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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

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Commencement Orders bringing legislation that affects this Act into force:

Chapter IIE+W+S+N.I. Rights of Copyright Owner

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Pt. I Ch. II (ss. 16-27) applied (with modifications) (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(1) (with Pt. III)

The acts restricted by copyrightE+W+S+N.I.

16 The acts restricted by copyright in a work.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The owner of the copyright in a work has, in accordance with the following provisions of this Chapter, the exclusive right to do the following acts in the United Kingdom—

(a)to copy the work (see section 17);

(b)to issue copies of the work to the public (see section 18);

[F1(ba)to rent or lend the work to the public (see section 18A);]

(c)to perform, show or play the work in public (see section 19);

[F2(d)to communicate the work to the public (see section 20);]

(e)to make an adaptation of the work or do any of the above in relation to an adaptation (see section 21);

and those acts are referred to in this Part as the “acts restricted by the copyright”.

(2)Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who without the licence of the copyright owner does, or authorises another to do, any of the acts restricted by the copyright.

(3)References in this Part to the doing of an act restricted by the copyright in a work are to the doing of it—

(a)in relation to the work as a whole or any substantial part of it, and

(b)either directly or indirectly;

and it is immaterial whether any intervening acts themselves infringe copyright.

(4)This Chapter has effect subject to—

(a)the provisions of Chapter III (acts permitted in relation to copyright works), and

(b)the provisions of Chapter VII (provisions with respect to copyright licensing).

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Amendments (Textual)

F1S. 16(1)(ba) inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 10(1) (with Pt. III)

17 Infringement of copyright by copying.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The copying of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in every description of copyright work; and references in this Part to copying and copies shall be construed as follows.

(2)Copying in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work means reproducing the work in any material form.

This includes storing the work in any medium by electronic means.

(3)In relation to an artistic work copying includes the making of a copy in three dimensions of a two-dimensional work and the making of a copy in two dimensions of a three-dimensional work.

(4)Copying in relation to a film [F3or broadcast] includes making a photograph of the whole or any substantial part of any image forming part of the film [F3or broadcast].

(5)Copying in relation to the typographical arrangement of a published edition means making a facsimile copy of the arrangement.

(6)Copying in relation to any description of work includes the making of copies which are transient or are incidental to some other use of the work.

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Amendments (Textual)

18 Infringement by issue of copies to the public.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The issue to the public of copies of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in every description of copyright work.

[F4F4(2)References in this Part to the issue to the public of copies of a work are to—

(a)the act of putting into circulation in the EEA copies not previously put into circulation in the EEA by or with the consent of the copyright owner, or

(b)the act of putting into circulation outside the EEA copies not previously put into circulation in the EEA or elsewhere.

F4(3)References in this Part to the issue to the public of copies of a work do not include—

(a)any subsequent distribution, sale, hiring or loan of copies previously put into circulation (but see section 18A: infringement by rental or lending), or

(b)any subsequent importation of such copies into the United Kingdom or another EEA state,

except so far as paragraph (a) of subsection (2) applies to putting into circulation in the EEA copies previously put into circulation outside the EEA.]

[F5(4)References in this Part to the issue of copies of a work include the issue of the original.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F4S. 18(2)(3) substituted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 9(2) (with Pt. III)

F5S. 18(4) added (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 9(3) (with Pt. III)

[F618A Infringement by rental or lending of work to the public.E+W+S+N.I.
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Amendments (Textual)

F6S. 18A inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 10(2) (with Pt. III)

(1)The rental or lending of copies of the work to the public is an act restricted by the copyright in—

(a)a literary, dramatic or musical work,

(b)an artistic work, other than—

(i)a work of architecture in the form of a building or a model for a building, or

(ii)a work of applied art, or

(c)a film or a sound recording.

(2)In this Part, subject to the following provisions of this section—

(a)“rental” means making a copy of the work available for use, on terms that it will or may be returned, for direct or indirect economic or commercial advantage, and

(b)“lending” means making a copy of the work available for use, on terms that it will or may be returned, otherwise than for direct or indirect economic or commercial advantage, through an establishment which is accessible to the public.

(3)The expressions “rental” and “lending” do not include—

(a)making available for the purpose of public performance, playing or showing in public [F7or communication to the public];

(b)making available for the purpose of exhibition in public; or

(c)making available for on-the-spot reference use.

(4)The expression “lending” does not include making available between establishments which are accessible to the public.

(5)Where lending by an establishment accessible to the public gives rise to a payment the amount of which does not go beyond what is necessary to cover the operating costs of the establishment, there is no direct or indirect economic or commercial advantage for the purposes of this section.

(6)References in this Part to the rental or lending of copies of a work include the rental or lending of the original.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

19 Infringement by performance, showing or playing of work in public.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The performance of the work in public is an act restricted by the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work.

(2)In this Part “performance”, in relation to a work—

(a)includes delivery in the case of lectures, addresses, speeches and sermons, and

(b)in general, includes any mode of visual or acoustic presentation, including presentation by means of a sound recording, film [F8or broadcast] of the work.

(3)The playing or showing of the work in public is an act restricted by the copyright in a sound recording, film [F8or broadcast].

(4)Where copyright in a work is infringed by its being performed, played or shown in public by means of apparatus for receiving visual images or sounds conveyed by electronic means, the person by whom the visual images or sounds are sent, and in the case of a performance the performers, shall not be regarded as responsible for the infringement.

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Amendments (Textual)

[F920Infringement by communication to the publicE+W+S+N.I.

(1)The communication to the public of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in—

(a)a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work,

(b)a sound recording or film, or

(c)a broadcast.

(2)References in this Part to communication to the public are to communication to the public by electronic transmission, and in relation to a work include—

(a)the broadcasting of the work;

(b)the making available to the public of the work by electronic transmission in such a way that members of the public may access it from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

21 Infringement by making adaptation or act done in relation to adaptation.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The making of an adaptation of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work.

For this purpose an adaptation is made when it is recorded, in writing or otherwise.

(2)The doing of any of the acts specified in sections 17 to 20, or subsection (1) above, in relation to an adaptation of the work is also an act restricted by the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work.

For this purpose it is immaterial whether the adaptation has been recorded, in writing or otherwise, at the time the act is done.

(3)In this Part “adaptation”—

(a)in relation to a literary [F10work, [F11other than a computer program or a database, or in relation to a]] dramatic work, means—

(i)a translation of the work;

(ii)a version of a dramatic work in which it is converted into a non-dramatic work or, as the case may be, of a non-dramatic work in which it is converted into a dramatic work;

(iii)a version of the work in which the story or action is conveyed wholly or mainly by means of pictures in a form suitable for reproduction in a book, or in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical;

[F12(ab)in relation to a computer program, means an arrangement or altered version of the program or a translation of it;]

[F13(ac)in relation to a database, means an arrangement or altered version of the database or a translation of it;]

(b)in relation to a musical work, means an arrangement or transcription of the work.

(4)In relation to a computer program a “translation” includes a version of the program in which it is converted into or out of a computer language or code or into a different computer language or code F14. . .

(5)No inference shall be drawn from this section as to what does or does not amount to copying a work.

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Amendments (Textual)

F10Words in s. 21(3)(a) inserted (1.1.1993) by S.I. 1992/3233, reg. 5(1)

F11Words in s. 21(3)(a) substituted (1.1.1998) by S.I. 1997/3032, reg. 7(a) (with Pt. IV)

F12S. 21(3)(ab) inserted (1.1.1993) by S.I. 1992/3233, reg. 5(2)

F13S. 21(3)(ac) inserted (1.1.1998) by S.I. 1997/3032, reg. 7(b) (with Pt. IV)

F14Words in s. 21(4) omitted (1.1.1993) by virtue of S.I. 1992/3233, reg. 5(3)

Secondary infringement of copyrightE+W+S+N.I.

22 Secondary infringement: importing infringing copy.E+W+S+N.I.

The copyright in a work is infringed by a person who, without the licence of the copyright owner, imports into the United Kingdom, otherwise than for his private and domestic use, an article which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe is, an infringing copy of the work.

23 Secondary infringement: possessing or dealing with infringing copy.E+W+S+N.I.

The copyright in a work is infringed by a person who, without the licence of the copyright owner—

(a)possesses in the course of a business,

(b)sells or lets for hire, or offers or exposes for sale or hire,

(c)in the course of a business exhibits in public or distributes, or

(d)distributes otherwise than in the course of a business to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright,

an article which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe is, an infringing copy of the work.

24 Secondary infringement: providing means for making infringing copies.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who, without the licence of the copyright owner—

(a)makes,

(b)imports into the United Kingdom,

(c)possesses in the course of a business, or

(d)sells or lets for hire, or offers or exposes for sale or hire,

an article specifically designed or adapted for making copies of that work, knowing or having reason to believe that it is to be used to make infringing copies.

(2)Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who without the licence of the copyright owner transmits the work by means of a telecommunications system (otherwise than by [F15communication to the public]), knowing or having reason to believe that infringing copies of the work will be made by means of the reception of the transmission in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.

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Amendments (Textual)

25 Secondary infringement: permitting use of premises for infringing performance.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Where the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work is infringed by a performance at a place of public entertainment, any person who gave permission for that place to be used for the performance is also liable for the infringement unless when he gave permission he believed on reasonable grounds that the performance would not infringe copyright.

(2)In this section “place of public entertainment” includes premises which are occupied mainly for other purposes but are from time to time made available for hire for the purposes of public entertainment.

26 Secondary infringement: provision of apparatus for infringing performance, &c.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Where copyright in a work is infringed by a public performance of the work, or by the playing or showing of the work in public, by means of apparatus for—

(a)playing sound recordings,

(b)showing films, or

(c)receiving visual images or sounds conveyed by electronic means,

the following persons are also liable for the infringement.

(2)A person who supplied the apparatus, or any substantial part of it, is liable for the infringement if when he supplied the apparatus or part—

(a)he knew or had reason to believe that the apparatus was likely to be so used as to infringe copyright, or

(b)in the case of apparatus whose normal use involves a public performance, playing or showing, he did not believe on reasonable grounds that it would not be so used as to infringe copyright.

(3)An occupier of premises who gave permission for the apparatus to be brought onto the premises is liable for the infringement if when he gave permission he knew or had reason to believe that the apparatus was likely to be so used as to infringe copyright.

(4)A person who supplied a copy of a sound recording or film used to infringe copyright is liable for the infringement if when he supplied it he knew or had reason to believe that what he supplied, or a copy made directly or indirectly from it, was likely to be so used as to infringe copyright.

Infringing copiesE+W+S+N.I.

27 Meaning of “infringing copy”.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)In this Part “infringing copy”, in relation to a copyright work, shall be construed in accordance with this section.

(2)An article is an infringing copy if its making constituted an infringement of the copyright in the work in question.

(3)F16. . . An article is also an infringing copy if—

(a)it has been or is proposed to be imported into the United Kingdom, and

(b)its making in the United Kingdom would have constituted an infringement of the copyright in the work in question, or a breach of an exclusive licence agreement relating to that work.

F17(3A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)Where in any proceedings the question arises whether an article is an infringing copy and it is shown—

(a)that the article is a copy of the work, and

(b)that copyright subsists in the work or has subsisted at any time,

it shall be presumed until the contrary is proved that the article was made at a time when copyright subsisted in the work.

(5)Nothing in subsection (3) shall be construed as applying to an article which may lawfully be imported into the United Kingdom by virtue of any enforceable [F18EU] right within the meaning of section 2(1) of the M1European Communities Act 1972.

(6)In this Part “infringing copy” includes a copy falling to be treated as an infringing copy by virtue of any of the following provisions —

  • [F19section 31A(6) and (9) (making a single accessible copy for personal use),]

  • section 32(5) (copies made for purposes of instruction or examination),

  • section 35(3) (recordings made by educational establishments for educational purposes),

  • section 36(5) (reprographic copying by educational establishments for purposes of instruction),

  • section 37(3)(b) (copies made by librarian or archivist in reliance on false declaration),

  • section 56(2) (further copies, adaptations, &c. of work in electronic form retained on transfer of principal copy),

  • section 63(2) (copies made for purpose of advertising artistic work for sale),

  • section 68(4) (copies made for purpose of broadcast F20. . . ),

  • [F21section 70(2) (recording for the purposes of time-shifting),

  • section 71(2) (photographs of broadcasts), or]

  • any provision of an order under section 141 (statutory licence for certain reprographic copying by educational establishments).

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Amendments (Textual)

F16Words in s. 27(3) omitted (1.12.1996) by virtue of S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 9(4) (with Pt. III)

F17S. 27(3A) omitted (1.12.1996) by virtue of S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 9(4) (with Pt. III)

F19Words in s. 27(6) inserted (31.10.2003) by 2002 c. 33, ss. 7(1), 8(2); S.I. 2003/2499, art. 2

F21S. 27(6): entries substituted (31.10.2003) for word "or" appearing at end of entry for s. 68(4) by The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2498), reg. 20(3) (with regs. 31-40)

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