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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

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175 Meaning of publication and commercial publication.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)In this Part “publication”, in relation to a work—

(a)means the issue of copies to the public, and

(b)includes, in the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, making it available to the public by means of an electronic retrieval system;

and related expressions shall be construed accordingly.

(2)In this Part “commercial publication”, in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work means—

(a)issuing copies of the work to the public at a time when copies made in advance of the receipt of orders are generally available to the public, or

(b)making the work available to the public by means of an electronic retrieval system;

and related expressions shall be construed accordingly.

(3)In the case of a work of architecture in the form of a building, or an artistic work incorporated in a building, construction of the building shall be treated as equivalent to publication of the work.

(4)The following do not constitute publication for the purposes of this Part and references to commercial publication shall be construed accordingly—

(a)in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work—

(i)the performance of the work, or

(ii)the [F1communication to the public of the work] (otherwise than for the purposes of an electronic retrieval system);

(b)in the case of an artistic work—

(i)the exhibition of the work,

(ii)the issue to the public of copies of a graphic work representing, or of photographs of, a work of architecture in the form of a building or a model for a building, a sculpture or a work of artistic craftsmanship,

(iii)the issue to the public of copies of a film including the work, or

(iv)the [F1communication to the public of the work] (otherwise than for the purposes of an electronic retrieval system);

(c)in the case of a sound recording or film—

(i)the work being played or shown in public, or

(ii)the [F1communication to the public of the work].

(5)References in this Part to publication or commercial publication do not include publication which is merely colourable and not intended to satisfy the reasonable requirements of the public.

(6)No account shall be taken for the purposes of this section of any unauthorised act.

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 175(4)(a)(ii)(b)(iv)(c)(ii) substituted (31.10.2003) by The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2498), reg. 2(1), Sch. 1 para. 6(1) (with regs. 31-40)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

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