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Section 55

SCHEDULE 25U.K.Public participation in proceedings conducted by video or audio

This schedule has no associated Explanatory Notes

Criminal, civil and family proceedingsE+W

1E+WThe Courts Act 2003 has effect as if after section 85 there were inserted—

Use of live video or audio links: public participation & offences of recording etcE+W

85AEnabling the public to see and hear proceedings

(1)If the court directs that proceedings are to be conducted wholly as video proceedings, the court—

(a)may direct that the proceedings are to be broadcast (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling members of the public to see and hear the proceedings;

(b)may direct that a recording of the proceedings is to be made (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling the court to keep an audio-visual record of the proceedings.

(2)If the court directs that proceedings are to be conducted wholly as audio proceedings, the court—

(a)may direct that the proceedings are to be broadcast (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling members of the public to hear the proceedings;

(b)may direct that a recording of the proceedings is to be made (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling the court to keep an audio record of the proceedings.

(3)A direction under this section may relate to the whole, or to part, of the proceedings concerned.

85BOffences of recording or transmission in relation to broadcasting

(1)It is an offence for a person to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image or sound which is being broadcast in accordance with a direction under section 85A.

(2)It is an offence for a person to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image of, or sound made by, another person while the other person is viewing or listening to a broadcast made in accordance with a direction under section 85A.

(3)It is a defence for a person charged with an offence under subsection (1) or (2) to prove that, at the time of the actual or attempted recording or transmission of the image or sound concerned—

(a)he or she was not in designated live-streaming premises, and

(b)he or she did not know, and could not reasonably have known, that the image or sound was—

(i)being broadcast in accordance with a direction under section 85A (in the case of an offence under subsection (1)), or

(ii)an image of, or sound made by, another person while viewing or listening to a broadcast made in accordance with a direction under section 85A (in the case of an offence under subsection (2)).

(4)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(5)For the purposes of this section it does not matter whether a person making, or attempting to make, a recording or transmission intends the recording or transmission, or anything comprised in it, to be seen or heard by any other person.

(6)For the purposes of this section a recording or transmission is “unauthorised” unless it is—

(a)authorised by a direction under section 85A,

(b)otherwise authorised (generally or specifically) by the court in which the proceedings concerned are being conducted, or

(c)authorised (generally or specifically) by the Lord Chancellor.

85COffences of recording or transmitting participation through live link

(1)It is an offence for a person to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image or sound which is being transmitted through a live video link or transmitted through a live audio link.

(2)It is an offence for a person (P) to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image of, or sound made by, any person (whether P or another person) while that person is participating in court proceedings through a live video link or a live audio link.

(3)It is a defence for a person charged with an offence under subsection (1) or (2) to prove that, at the time of the actual or attempted recording or transmission, he or she did not know, and could not reasonably have known, that the image or sound concerned—

(a)was being transmitted through a live video link or through a live audio link (in the case of an offence under subsection (1)), or

(b)was an image of, or sound made by, a person while that person was participating in court proceedings through a live video link or a live audio link (in the case of an offence under subsection (2)).

(4)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(5)For the purposes of this section it does not matter whether a person making, or attempting to make, a recording or transmission intends the recording or transmission, or anything comprised in it, to be seen or heard by any other person.

(6)For the purposes of this section a recording or transmission is “unauthorised” unless it is—

(a)authorised (generally or specifically) by the court in which the proceedings concerned are being conducted, or

(b)authorised (generally or specifically) by the Lord Chancellor.

85DInterpretation

(1)This section applies for the purposes of sections 85A to 85C (and this section).

(2)The following expressions have the meanings given—

  • court” means—

    (a)

    the Court of Appeal;

    (b)

    the High Court;

    (c)

    the Crown Court;

    (d)

    the county court;

    (e)

    the family court;

    (f)

    a magistrates' court;

  • court proceedings” means any proceedings in any court;

  • designated live-streaming premises” means premises that are designated by the Lord Chancellor for the purposes of this section as premises provided by the Lord Chancellor for the purpose of enabling members of the public to see and hear, or hear, proceedings that are broadcast in accordance with directions under section 85A;

  • recording” means a recording on any medium—

    (a)

    of a single image, a moving image or any sound, or

    (b)

    from which a single image, a moving image or any sound may be produced or reproduced;

  • transmission” means any transmission by electronic means of a single image, a moving image or any sound (and “transmitted” is to be construed accordingly).

(3)A “live video link”, in relation to a person (P) taking part in proceedings, is a live television link or other arrangement which—

(a)enables P to see and hear all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P, and

(b)enables all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P to see and hear P.

(4)Proceedings are conducted wholly as video proceedings if—

(a)directions have been given, whether under section 51 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 or any other power, for all of the persons taking part in the proceedings to do so through a live video link, and

(b)all of those persons take part in the proceedings in accordance with those directions.

(5)A “live audio link”, in relation to a person (P) taking part in proceedings, is a live telephone link or other arrangement which—

(a)enables P to hear all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P, and

(b)enables all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P to hear P.

(6)Proceedings are conducted wholly as audio proceedings if—

(a)directions have been given under section 51 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 for all of the persons taking part in the proceedings to do so through a live audio link, and

(b)all of those persons take part in the proceedings in accordance with those directions.

(7)An image or sound is transmitted—

(a)through a live video link if it is transmitted as part of a person's participation in court proceedings through a live video link;

(b)through a live audio link if it is transmitted as part of a person's participation in court proceedings through a live audio link.

First-tier Tribunal and Upper TribunalU.K.

2U.K.The Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007 has effect as if after section 29 there were inserted—

Use of live video or audio links: public participation & offences of recording etcU.K.

29ZAEnabling the public to see and hear proceedings

(1)If the First-tier Tribunal or Upper Tribunal directs that tribunal proceedings are to be conducted wholly as video proceedings, that Tribunal—

(a)may direct that the proceedings are to be broadcast (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling members of the public to see and hear the proceedings;

(b)may direct that a recording of the proceedings is to be made (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling that Tribunal to keep an audio-visual record of the proceedings.

(2)If the First-tier Tribunal or Upper Tribunal directs that tribunal proceedings are to be conducted wholly as audio proceedings, that Tribunal—

(a)may direct that the proceedings are to be broadcast (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling members of the public to hear the proceedings;

(b)may direct that a recording of the proceedings is to be made (in the manner specified in the direction) for the purpose of enabling that Tribunal to keep an audio record of the proceedings.

(3)A direction under this section may relate to the whole, or to part, of the proceedings concerned.

29ZBOffences of recording or transmission in relation to broadcasting

(1)It is an offence for a person to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image or sound which is being broadcast in accordance with a direction under section 29ZA.

(2)It is an offence for a person to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image of, or sound made by, another person while the other person is viewing or listening to a broadcast made in accordance with a direction under section 29ZA.

(3)It is a defence for a person charged with an offence under subsection (1) or (2) to prove that, at the time of the actual or attempted recording or transmission of the image or sound concerned—

(a)he or she was not in designated live-streaming premises, and

(b)he or she did not know, and could not reasonably have known, that the image or sound was—

(i)being broadcast in accordance with a direction under section 29ZA (in the case of an offence under subsection (1)), or

(ii)an image of, or sound made by, another person while the other person was viewing or listening to a broadcast made in accordance with a direction under section 29ZA (in the case of an offence under subsection (2)).

(4)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(5)For the purposes of this section it does not matter whether a person making, or attempting to make, a recording or transmission intends the recording or transmission, or anything comprised in it, to be seen or heard by any other person.

(6)For the purposes of this section a recording or transmission is “unauthorised” unless it is—

(a)authorised by a direction under section 29ZA,

(b)otherwise authorised (generally or specifically) by the Tribunal in which the proceedings concerned are being conducted, or

(c)authorised (generally or specifically) by the Lord Chancellor.

29ZCOffences of recording or transmitting participation through live link

(1)It is an offence for a person to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image or sound which is being transmitted through a live video link or transmitted through a live audio link.

(2)It is an offence for a person (P) to make, or attempt to make—

(a)an unauthorised recording, or

(b)an unauthorised transmission,

of an image of, or sound made by, any person (whether P or another person) while that person is participating in tribunal proceedings through a live video link or a live audio link.

(3)It is a defence for a person charged with an offence under subsection (1) or (2) to prove that, at the time of the actual or attempted recording or transmission, he or she did not know, and could not reasonably have known, that the image or sound concerned—

(a)was being transmitted through a live video link or through a live audio link (in the case of an offence under subsection (1)), or

(b)was an image of, or sound made by, a person while that person was participating in tribunal proceedings through a live video link or a live audio link (in the case of an offence under subsection (2)).

(4)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(5)For the purposes of this section it does not matter whether a person making, or attempting to make, a recording or transmission intends the recording or transmission, or anything comprised in it, to be seen or heard by any other person.

(6)For the purposes of this section a recording or transmission is “unauthorised” unless it is—

(a)authorised (generally or specifically) by the Tribunal in which the proceedings concerned are being conducted, or

(b)authorised (generally or specifically) by the Lord Chancellor.

29ZDInterpretation

(1)This section applies for the purposes of sections 29ZA to 29ZC (and this section).

(2)The following expressions have the meanings given—

  • tribunal proceedings” means any proceedings in the First-tier Tribunal or Upper Tribunal;

  • designated live-streaming premises” means premises that are designated by the Lord Chancellor for the purposes of this section as premises provided by the Lord Chancellor for the purpose of enabling members of the public to see and hear, or hear, proceedings that are broadcast in accordance with directions under section 29ZA;

  • recording” means a recording on any medium—

    (a)

    of a single image, a moving image or any sound, or

    (b)

    from which a single image, a moving image or any sound may be produced or reproduced;

  • transmission” means any transmission by electronic means of a single image, a moving image or any sound (and “transmitted” is to be construed accordingly).

(3)A “live video link”, in relation to a person (P) taking part in proceedings, is a live television link or other arrangement which—

(a)enables P to see and hear all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P, and

(b)enables all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P to see and hear P.

(4)Proceedings are conducted wholly as video proceedings if—

(a)directions have been given for all of the persons taking part in the proceedings to do so through a live video link, and

(b)all of those persons take part in the proceedings in accordance with those directions.

(5)A “live audio link”, in relation to a person (P) taking part in proceedings, is a live telephone link or other arrangement which—

(a)enables P to hear all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P, and

(b)enables all other persons taking part in the proceedings who are not in the same location as P to hear P.

(6)Proceedings are conducted wholly as audio proceedings if—

(a)directions have been given for all of the persons taking part in the proceedings to do so through a live audio link, and

(b)all of those persons take part in the proceedings in accordance with those directions.

(7)An image or sound is transmitted—

(a)through a live video link if it is transmitted as part of a person's participation in tribunal proceedings through a live video link;

(b)through a live audio link if it is transmitted as part of a person's participation in tribunal proceedings through a live audio link.

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