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Town and Country Planning Act 1971

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Interests affected by planning decisions or orders

180Purchase notice on refusal or conditional grant of planning permission

(1)Where, on an application for planning permission to develop any land, permission is refused or is granted subject to conditions, then if any owner of the land claims—

(a)that the land has become incapable of reasonably beneficial use in its existing state; and

(b)in a case where planning permission was granted subject to conditions, that the land cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial ,use by the carrying out of the permitted development in accordance with those conditions; and

(c)in any case, that the land cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of any other development for which planning permission has been granted or for which the local planning authority or the Secretary of State has undertaken to grant planning permission,

he may, within the time and in the manner prescribed by regulations under this Act, serve on the council of the county borough, London borough or county district in which the land is situated a notice requiring that council to purchase his interest in the land in accordance with the following provisions of this Part of this Act.

(2)Where, for the purpose of determining whether the conditions specified in subsection (1) (a) to (c) of this section are fulfilled in relation to any. land, any question arises as to what is or would in any particular circumstances be a reasonably beneficial use of that land, then, in determining that question for that purpose, no account shall be taken of any prospective use of that land which would involve the carrying out of new development or which would contravene the condition set out in Schedule 18 to this Act.

(3)In the application of Schedule 8 to this Act for the purposes of any determination under subsection (2) of this section-(a) paragraph 3 of that Schedule shall be construed as not extending to works involving any increase in the cubic content of a building erected after the appointed day (including any building resulting from the carrying out of such works as are described in paragraph 1 of that Schedule); and

(b)paragraph 7 of that Schedule shall not apply to any such building.

(4)For the purposes of this section the conditions referred to in sections 41 and 42 of this Act shall be disregarded, and no account shall be taken of any condition to which section 71 or 82 of this Act applies.

(5)A person on whom there has been served a repairs notice under section 115 of this Act shall not in any case be entitled to serve a purchase notice under this section in respect of the building in question until the expiration of three months beginning with the date of the service of the repairs notice; and if during that period the council or the Secretary of State start the compulsory acquisition of the building in the exercise of their powers under section 114 of this Act, that person shall not be so entitled unless and until the compulsory acquisition is discontinued.

(6)For the purposes of subsection (5) of this section a compulsory acquisition—

(a)is started when the council or the Secretary of Stale, as the case may be, serve the notice required by paragraph 3(1)(b) of Schedule 1 to the Acquisition of Land (Authorisation Procedure) Act 1946 ; and

(b)is discontinued, in the case of acquisition by a council, when they withdraw the compulsory purchase order or the Secretary of State decides not to confirm it and, in the case of acquisition by the Secretary of State, when he decides not to make the compulsory purchase order.

(7)A notice under this section, or under any other provision of this Part of this Act to which this subsection is applied, is in this Act referred to as a " purchase notice ".

181Action by council on whom purchase notice is served

(1)The council on whom a purchase notice is served under section 180 of this Act shall, before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of service of that notice, serve on the owner by whom the purchase notice was served a notice stating either—

(a)that the council are willing to comply with the purchase notice; or

(b)that another local authority or statutory undertakers specified in the notice under this subsection have agreed to comply with it in their place; or

(c)that, for reasons specified in the notice under this subsection, the council are not willing to comply with the purchase notice and have not found any other local authority or statutory undertakers who will agree to comply with it in their place, and that they have transmitted a copy of the purchase notice to the Secretary of State, on a date specified in the notice under this subsection, together with a statement of the reasons so specified.

(2)Where the council on whom a purchase notice is served by an owner have served on him a notice in accordance with subsection (1)(a) or (b) of this section, the council, or the other local authority or statutory undertakers specified in the notice, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be authorised to acquire the interest of the owner compulsorily in accordance with the relevant provisions, and to have served a notice to treat in respect thereof on the date of service of the notice under that subsection.

(3)Where the council on whom a purchase notice is served by an owner propose to serve on him a notice in accordance with subsection (1)(c) of this section, they shall transmit a copy of the purchase notice to the Secretary of State, together with a statement of their reasons.

(4)In this section "the relevant provisions" means the provisions of Part VI of this Act or, in the case of statutory undertakers, any statutory provision (however expressed) under which they have power, or may be authorised, to purchase land compulsorily for the purposes of their undertaking.

182Procedure on reference of purchase notice to Secretary of State

(1)Where a copy of a purchase notice is transmitted to the Secretary of State under section 181(3) of this Act, the Secretary of State shall consider whether to confirm the notice or to take other action under section 183 of this Act in respect thereof.

(2)Before confirming a purchase notice or taking any other action under section 183 of this Act in respect thereof, the Secretary of State shall give notice of his proposed action—

(a)to the person by whom the purchase notice was served;

(b)to the council on whom the purchase notice was served ;

(c)to the local planning authority for the area in which the land is situated ; and

(d)if the Secretary of State proposes to substitute any other local authority or statutory undertakers for the council on whom the purchase notice was served, to that other local authority or those statutory undertakers.

(3)If, within such period as may be specified in a notice under subsection (2) of this section, being a period of not less than twenty-eight days from the service of that notice, any of the persons, authorities or statutory undertakers on whom that notice is served so requires, the Secretary of State, before confirming the purchase notice or taking any other action under section 183 of this Act in respect thereof, shall afford to those persons, authorities and undertakers an opportunity of appearing before, and being heard by, a person appointed by the Secretary of State for the purpose.

(4)Where the Secretary of State has given notice under sub section (2) of this section of his proposed action, and any of the persons, authorities and statutory undertakers concerned have appeared before and been heard by a person appointed by the Secretary of State for the purpose, and it then appears to the Secretary of State to be expedient to take action under section 183 of this Act otherwise than in accordance with the notice given by him, the Secretary of State may take that action accordingly

183Action by Secretary of State in relation to purchase notice

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section and to section 184 of this Act, if the Secretary of State is satisfied that the conditions specified in section 180(1)(a) to (c) of this Act are fulfilled in relation to a purchase notice, he shall confirm the notice.

(2)If it appears to the Secretary of State to be expedient to do so, he may, in lieu of confirming the purchase notice, grant planning permission for the development in respect of which the application was made, or, where planning permission for that development was granted subject to conditions, revoke or amend those conditions so far as appears to him to be required in order to enable the land to be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of that development.

(3)If it appears to the Secretary of State that the land, or any part of the land, could be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use within a reasonable time by the carrying out of any other development for which planning permission ought to be granted, he may, in lieu of confirming the purchase notice, or in lieu of confirming it so far as it relates to that part of the land, as the case may be, direct that planning permission for that development shall be granted in the event of an application being made in that behalf.

(4)If it appears to the Secretary of State, having regard to the probable ultimate use of the land, that it is expedient to do so, he may, if he confirms the notice, modify it, either in relation to the whole or in relation to any part of the land to which it relates, by substituting another local authority or statutory undertakers for the council on whom the notice was served.

(5)In section 182 of this Act, any reference to the taking of action by the Secretary of State under this section is a reference to the taking by him of any such action as is mentioned in subsections (1) to (4) of this section, or to the taking by him of a decision not to confirm the purchase notice either on the grounds that any of the conditions referred to in subsection (1) of this section are not fulfilled or by virtue of section 184 of this Act.

184Power to refuse to confirm purchase notice where land has restricted use by virtue of previous planning permission

(1)This section shall have effect where, on an application for planning permission to develop any land which has a restricted use by virtue of a previous planning permission, permission is refused or granted subject to conditions and an owner of the land serves a purchase notice under section 180 of this Act.

(2)For the purposes of this section, land is to be treated as having a restricted use by virtue of a previous planning permission if it is part of a larger area in respect of which planning permission was previously granted (and has not been revoked) and either—

(a)it remains a condition of the planning permission (however expressed) that that part shall remain undeveloped or be preserved or laid out in a particular way as amenity land in relation to the remainder; or

(b)the planning permission was granted on an application which contemplated (expressly or by necessary implication) that the part should not be comprised in the development for which planning permission was sought, or should be preserved or laid out as aforesaid.

(3)If a copy of the purchase notice is transmitted to the Secretary of State under section 181(3) of this Act the Secretary of State, although satisfied that the land has become incapable of reasonably beneficial use in its existing state, shall nevertheless not be required under section 183(1) of this Act to confirm the notice if it appears to him that the land ought, in accordance with the previous planning permission, to remain undeveloped or, as the case may be, remain or be preserved or laid out as amenity land in relation to the remainder of the large area for which that planning permission was granted.

185Power to refuse to confirm purchase notice in respect of office premises

(1)This section applies to any purchase notice served on or after 5th November 1964 (whether before or after the passing of this Act) in respect of land within the metropolitan region, or served on or after 5th August 1965 (whether before or after the passing of this Act) in respect of land which, at the date of service of the notice, is within a controlled area as defined in section 81(2) of this Act outside the metropolitan region, where either—

(a)planning permission for the carrying out on that land, or part of it, of development to which section 74 of this Act applies was granted before 5th August 1965. but by virtue of paragraph 1(4) of Schedule 12 to this Act that planning permission is for the time being deemed not to have effect; or

(b)the purpose for which that land, or part of it, is or was used at the date of service of the notice, or was last used before that date, is or was that of a building containing office premises.

(2)In relation to a purchase notice to which this section applies, the provisions of this Act shall have effect as if, after subsection (4) of section 183 of this Act, there were inserted the following subsection—

(4A)Where the purchase notice is one to which section 185 of this Act applies, the Secretary of State may, if he thinks fit, determine not to confirm the notice without taking any such action as is mentioned in subsections (2) to (4) of this section ", and as if, in subsection (5) of that section, after the words " by virtue of " there were inserted the words " subsection (4A) of this section or

(3)Where in pursuance of subsection (4A) of the said section 183 (as modified by subsection (2) of this section) the Secretary of State has determined not to confirm a purchase notice to which this section applies, and on a subsequent date the land to which that notice related ceases to be within an area to which section 74 of this Act applies—

(a)a further purchase notice may be served on or after that date in respect of the planning decision to which the previous notice related ; and

(b)for the purposes of any regulations made under this Act as to the time within which a purchase notice may be served, the service of such a further purchase notice shall not be treated as out of time if it is served within the period which would be applicable in accordance with those regulations if the planning decision referred to in the preceding paragraph had been made on that subsequent date.

(4)In determining, for the purposes of subsection (1)(b) of this section, for what purpose any land is used, or was last used, as the case may be, no account shall be taken—

(a)of any use in accordance with planning permission granted for a limited period ; or

(b)of any use in respect of which, before the date of service of the purchase notice, an enforcement notice had been served and had become effective; or

(c)of any use of land at a time when it is or was not covered by a building.

(5)For the purposes of this section " office premises " has the meaning assigned by section 73(4) of this Act and this section shall have effect as if it were included in sections 73 to 86 of this Act.

(6)Notwithstanding subsection (5) of this section, subsection (3) of this section shall not cease to have effect at the end of the period mentioned in section 86 of this Act; and in relation to any land which, immediately before the end of that period, is land within an area to which section 74 of this Act applies, any reference in that subsection to the date on which the land ceases to be within such an area shall be construed as a reference to the end of that period.

186Effect of Secretary of State's action in relation to purchase notice

(1)Where the Secretary of State confirms a purchase notice, the council on whom the purchase notice was served (or, if under section 183(4) of this Act the Secretary of State modified the purchase notice by substituting another local authority or statutory undertakers for that council, that other local authority or those statutory undertakers) shall be deemed to be authorised to acquire the interest of the owner compulsorily in accordance with the relevant provisions and to have served a notice to treat in respect thereof on such date as the Secretary of State may direct.

(2)If, before the end of the relevant period, the Secretary of State has neither confirmed the purchase notice nor taken any such action in respect thereof as is mentioned in section 183(2) or (3) of this Act, and has not notified the owner by whom the notice was served that he does not propose to confirm the notice, the notice shall be deemed to be confirmed at the end of that period, and the council on whom the notice was served shall be deemed to be authorised to acquire the interest of the owner compulsorily in accordance with the relevant provisions and to have served a notice to treat in respect thereof at the end of that period.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) of this section the relevant period is whichever of the following periods first expires, that is to say—

(a)the period of nine months beginning with the date of service of the purchase notice; and

(b)the period of six months beginning with the date on which a copy of the purchase notice was transmitted to the Secretary of State.

(4)Where the Secretary of State has notified the owner by whom a purchase notice has been served of a decision on his part to confirm, or not to confirm, the notice (including any decision not to confirm the notice in respect of part of the land to which it relates, and including any decision to grant any permission, or give any direction, in lieu of confirming the notice, either wholly or in part) .and that decision of the Secretary of State is quashed under the provisions of Part XII of this Act, the purchase notice shall be treated as cancelled, but the owner may serve a further purchase notice in its place.

(5)For the purposes of any regulations made under this Act as to the time within which a purchase notice may be served, the service of a purchase notice under subsection (4) of this section shall not be treated as out of time if the notice is served within the period which would be applicable in accordance with those regulations if the planning decision, in consequence of which the notice is served, had been made on the date on which the decision of the Secretary of State was quashed as mentioned in subsection (4) of this section.

(6)In this section " the relevant provisions " has the same meaning as in section 181 of this Act.

187Special provisions as to compensation where purchase notice served

(1)Where by virtue of section 164 of this Act compensation is payable in respect of expenditure incurred in carrying out any work on land, then, if a purchase notice is served in respect of an interest in that land, any compensation payable in respect of the acquisition of that interest in pursuance of the purchase notice shall be reduced by an amount equal to the value of the works in respect of which compensation is payable by virtue of that section.

(2)Where a purchase notice served in respect of an interest in land does not take effect, or does not take effect in relation to a part of the land, by reason that the Secretary of State gives a direction under section 183(3) of this Act, then if, on a claim made to the local planning authority within the time and in the manner prescribed by regulations under this Act it is shown that the permitted development value of that interest (or, as the case may be, of that interest so far as it relates to that part of the land) is less than its existing use value, the local planning authority shall pay to the person entitled to that interest compensation of an amount which (subject to the following provisions of this section) shall be equal to the difference.

(3)If the planning permission which, by the direction referred to in subsection (2) of this section, is required to be granted would be granted subject to conditions for regulating the design or external appearance of buildings, or the size or height of buildings, or for regulating the number of buildings to be erected on the land, the Secretary of State, if it appears to him to be reasonable to do so having regard to the local circumstances, may direct that those conditions shall be disregarded, either altogether or to such extent as may be specified in the direction, in assessing any compensation payable under subsection (2) of this section.

(4)Sections 178 and 179 of this Act shall have effect in relation to compensation under subsection (2) of this section as they have effect in relation to compensation to which those sections apply.

(5)In this section " permitted development value ", in relation to an interest in land in respect of which a direction is given under section 183(3) of this Act, means the value of that interest calculated with regard to that direction, but on the assumption that no planning permission would be granted otherwise than in accordance with that direction, and " existing use value ''; in relation to such an interest, means the value of that interest as (for the purpose of ascertaining the compensation payable on an acquisition thereof in pursuance of the purchase notice) that value would have been assessed in accordance with the provisions of the Acquisition of Land (Assessment of Compensation) Act 1919, as modified by the provisions of sections 51 to 54 of the Act of 1947, if no enactment repealing, modifying or superseding any of those provisions had been passed after the passing of the Act of 1947.

188Purchase notice in respect of order revoking or modifying planning permission

(1)Where by an order under section 45 of this Act planning permission in respect of any land is revoked, or is modified by the imposition of conditions, then if any owner of the land claims—

(a)that the land has become incapable of reasonably beneficial use in its existing state; and

(b)in a case where the planning permission was modified by the imposition of conditions, that the land cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of the permitted development in accordance with those conditions; and

(c)in any case, that the land cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of any other development for which planning permission has been granted or for which the local planning authority or the Secretary of State has undertaken to grant planning permission,

he may, within the time and in the manner prescribed by regulations under this Act, serve on the council of the county borough, London borough or county district in which the land is situated a notice requiring that council to purchase his interest in the land in accordance with the preceding provisions of this Part of this Act.

(2)Section 180(7) of this Act shall apply to this section; and, subject to subsection (3) of this section, sections 180(2), 181 to 184, 186 and 187 of this Act shall apply to a notice served by virtue of subsection (1) of this section as they apply to a notice served by virtue of section 180(1) of this Act.

(3)In the application of subsection (2) of section 180 of this Act to a purchase notice served by virtue of subsection (1) of this section, that subsection shall apply as if the words " or which would contravene the condition set out in Schedule 18 to this Act" were omitted; and in the application of section 183 of this Act to a purchase notice served as aforesaid, that section shall apply as if the following subsection were substituted for subsection (2) thereof—

(2)If it appears to the Secretary of State to be expedient to do so, he may, in lieu of confirming the purchase notice, cancel the order revoking the planning permission, or, where the order modified the permission by the imposition of conditions, revoke or amend those conditions so far as appears to him to be required in order to enable the land to be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of the development in respect of which the permission was granted

189Purchase notice in respect of order requiring discontinuance of use or alteration or removal of buildings or works

(1)If any person entitled to an interest in land in respect of which an order is made under section 51 of this Act claims—

(a)that by reason of the order the land is incapable of reasonably beneficial use in its existing state ; and

(b)that it cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of any development for which planning permission has been granted, whether by that order or otherwise,

he may, within the time and in the manner prescribed by regulations under this Act, serve on the council of the county borough, London borough or county district in which the land is situated a notice requiring that council to purchase his interest in the land in accordance with the preceding provisions of this Part of this Act.

(2)Section 180(7) of this Act shall apply to this section; and, subject to subsection (3) of this section, sections 180(2), 181 to 184, 186 and 187 of this Act shall apply to a notice served by virtue of subsection (1) of this section as they apply to a notice served by virtue of section 180(1) of this Act.

(3)In the application of subsection (2) of section 180 of this Act to a purchase notice served by virtue of subsection (1) of this section, that subsection shall apply as if the words "or which would contravene the condition set out in Schedule 18 to this Act" were omitted; and in the application of section 183 of this Act to a purchase notice served as aforesaid, that section shall have effect subject to the following modifications, that is to say—

(a)in subsection (1), for the reference to the conditions therein mentioned, there shall be substituted a reference to the conditions specified in subsection (1)(a) and (b) of this section ; and

(b)the following subsection shall be substituted for subsection (2)—

(2)If it appears to the Secretary of State to be expedient to do so, he may, in lieu of confirming the purchase notice, revoke the order under section 51 of this Act, or, as the case may be, amend that order so far as appears to him to be required in order to prevent the land from being rendered incapable of reasonably beneficial use by the order.

(4)Where a purchase notice in respect of an interest in land is served in consequence of such an order as is mentioned in subsection (1) of this section, then if—

(a)that interest is acquired in accordance with the preceding provisions of this Part of this Act; or

(b)compensation is payable in respect of that interest under section 187(2) of this Act,

no compensation shall be payable in respect of that order under section 170 of this Act.

(5)Except as provided by this section, no purchase notice shall be served in respect of an interest in land while the land is incapable of reasonably beneficial use by reason only of such an order as is mentioned in subsection (1) of this section.

190Purchase notice on refusal or conditional grant of listed building consent

(1)Where, on an application for listed building consent in respect of a building, consent is refused or is granted subject to conditions or, by an order under Part II of Schedule 11 to this Act, listed building consent is revoked or modified, then if any owner of the land claims—

(a)that the land has become incapable of reasonably beneficial use in its existing state ; and

(b)in a case where consent was granted subject to conditions with respect to the execution of the works or, as the case may be, was modified by the imposition of such conditions, that the land cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of the works in accordance with those conditions; and

(c)in any case that the land cannot be rendered capable of reasonably beneficial use by the carrying out of any other works for which listed building consent has been granted or for which the local planning authority or the Secretary of State has undertaken to grant such consent,

he may, within the time and in the manner prescribed by regulations under this Act, serve on the council of the county borough, London borough or county district in which the land is situated a notice requiring that council to purchase his interest in the land in accordance with Schedule 19 to this Act.

(2)Where, for the purpose of determining whether the conditions specified in subsection (1)(a) to (c) of this section are satisfied in relation to the land, any question arises as to what is or would in any particular circumstances be a reasonably beneficial use of that land, then in determining that question for that purpose, no account shall be taken of any prospective use of that land which would involve the carrying out of new development or of any works requiring listed building consent which might be executed to the building, other than works for which the local planning authority or the Secretary of State have undertaken to grant such consent.

(3)In this section and in Schedule 19 to this Act, " the land " means the building in respect of which listed building consent has been refused, or granted subject to conditions, or modified by the imposition of conditions, and in respect of which its owner serves a notice under this section, together with any land comprising the building, or contiguous or adjacent to it, and owned with it, being land as to which the owner claims that its use is substantially inseparable from that of the building and that it ought to be treated, together with the building, as a single holding.

(4)Subsections (5) and (6) of section 180 of this Act shall apply to a listed building purchase notice as they apply to a purchase notice under that section.

(5)A notice under this section is in this Act referred to as a " listed building purchase notice "

191Purchase notices in other cases

(1)Sections 180 to 183, 186 and 187 of this Act are provisions falling within subsection (2) of section 60 of this Act; and subsection (1) of the said section 60 and subsection (2) of section 63 of this Act, shall have effect accordingly.

(2)Where, in the case of an application for planning permission, a notice under section 72(1) of this Act is served in respect of the whole or part of the land to which the application relates, the provisions of sections 180 to 183, 186 and 187 of this Act shall have effect as if the application had been an effective application for planning permission, and as if that permission had been refused in respect of that land or that part thereof, as the case may be.

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