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Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984

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Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, Cross Heading: Detention—conditions and duration is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 18 November 2017. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

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Revised legislation carried on this site may not be fully up to date. Changes and effects are recorded by our editorial team in lists which can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area. Where those effects have yet to be applied to the text of the legislation by the editorial team they are also listed alongside the legislation in the affected provisions. Use the ‘more’ link to open the changes and effects relevant to the provision you are viewing.

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Changes and effects

This section lists the changes and effects yet to be applied to the whole Act, associated Parts and Chapters where applicable. This includes any insertions of whole new Parts, Chapters or provisions yet to be inserted into this Act. These effects are included in this view as they may be (but won’t necessarily be) relevant to the specific provision that you are viewing.

Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 61(6BA) inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(1) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 63(3D) inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(2) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 64(1AA) inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(4) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(5) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2010 c. 17 s. 14(3)(a) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 14 repealed (31.10.2013) without ever being in force by 2012 c. 9, Sch. 9 para. 4(2), Sch. 10 Pt. 1; S.I. 2013/2104, art. 3(c)(d))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2010 c. 17 s. 14(3)(b) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 14 repealed (31.10.2013) without ever being in force by 2012 c. 9, Sch. 9 para. 4(2), Sch. 10 Pt. 1; S.I. 2013/2104, art. 3(c)(d))
  • s. 114ZA inserted by 2016 anaw 6 s. 185(1)
  • Sch. 1A para. 21A added by 1995 c. 32, s. 8B(1) (as inserted) by 2006 c. 12 Sch. 3 para. 13

Detention—conditions and durationE+W

34 Limitations on police detention.E+W

(1)A person arrested for an offence shall not be kept in police detention except in accordance with the provisions of this Part of this Act.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, if at any time a custody officer—

(a)becomes aware, in relation to any person in police detention, that the grounds for the detention of that person have ceased to apply; and

(b)is not aware of any other grounds on which the continued detention of that person could be justified under the provision of this part of this Act,

it shall be the duty of the custody officer, subject to subsection (4) below, to order his immediate release from custody.

(3)No person in police detention shall be released except on the authority of a custody officer at the police station where his detention was authorised or, if it was authorised at more than one station, a custody officer at the station where it was last authorised.

(4)A person who appears to the custody officer to have been unlawfully at large when he was arrested is not to be released under subsection (2) above.

(5)A person whose release is ordered under subsection (2) above shall be released [F1

(a)without bail unless subsection (5A) applies, or

(b)on bail if subsection (5A) applies.]

[F2(5A)This subsection applies if—

(a)it appears to the custody officer—

(i)that there is need for further investigation of any matter in connection with which the person was detained at any time during the period of the person’s detention, or

(ii)that, in respect of any such matter, proceedings may be taken against the person or the person may be given a youth caution under section 66ZA of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998, and

(b)the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied.]

[F3(5B)Subsection (5C) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (5), and

(b)the custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(5C)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(5D)Subsection (5C) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.

(5E)In this Part “caution” includes—

(a)a conditional caution within the meaning of Part 3 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003;

(b)a youth conditional caution within the meaning of Chapter 1 of Part 4 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998;

(c)a youth caution under section 66ZA of that Act.]

(6)For the purposes of this Part of this Act a person arrested under [F4section 6D of the Road Traffic Act 1988][F5or section 30(2) of the Transport and Works Act 1992 (c. 42)] is arrested for an offence.

[F6(7)For the purposes of this Part a person who—

(a)attends a police station to answer to bail granted under section 30A,

(b)returns to a police station to answer to bail granted under this Part, or

(c)is arrested under section 30D or 46A,

is to be treated as arrested for an offence and that offence is the offence in connection with which he was granted bail.

[F7But this subsection is subject to section 47(6) (which provides for the calculation of certain periods, where a person has been granted bail under this Part, by reference to time when the person is in police detention only).]]

F8[(8)Subsection (7) does not apply in relation to a person who is granted bail subject to the duty mentioned in section 47(3)(b) and who either—

(a)attends a police station to answer to such bail, or

(b)is arrested under section 46A for failing to do so,

(provision as to the treatment of such persons for the purposes of this Part being made by section 46ZA).]

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 34(5) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 54(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F2S. 34(5A) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 54(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F3S. 34(5B)-(5E) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 66(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

F5Words in s. 34(6) inserted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. 53(1), 108(2)-(5); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(d)

F7Words in s. 34(7) inserted (retrospectively) by Police (Detention and Bail) Act 2011 (c. 9), s. 1(2)(3)

F8S. 34(8) inserted (1.4.2007 for specified purposes, 14.11.2008 for specified purposes, 3.10.2011 for specified purposes, 8.10.2012 in so far as not already in force) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 46(2), 53(1); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(n) (with art. 6); S.I. 2008/2785, art. 2; S.I. 2011/2144, art. 2(1)(b); S.I. 2012/2373, art. 2(b)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b)(2) (4), 18-20, 21, 22(1)-(4), 28, 29, 30(1)-(4)(a)(5)-(11), 31, 32(1)-(9), 34(1)-(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40-44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)-(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3-11, Schs. 1, 2

C2S. 34(1)-(5) modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 para. 3(3).

C3S. 34(1)-(5) applied (with modifications) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 24B(1)-(3) (as inserted (29.6.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 18(1), 53 (with s. 18(2)); S.I. 2006/1614, art. 2(e))

35 Designated police stations.E+W

(1)The chief officer of police for each police area shall designate the police stations in his area which, subject to [F9sections 30(3) and (5), 30A(5) and 30D(2)] , are to be the stations in that area to be used for the purpose of detaining arrested persons.

(2)A chief officer’s duty under subsection (1) above is to designate police stations appearing to him to provide enough accommodation for that purpose.

[F10(2A)The Chief Constable of the British Transport Police Force may designate police stations which (in addition to those designated under subsection (1) above) may be used for the purpose of detaining arrested persons.]

(3)Without prejudice to section 12 of the M1Interpretation Act 1978 (continuity of duties) a chief officer—

(a)may designate a station which was not previously designated; and

(b)may direct that a designation of a station previously made shall cease to operate.

(4)In this Act “designated police station” means a police station for the time being designated under this section.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F10S. 35(2A) inserted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 101, Sch. 7 para. 12

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C6Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b)(2) (4), 18-20, 21, 22(1)-(4), 28, 29, 30(1)-(4)(a)(5)-(11), 31, 32(1)-(9), 34(1)-(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40-44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)-(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3-11, Schs. 1, 2

Marginal Citations

36 Custody officers at police stations.E+W

(1)One or more custody officers shall be appointed for each designated police station.

(2)A custody officer for [F11a police station designated under section 35(1) above] shall be appointed—

(a)by the chief officer of police for the area in which the designated police station is situated; or

(b)by such other police officer as the chief officer of police for that area may direct.

F12 [( 2A )A custody officer for a police station designated under section 35(2A) above shall be appointed—

(a)by the Chief Constable of the British Police Transport Force; or

(b)by such other member of that Force as that Chief Constable may direct.]

[F13(3)No officer may be appointed a custody officer unless the officer is of at least the rank of sergeant.]

(4)An officer of any rank may perform the functions of a custody officer at a designated police station if a custody officer is not readily available to perform them.

(5)Subject to the following provisions of this section and to section 39(2) below, none of the functions of a custody officer in relation to a person shall be performed by [F14an officer] who at the time when the function falls to be performed is involved in the investigation of an offence for which that person is in police detention at that time.

(6)Nothing in subsection (5) above is to be taken to prevent a custody officer—

(a)performing any function assigned to custody officers—

(i)by this Act; or

(ii)by a code of practice issued under this Act;

(b)carrying out the duty imposed on custody officers by section 39 below;

(c)doing anything in connection with the identification of a suspect; or

(d)doing anything under [F15sections 7 and 8 of the Road Traffic Act 1988].

(7)Where an arrested person is taken to a police station which is not a designated police station, the functions in relation to him which at a designated police station would be the functions of a custody officer shall be performed—

(a)by an officer F16. . . who is not involved in the investigation of an offence for which he is in police detention, if [F17such an officer] is readily available; and

(b)if no [F18such officer] is readily available, by the officer who took him to the station or any other officer.

[F19(7A)Subject to subsection (7B), subsection (7) applies where a person attends a police station which is not a designated station to answer to bail granted under section 30A as it applies where a person is taken to such a station.

(7B)Where subsection (7) applies because of subsection (7A), the reference in subsection (7)(b) to the officer who took him to the station is to be read as a reference to the officer who granted him bail.]

(8)References to a custody officer in [F20section 34 above or in] the following provisions of this Act include references to [F21an officer] other than a custody officer who is performing the functions of a custody officer by virtue of subsection (4) or (7) above.

(9)Where by virtue of subsection (7) above an officer of a force maintained by a [F22local policing body] who took an arrested person to a police station is to perform the functions of a custody officer in relation to him, the officer shall inform an officer who—

(a)is attached to a designated police station; and

(b)is of at least the rank of inspector,

that he is to do so.

(10)The duty imposed by subsection (9) above shall be performed as soon as it is practicable to perform it.

(11)F23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F11Words in s. 36(2) substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, s. 107, Sch. 7 para. 13(2)

F12S. 36(2A) inserted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, s. 107, Sch. 7 para. 13(3)

F14Words in s. 36(5) substituted (12.1.2010) by Policing and Crime Act 2009 (c. 26), ss. 112(1), 116(6), Sch. 7 para. 123(3)(b)

F17Words in s. 36(7)(a) substituted (12.1.2010) by Policing and Crime Act 2009 (c. 26), ss. 112(1), 116(6), Sch. 7 para. 123(3)(c)(i)

F18Words in s. 36(7)(b) substituted (12.1.2010) by Policing and Crime Act 2009 (c. 26), ss. 112(1), 116(6), Sch. 7 para. 123(3)(c)(ii)

F21Words in s. 36(8) substituted (12.1.2010) by Policing and Crime Act 2009 (c. 26), ss. 112(1), 116(6), Sch. 7 para. 123(3)(d)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C11Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b)(2) (4), 18-20, 21, 22(1)-(4), 28, 29, 30(1)-(4)(a)(5)-(11), 31, 32(1)-(9), 34(1)-(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40-44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)-(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3-11, Schs. 1, 2

C12S. 36 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 para. 3(3); s. 36 modified by the said S.I.1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 para. 3(3) as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 para. 4(b)

C14S. 36 applied (with modifications) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 24B(1)-(3) (as inserted (29.6.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 18(1), 53 (with s. 18(2)); S.I. 2007/1614, art. 2(e))

C20S. 36(7)(8) extended (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 1(2)(b), 3(2); s. 36(7)(8) extended by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 3(2), 4 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4(b), 5

37 Duties of custody officer before charge.E+W

(1)Where—

(a)a person is arrested for an offence—

(i)without a warrant; or

(ii)under a warrant not endorsed for bail, F24. . .

(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

the custody officer at each police station where he is detained after his arrest shall determine whether he has before him sufficient evidence to charge that person with the offence for which he was arrested and may detain him at the police station for such period as is necessary to enable him to do so.

(2)If the custody officer determines that he does not have such evidence before him, the person arrested shall be released[F25

(a)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(b)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied,

(subject to subsection (3))].

(3)If the custody officer has reasonable grounds for [F26believing that the person’s detention without being charged is necessary to secure or preserve evidence relating to an offence for which the person is under arrest or to obtain such evidence by questioning the person], he may authorise the person arrested to be kept in police detention.

(4)Where a custody officer authorises a person who has not been charged to be kept in police detention, he shall, as soon as is practicable, make a written record of the grounds for the detention.

(5)Subject to subsection (6) below, the written record shall be made in the presence of the person arrested who shall at that time be informed by the custody officer of the grounds for his detention.

(6)Subsection (5) above shall not apply where the person arrested is, at the time when the written record is made—

(a)incapable of understanding what is said to him;

(b)violent or likely to become violent; or

(c)in urgent need of medical attention.

[F27(6A)Subsection (6B) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (2), and

(b)the custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(6B)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(6C)Subsection (6B) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]

(7)Subject to section 41(7) below, if the custody officer determines that he has before him sufficient evidence to charge the person arrested with the offence for which he was arrested, the person arrested—

[F28(a)[F29 shall be—

(i)released without charge and on bail, or

(ii)kept in police detention,

for the purpose] of enabling the Director of Public Prosecutions to make a decision under section 37B below,

[F30(b)shall be released without charge and without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied,

(c)shall be released without charge and on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied but not for the purpose mentioned in paragraph (a), or]

(d)shall be charged.]

[F31(7A)The decision as to how a person is to be dealt with under subsection (7) above shall be that of the custody officer.

(7B)Where a person is [F32dealt with under subsection (7)(a)] above, it shall be the duty of the custody officer to inform him that he is being released [F33, or (as the case may be) detained,] to enable the Director of Public Prosecutions to make a decision under section 37B below.]

(8)Where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (7)(b) [F34or (c)] above; and

(b)at the time of his release a decision whether he should be prosecuted for the offence for which he was arrested has not been taken,

it shall be the duty of the custody officer so to inform him.

[F35(8ZA)Where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (7)(b) or (c), and

(b)the custody officer makes a determination as mentioned in subsection (6A)(b),

subsections (6B) and (6C) apply.]

[F36(8A)Subsection (8B) applies if the offence for which the person is arrested is one in relation to which a sample could be taken under section 63B below and the custody officer—

(a)is required in pursuance of subsection (2) above to release the person arrested and decides to release him on bail, or

(b)decides in pursuance of subsection (7)(a) or [F37(c)] above to release the person without charge and on bail.

(8B)The detention of the person may be continued to enable a sample to be taken under section 63B, but this subsection does not permit a person to be detained for a period of more than 24 hours after the relevant time.]

(9)If the person arrested is not in a fit state to be dealt with under subsection (7) above, he may be kept in police detention until he is.

(10)The duty imposed on the custody officer under subsection (1) above shall be carried out by him as soon as practicable after the person arrested arrives at the police station or, in the case of a person arrested at the police station, as soon as practicable after the arrest.

F38(11). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F38(12). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F38(13). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F38(14). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(15)In this Part of this Act—

  • arrested juvenile” means a person arrested with or without a warrant who appears to be [F39 under the age of 18 ] F40 . . .;

  • endorsed for bail” means endorsed with a direction for bail in accordance with section 117(2) of the M2Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980.

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Amendments (Textual)

F24S. 37(1)(b) and the word "or" preceeding it repealed (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, ss. 29(4)(a)(5), 168(3), Sch.11; S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch. AppendixB

F25Words in s. 37(2) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 54(5), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F26Words in s. 37(3) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 54(6), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F27S. 37(6A)-(6C) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 66(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

F28S. 37(7)(a)-(d) substituted for s. 37(7)(a)(b) (29.1.2004) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 28, 336, Sch. 2 para. 2(2); S.I. 2004/81, art. 4(1)(2)(c)

F29Words in s. 37(7)(a) substituted (15.1.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 11, 53; S.I. 2006/3364, art. 2(c)

F30S. 37(7)(b)(c) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 54(7), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F32Words in s. 37(7B) substituted (15.1.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 52, 53, Sch. 14 para. 9(a); S.I. 2006/3364, art. 2(j)(k) (as amended by S.I. 2007/29, art. 2)

F33Words in s. 37(7B) inserted (15.1.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 52, 53, Sch. 14 para. 9(b); S.I. 2006/3364, art. 2(j)(k) (as amended by S.I. 2007/29, art. 2)

F35S. 37(8ZA) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 66(5), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

F37Word in s. 37(8A)(b) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 54(8), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F39Words in s. 37(15) substituted (26.10.2015) by Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 (c. 2), ss. 42, 95(1); S.I. 2015/1778, art. 3(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C25Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

C26S. 37 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 3(3), 4(4)(a), 5(7)(a), 6(7)(a); s. 37 modified by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4, 5, 6 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 5, 6, 7

C28Ss. 37-37B modified (21.7.2009) by Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 (c. 11), s. 31(4) (with s. 36(4))

C31S. 37(4)-(6) applied (with modifications) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 24B(1)-(3) (as inserted by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 18(1), 53 (with s. 18(2)); S.I. 2007/1614, art. 2(e))

Marginal Citations

[F4137AGuidanceE+W

(1)The Director of Public Prosecutions may issue guidance—

(a)for the purpose of enabling custody officers to decide how persons should be dealt with under section 37(7) above or 37C(2) [F42or 37CA(2)] below, and

(b)as to the information to be sent to the Director of Public Prosecutions under section 37B(1) below.

(2)The Director of Public Prosecutions may from time to time revise guidance issued under this section.

(3)Custody officers are to have regard to guidance under this section in deciding how persons should be dealt with under section 37(7) above or 37C(2) [F43or 37CA(2)] below.

(4)A report under section 9 of the Prosecution of Offences Act 1985 (report by DPP to Attorney General) must set out the provisions of any guidance issued, and any revisions to guidance made, in the year to which the report relates.

(5)The Director of Public Prosecutions must publish in such manner as he thinks fit—

(a)any guidance issued under this section, and

(b)any revisions made to such guidance.

(6)Guidance under this section may make different provision for different cases, circumstances or areas.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F42Words in s. 37A(1)(a) inserted (1.4.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 10, 53, Sch. 6 para. 8(2); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(i) (subject to arts. 6, 7)

F43Words in s. 37A(3) inserted (1.4.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 10, 53, Sch. 6 para. 8(2); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(i) (subject to arts. 6, 7)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C35Ss. 37-37B modified (21.7.2009) by Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 (c. 11), s. 31(4) (with s. 36(4))

[F4437BConsultation with the Director of Public ProsecutionsE+W

(1)Where a person is [F45dealt with under section 37(7)(a)] above, an officer involved in the investigation of the offence shall, as soon as is practicable, send to the Director of Public Prosecutions such information as may be specified in guidance under section 37A above.

(2)The Director of Public Prosecutions shall decide whether there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence.

(3)If he decides that there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, he shall decide—

(a)whether or not the person should be charged and, if so, the offence with which he should be charged, and

(b)whether or not the person should be given a caution and, if so, the offence in respect of which he should be given a caution.

(4)The Director of Public Prosecutions [F46shall give notice] of his decision to an officer involved in the investigation of the offence.

[F47(4A)Notice under subsection (4) above shall be in writing, but in the case of a person kept in police detention under section 37(7)(a) above it may be given orally in the first instance and confirmed in writing subsequently.]

(5)If his decision is—

(a)that there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(b)that there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but that the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence,

a custody officer shall give the person notice in writing that he is not to be prosecuted.

[F48(5A)Subsection (5) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]

(6)If the decision of the Director of Public Prosecutions is that the person should be charged with an offence, or given a caution in respect of an offence, the person shall be charged or cautioned accordingly.

(7)But if his decision is that the person should be given a caution in respect of the offence and it proves not to be possible to give the person such a caution [F49 (whether because of section 17 of the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 or for any other reason) ] , he shall instead be charged with the offence.

(8)For the purposes of this section, a person is to be charged with an offence either—

[F50(a)when he is in police detention at a police station (whether because he has returned to answer bail, because he is detained under section 37(7)(a) above or for some other reason), or]

(b)in accordance with section 29 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003.

F51(9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

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Amendments (Textual)

F44S. 37B inserted (29.1.2004 for certain purposes, 3.7.2004 for certain further purposes and 1.10.2007 otherwise) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 28, 336, Sch. 2 para. 3; S.I. 2004/81, art. 4(1)(2)(c); S.I. 2004/1629, art. 2(1)(2)(b)(c): S.I. 2007/2874, art. 2

F45Words in s. 37B(1) substituted (15.1.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 52, 53, Sch. 14 para. 10(2); S.I. 2006/3364, art. 2(j)(k) (as amended by S.I. 2007/29, art. 2)

F46Words in s. 37B(4) substituted (15.1.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 52, 53, Sch. 14 para. 10(3); S.I. 2006/3364, art. 2(j)(k) (as amended by S.I. 2007/29, art. 2)

F48S. 37B(5A) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 66(7), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

F51S. 37B(9) omitted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 66(8), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C36Ss. 37-37B modified (21.7.2009) by Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 (c. 11), s. 31(4) (with s. 36(4))

[F5237CBreach of bail following release under section 37(7)(a)E+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person released on bail under section 37(7)(a) above or subsection (2)(b) below is arrested under section 46A below in respect of that bail, and

(b)at the time of his detention following that arrest at the police station mentioned in section 46A(2) below, notice under section 37B(4) above has not been given.

(2)The person arrested—

(a)shall be charged, or

(b)shall be released without charge, either on bail or without bail.

(3)The decision as to how a person is to be dealt with under subsection (2) above shall be that of a custody officer.

(4)A person released on bail under subsection (2)(b) above shall be released on bail subject to the same conditions (if any) which applied immediately before his arrest.]

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Amendments (Textual)

[F5337CABreach of bail following release under [F54section 37(7)(c)] E+W

(1)This section applies where a person released on bail under [F55section 37(7)(c)] above or subsection (2)(b) below—

(a)is arrested under section 46A below in respect of that bail, and

(b)is being detained following that arrest at the police station mentioned in section 46A(2) below.

(2)The person arrested—

(a)shall be charged, or

(b)shall be released without charge [F56

(i)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(ii)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied.]

(3)The decision as to how a person is to be dealt with under subsection (2) above shall be that of a custody officer.

(4)A person released on bail under subsection (2)(b) above shall be released on bail subject to the same conditions (if any) which applied immediately before his arrest [F57(and the reference in section 50A to any conditions of bail which would be imposed is to be read accordingly)].

[F58(5)Subsection (6) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (2), and

(b)a custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(6)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(7)Subsection (6) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]]

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Amendments (Textual)

F54Words in s. 37CA heading substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 55(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F55Words in s. 37CA(1) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 55(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F56Words in s. 37CA(2)(b) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 55(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F57Words in s. 37CA(4) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 55(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F58Ss. 37CA(5)-(7) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 66(9), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

[F5937DRelease [F60on bail under section 37]: further provisionE+W

F61(1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F61(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F61(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)Where a person released on bail under section 37(7)(a) or 37C(2)(b) above returns to a police station to answer bail or is otherwise in police detention at a police station, he may be kept in police detention to enable him to be dealt with in accordance with section 37B or 37C above or to enable the power under [F62section 47(4A)] to be exercised.

[F63(4A)Where a person released on bail under [F64section 37(7)(c)] or 37CA(2)(b) above returns to a police station to answer bail or is otherwise in police detention at a police station, he may be kept in police detention to enable him to be dealt with in accordance with section 37CA above or to enable the power under [F62section 47(4A)] to be exercised.

(5)If the person mentioned in subsection (4) or (4A) above is not in a fit state to enable him to be dealt with as mentioned in that subsection or to enable the power under [F62section 47(4A)] to be exercised, he may be kept in police detention until he is.]

(6)Where a person is kept in police detention by virtue of subsection (4) [F65, (4A)] or (5) above, section 37(1) to (3) and (7) above (and section 40(8) below so far as it relates to section 37(1) to (3)) shall not apply to the offence in connection with which he was released on bail under section [F6637(7), 37C(2)(b) or 37CA(2)(b)] above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F60Words in s. 37D heading substituted (1.4.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 10, 53, Sch. 6 para. 9(2); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(i) (subject to arts. 6, 7)

F61Ss. 37D(1)-(3) omitted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 64(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 16 (with reg. 5)Text here

F62Words in ss. 37D(4)-(5) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 64(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 16 (with reg. 5)

F63S. 37D(4A)(5) substituted (1.4.2007) for s. 37D(5) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 10, 53, Sch. 6 para. 10(2); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(i) (subject to arts. 6, 7)

F64Words in s. 37D(4A) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 55(5), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F65Word in s. 37D(6) inserted (1.4.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 10, 53, Sch. 6 para. 10(3)(a); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(i) (subject to arts. 6, 7)

F66Words in s. 37D(6) substituted (1.4.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 10, 53, Sch. 6 para. 10(3)(b); S.I. 2007/709, art. 3(i) (subject to arts. 6, 7)

38 Duties of custody officer after charge.E+W

(1)Where a person arrested for an offence otherwise than under a warrant endorsed for bail is charged with an offence, the custody officer shall [F67, subject to section 25 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994,] order his release from police detention, either on bail or without bail, unless—

(a)If the person arrested is not an arrested juvenile—

(i)his name or address cannot be ascertained or the custody officer has reasonable grounds for doubting whether a name or address furnished by him as his name or address is his real name or address;

F68[F69(ii)the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the person arrested will fail to appear in court to answer to bail;

(iii)in the case of a person arrested for an imprisonable offence, the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the detention of the person arrested is necessary to prevent him from committing an offence;

[F69(iiia)in a case where a sample may be taken from the person under section 63B below, the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the detention of the person is necessary to enable the sample to be taken from him;]

(iv)in the case of a person arrested for an offence which is not an imprisonable offence, the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the detention of the person arrested is necessary to prevent him from causing physical injury to any other person or from causing loss of or damage to property;

(v)the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the detention of the person arrested is necessary to prevent him from interfering with the administration of justice or with the investigation of offences or of a particular offence; or

(vi)the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the detention of the person arrested is necessary for his own protection;]

(b)if he is an arrested juvenile—

(i)any of the requirements of paragraph (a) above is satisfied [F70(but, in the case of paragraph (a)(iiia) above, only if the arrested juvenile has attained the minimum age)] ; or

(ii)the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that he ought to be detained in his own interests.

[F71(c)the offence with which the person is charged is murder.]

(2)If the release of a person arrested is not required by subsection (1) above, the custody officer may authorise him to be kept in police detention [F72but may not authorise a person to be kept in police detension by virtue of subsection (1)(a)(iiia) after the end of the period of six hours beginning when he was charged with the offence].

F73[(2A)The custody officer, in taking the decisions required by subsection (1)(a) and (b) above (except (a)(i) and (vi) and (b)(ii)), shall have regard to the same considerations as those which a court is required to have regard to in taking the corresponding decisions under paragraph [F742(1)] of Part I of Schedule 1 to the M3Bail Act 1976 [F75(disregarding [F76paragraphs 1A and 2(2)] of that Part)] .]

(3)Where a custody officer authorises a person who has been charged to be kept in police detention, he shall, as soon as practicable, make a written record of the grounds for the detention.

(4)Subject to subsection (5) below, the written record shall be made in the presence of the person charged who shall at that time be informed by the custody officer of the grounds for his detention.

(5)Subsection (4) above shall not apply where the person charged is, at the time when the written record is made—

(a)incapable of understanding what is said to him;

(b)violent or likely to become violent; or

(c)in urgent need of medical attention.

[F77(6)Where a custody officer authorises an arrested juvenile to be kept in police detention under subsection (1) above, the custody officer shall, unless he certifies—

(a)that, by reason of such circumstances as are specified in the certificate, it is impracticable for him to do so; or

(b)in the case of an arrested juvenile who has attained the [F78age of 12 years], that no secure accommodation is available and that keeping him in other local authority accommodation would not be adequate to protect the public from serious harm from him,

secure that the arrested juvenile is moved to local authority accommodation.]

F77[F79(6A)In this section—

  • local authority accommodation” means accommodation provided by or on behalf of a local authority (within the meaning of the Children Act 1989);

  • [F80minimum age” means the age specified in [F81section 63B(3)(b) below];]

  • secure accommodation” means accommodation provided for the purpose of restricting liberty;

  • [F82sexual offence” means an offence specified in Part 2 of Schedule 15 to the Criminal Justice Act 2003;

  • violent offence” means murder or an offence specified in Part 1 of that Schedule;]

and any reference, in relation to an arrested juvenile charged with a violent or sexual offence, to protecting the public from serious harm from him shall be construed as a reference to protecting members of the public from death or serious personal injury, whether physical or psychological, occasioned by further such offences committed by him.]

[F79(6B)Where an arrested juvenile is moved to local authority accommodation under subsection (6) above, it shall be lawful for any person acting on behalf of the authority to detain him.]

(7)A certificate made under subsection (6) above in respect of an arrested juvenile shall be produced to the court before which he is first brought thereafter.

F83[(7A)In this section “imprisonable offence” has the same meaning as in Schedule 1 to the Bail Act 1976.]

(8)In this Part of this Act “local authority” has the same meaning as in the [F84Children Act 1989].

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Amendments (Textual)

F67Words in s. 38(1) inserted (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 168(2), Sch. 10 para. 54; S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch.

F68S. 38(1)(a)(ii)-(vi) substituted (10.4.1995) for sub-paras (ii)(iii) by 1994 c. 33, s. 28(2); S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch.

F69S. 38(1)(a)(iiia) substituted (1.12.2005) by Drugs Act 2005 (c. 17), ss. 23(1), 24, Sch. 1 para. 3(a); S.I. 2005/3053, art. 2(1)(f)

F70Words in s. 38(1)(b)(i) inserted (1.8.2004 for certain purposes and 1.12.2005 for further purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 5(2)(a)(ii), 336; S.I. 2004/1867, art. 2; S.I. 2005/3055, art. 2

F72Words in s. 38(2) inserted (for certain purposes on 20.6.2001, 2.7.2001, 20.5.2002, 2.9.2002, 1.4.2003, 1.4.2004, 1.4.2005 and 1.12.2005) by 2000 c. 43, ss. 57(3)(b), 80(1); S.I. 2001/2232, art. 2(f); S.I. 2002/1149, art. 2; S.I. 2002/1862, art. 2; S.I. 2003/709, art. 2; S.I. 2004/780, art. 2; S.I. 2005/596, art. 2; S.I. 2005/3054, art. 2

F73S. 38(2A) inserted (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 28(3); S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch.

F77S. 38(6)(6A) substituted (1.10.1992) by Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c. 53), s. 59; S.I. 1992/333, art. 2(2), Sch. 2.

F78Words in s. 38(6)(b) substituted (3.2.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 24; S.I. 1995/127, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F80S. 38(6A): definition of "minimum age" inserted (1.8.2004 for certain purposes and 1.12.2005 for further purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 5(2)(b), 336; S.I. 2004/1867, art. 2; S.I. 2005/3055, art. 2

F81S. 38(6A): words in the definition of "minimum age" substituted (1.12.2005) by Drugs Act 2005 (c. 17), ss. 23(1), 24, Sch. 1 para. 3(b); S.I. 2005/3053, art. 2(1)(f)

F82S. 38(6A): definitions of "sexual offence" and "violent offence" substituted (4.4.2005) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 304, 336, Sch. 32 para. 44; S.I. 2005/950, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 paras. 23, 42(20) (subject to art. 2(2), Sch. 2) (as amended by S.I. 2005/2122, art. 2)

F83S. 38(7A) inserted (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 28(4); S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C40S. 38 applied (with modifications) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 24B(1)-(3) (as inserted (29.6.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 18(1), 53 (with s. 18(2)); S.I. 2007/1614, art. 2(e))

Marginal Citations

39 Responsibilities in relation to persons detained.E+W

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (4) below, it shall be the duty of the custody officer at a police station to ensure—

(a)that all persons in police detention at that station are treated in accordance with this Act and any code of practice issued under it and relating to the treatment of persons in police detention; and

(b)that all matters relating to such persons which are required by this Act or by such codes of practice to be recorded are recorded in the custody records relating to such persons.

(2)If the custody officer, in accordance with any code of practice issued under this Act, transfers or permits the transfer of a person in police detention—

(a)to the custody of [F85another police officer at the police station where the person is in police detention, for the purpose of an interview that is part of the investigation of an offence for which the person is in police detention or otherwise in connection with the investigation of such an offence]; or

(b)to the custody of an officer who has charge of that person outside the police station,

the custody officer shall cease in relation to that person to be subject to the duty imposed on him by subsection (1)(a) above; and it shall be the duty of the officer to whom the transfer is made to ensure that he is treated in accordance with the provisions of this Act and of any such codes of practice as are mentioned in subsection (1) above.

(3)If the person detained is subsequently returned to the custody officer, it shall be the duty of the officer investigating the offence to report to the custody officer as to the manner in which this section and the codes of practice have been complied with while that person was in his custody.

[F86(3A)Subsections (3B) and (3C) apply if the custody officer, in accordance with any code of practice issued under this Act, transfers or permits the transfer of a person in police detention to an officer mentioned in subsection (2)(a) for the purpose of an interview that is to be conducted to any extent by means of a live link by another police officer who is investigating the offence but is not at the police station where the person in police detention is held at the time of the interview.

(3B)The officer who is not at the police station has the same duty as the officer mentioned in subsection (2)(a) to ensure that the person is treated in accordance with the provisions of this Act and of any such codes of practice as are mentioned in subsection (1).

(3C)If the person detained is subsequently returned to the custody of the custody officer, the officer who is not at the police station also has the same duty under subsection (3) as the officer mentioned in subsection (2)(a).

(3D)For the purpose of subsection (3C), subsection (3) applies as if the reference to “in his custody” were a reference to “being interviewed”.

(3E)In subsection (3A), “live link” means an arrangement by which the officer who is not at the police station is able to see and hear, and to be seen and heard by, the person in police detention, any legal representative of that person and the officer who has custody of that person at the police station (and for this purpose any impairment of eyesight or hearing is to be disregarded).]

(4)If an arrested juvenile is [F87moved to local authority accommodation] under section 38(6) above, the custody officer shall cease in relation to that person to be subject to the duty imposed on him by subsection (1) above.

F88(5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(6)Where—

(a)an officer of higher rank than the custody officer F89. . . gives directions relating to a person in police detention; and

(b)the directions are at variance—

(i)with any decision made or action taken by the custody officer in the performance of a duty imposed on him under this Part of this Act; or

(ii)with any decision or action which would but for the directions have been made or taken by him in the performance of such a duty,

the custody officer shall refer the matter at once to an officer of the rank of superintendent or above who is responsible for the police station for which the custody officer is acting as custody officer.

(7)F90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F85Words in s. 39(2)(a) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 75(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 24

F86S. 39(3A)-(3E) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 75(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 24

F87Words in s. 39(4) substituted (14.10.1991) by Children Act 1989 (c. 41, SIF 20), s. 108(5), Sch. 13, para. 54; S.I. 1991/828, art. 3(2)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C41Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

C42S. 39 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 para. 3(3).

S. 39 extended (27.7.1999) by 1999 c. 23, ss. 61(3), 68(4)(e) (with s. 63(2), Sch. 7 paras. 3(3), 5(2))

C43S. 39 applied (with modifications) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 24B(1)-(3) (as inserted (29.6.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 18(1), 53 (with s. 18(2)); S.I. 2007/1614, art. 2(e))

40 Review of police detention.E+W

(1)Reviews of the detention of each person in police detention in connection with the investigation of an offence shall be carried out periodically in accordance with the following provisions of this section—

(a)in the case of a person who has been arrested and charged, by the custody officer; and

(b)in the case of a person who has been arrested but not charged, by an officer of at least the rank of inspector who has not been directly involved in the investigation.

(2)The officer to whom it falls to carry out a review is referred to in this section as a “review officer”.

(3)Subject to subsection (4) below—

(a)the first review shall be not later than six hours after the detention was first authorised;

(b)the second review shall be not later than nine hours after the first;

(c)subsequent reviews shall be at intervals of not more than nine hours.

(4)A review may be postponed—

(a)if, having regard to all the circumstances prevailing at the latest time for it specified in subsection (3) above, it is not practicable to carry out the review at that time;

(b)without prejudice to the generality of paragraph (a) above—

(i)if at that time the person in detention is being questioned by a police officer and the review officer is satisfied that an interruption of the questioning for the purpose of carrying out the review would prejudice the investigation in connection with which he is being questioned; or

(ii)if at that time no review officer is readily available.

(5)If a review is postponed under subsection (4) above it shall be carried out as soon as practicable after the latest time specified for it in subsection (3) above.

(6)If a review is carried out after postponement under subsection (4) above, the fact that it was so carried out shall not affect any requirement of this section as to the time at which any subsequent review is to be carried out.

(7)The review officer shall record the reasons for any postponement of a review in the custody record.

(8)Subject to subsection (9) below, where the person whose detention is under review has not been charged before the time of the review, section 37(1) to (6) above shall have effect in relation to him, but with [F91the modifications specified in subsection (8A)]

[F92(8A)The modifications are—

(a)the substitution of references to the person whose detention is under review for references to the person arrested;

(b)the substitution of references to the review officer for references to the custody officer; and

(c)in subsection (6), the insertion of the following paragraph after paragraph (a)—

“(aa)asleep;”]

(9)Where a person has been kept in police detention by virtue of section 37(9) [F93or 37D(5)] above, section 37(1) to (6) shall not have effect in relation to him but it shall be the duty of the review officer to determine whether he is yet in a fit state.

(10)Where the person whose detention is under review has been charged before the time of the review, section 38(1) to [F94(6B)] above shall have effect in relation to him, but with [F95the modifications specified in subsection (10A)] .

[F96(10A)The modifications are—

(a)the substitution of a reference to the person whose detention is under review for any reference to the person arrested or to the person charged; and

(b)in subsection (5), the insertion of the following paragraph after paragraph (a)—

“(aa)asleep;”]

(11)Where—

(a)an officer of higher rank than the review officer gives directions relating to a person in police detention; and

(b)the directions are at variance—

(i)with any decision made or action taken by the review officer in the performance of a duty imposed on him under this Part of this Act; or

(ii)with any decision or action which would but for the directions have been made or taken by him in the performance of such a duty,

the review officer shall refer the matter at once to an officer of the rank of superintendent or above who is responsible for the police station for which the review officer is acting as review officer in connection with the detention.

(12)Before determining whether to authorise a person’s continued detention the review officer shall give—

(a)that person (unless he is asleep); or

(b)any solicitor representing him who is available at the time of the review,

an opportunity to make representations to him about the detention.

(13)Subject to subsection (14) below, the person whose detention is under review or his solicitor may make representations under subsection (12) above either orally or in writing.

(14)The review officer may refuse to hear oral representations from the person whose detention is under review if he considers that he is unfit to make such representations by reason of his condition or behaviour.

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Amendments (Textual)

F91Words in s. 40(8) substituted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. {52(1)}, 108(2)-(5); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(d)

F92S. 40(8A) inserted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. {52(2)}, 108(2)-(5); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(d)

F94Word in s. 40(10) substituted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. {52(3)(a)}, 108(2)-(5); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(d)

F95Words in s. 40(10) substituted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. {52(3)(b)}, 108(2)-(5); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(d)

F96S. 40(10A) inserted (1.4.2003) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. {52(4)}, 108(2)-(5); S.I. 2003/808, art. 2(d)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C47Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

C48S. 40 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 3(3), 4(4)(b), 5(7)(b), 6(7)(b); s. 40 modified by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4, 5, 6 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 5, 6, 7

C49S. 40 applied (with modifications) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 24B(4) (as inserted (29.6.2007) by Police and Justice Act 2006 (c. 48), ss. 18(1), 53 (with s. 18(2)); S.I. 2007/1614, art. 2(e))

C53S. 40(13) amended by S.I. 1991/2684, arts. 1, 2, 4 and Sch.1

[F9740A Use of telephone for review under s. 40E+W

[F98(1)A review under section 40(1)(b) may be carried out by means of a discussion, conducted by telephone, with one or more persons at the police station where the arrested person is held.

(2)But subsection (1) does not apply if—

(a)the review is of a kind authorised by regulations under section 45A to be carried out using[F99a live link]; and

(b)it is reasonably practicable to carry it out in accordance with those regulations.]

(3)Where any review is carried out under this section by an officer who is not present at the station where the arrested person is held—

(a)any obligation of that officer to make a record in connection with the carrying out of the review shall have effect as an obligation to cause another officer to make the record;

(b)any requirement for the record to be made in the presence of the arrested person shall apply to the making of that record by that other officer; and

(c)the requirements under section 40(12) and (13) above for—

(i)the arrested person, or

(ii)a solicitor representing him,

to be given any opportunity to make representations (whether in writing or orally) to that officer shall have effect as a requirement for that person, or such a solicitor, to be given an opportunity to make representations in a manner authorised by subsection (4) below.

(4)Representations are made in a manner authorised by this subsection—

(a)in a case where facilities exist for the immediate transmission of written representations to the officer carrying out the review, if they are made either—

(i)orally by telephone to that officer; or

(ii)in writing to that officer by means of those facilities;

and

(b)in any other case, if they are made orally by telephone to that officer.

(5)In this section “[F100live link]” has the same meaning as in section 45A below.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F97S. 40A inserted (1.10.2001) by 2001 c. 16, s. 72(3); S.I. 2001/3150, art. 2(a)

F98S. 40A(1)(2) substituted (20.1.2004) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 6, 336; S.I. 2004/81, art. 2(1)(2)(a)

F99Words in s. 40A(2)(a) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss., 74(5)(a), 183(5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 23

F100Words in s. 40A(5) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force ) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss., 75(5)(b), 183(5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 24

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

41 Limits on period of detention without charge.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section and to sections 42 and 43 below, a person shall not be kept in police detention for more than 24 hours without being charged.

(2)The time from which the period of detention of a person is to be calculated (in this Act referred to as “the relevant time”)—

(a)in the case of a person to whom this paragraph applies, shall be—

(i)the time at which that person arrives at the relevant police station; or

(ii)the time 24 hours after the time of that person’s arrest,

whichever is the earlier;

(b)in the case of a person arrested outside England and Wales, shall be—

(i)the time at which that person arrives at the first police station to which he is taken in the police area in England or Wales in which the offence for which he was arrested is being investigated; or

(ii)the time 24 hours after the time of that person’s entry into England and Wales,

whichever is the earlier;

(c)in the case of a person who—

(i)attends voluntarily at a police station; or

(ii)accompanies a constable to a police station without having been arrested,

and is arrested at the police station, the time of his arrest;

[F101(ca)in the case of a person who attends a police station to answer to bail granted under section 30A, the time when he arrives at the police station;]

(d)in any other case, except where subsection (5) below applies, shall be the time at which the person arrested arrives at the first police station to which he is taken after his arrest.

(3)Subsection (2)(a) above applies to a person if—

(a)his arrest is sought in one police area in England and Wales;

(b)he is arrested in another police area; and

(c)he is not questioned in the area in which he is arrested in order to obtain evidence in relation to an offence for which he is arrested;

and in sub-paragraph (i) of that paragraph “the relevant police station” means the first police station to which he is taken in the police area in which his arrest was sought.

(4)Subsection (2) above shall have effect in relation to a person arrested under section 31 above as if every reference in it to his arrest or his being arrested were a reference to his arrest or his being arrested for the offence for which he was originally arrested.

(5)If—

(a)a person is in police detention in a police area in England and Wales (“the first area”); and

(b)his arrest for an offence is sought in some other police area in England and Wales (“the second area”); and

(c)he is taken to the second area for the purposes of investigating that offence, without being questioned in the first area in order to obtain evidence in relation to it,

the relevant time shall be—

(i)the time 24 hours after he leaves the place where he is detained in the first area; or

(ii)the time at which he arrives at the first police station to which he is taken in the second area,

whichever is the earlier.

(6)When a person who is in police detention is removed to hospital because he is in need of medical treatment, any time during which he is being questioned in hospital or on the way there or back by a police officer for the purpose of obtaining evidence relating to an offence shall be included in any period which falls to be calculated for the purposes of this Part of this Act, but any other time while he is in hospital or on his way there or back shall not be so included.

(7)Subject to subsection (8) below, a person who at the expiry of 24 hours after the relevant time is in police detention and has not been charged shall be released at that time [F102

(a)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(b)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied.]

(8)Subsection (7) above does not apply to a person whose detention for more than 24 hours after the relevant time has been authorised or is otherwise permitted in accordance with section 42 or 43 below.

(9)A person released under subsection (7) above shall not be re-arrested without a warrant for the offence for which he was previously arrested unless [F103, since the person’s release, new evidence has come to light or an examination or analysis of existing evidence has been made which could not reasonably have been made before] his release[F104; but this subsection does not prevent an arrest under section 46A below.]

[F105(10)Subsection (11) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (7), and

(b)a custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(11)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(12)Subsection (11) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F102Words in s. 41(7) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 56(1), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F103Words in s. 41(9) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 65(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 17 (with reg. 5)

F104Words in s. 41(9) inserted (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 29(4)(b)(5); S.I. 1995/721, art. 2,Sch.

F105S. 41(10)-(12) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 67(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C57Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b)(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

C58S. 41 extended (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 para. 2(6); s. 41 extended by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 2, 5, 6 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 3, 6, 7

S. 41 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 3(3), 4(4)(b), 5(7)(b), 6(7)(b); s. 41 modified by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4, 5, 6 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 5, 6, 7

42 Authorisation of continued detention.E+W

(1)Where a police officer of the rank of superintendent or above who is responsible for the police station at which a person is detained has reasonable grounds for believing that—

(a)the detention of that person without charge is necessary to secure or preserve evidence relating to an offence for which he is under arrest or to obtain such evidence by questioning him;

[F106(b)an offence for which he is under arrest is an [F107indictable] offence; and]

(c)the investigation is being conducted diligently and expeditiously,

he may authorise the keeping of that person in police detention for a period expiring at or before 36 hours after the relevant time.

(2)Where an officer such as is mentioned in subsection (1) above has authorised the keeping of a person in police detention for a period expiring less than 36 hours after the relevant time, such an officer may authorise the keeping of that person in police detention for a further period expiring not more than 36 hours after that time if the conditions specified in subsection (1) above are still satisfied when he gives the authorisation.

(3)If it is proposed to transfer a person in police detention to another police area, the officer determining whether or not to authorise keeping him in detention under subsection (1) above shall have regard to the distance and the time the journey would take.

(4)No authorisation under subsection (1) above shall be given in respect of any person—

(a)more than 24 hours after the relevant time; or

(b)before the second review of his detention under section 40 above has been carried out.

(5)Where an officer authorises the keeping of a person in police detention under subsection (1) above, it shall be his duty—

(a)to inform that person of the grounds for his continued detention; and

(b)to record the grounds in that person’s custody record.

(6)Before determining whether to authorise the keeping of a person in detention under subsection (1) or (2) above, an officer shall give—

(a)that person; or

(b)any solicitor representing him who is available at the time when it falls to the officer to determine whether to give the authorisation,

an opportunity to make representations to him about the detention.

(7)Subject to subsection (8) below, the person in detention or his solicitor may make representations under subsection (6) above either orally or in writing.

(8)The officer to whom it falls to determine whether to give the authorisation may refuse to hear oral representations from the person in detention if he considers that he is unfit to make such representations by reason of his condition or behaviour.

(9)Where—

(a)an officer authorises the keeping of a person in detention under subsection (1) above; and

(b)at the time of the authorisation he has not yet exercised a right conferred on him by section 56 or 58 below,

the officer—

(i)shall inform him of that right;

(ii)shall decide whether he should be permitted to exercise it;

(iii)shall record the decision in his custody record; and

(iv)if the decision is to refuse to permit the exercise of the right, shall also record the grounds for the decision in that record.

(10)Where an officer has authorised the keeping of a person who has not been charged in detention under subsection (1) or (2) above, he shall be released from detentionF108..., not later than 36 hours after the relevant time [F109

(a)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(b)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied,

(subject to subsection (10A))].

[F110(10A)Subsection (10) does not apply if—

(a)the person has been charged with an offence, or

(b)the person’s continued detention is authorised or otherwise permitted in accordance with section 43.]

(11)A person released under subsection (10) above shall not be re-arrested without a warrant for the offence for which he was previously arrested unless [F111, since the person’s release, new evidence has come to light or an examination or analysis of existing evidence has been made which could not reasonably have been made before] his release[F112; but this subsection does not prevent an arrest under section 46A below.]

[F113(12)Subsection (13) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (10), and

(b)a custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(13)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(14)Subsection (13) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F108Words in s. 42(10) omitted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 56(3)(a), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F109Words in s. 42(10) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 56(3)(b), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F110S. 42(10A) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 56(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F111Words in s. 42(11) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 65(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 17 (with reg. 5)

F112Words in s. 42(11) inserted (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 29(4)(b)(5); S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch.

F113S. 42(12)-(14) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 67(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C61Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

C62s. 42 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 3(3), 4(4)(b), 5(7)(b), 6(7)(b); s. 42 modified by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4, 5, 6 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 5, 6, 7

C66S. 42(7) amended by S.I. 1991/2684, arts. 1, 2, 4 and Sch. 1

43 Warrants of further detention. E+W

(1)Where, on an application on oath made by a constable and supported by an information, a magistrates’ court is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the further detention of the person to whom the application relates is justified, it may issue a warrant of further detention authorising the keeping of that person in police detention.

(2)A court may not hear an application for a warrant of further detention unless the person to whom the application relates—

(a)has been furnished with a copy of the information; and

(b)has been brought before the court for the hearing.

(3)The person to whom the application relates shall be entitled to be legally represented at the hearing and, if he is not so represented but wishes to be so represented—

(a)the court shall adjourn the hearing to enable him to obtain representation; and

(b)he may be kept in police detention during the adjournment.

(4)A person’s further detention is only justified for the purposes of this section or section 44 below if—

(a)his detention without charge is necessary to secure or preserve evidence relating to an offence for which he is under arrest or to obtain such evidence by questioning him;

(b)an offence for which he is under arrest is [F114an indictable offence] ; and

(c)the investigation is being conducted diligently and expeditiously.

(5)Subject to subsection (7) below, an application for a warrant of further detention may be made—

(a)at any time before the expiry of 36 hours after the relevant time; or

(b)in a case where—

(i)it is not practicable for the magistrates’ court to which the application will be made to sit at the expiry of 36 hours after the relevant time; but

(ii)the court will sit during the 6 hours following the end of that period,

at any time before the expiry of the said 6 hours.

(6)In a case to which subsection (5)(b) above applies—

(a)the person to whom the application relates may be kept in police detention until the application is heard; and

(b)the custody officer shall make a note in that person’s custody record—

(i)of the fact that he was kept in police detention for more than 36 hours after the relevant time; and

(ii)of the reason why he was so kept.

(7)If—

(a)an application for a warrant of further detention is made after the expiry of 36 hours after the relevant time; and

(b)it appears to the magistrates’ court that it would have been reasonable for the police to make it before the expiry of that period,

the court shall dismiss the application.

(8)Where on an application such as is mentioned in subsection (1) above a magistrates’ court is not satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the further detention of the person to whom the application relates is justified, it shall be its duty—

(a)to refuse the application; or

(b)to adjourn the hearing of it until a time not later than 36 hours after the relevant time.

(9)The person to whom the application relates may be kept in police detention during the adjournment.

(10)A warrant of further detention shall—

(a)state the time at which it is issued;

(b)authorise the keeping in police detention of the person to whom it relates for the period stated in it.

(11)Subject to subsection (12) below, the period stated in a warrant of further detention shall be such period as the magistrates’ court thinks fit, having regard to the evidence before it.

(12)The period shall not be longer than 36 hours.

(13)If it is proposed to transfer a person in police detention to a police area other than that in which he is detained when the application for a warrant of further detention is made, the court hearing the application shall have regard to the distance and the time the journey would take.

(14)Any information submitted in support of an application under this section shall state—

(a)the nature of the offence for which the person to whom the application relates has been arrested;

(b)the general nature of the evidence on which that person was arrested;

(c)what inquiries relating to the offence have been made by the police and what further inquiries are proposed by them;

(d)the reasons for believing the continued detention of that person to be necessary for the purposes of such further inquiries.

(15)Where an application under this section is refused, the person to whom the application relates shall forthwith be charged or, subject to subsection (16) below, released [F115

(a)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(b)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied.]

(16)A person need not be released under subsection (15) above—

(a)before the expiry of 24 hours after the relevant time; or

(b)before the expiry of any longer period for which his continued detention is or has been authorised under section 42 above.

(17)Where an application under this section is refused, no further application shall be made under this section in respect of the person to whom the refusal relates, unless supported by evidence which has come to light since the refusal.

(18)Where a warrant of further detention is issued, the person to whom it relates shall [F116, unless the person is charged, be released from police detention upon or before the expiry of the warrant—

(a)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(b)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied.]

(19)A person released under subsection (18) above shall not be re-arrested without a warrant for the offence for which he was previously arrested unless [F117, since the person’s release, new evidence has come to light or an examination or analysis of existing evidence has been made which could not reasonably have been made before] his release[F118; but this subsection does not prevent an arrest under section 46A below.]

[F119(20)Subsection (21) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (15) or (18), and

(b)a custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(21)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(22)Subsection (21) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F115Words in s. 43(15) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 57(2), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F116Words in s. 43(18) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 57(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F117Words in s. 43(19) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 65(5), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 17 (with reg. 5)

F118Words in s. 43(19) inserted (10.4.1995) by 1994 c. 33, s. 29(4)(b)(5); S.I. 1995/721, art. 2, Sch.

F119S. 43(20)-(22) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 67(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C68Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

C69S. 43 modified (2.8.1993) by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4(4)(b), 5(7)(b), 6(7)(b); s. 43 modified by the said S.I. 1993/1813, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 4, 5, 6 as incorporated (with modifications) (1.12.1997) by S.I. 1994/1405, art. 6, Sch. 3 paras. 5, 6, 7

44 Extension of warrants of further detention.E+W

(1)On an application on oath made by a constable and supported by an information a magistrates’ court may extend a warrant of further detention issued under section 43 above if it is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the further detention of the person to whom the application relates is justified.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, the period for which a warrant of further detention may be extended shall be such period as the court thinks fit, having regard to the evidence before it.

(3)The period shall not—

(a)be longer than 36 hours; or

(b)end later than 96 hours after the relevant time.

(4)Where a warrant of further detention has been extended under subsection (1) above, or further extended under this subsection, for a period ending before 96 hours after the relevant time, on an application such as is mentioned in that subsection a magistrates’ court may further extend the warrant if it is satisfied as there mentioned; and subsections (2) and (3) above apply to such further extensions as they apply to extensions under subsection (1) above.

(5)A warrant of further detention shall, if extended or further extended under this section, be endorsed with a note of the period of the extension.

(6)Subsections (2), (3) and (14) of section 43 above shall apply to an application made under this section as they apply to an application made under that section.

(7)Where an application under this section is refused, the person to whom the application relates shall forthwith be charged or, subject to subsection (8) below, released [F120

(a)without bail unless the pre-conditions for bail are satisfied, or

(b)on bail if those pre-conditions are satisfied.]

(8)A person need not be released under subsection (7) above before the expiry of any period for which a warrant of further detention issued in relation to him has been extended or further extended on an earlier application made under this section.

[F121(9)Subsection (10) applies where—

(a)a person is released under subsection (7), and

(b)a custody officer determines that—

(i)there is not sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence, or

(ii)there is sufficient evidence to charge the person with an offence but the person should not be charged with an offence or given a caution in respect of an offence.

(10)The custody officer must give the person notice in writing that the person is not to be prosecuted.

(11)Subsection (10) does not prevent the prosecution of the person for an offence if new evidence comes to light after the notice was given.]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F120Words in s. 44(7) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 57(4), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 12 (with reg. 5)

F121S. 44(9)-(11) inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 67(5), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 18

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C73Ss. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17(1)(b(2) (4), 18–20, 21, 22(1)–(4), 28, 29, 30(1)–(4)(a)(5)–(11), 31, 32(1)–(9), 34(1)–(5), 35, 36, 37, 39, 40–44, 50, 51(d), 52, 54, 55, 64(1)–(4)(5)(6), Sch. 1 applied with modifications by S.I. 1985/1800, arts. 3–11, Schs. 1, 2

45 Detention before charge—supplementary.E+W

(1)In [F122sections 43, 44 and 45ZB] of this Act “magistrates’ court” means a court consisting of two or more justices of the peace sitting otherwise than in open court.

(2)Any reference in this Part of this Act to a period of time or a time of day is to be treated as approximate only.

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F122Words in s. 45(1) substituted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 3.4.2017 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), ss. 74(3), 183(1), (5)(e); S.I. 2017/399, reg. 2, Sch. para. 23

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