equal to the punishment part of the life sentence;

[F253(aa)in the case of a person serving a serious terrorism sentence, a period equal to the appropriate custodial term;

(ab)in the case of a person serving an extended sentence that falls within section 1AB(2A) of the Prisoners and Criminal Proceedings (Scotland) Act 1993 (“the 1993 Act”), a period equal to the custodial term;

(ac)in the case of a person serving an extended sentence in respect of which section 1AB(3) to (5) of the 1993 Act applies to the person, a period equal to two-thirds of the custodial term;]

F254(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c)in the case of a person serving [F255any other] extended sentence, a period equal to half the [F256custodial] term;

[F257(ca)in the case of a person serving a sentence imposed under section 205ZC of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (“the 1995 Act”), a period equal to two-thirds of the appropriate custodial term;

(cb)in the case of a person serving any other sentence of imprisonment in respect of which section 1AB of the 1993 Act applies to the person, a period equal to two-thirds of the sentence;]

(d)in any other case, a period equal to half the sentence of imprisonment imposed.

(5)If a period determined under subsection (4) includes a fraction of a day, that period is to be rounded up to the nearest number of whole days.

(6)For the purposes of subsection (4), a sentence is to be taken to start on the date of commencement of the sentence.

(7)Subsection (8) applies where an amending order provides for [F258a reference in section 1(1) or (3) or 1AB(3)(a) of the 1993 Act to a particular proportion of a prisoner’s sentence to be construed as a reference to some other proportion (“the new proportion”) specified in the order].

(8)The Secretary of State may by order provide that the proportion specified in subsection [F259(4)(ac), (c), (ca), (cb) or (d)] of this section is to be read, in the case of a sentence of imprisonment to which the amending order applies, as a reference to the new proportion.

(9)An order under subsection (8) is to be made by statutory instrument and a draft of the statutory instrument containing the order must be laid before, and approved by a resolution of, each House of Parliament.

(10)In this section—

  • amending order” means an order made by the Scottish Ministers under [F260section 27(2)(b) of the 1993 Act];

  • [F261“appropriate custodial term”—

    (a)

    in relation to a serious terrorism sentence, means the term imposed under subsection (5)(a) or (as the case may be) (7)(a) of section 205ZA of the 1995 Act;

    (b)

    in relation to a sentence imposed under section 205ZC of the 1995 Act, means the term imposed under subsection (3)(a) or (as the case may be) (4)(a) of that section;]

  • [F262custodial] term” has the meaning given by section 210A(2)(a) of the [F2631995 Act];

  • F264...

  • F264...

  • extended sentence” has the meaning given by section 210A of the 1995 Act;

  • life prisoner” has the meaning given by [F265section 2(1) of the 1993 Act];

  • [F266“punishment part”, in relation to a life sentence, means the punishment part of the sentence as specified in an order mentioned in section 2(2) of the 1993 Act;]

  • sentence of imprisonment” includes—

    (a)

    an order for detention in residential accommodation under section 44 of the 1995 Act, and

    (b)

    a sentence of detention under section 205, [F267205ZA(7), 205ZC(4),] 207 or 208 of the 1995 Act;]

  • [F268“serious terrorism sentence” means a sentence imposed under section 205ZA of the 1995 Act].

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C55S. 35C excluded by 2003 c. 32, s. 54(3A)(a) (as inserted (1.8.2017 as notified in the London Gazette dated 1.8.2017 (Issue 62012, p. 14601)) by Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), s. 95(1), Sch. 7 para. 2(4) (with Sch. 7 para. 27); S.I. 2017/189, art. 3)

[F25235DEffect of sentence of imprisonment in other cases: ScotlandE+W+S

(1)This section applies where a person is convicted in Scotland of an offence for which a court proposes to order the person to be disqualified under section 34 or 35 and—

(a)the court proposes to impose on the person a sentence of imprisonment for another offence, or

(b)at the time of sentencing for the offence, a sentence of imprisonment imposed on the person on an earlier occasion has not expired.

(2)In determining the period for which the person is to be disqualified under section 34 or 35, the court must have regard to the consideration in subsection (3) if and to the extent that it is appropriate to do so.

(3)The consideration is the diminished effect of disqualification as a distinct punishment if the person who is disqualified is also detained in pursuance of a sentence of imprisonment.

(4)If the court proposes to order the person to be disqualified under section 34 or 35 and to impose a sentence of imprisonment for the same offence, the court may not in relation to that disqualification take that sentence of imprisonment into account for the purposes of subsection (2).

(5)In this section “sentence of imprisonment” has the same meaning as in section 35C.]

[F26936 Disqualification until test is passed.E+W+S

(1)Where this subsection applies to a person the court must order him to be disqualified until he passes the appropriate driving test.

(2)Subsection (1) above applies to a person who is disqualified under section 34 of this Act on conviction of—

(a)manslaughter, or in Scotland culpable homicide, by the driver of a motor vehicle, F270...

[F271(b)an offence under section 1 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (causing death by dangerous driving),

(c)an offence under section 1A of that Act (causing serious injury by dangerous driving),

(d)an offence under section 2 of that Act (dangerous driving),

(e)an offence under section 3ZC of that Act (causing death by driving: disqualified drivers), or

(f)an offence under section 3ZD of that Act (causing serious injury by driving: disqualified drivers).]

(3)Subsection (1) above also applies—

(a)to a person who is disqualified under section 34 or 35 of this Act in such circumstances or for such period as the Secretary of State may by order prescribe, or

(b)to such other persons convicted of such offences involving obligatory endorsement as may be so prescribed.

(4)Where a person to whom subsection (1) above does not apply is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, the court may order him to be disqualified until he passes the appropriate driving test (whether or not he has previously passed any test).

(5)In this section—

  • appropriate driving test ” means—

(a)an extended driving test, where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory disqualification or is disqualified under section 35 of this Act,

(b)a test of competence to drive, other than an extended driving test, in any other case,

  • extended driving test ” means a test of competence to drive prescribed for the purposes of this section, and

  • test of competence to drive ” means a test prescribed by virtue of section 89(3) of the Road Traffic Act 1988.

(6)In determining whether to make an order under subsection (4) above, the court shall have regard to the safety of road users.

(7)Where a person is disqualified until he passes the extended driving test—

(a)any earlier order under this section shall cease to have effect, and

(b)a court shall not make a further order under this section while he is so disqualified.

(8)Subject to subsection (9) below, a disqualification by virtue of an order under this section shall be deemed to have expired on production to the Secretary of State of evidence, in such form as may be prescribed by regulations under section 105 of the Road Traffic Act 1988, that the person disqualified has passed the test in question since the order was made.

(9)A disqualification shall be deemed to have expired only in relation to vehicles of such classes as may be prescribed in relation to the test passed by regulations under that section.

F272(10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F273(10A)Where a person's driving record is endorsed with particulars of a disqualification under this section, it shall also be endorsed with the particulars of any test of competence to drive that he has passed since the order of disqualification was made.]

(11)For the purposes of an order under this section, a person shall be treated as having passed a test of competence to drive other than an extended driving test if he passes a corresponding test conducted—

(a)under the law of Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, any of the Channel Islands, [F274an] [F275EEA State], Gibraltar or a designated country or territory F276. . ., or

(b)for the purposes of obtaining a British Forces licence (as defined by section 88(8) of [F277the Road Traffic Act 1988]);

and accordingly subsections (8) to (10) above shall apply in relation to such a test as they apply in relation to a test prescribed by virtue of section 89(3) of that Act.

[F278(11A)For the purposes of subsection (11) above, “designated country or territory” means a country or territory designated by order under section 108(2) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 but a test conducted under the law of such a country or territory shall not be regarded as a corresponding test unless a person passing such a test would be entitled to an exchangeable licence as defined in section 108(1) of that Act.]

(12)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

(13)The power to make an order under subsection (3) above shall be exercisable by statutory instrument; and no such order shall be made unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by resolution of each House of Parliament.

(14)The Secretary of State shall not make an order under subsection (3) above after the end of 2001 if he has not previously made such an order.]

Textual Amendments

F271S. 36(2)(b)-(f) substituted for s. 36(2)(b) (13.4.2015) by Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), s. 95(1), Sch. 6 para. 5(3) (with s. 29(5)); S.I. 2015/778, art. 3, Sch. 1 para. 75

F275Words in s. 36 substituted (1.1.1997) by S.I. 1996/1974, reg. 3, Sch. 2 para. 3(2)(a)

F276Words in s. 36(11)(a) repealed by virtue of S.I. 1996/1974, reg. 3, Sch. 2, para. 3(2)(b)

F277Words in s. 36(11)(b) substituted (1.1.1997) by S.I. 1996/1974, reg. 3, Sch. 2 para. 3(3)

F278S. 36(11A) substituted (31.8.1998) by 1998/1917, art. 3

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C56S. 36: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch. (with art. 6(5))).

37 Effect of order of disqualification.E+W+S

(1)Where the holder of a licence is disqualified by an order of a court, the licence shall be treated as being revoked with effect from the beginning of the period of disqualification.

[F279(1A)Where—

(a)the disqualification is for a fixed period shorter than 56 days [F280(disregarding any extension period)] in respect of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, or

(b)the order is made under section 26 of this Act,

subsection (1) above shall not prevent the licence from again having effect at the end of the period of disqualification [F281(including any extension period)].]

[F282(1B)In subsection (1A) “extension period” means an extension period added pursuant to—

(a)section 35A or 35C,

(b)section 248D of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, or

(c)section 147A of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 [F283or section 166 of the Sentencing Code].]

(2)Where the holder of the licence appeals against the order and the disqualification is suspended under section 39 of this Act, the period of disqualification shall be treated for the purpose of subsection (1) above as beginning on the day on which the disqualification ceases to be suspended.

(3)Notwithstanding anything in Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988, a person disqualified by an order of a court under section [F28436] of this Act is (unless he is also disqualified otherwise than by virtue of such an order) entitled to obtain and to hold a provisional licence and to drive a motor vehicle in accordance with the conditions subject to which the provisional licence is granted.

[F285(4)Notwithstanding anything in Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988, a person who holds a Community licence which authorises that person to drive motor vehicles of a particular class, but who is disqualified by an order of a court under section 36 of this Act, is (unless the person is also disqualified otherwise than by virtue of such an order) entitled to drive a motor vehicle of that class in accordance with the same conditions as if the person were authorised to drive a motor vehicle of that class by a provisional licence.]

Textual Amendments

F279S. 37(1A) inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 33; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch. (with art. 6(5))

F284Word in s. 37(3) substituted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 48, Sch. 4 para. 96; S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch. (with art. 6(5))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C57S. 37: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch. (with art. 6(5))).

[F28637ASurrender of licence to Secretary of State where disqualifiedE+W+S

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person who is the holder of a licence is disqualified by an order of a court, and

(b)the Secretary of State is not already in receipt of the licence.

(2)The Secretary of State may serve on the person a notice in writing requiring the person to surrender the licence to the Secretary of State at such address as the Secretary of State may determine, before the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the date on which the notice is served.

(3)A notice under subsection (2) may be served on a person—

(a)by delivering it to the person,

(b)by leaving it at the person’s proper address, or

(c)by sending it to the person by post.

(4)A person who, without reasonable excuse, fails to comply with a notice under subsection (2) is guilty of an offence.

(5)For the purposes of—

(a)subsection (3), and

(b)section 7 of the Interpretation Act 1978 in its application to subsection (3),

a person’s “proper address” is the person’s latest address as known to the Secretary of State.]

38 Appeal against disqualification.E+W+S

(1)A person disqualified by an order of a magistrates’ court under section 34 or 35 of this Act may appeal against the order in the same manner as against a conviction.

(2)A person disqualified by an order of a court in Scotland may appeal against the order in the same manner as against a sentence.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C59S. 38: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b)(inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

39 Suspension of disqualification pending appeal.E+W+S

(1)Any court in England and Wales (whether a magistrates’ court or another) which makes an order disqualifying a person may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification pending an appeal against the order.

(2)The court by or before which a person disqualified by an order of a court in Scotland was convicted may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification pending an appeal against the order.

(3)Where a court exercises its power under subsection (1) or (2) above, it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(4)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address and must contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C60S. 39: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

40 Power of appellate courts in England and Wales to suspend disqualification.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where a person has been convicted by or before a court in England and Wales of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification and has been ordered to be disqualified; and in the following provisions of this section—

(a)any reference to a person ordered to be disqualified is to be construed as a reference to a person so convicted and so ordered to be disqualified, and

(b)any reference to his sentence includes a reference to the order of disqualification and to any other order made on his conviction and, accordingly, any reference to an appeal against his sentence includes a reference to an appeal against any order forming part of his sentence.

(2)Where a person ordered to be disqualified—

(a)appeals to the Crown Court, or

(b)appeals or applies for leave to appeal to the Court of Appeal,

against his conviction or his sentence, the Crown Court or, as the case may require, the Court of Appeal may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(3)Where a person ordered to be disqualified has appealed or applied for leave to appeal to the [F287Senior Courts]

(a)under section 1 of the M22Administration of Justice Act 1960 from any decision of a Divisional Court of the Queen’s Bench Division which is material to his conviction or sentence, or

(b)under section 33 of the M23Criminal Appeal Act 1968 from any decision of the Court of Appeal which is material to his conviction or sentence,

the Divisional Court or, as the case may require, the Court of Appeal may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(4)Where a person ordered to be disqualified makes an application in respect of the decision of the court in question under section 111 of the M24Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 (statement of case by magistrates’ court) or section 28 of the [F288Senior Courts Act 1981] (statement of case by Crown Court) the High Court may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(5)Where a person ordered to be disqualified—

(a)applies to the High Court for an order of certiorari to remove into the High Court any proceedings of a magistrates’ court or of the Crown Court, being proceedings in or in consequence of which he was convicted or his sentence was passed, or

(b)applies to the High Court for leave to make such an application,

the High Court may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(6)Any power of a court under the preceding provisions of this section to suspend the disqualification of any person is a power to do so on such terms as the court thinks fit.

(7)Where, by virtue of this section, a court suspends the disqualification of any person, it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(8)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address and must contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

Textual Amendments

F287Words in s. 40(3) substituted (1.10.2009) by Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (c. 4), s. 148(1), Sch. 9 para. 50; S.I. 2009/1604, art. 2(d); and said amended words subsequently substituted on the same date by Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (c. 4), s. 148(1), Sch. 11 para. 4; S.I. 2009/1604, art. 2(d)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C61S. 40: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

Marginal Citations

41 [F289Power of appellate courts in Scotland to suspend disqualification.]E+W+S

(1)This section applies where a person has been convicted by or before a court in Scotland of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification and has been ordered to be disqualified; and in the following provisions of this section—

(a)any reference to a person ordered to be disqualified is to be construed as a reference to a person so convicted and so ordered to be disqualified, and

(b)any reference to his sentence includes a reference to the order of disqualification and to any other order made on his conviction and, accordingly, any reference to an appeal against his sentence includes a reference to an appeal against any order forming part of his sentence.

(2)Where a person ordered to be disqualified appeals F290..., whether on appeal against a summary conviction or a conviction on indictment or his sentence, the court [F291hearing the appeal] may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification on such terms as it thinks fit.

The powers conferred by this subsection on the court may be exercised by any single judge of the court.

[F292(2A)Where the court hearing the appeal is the Sheriff Appeal Court, the reference in subsection (2) to a single judge of the court is a reference to an Appeal Sheriff.]

(3)Where, by virtue of this section, the [F293court hearing the appeal] suspends the disqualification of any person, it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(4)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address and must contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

F294[41A Suspension of disqualification pending determination of applications under section 34B.E+W+S

(1)Where a person makes an application to a court under section 34B of this Act, the court may suspend the disqualification to which the application relates pending the determination of the application.

(2)Where a court exercises its power under subsection (1) above it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(3)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address, and must contain such particulars, as the Secretary of State may determine.]

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C63Ss. 34 - 48: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.)

42 Removal of disqualification. E+W+S

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, a person who by an order of a court is disqualified may apply to the court by which the order was made to remove the disqualification.

(2)On any such application the court may, as it thinks proper having regard to—

(a)the character of the person disqualified and his conduct subsequent to the order,

(b)the nature of the offence, and

(c)any other circumstances of the case,

either by order remove the disqualification as from such date as may be specified in the order or refuse the application.

(3)No application shall be made under subsection (1) above for the removal of a disqualification before the expiration of whichever is relevant of the following periods from [F295the relevant date], that is—

(a)two years, if the disqualification is for less than four years [F296(disregarding any extension period)],

(b)one half of the [F297period of disqualification (disregarding any extension period), if the disqualification is (disregarding any extension period)] for less than ten years but not less than four years,

(c)five years in any other case;

and in determining the expiration of the period after which under this subsection a person may apply for the removal of a disqualification, any time after the conviction during which the disqualification was suspended or he was not disqualified shall be disregarded.

[F298(3A)In subsection (3) “the relevant date” means—

(a)the date of the order imposing the disqualification in question, or

(b)if the period of the disqualification is extended by an extension period, the date in paragraph (a) postponed by a period equal to that extension period.]

[F299(3B)Extension period” means an extension period added pursuant to—

(a)section 35A or 35C,

(b)section 248D of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, or

(c)section 147A of the Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 [F300or section 166 of the Sentencing Code].]

(4)Where an application under subsection (1) above is refused, a further application under that subsection shall not be entertained if made within three months after the date of the refusal.

(5)If under this section a court orders a disqualification to be removed, the court—

[F301(a)must send notice of the order to the Secretary of State,]

(b)may in any case order the applicant to pay the whole or any part of the costs of the application.

[F302(5A)F303. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F304(5AA)If the disqualification was imposed in respect of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, the Secretary of State must, on receiving notice of an order under subsection [F305(5)(a)] above, make any necessary adjustments to the endorsements on the person's driving record to reflect the order.]

(5B)A notice under subsection [F306(5)(a)] above must be sent in such manner and to such address, and must contain such particulars, as the Secretary of State may determine.]

(6)The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply where the disqualification was imposed by order under section 36(1) of this Act.

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C65S. 42: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.)

C67S. 42(5) applied with modifications by S.I. 1987/1378, reg. 25(3) (as amended by S.I. 1990/842, reg. 9)

S. 42(5) applied (with modifications) (12.11.1999) by S.I. 1999/2864, reg. 80(5)(c)

43 Rule for determining end of period of disqualification.E+W+S

In determining the expiration of the period for which a person is disqualified by an order of a court made in consequence of a conviction, any time after the conviction during which the disqualification was suspended or he was not disqualified shall be disregarded.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C69S. 43: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2,Sch.).

EndorsementE+W+S

44 [F307Orders for endorsement]E+W+S

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, the court must order there to be endorsed on [F308his driving record] particulars of the conviction and also—

(a)if the court orders him to be disqualified, particulars of the disqualification, or

(b)if the court does not order him to be disqualified—

(i)particulars of the offence, including the date when it was committed, and

(ii)the penalty points to be attributed to the offence.

(2)Where the court does not order the person convicted to be disqualified, it need not make an order under subsection (1) above if for special reasons it thinks fit not to do so.

(3)In relation to Scotland, references in this section to the court include the [F309justice of the peace court].

F310(3A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

Textual Amendments

F308Words in s. 44(1) substituted (8.6.2015) by Road Safety Act 2006 (c. 49), ss. 10(2)(a), 61(1)(10) (with s. 61(3)); S.I. 2015/560, art. 3(a) (with arts. 4-9)

F309Words in s. 44(3) substituted (S.) (10.3.2008 for specified purposes, 2.6.2008 for specified purposes, 8.12.2008 for specified purposes, 23.2.2009 for specified purposes, 14.12.2009 for specified purposes, 22.2.2010 in so far as not already in force) by Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007 (asp 6), s. 84(1), sch. para. 7(d); S.S.I. 2008/42, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/192, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/329, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2008/362, art. 3, sch.; S.S.I. 2009/432, art. 3, sch. 1, sch. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C70S. 44: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

[F31144AEndorsement of driving record in accordance with orderE+W+S

(1)Where the court orders the endorsement of a person's driving record with any particulars or penalty points it must send notice of the order to the Secretary of State.

(2)On receiving the notice, the Secretary of State must endorse those particulars or penalty points on the person's driving record.

(3)A notice sent by the court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of this section must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may require.]

Textual Amendments

F31345 Effect of endorsement [F312of counterparts].E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F31445AEffect of endorsement of driving recordsE+W+S

(1)An order that any particulars or penalty points are to be endorsed on a person's driving record shall operate as an order that his driving record is to be so endorsed until the end of the period for which the endorsement remains effective.

(2)At the end of the period for which the endorsement remains effective the Secretary of State must remove the endorsement from the person's driving record.

[F315(3)An endorsement ordered on a person's conviction of an offence remains effective (subject to subsections (4) and (5) below)—

(a)if an order is made for the disqualification of the offender, until four years have elapsed since the conviction, and

(b)if no such order is made, until either—

(i)four years have elapsed since the commission of the offence, or

(ii)an order is made for the disqualification of the offender under section 35 of this Act.

[F316(4)Where the offence was under one of the following sections of the Road Traffic Act 1988, the endorsement remains effective until four years have elapsed since the conviction—

(a)section 1 (causing death by dangerous driving),

(b)section 1A (causing serious injury by dangerous driving),

(c)section 2 (dangerous driving),

(d)section 3ZC (causing death by driving: disqualified drivers), or

(e)section 3ZD (causing serious injury by driving: disqualified drivers).]

(5)Where the offence was one—

(a)under section 3A, 4(1) [F317, 5(1)(a) or 5A(1)(a) and (2)] of that Act (driving offences connected with drink or drugs),

(b)under section 7(6) of that Act (failing to provide specimen) involving obligatory disqualification, or

(c)under section 7A(6) of that Act (failing to allow a specimen to be subjected to laboratory test),

the endorsement remains effective until eleven years have elapsed since the conviction.]]

GeneralE+W+S

46 Combination of disqualification and endorsement with probation orders and orders for discharge.E+W

(1)Notwithstanding anything in [F318section 82(4) of the Sentencing Code] (conviction of offender F319. . . discharged to be disregarded for the purposes of enactments relating to disqualification), a court in England and Wales which on convicting a person of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification makes—

F320(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b)an order discharging him absolutely or conditionally,

may on that occasion also exercise any power conferred, and must also discharge any duty imposed, on the court by sections 34, 35, 36 [F321, 44 or 44A] of this Act.

(2)A conviction—

(a)in respect of which a court in England and Wales has ordered a person to be disqualified, or

(b)of which particulars have been endorsed on F322... [F323 his driving record],

is to be taken into account, notwithstanding anything in [F324section 82(2) of the Sentencing Code] (conviction of offender F325. . . discharged to be disregarded for the purpose of subsequent proceedings), in determining his liability to punishment or disqualification for any offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification committed subsequently.

(3)Where—

(a)a person is charged in Scotland with an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, and

(b)the court makes an order in respect of the offence under [F326section 228 (probation) or 246(2) or (3) (absolute discharge) of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995]

then, for the purposes of sections 34, 35, 36, 44 F327[F328... and 45A] of this Act, he shall be treated as if he had been convicted of an offence of the kind in question and [F329section 247 of that Act shall not apply].

Extent Information

E1This version of this provision extends to England and Wales only; a separate version has been created for Scotland only.

Textual Amendments

F320S. 46(1)(a) repealed (4.4.2005) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 32 para. 54, Sch. 37 Pt. 7; S.I. 2005/950, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 paras. 42(22), 44(4)(h) (with Sch. 2) (as explained (29.7.2005) by S.I. 2005/2122, art. 2; and as amended: (14.7.2008) by 2008 c. 4, Sch. 26 para. 78, Sch. 28 Pt. 2; S.I. 2008/1586, Sch. 1 paras. 48(s), 50(2)(d); (30.11.2009) by S.I. 2009/3111, art. 2; (3.12.2012) by S.I. 2012/2905, art. 4; (3.12.2012) by 2012 c. 10, Sch. 14 para. 17; S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(l))

F326Words in s. 46(3)(b) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, s. 5, Sch. 4 para. 71(7)(a)

F329Words in s. 46 substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, s. 5, Sch. 4 para. 71(7)(b)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C71S. 46: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b)(inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

46 Combination of disqualification and endorsement with probation orders and orders for discharge.S

(1)Notwithstanding anything in section 13(3) of the M45Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973 (conviction of offender placed on probation or discharged to be disregarded for the purposes of enactments relating to disqualification), a court in England and Wales which on convicting a person of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification makes—

F320(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b)an order discharging him absolutely or conditionally,

may on that occasion also exercise any power conferred, and must also discharge any duty imposed, on the court by sections 34, 35, 36 [F321, 44 or 44A] of this Act.

(2)A conviction—

(a)in respect of which a court in England and Wales has ordered a person to be disqualified, or

(b)of which particulars have been endorsed on F322... [F323 his driving record]

is to be taken into account, notwithstanding anything in section 13(1) of the Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973 (conviction of offender placed on probation or discharged to be disregarded for the purpose of subsequent proceedings), in determining his liability to punishment or disqualification for any offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification committed subsequently.

(3)Where—

(a)a person is charged in Scotland with an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, and

(b)the court makes an order in respect of the offence under F874[F875... 246(2) or (3) (absolute discharge) of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995]

then, for the purposes of sections 34, 35, 36, 44 F327[F328... and 45A] and 45 of this Act, he shall be treated as if he had been convicted of an offence of the kind in question and [F876section 247 of that Act shall not apply].

Extent Information

E3This version of this provision extends to Scotland only; a separate version has been created for England and Wales only.

Textual Amendments

F320S. 46(1)(a) repealed (4.4.2005) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 32 para. 54, Sch. 37 Pt. 7; S.I. 2005/950, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 paras. 42(22), 44(4)(h) (with Sch. 2) (as explained (29.7.2005) by S.I. 2005/2122, art. 2; and as amended: (14.7.2008) by 2008 c. 4, Sch. 26 para. 78, Sch. 28 Pt. 2; S.I. 2008/1586, Sch. 1 paras. 48(s), 50(2)(d); (30.11.2009) by S.I. 2009/3111, art. 2; (3.12.2012) by S.I. 2012/2905, art. 4; (3.12.2012) by 2012 c. 10, Sch. 14 para. 17; S.I. 2012/2906, art. 2(l))

F875Words in s. 46(3)(b) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, s. 5, Sch. 4 para. 71(7)(a)

F876Words in s. 46(7) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 40, s. 5, Sch. 4 para. 71(7)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C94S. 46: power to exclude or modify conferred (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52, SIF 107:1), s. 193A(2)(b) (inserted (1.7.1992) by Road Traffic Act 1991 (c. 40, SIF 107:1), s. 46(2); S.I. 1992/1286, art. 2, Sch.).

Marginal Citations

47 Supplementary provisions as to disqualifications and endorsements.E+W+S

(1)In any case where a court exercises its power under section 34, 35 or 44 of this Act not to order any disqualification or endorsement or to order disqualification for a shorter period than would otherwise be required, it must state the grounds for doing so in open court and, if it is a magistrates’ court or, in Scotland, a court of summary jurisdiction, must cause them to be entered in the register (in Scotland, record) of its proceedings.

[F330(2)Where F331... a court orders a person to be disqualified for a period of 56 days or more [F332 (disregarding any extension period)] it must, send any licence of the person that is produced to the court, to the Secretary of State.]

[F333(2ZA)In subsection (2) “extension period” means an extension period added pursuant to—

(a)section 35A or 35C,

(b)section 248D of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, or

[F334(c)section 166 of the Sentencing Code.]]

F335(2A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)Where on an appeal against [F336an order for the endorsement of F337...[F338 a driving record] or the disqualification of a person] the appeal is allowed, the court by which the appeal is allowed must send notice of that fact to the Secretary of State.

[F339(3A)On receiving such a notice F340... the Secretary of State must make any necessary adjustments to the endorsements on the person's driving record to reflect the outcome of the appeal.]

(4)A notice sent by a court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of this section must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine, and a licence F341... so sent in pursuance of this section must be sent to such address as the Secretary of State may determine.