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Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971

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Article IVE+W+S+N.I.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Art. IV of the Rules amended by Merchant Shipping Act (c. 10, SIF 111), s. 3(1)

1Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be liable for loss or damage arising or resulting from unseaworthiness unless caused by want of due diligence on the part of the carrier to make the ship seaworthy, and to secure that the ship is properly manned, equipped and supplied, and to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1of Article III. Whenever loss or damage has resulted from unseaworthiness the burden of proving the exercise of due diligence shall be on the carrier or other person claiming exemption under this article.

2Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible for loss or damage arising or resulting from—

(a)Act, neglect, or default of the master, mariner, pilot, or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or in the management of the ship.

(b)Fire, unless caused by the actual fault or privity of the carrier.

(c)Perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters.

(d)Act of God.

(e)Act of war.

(f)Act of public enemies.

(g)Arrest or restraint of princes, rulers or perople, or seizure under legal process.

(h)Quarantine restrictions.

(i)Act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his agent or representative.

(j)Strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labour from whatever cause, whether partial or general.

(k)Riots and civil commotions.

(l)Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea.

(m)Wastage in bulk or weight or any other loss or damage arising from inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods.

(n)Insufficiency of packing.

(o)Insufficiency or inadequacy of marks.

(p)Latent defects not discoverable by due diligence.

(q)Any other cause arising without the actual fault or privity of the carrier, or without the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier, but the burden of proof shall be on the person claiming the benefit of this exception to show that neither the actual fault or privity of the carrier nor the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier contributed to the loss or damage.

3The shipper shall not be responsible for loss or damage sustained by the carrier or the ship arising or resulting from any cause without the act, fault or neglect of the shipper, his agents or his servants.

4Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea or any reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an infringement or breach of these Rules or of the contract of carriage, and the carrier shall not be liable for any loss or damage resulting therefrom.

5(a)Unless the nature and value of such goods have been declared by the shipper before shipment and inserted in the bill of lading, neither the carrier nor the ship shall in any event be or become liable for any loss or damage to or in connection with the goods in an amount exceeding [F1666.67 units of account] per package or unit or [F12 units of account per kilogramme] of gross weight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher.E+W+S+N.I.

(b)The total amount recoverable shall be calculated by reference to the value of such goods at the place and time at which the goods are discharged from the ship in accordance with the contract or should have been so discharged.

The value of the goods shall be fixed according to the commodity exchange price, or, if there be no such price, according to the current market price, or, if there be no commodity exchange price or current market price, by reference to the normal value of goods of the same kind and quality.

(c)Where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, the number of packages or units enumerated in the bill of lading as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed the number of packages or units for the purpose of this paragraph as far as these packages or units are concerned. Except as aforesaid such article of transport shall be considered the package or unit.

[F2(d)The unit of acount mentioned in this Article is the special drawing right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The amounts mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph shall be converted into national currency on the basis of the value of that currency on a date to be determined by the law of the Court seized of the case].

(e)Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in this paragraph if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with intent to cause damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.

(f)The declaration mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, if embodied in the bill of lading, shall be prima facie evidence, but shall not be binding or conclusive on the carrier.

(g)By agreement between the carrier, master or agent of the carrier and the shipper other maximum amounts than those mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph may be fixed, provided that no maximum amount so fixed shall be less than the appropriate maximum mentioned in that sub-paragraph.

(h)Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any event for loss or damage to, or in connection with, goods if the nature or value thereof has been knowingly mis-stated by the shipper in the bill of lading.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F1Words substituted by Merchant Shipping Act 1981 (c. 10, SIF 111), s. 2(2)(3) (which amending Act was repealed (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, s. 314, Sch. 13 para. 45(5)(a)(b)) and those same words substituted (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, ss. 314(1), 316(2), Sch. 12 (with s. 312(1), Sch. 14 para. 1)

F2Art. IV para. 5(d) substituted by Merchant Shipping Act 1981 (c. 10, SIF 111), s. 2(2)(4) (which amending Act was repealed (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, s. 314, Sch. 13 para. 45(5)(c)) and that same Art. IV para. 5(d) substituted (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, ss. 314(1), 316(2), Sch. 12 (with s. 312(1), Sch. 14 para. 1)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C2Art. IV para. 5(d) amended by Merchant Shipping Act (c. 10, SIF 111), s. 2(5)

Art. IV para. 5(d) amended (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, ss. 314(2), 316(2), Sch. 13 para. 45(6) (with s. 312(1), Sch. 14 para. 1)

6Goods of an inflammable, explosive or dangerous nature to the shipment whereof the carrier, master or agent of the carrier has not consented with knowledge of their nature and character, may at any time before discharge be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innoculous by the carrier without compensation and the shipper of such goods shall be liable for all damages and expenses directly or indirectly arising out of or resulting from such shipment. If any such goods shipped with such knowledge and consent shall become a danger to the ship or cargo, they may in like manner be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the carrier without liability on the part of the carrier except to general average, if any.

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