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Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014

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This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

CHAPTER 2Public spaces protection orders

Public spaces protection orders

59Power to make orders

(1)A local authority may make a public spaces protection order if satisfied on reasonable grounds that two conditions are met.

(2)The first condition is that—

(a)activities carried on in a public place within the authority’s area have had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of those in the locality, or

(b)it is likely that activities will be carried on in a public place within that area and that they will have such an effect.

(3)The second condition is that the effect, or likely effect, of the activities—

(a)is, or is likely to be, of a persistent or continuing nature,

(b)is, or is likely to be, such as to make the activities unreasonable, and

(c)justifies the restrictions imposed by the notice.

(4)A public spaces protection order is an order that identifies the public place referred to in subsection (2) (“the restricted area”) and—

(a)prohibits specified things being done in the restricted area,

(b)requires specified things to be done by persons carrying on specified activities in that area, or

(c)does both of those things.

(5)The only prohibitions or requirements that may be imposed are ones that are reasonable to impose in order—

(a)to prevent the detrimental effect referred to in subsection (2) from continuing, occurring or recurring, or

(b)to reduce that detrimental effect or to reduce the risk of its continuance, occurrence or recurrence.

(6)A prohibition or requirement may be framed—

(a)so as to apply to all persons, or only to persons in specified categories, or to all persons except those in specified categories;

(b)so as to apply at all times, or only at specified times, or at all times except those specified;

(c)so as to apply in all circumstances, or only in specified circumstances, or in all circumstances except those specified.

(7)A public spaces protection order must—

(a)identify the activities referred to in subsection (2);

(b)explain the effect of section 63 (where it applies) and section 67;

(c)specify the period for which the order has effect.

(8)A public spaces protection order must be published in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State.

60Duration of orders

(1)A public spaces protection order may not have effect for a period of more than 3 years, unless extended under this section.

(2)Before the time when a public spaces protection order is due to expire, the local authority that made the order may extend the period for which it has effect if satisfied on reasonable grounds that doing so is necessary to prevent—

(a)occurrence or recurrence after that time of the activities identified in the order, or

(b)an increase in the frequency or seriousness of those activities after that time.

(3)An extension under this section—

(a)may not be for a period of more than 3 years;

(b)must be published in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State.

(4)A public spaces protection order may be extended under this section more than once.

61Variation and discharge of orders

(1)Where a public spaces protection order is in force, the local authority that made the order may vary it—

(a)by increasing or reducing the restricted area;

(b)by altering or removing a prohibition or requirement included in the order, or adding a new one.

(2)A local authority may make a variation under subsection (1)(a) that results in the order applying to an area to which it did not previously apply only if the conditions in section 59(2) and (3) are met as regards activities in that area.

(3)A local authority may make a variation under subsection (1)(b) that makes a prohibition or requirement more extensive, or adds a new one, only if the prohibitions and requirements imposed by the order as varied are ones that section 59(5) allows to be imposed.

(4)A public spaces protection order may be discharged by the local authority that made it.

(5)Where an order is varied, the order as varied must be published in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State.

(6)Where an order is discharged, a notice identifying the order and stating the date when it ceases to have effect must be published in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State.

Prohibition on consuming alcohol

62Premises etc to which alcohol prohibition does not apply

(1)A prohibition in a public spaces protection order on consuming alcohol does not apply to—

(a)premises (other than council-operated licensed premises) authorised by a premises licence to be used for the supply of alcohol;

(b)premises authorised by a club premises certificate to be used by the club for the supply of alcohol;

(c)a place within the curtilage of premises within paragraph (a) or (b);

(d)premises which by virtue of Part 5 of the Licensing Act 2003 may at the relevant time be used for the supply of alcohol or which, by virtue of that Part, could have been so used within the 30 minutes before that time;

(e)a place where facilities or activities relating to the sale or consumption of alcohol are at the relevant time permitted by virtue of a permission granted under section 115E of the Highways Act 1980 (highway-related uses).

(2)A prohibition in a public spaces protection order on consuming alcohol does not apply to council-operated licensed premises—

(a)when the premises are being used for the supply of alcohol, or

(b)within 30 minutes after the end of a period during which the premises have been used for the supply of alcohol.

(3)In this section—

  • “club premises certificate” has the meaning given by section 60 of the Licensing Act 2003;

  • “premises licence” has the meaning given by section 11 of that Act;

  • “supply of alcohol” has the meaning given by section 14 of that Act.

(4)For the purposes of this section, premises are “council-operated licensed premises” if they are authorised by a premises licence to be used for the supply of alcohol and—

(a)the licence is held by a local authority in whose area the premises (or part of the premises) are situated, or

(b)the licence is held by another person but the premises are occupied by a local authority or are managed by or on behalf of a local authority.

63Consumption of alcohol in breach of prohibition in order

(1)This section applies where a constable or an authorised person reasonably believes that a person (P)—

(a)is or has been consuming alcohol in breach of a prohibition in a public spaces protection order, or

(b)intends to consume alcohol in circumstances in which doing so would be a breach of such a prohibition.

In this section “authorised person” means a person authorised for the purposes of this section by the local authority that made the public spaces protection order (or authorised by virtue of section 69(1)).

(2)The constable or authorised person may require P—

(a)not to consume, in breach of the order, alcohol or anything which the constable or authorised person reasonably believes to be alcohol;

(b)to surrender anything in P’s possession which is, or which the constable or authorised person reasonably believes to be, alcohol or a container for alcohol.

(3)A constable or an authorised person who imposes a requirement under subsection (2) must tell P that failing without reasonable excuse to comply with the requirement is an offence.

(4)A requirement imposed by an authorised person under subsection (2) is not valid if the person—

(a)is asked by P to show evidence of his or her authorisation, and

(b)fails to do so.

(5)A constable or an authorised person may dispose of anything surrendered under subsection (2)(b) in whatever way he or she thinks appropriate.

(6)A person who fails without reasonable excuse to comply with a requirement imposed on him or her under subsection (2) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 2 on the standard scale.

Restrictions on public rights of way

64Orders restricting public right of way over highway

(1)A local authority may not make a public spaces protection order that restricts the public right of way over a highway without considering—

(a)the likely effect of making the order on the occupiers of premises adjoining or adjacent to the highway;

(b)the likely effect of making the order on other persons in the locality;

(c)in a case where the highway constitutes a through route, the availability of a reasonably convenient alternative route.

(2)Before making such an order a local authority must—

(a)notify potentially affected persons of the proposed order,

(b)inform those persons how they can see a copy of the proposed order,

(c)notify those persons of the period within which they may make representations about the proposed order, and

(d)consider any representations made.

In this subsection “potentially affected persons” means occupiers of premises adjacent to or adjoining the highway, and any other persons in the locality who are likely to be affected by the proposed order.

(3)Before a local authority makes a public spaces protection order restricting the public right of way over a highway that is also within the area of another local authority, it must consult that other authority if it thinks it appropriate to do so.

(4)A public spaces protection order may not restrict the public right of way over a highway for the occupiers of premises adjoining or adjacent to the highway.

(5)A public spaces protection order may not restrict the public right of way over a highway that is the only or principal means of access to a dwelling.

(6)In relation to a highway that is the only or principal means of access to premises used for business or recreational purposes, a public spaces protection order may not restrict the public right of way over the highway during periods when the premises are normally used for those purposes.

(7)A public spaces protection order that restricts the public right of way over a highway may authorise the installation, operation and maintenance of a barrier or barriers for enforcing the restriction.

(8)A local authority may install, operate and maintain barriers authorised under subsection (7).

(9)A highway over which the public right of way is restricted by a public spaces protection order does not cease to be regarded as a highway by reason of the restriction (or by reason of any barrier authorised under subsection (7)).

(10)In this section—

  • “dwelling” means a building or part of a building occupied, or intended to be occupied, as a separate dwelling;

  • “highway” has the meaning given by section 328 of the Highways Act 1980.

65Categories of highway over which public right of way may not be restricted

(1)A public spaces protection order may not restrict the public right of way over a highway that is—

(a)a special road;

(b)a trunk road;

(c)a classified or principal road;

(d)a strategic road;

(e)a highway in England of a description prescribed by regulations made by the Secretary of State;

(f)a highway in Wales of a description prescribed by regulations made by the Welsh Ministers.

(2)In this section—

  • “classified road”, “special road” and “trunk road” have the meaning given by section 329(1) of the Highways Act 1980;

  • “highway” has the meaning given by section 328 of that Act;

  • “principal road” has the meaning given by section 12 of that Act (and see section 13 of that Act);

  • “strategic road” has the meaning given by section 60(4) of the Traffic Management Act 2004.

Validity of orders

66Challenging the validity of orders

(1)An interested person may apply to the High Court to question the validity of—

(a)a public spaces protection order, or

(b)a variation of a public spaces protection order.

“Interested person” means an individual who lives in the restricted area or who regularly works in or visits that area.

(2)The grounds on which an application under this section may be made are—

(a)that the local authority did not have power to make the order or variation, or to include particular prohibitions or requirements imposed by the order (or by the order as varied);

(b)that a requirement under this Chapter was not complied with in relation to the order or variation.

(3)An application under this section must be made within the period of 6 weeks beginning with the date on which the order or variation is made.

(4)On an application under this section the High Court may by order suspend the operation of the order or variation, or any of the prohibitions or requirements imposed by the order (or by the order as varied), until the final determination of the proceedings.

(5)If on an application under this section the High Court is satisfied that—

(a)the local authority did not have power to make the order or variation, or to include particular prohibitions or requirements imposed by the order (or by the order as varied), or

(b)the interests of the applicant have been substantially prejudiced by a failure to comply with a requirement under this Chapter,

the Court may quash the order or variation, or any of the prohibitions or requirements imposed by the order (or by the order as varied).

(6)A public spaces protection order, or any of the prohibitions or requirements imposed by the order (or by the order as varied), may be suspended under subsection (4) or quashed under subsection (5)

(a)generally, or

(b)so far as necessary for the protection of the interests of the applicant.

(7)An interested person may not challenge the validity of a public spaces protection order, or of a variation of a public spaces protection order, in any legal proceedings (either before or after it is made) except—

(a)under this section, or

(b)under subsection (3) of section 67 (where the interested person is charged with an offence under that section).

Failure to comply with orders

67Offence of failing to comply with order

(1)It is an offence for a person without reasonable excuse—

(a)to do anything that the person is prohibited from doing by a public spaces protection order, or

(b)to fail to comply with a requirement to which the person is subject under a public spaces protection order.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(3)A person does not commit an offence under this section by failing to comply with a prohibition or requirement that the local authority did not have power to include in the public spaces protection order.

(4)Consuming alcohol in breach of a public spaces protection order is not an offence under this section (but see section 63).

68Fixed penalty notices

(1)A constable or an authorised person may issue a fixed penalty notice to anyone he or she has reason to believe has committed an offence under section 63 or 67 in relation to a public spaces protection order.

(2)A fixed penalty notice is a notice offering the person to whom it is issued the opportunity of discharging any liability to conviction for the offence by payment of a fixed penalty to a local authority specified in the notice.

(3)The local authority specified under subsection (2) must be the one that made the public spaces protection order.

(4)Where a person is issued with a notice under this section in respect of an offence—

(a)no proceedings may be taken for the offence before the end of the period of 14 days following the date of the notice;

(b)the person may not be convicted of the offence if the person pays the fixed penalty before the end of that period.

(5)A fixed penalty notice must—

(a)give reasonably detailed particulars of the circumstances alleged to constitute the offence;

(b)state the period during which (because of subsection (4)(a)) proceedings will not be taken for the offence;

(c)specify the amount of the fixed penalty;

(d)state the name and address of the person to whom the fixed penalty may be paid;

(e)specify permissible methods of payment.

(6)An amount specified under subsection (5)(c) must not be more than £100.

(7)A fixed penalty notice may specify two amounts under subsection (5)(c) and specify that, if the lower of those amounts is paid within a specified period (of less than 14 days), that is the amount of the fixed penalty.

(8)Whatever other method may be specified under subsection (5)(e), payment of a fixed penalty may be made by pre-paying and posting to the person whose name is stated under subsection (5)(d), at the stated address, a letter containing the amount of the penalty (in cash or otherwise).

(9)Where a letter is sent as mentioned in subsection (8), payment is regarded as having been made at the time at which that letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.

(10)In any proceedings, a certificate that—

(a)purports to be signed by or on behalf of the chief finance officer of the local authority concerned, and

(b)states that payment of a fixed penalty was, or was not, received by the dated specified in the certificate,

is evidence of the facts stated.

(11)In this section—

  • “authorised person” means a person authorised for the purposes of this section by the local authority that made the order (or authorised by virtue of section 69(2));

  • “chief finance officer”, in relation to a local authority, means the person with responsibility for the authority’s financial affairs.

Supplemental

69Powers of community support officers

(1)In Part 1 of Schedule 4 to the Police Reform Act 2002 (powers exercisable by community support officers), for paragraph 5 there is substituted—

Alcohol consumption in restricted areas

5Where a designation applies this paragraph to any person, that person shall, within the relevant police area, have the powers of a constable under section 63 of the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 (consumption of alcohol in breach of prohibition in public spaces protection order)—

(a)to impose a requirement under subsection (2) of that section; and

(b)to dispose under subsection (5) of that section of anything surrendered to the person;

and that section shall have effect in relation to the exercise of those powers by that person as if the references to a constable were references to that person.

(2)In paragraph 1 of that Schedule (power of community support officers to issue fixed penalty notices), after paragraph (e) of sub-paragraph (2) there is inserted—

(f)the power of a constable to issue a fixed penalty notice under section 68 of the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 (fixed penalty notice in respect of failure to comply with public spaces protection order).

70Byelaws

A byelaw that prohibits, by the creation of an offence, an activity regulated by a public spaces protection order is of no effect in relation to the restricted area during the currency of the order.

71Bodies other than local authorities with statutory functions in relation to land

(1)The Secretary of State may by order—

(a)designate a person or body (other than a local authority) that has power to make byelaws in relation to particular land, and

(b)specify land in England to which the power relates.

(2)This Chapter has effect as if—

(a)a person or body designated under subsection (1) (a “designated person”) were a local authority, and

(b)land specified under that subsection were within its area.

But references in the rest of this section to a local authority are to a local authority that is not a designated person.

(3)The only prohibitions or requirements that may be imposed in a public spaces protection order made by a designated person are ones that it has power to impose (or would, but for section 70, have power to impose) by making a byelaw in respect of the restricted area.

(4)A public spaces protection order made by a designated person may not include provision regulating, in relation to a particular public space, an activity that is already regulated in relation to that space by a public spaces protection order made by a local authority.

(5)Where a public spaces protection order made by a local authority regulates, in relation to a particular public space, an activity that a public spaces protection order made by a designated person already regulates, the order made by the designated person ceases to have that effect.

(6)If a person or body that may be designated under subsection (1)(a) gives a notice in writing under this subsection, in respect of land in relation to which it has power to make byelaws, to a local authority in whose area the land is situated—

(a)no part of the land may form, or fall within, the restricted area of any public spaces protection order made by the local authority;

(b)if any part of the land—

(i)forms the restricted area of a public spaces protection order already made by the local authority, or

(ii)falls within such an area,

the order has ceases to have effect (where sub-paragraph (i) applies), or has effect as if the restricted area did not include the land in question (where sub-paragraph (ii) applies).

72Convention rights, consultation, publicity and notification

(1)A local authority, in deciding—

(a)whether to make a public spaces protection order (under section 59) and if so what it should include,

(b)whether to extend the period for which a public spaces protection order has effect (under section 60) and if so for how long,

(c)whether to vary a public spaces protection order (under section 61) and if so how, or

(d)whether to discharge a public spaces protection order (under section 61),

must have particular regard to the rights of freedom of expression and freedom of assembly set out in articles 10 and 11 of the Convention.

(2)In subsection (1) “Convention” has the meaning given by section 21(1) of the Human Rights Act 1998.

(3)A local authority must carry out the necessary consultation and the necessary publicity, and the necessary notification (if any), before—

(a)making a public spaces protection order,

(b)extending the period for which a public spaces protection order has effect, or

(c)varying or discharging a public spaces protection order.

(4)In subsection (3)

  • “the necessary consultation” means consulting with—

    (a)

    the chief officer of police, and the local policing body, for the police area that includes the restricted area;

    (b)

    whatever community representatives the local authority thinks it appropriate to consult;

    (c)

    the owner or occupier of land within the restricted area;

  • “the necessary publicity” means—

    (a)

    in the case of a proposed order or variation, publishing the text of it;

    (b)

    in the case of a proposed extension or discharge, publicising the proposal;

  • “the necessary notification” means notifying the following authorities of the proposed order, extension, variation or discharge—

    (a)

    the parish council or community council (if any) for the area that includes the restricted area;

    (b)

    in the case of a public spaces protection order made or to be made by a district council in England, the county council (if any) for the area that includes the restricted area.

(5)The requirement to consult with the owner or occupier of land within the restricted area—

(a)does not apply to land that is owned and occupied by the local authority;

(b)applies only if, or to the extent that, it is reasonably practicable to consult the owner or occupier of the land.

(6)In the case of a person or body designated under section 71, the necessary consultation also includes consultation with the local authority which (ignoring subsection (2) of that section) is the authority for the area that includes the restricted area.

(7)In relation to a variation of a public spaces protection order that would increase the restricted area, the restricted area for the purposes of this section is the increased area.

73Guidance

(1)The Secretary of State may issue—

(a)guidance to local authorities about the exercise of their functions under this Chapter and those of persons authorised by local authorities under section 63 or 68;

(b)guidance to chief officers of police about the exercise, by officers under their direction or control, of those officers’ functions under this Part.

(2)The Secretary of State may revise any guidance issued under this section.

(3)The Secretary of State must arrange for any guidance issued or revised under this section to be published.

74Interpretation of Chapter 2

(1)In this Chapter—

  • “alcohol” has the meaning given by section 191 of the Licensing Act 2003;

  • “community representative”, in relation to a public spaces protection order that a local authority proposes to make or has made, means any individual or body appearing to the authority to represent the views of people who live in, work in or visit the restricted area;

  • “local authority” means—

    (a)

    in relation to England, a district council, a county council for an area for which there is no district council, a London borough council, the Common Council of the City of London (in its capacity as a local authority) or the Council of the Isles of Scilly;

    (b)

    in relation to Wales, a county council or a county borough council;

  • “public place” means any place to which the public or any section of the public has access, on payment or otherwise, as of right or by virtue of express or implied permission;

  • “restricted area” has the meaning given by section 59(4).

(2)For the purposes of this Chapter, a public spaces protection order “regulates” an activity if the activity is—

(a)prohibited by virtue of section 59(4)(a), or

(b)subjected to requirements by virtue of section 59(4)(b),

whether or not for all persons and at all times.

75Saving and transitional provision

(1)The repeal or amendment by this Act of provisions about any of the orders specified in subsection (2) does not apply in relation to—

(a)an order specified in that subsection made before the commencement day;

(b)anything done in connection with such an order.

(2)The orders are—

(a)a gating order under Part 8A of the Highways Act 1980;

(b)an order under section 13(2) of the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 (power of local authority to designate public place for restrictions on alcohol consumption);

(c)a dog control order under Chapter 1 of Part 6 of the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005.

(3)At the end of the period of 3 years beginning with the commencement day—

(a)this Chapter has effect in relation to any order specified in subsection (2) that is still in force as if the provisions of the order were provisions of a public spaces protection order;

(b)subsection (1) ceases to have effect.

This Part, as it applies by virtue of paragraph (a), has effect with any necessary modifications (and with any modifications specified in an order under section 185(7)).

(4)In this section “commencement day” means the day on which this Chapter comes into force.

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