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FOURTH GROUP OF PARTSU.K.Further powers relating to sentencing

PART 11U.K.Behaviour orders

CHAPTER 1E+WCriminal behaviour orders

330Criminal behaviour orderE+W

In this Code “criminal behaviour order” means an order which, for the purpose of preventing an offender from engaging in behaviour that is likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to any person—

(a)prohibits the offender from doing anything described in the order;

(b)requires the offender to do anything described in the order.

Commencement Information

I1S. 330 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

331Power to make criminal behaviour orderE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person is convicted of an offence, and

(b)the prosecution makes an application to the court for a criminal behaviour order to be made against the offender.

(2)The court may make a criminal behaviour order against the offender if it—

(a)is satisfied that the offender has engaged in behaviour that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to any person, and

(b)considers that making the order will help in preventing the offender from engaging in such behaviour.

(3)But the court may make a criminal behaviour order only if it—

(a)does so in addition to dealing with the offender for the offence, and

(b)does not make an order for absolute discharge under section 79 in respect of the offence.

(4)Prohibitions and requirements in a criminal behaviour order must, so far as practicable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any interference with the times, if any, at which the offender normally works or attends school or any other educational establishment, and

(b)any conflict with the requirements of any other court order to which the offender may be subject.

(5)The prosecution must find out the views of the local youth offending team before applying for a criminal behaviour order to be made if the offender will be under the age of 18 when the application is made.

(6)In this section “local youth offending team” means the youth offending team in whose area it appears to the prosecution that the offender resides.

Commencement Information

I2S. 331 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

332Proceedings on an application for an orderE+W

(1)For the purpose of deciding whether to make a criminal behaviour order the court may consider evidence led by the prosecution and evidence led by the offender.

(2)It does not matter whether the evidence would have been admissible in the proceedings in which the offender was convicted.

(3)The court may adjourn any proceedings on an application for a criminal behaviour order even after sentencing the offender.

(4)If the offender does not appear for any adjourned proceedings the court may—

(a)further adjourn the proceedings,

(b)issue a warrant for the offender's arrest, or

(c)hear the proceedings in the offender's absence.

(5)The court may not act under paragraph (b) of subsection (4) unless it is satisfied that the offender has had adequate notice of the time and place of the adjourned proceedings.

(6)The court may not act under paragraph (c) of subsection (4) unless it is satisfied that the offender—

(a)has had adequate notice of the time and place of the adjourned proceedings, and

(b)has been informed that if the offender does not appear for those proceedings the court may hear the proceedings in the offender's absence.

(7)Subsection (8) applies in relation to proceedings in which a criminal behaviour order is made against an offender who is under the age of 18.

(8)In so far as the proceedings relate to the making of the order—

(a)section 49 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (restrictions on reports of proceedings in which children and young persons are concerned) does not apply in respect of the offender;

(b)section 39 of that Act (power to prohibit publication of certain matters) does so apply.

Commencement Information

I3S. 332 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

333Requirements included in ordersE+W

(1)A criminal behaviour order that includes a requirement must specify the person who is to be responsible for supervising compliance with the requirement.

The person may be an individual or an organisation.

(2)Before including a requirement, the court must receive evidence about its suitability and enforceability from—

(a)the individual to be specified under subsection (1), if an individual is to be specified;

(b)an individual representing the organisation to be specified under subsection (1), if an organisation is to be specified.

(3)Before including two or more requirements, the court must consider their compatibility with each other.

(4)A person specified under subsection (1) must—

(a)make any necessary arrangements in connection with the requirements for which the person has responsibility (the “relevant requirements”);

(b)promote the offender's compliance with the relevant requirements;

(c)if the person considers that the offender—

(i)has complied with all the relevant requirements, or

(ii)has failed to comply with a relevant requirement,

inform the prosecution and the appropriate chief officer of police.

(5)In subsection (4)(c) “the appropriate chief officer of police” means the chief officer of police for the police area in which it appears to the person specified under subsection (1) that the offender resides.

(6)An offender subject to a requirement in a criminal behaviour order must—

(a)keep in touch with the person specified under subsection (1) in relation to that requirement, in accordance with any instructions given by that person from time to time;

(b)notify the person of any change of address.

These obligations have effect as requirements of the order.

Commencement Information

I4S. 333 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

334Duration of order etcE+W

(1)A criminal behaviour order takes effect on the day it is made, subject to subsection (2).

(2)If on the day a criminal behaviour order (“the new order”) is made the offender is subject to another criminal behaviour order (“the previous order”), the new order may be made so as to take effect on the day on which the previous order ceases to have effect.

(3)A criminal behaviour order must specify the period (“the order period”) for which it has effect.

(4)In the case of a criminal behaviour order made before the offender has reached the age of 18, the order period must be a fixed period of—

(a)not less than 1 year, and

(b)not more than 3 years.

(5)In the case of a criminal behaviour order made after the offender has reached the age of 18, the order period must be—

(a)a fixed period of not less than 2 years, or

(b)an indefinite period (so that the order has effect until further order).

(6)A criminal behaviour order may specify periods for which particular prohibitions or requirements have effect.

Commencement Information

I5S. 334 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

335Interim orderE+W

(1)This section applies where a court adjourns the hearing of an application for a criminal behaviour order.

(2)The court may make a criminal behaviour order that lasts until the final hearing of the application or until further order (“an interim order”) if the court thinks it just to do so.

(3)Section 331(1)(b), (3) and (5) and section 334(3) to (5) do not apply in relation to the making of an interim order.

(4)Subject to that, the court has the same powers whether or not the criminal behaviour order is an interim order.

Commencement Information

I6S. 335 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

336Variation or discharge of orderE+W

(1)A criminal behaviour order may be varied or discharged by the court which made it on the application of—

(a)the offender, or

(b)the prosecution.

(2)If an application by the offender under this section is dismissed, the offender may make no further application under this section without—

(a)the consent of the court which made the order, or

(b)the agreement of the prosecution.

(3)If an application by the prosecution under this section is dismissed, the prosecution may make no further application under this section without—

(a)the consent of the court which made the order, or

(b)the agreement of the offender.

(4)The power to vary an order includes power—

(a)to include an additional prohibition or requirement in the order, or

(b)to extend the period for which a prohibition or requirement has effect.

(5)Section 333 applies to additional requirements included under subsection (4) as it applies to requirements included in a new order.

(6)In the case of a criminal behaviour order made by a magistrates' court, the references in this section to the court which made the order include a reference to any magistrates' court acting in the same local justice area as that court.

Commencement Information

I7S. 336 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

337Review of orders: offenders aged under 18E+W

(1)If—

(a)an offender subject to a criminal behaviour order will be under the age of 18 at the end of a review period (see subsection (2)),

(b)the term of the order runs until the end of that period or beyond, and

(c)the order is not discharged before the end of that period,

a review of the operation of the order must be carried out before the end of that period.

(2)The “review periods” are—

(a)the period of 12 months beginning with—

(i)the day on which the criminal behaviour order takes effect, or

(ii)if during that period the order is varied under section 336, the day on which it is varied (or most recently varied, if the order is varied more than once);

(b)a period of 12 months beginning with—

(i)the day after the end of the previous review period, or

(ii)if during that period of 12 months the order is varied under section 336, the day on which it is varied (or most recently varied, if the order is varied more than once).

(3)A review under this section must include consideration of—

(a)the extent to which the offender has complied with the order;

(b)the adequacy of any support available to the offender to help the offender comply with it;

(c)any matters relevant to the question whether an application should be made for the order to be varied or discharged.

(4)Those carrying out or participating in a review under this section must have regard to any relevant guidance issued by the Secretary of State under section 341 when considering—

(a)how the review should be carried out;

(b)what particular matters the review should deal with;

(c)what action (if any) it would be appropriate to take as a result of the findings of the review.

Commencement Information

I8S. 337 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

338Carrying out and participating in reviewsE+W

(1)A review under section 337 is to be carried out by the chief officer of police of the police force maintained for the police area in which the offender resides or appears to be residing.

(2)The chief officer, in carrying out a review under section 337, must act in co-operation with the council for the local government area in which the offender resides or appears to be residing; and the council must co-operate in the carrying out of the review.

(3)The chief officer may invite the participation in the review of any other person or body.

(4)In this section “local government area” means—

(a)in relation to England, a district or London borough, the City of London, the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly;

(b)in relation to Wales, a county or a county borough.

For the purposes of this section, the council for the Inner and Middle Temples is the Common Council of the City of London.

Commencement Information

I9S. 338 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

339Breach of orderE+W

(1)It is an offence for a person without reasonable excuse—

(a)to do anything he or she is prohibited from doing by a criminal behaviour order, or

(b)to fail to do anything he or she is required to do by a criminal behaviour order.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months, or a fine, or both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years, or a fine, or both.

(3)If a person is convicted of an offence under this section, an order for conditional discharge under section 80 is not available to the court by or before which the person is convicted.

(4)In proceedings for an offence under this section, a copy of the original criminal behaviour order, certified by the proper officer of the court which made it, is admissible as evidence of its having been made and of its contents to the same extent that oral evidence of those things is admissible in those proceedings.

(5)In relation to any proceedings for an offence under this section that are brought against a person under the age of 18—

(a)section 49 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (restrictions on reports of proceedings in which children and young persons are concerned) does not apply in respect of the person;

(b)section 45 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (power to restrict reporting of criminal proceedings involving persons under 18) does so apply.

(6)If, in relation to any proceedings mentioned in subsection (5), the court does exercise its power to give a direction under section 45 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, it must give its reasons for doing so.

Commencement Information

I10S. 339 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

340Special measures for witnessesE+W

(1)Chapter 1 of Part 2 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (special measures directions in the case of vulnerable and intimidated witnesses) applies to criminal behaviour order proceedings as it applies to criminal proceedings, but with—

(a)the omission of the provisions of that Act mentioned in subsection (2) (which make provision appropriate only in the context of criminal proceedings), and

(b)any other necessary modifications.

(2)The provisions are—

(a)section 17(4) to (7);

(b)section 21(4C)(e);

(c)section 22A;

(d)section 27(10);

(e)section 32.

(3)Rules of court made under or for the purposes of Chapter 1 of Part 2 of that Act apply to criminal behaviour order proceedings—

(a)to the extent provided by rules of court, and

(b)subject to any modifications provided by rules of court.

(4)Section 47 of that Act (restrictions on reporting special measures directions etc) applies with any necessary modifications—

(a)to a direction under section 19 of that Act as applied by this section;

(b)to a direction discharging or varying such a direction.

Sections 49 and 51 of that Act (offences) apply accordingly.

(5)In this section “criminal behaviour order proceedings” means proceedings in a magistrates' court or the Crown Court so far as relating to the issue whether to make a criminal behaviour order.

Commencement Information

I11S. 340 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

341GuidanceE+W

(1)The Secretary of State may issue guidance to—

(a)chief officers of police, and

(b)the councils mentioned in section 338(2),

about the exercise of their functions under this Chapter.

(2)The Secretary of State may revise any guidance issued under this section.

(3)The Secretary of State must arrange for any guidance issued or revised under this section to be published.

Commencement Information

I12S. 341 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

342Offender aged under 18: parenting order where criminal behaviour order madeE+W

See section 8(1)(b) of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 for requirements and powers of a court to make a parenting order under that Act in a case where it makes a criminal behaviour order against an offender aged under 18.

Commencement Information

I13S. 342 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

[F1CHAPTER 1AU.K.Serious violence reduction orders

Textual Amendments

342APower to make serious violence reduction orderU.K.

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person aged 18 or over (“the offender”) is convicted of an offence which was committed on or after the first appointed day, and

(b)the prosecution makes an application to the court for a serious violence reduction order to be made in respect of the offender.

(2)Subject to subsection (6), the court may make a serious violence reduction order in respect of the offender if—

(a)the condition in subsection (3) or (4) is met, and

(b)the condition in subsection (5) is met.

(3)The condition in this subsection is that the court is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that—

(a)a bladed article or offensive weapon was used by the offender in the commission of the offence, or

(b)the offender had a bladed article or offensive weapon with them when the offence was committed.

(4)The condition in this subsection is that the court is satisfied on the balance of probabilities that—

(a)a bladed article or offensive weapon was used by another person in the commission of the offence and the offender knew or ought to have known that this would be the case, or

(b)another person who committed the offence had a bladed article or offensive weapon with them when the offence was committed and the offender knew or ought to have known that this would be the case.

(5)The condition in this subsection is that the court considers it necessary to make a serious violence reduction order in respect of the offender to—

(a)protect the public in England and Wales from the risk of harm involving a bladed article or offensive weapon,

(b)protect any particular members of the public in England and Wales (including the offender) from such risk, or

(c)prevent the offender from committing an offence involving a bladed article or offensive weapon.

(6)The court may make a serious violence reduction order in respect of the offender only if it—

(a)does so in addition to dealing with the offender for the offence, and

(b)does not make an order for absolute discharge under section 79 in respect of the offence.

(7)For the purpose of deciding whether to make a serious violence reduction order the court may consider evidence led by the prosecution and evidence led by the offender.

(8)It does not matter whether the evidence would have been admissible in the proceedings in which the offender was convicted.

(9)The court may adjourn any proceedings on an application for a serious violence reduction order even after sentencing the offender.

(10)If the offender does not appear for any adjourned proceedings the court may—

(a)further adjourn the proceedings,

(b)issue a warrant for the offender’s arrest, or

(c)hear the proceedings in the offender’s absence.

(11)The court may not act under subsection (10)(b) unless it is satisfied that the offender has had adequate notice of the time and place of the adjourned proceedings.

(12)The court may not act under subsection (10)(c) unless it is satisfied that the offender—

(a)has had adequate notice of the time and place of the adjourned proceedings, and

(b)has been informed that if the offender does not appear for those proceedings the court may hear the proceedings in the offender’s absence.

(13)On making a serious violence reduction order the court must in ordinary language explain to the offender—

(a)the effects of the order, and

(b)the powers that a constable has in respect of the offender under section 342E while the order is in effect.

(14)In subsection (1)(a) “the first appointed day” means the first day appointed by regulations under section 208(1) of the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 for the coming into force to any extent of section 165 of that Act.

(15)In subsection (4) the references to the offence include references to any offence arising out of the same facts as the offence.

342BMeaning of “serious violence reduction order”U.K.

(1)In this Chapter, “serious violence reduction order” means an order made in respect of an offender that imposes on the offender—

(a)the requirements specified in subsections (2) and (4), and

(b)the requirements and prohibitions, if any, specified in regulations made by the Secretary of State for the purposes of this section.

(2)The offender must be required to notify the information in subsection (3) to the police within the period of 3 days beginning with the day on which the order takes effect.

(3)That information is—

(a)the offender’s name on the day that the notification is given and, where the offender uses one or more other names on that day, each of those names,

(b)the offender’s home address on that day, and

(c)the address of any other premises at which, on that day, the offender regularly resides or stays.

(4)The offender must be required to notify the information mentioned in subsection (5) to the police within the period of 3 days beginning with the day on which the offender—

(a)uses a name which has not been previously notified to the police in accordance with the order,

(b)changes their home address, or

(c)decides to live for a period of one month or more at any premises the address of which has not been previously notified to the police in accordance with the order.

(5)That information is—

(a)in a case within subsection (4)(a), the name which has not previously been notified,

(b)in a case within subsection (4)(b), the new home address, and

(c)in a case within subsection (4)(c), the address of the premises at which the offender has decided to live.

(6)A serious violence reduction order must provide that the offender gives a notification of the kind mentioned in subsection (2) or (4) by—

(a)attending at a police station in a police area in which the offender lives, and

(b)giving an oral notification to a police officer, or to any person authorised for the purpose by the officer in charge of the station.

(7)The Secretary of State may make regulations under subsection (1)(b) only if—

(a)the Secretary of State has laid a report before Parliament under section 166(3) of the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 (report to be laid after piloting of serious violence reduction orders), and

(b)the Secretary of State considers that it is appropriate to make the regulations for the purpose of assisting constables to exercise the powers conferred by section 342E.

(8)Regulations under subsection (1)(b) are subject to the affirmative resolution procedure.

(9)In this section, “home address”, in relation to the offender, means—

(a)the address of the offender’s sole or main residence, or

(b)if the offender has no such residence, the address or location of a place where the offender can regularly be found and, if there is more than one such place, such one of those places as the offender may select.

342CSerious violence reduction orders: additional requirements etcU.K.

(1)A serious violence reduction order may impose on the offender any requirement or prohibition specified in regulations made by the Secretary of State for the purposes of this section if the condition in subsection (2) is met.

(2)The condition in this subsection is that the court considers it appropriate for the order to impose the requirement or prohibition on the offender for the purpose of assisting constables to exercise the powers conferred by section 342E in respect of the offender.

(3)Regulations under this section may be made only after the Secretary of State has laid a report before Parliament under section 166(3) of the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 (report to be laid after piloting of serious violence reduction orders).

(4)Regulations under this section are subject to the affirmative resolution procedure.

342DDuration of serious violence reduction ordersU.K.

(1)A serious violence reduction order takes effect on the day it is made, subject to subsections (3) and (4).

(2)A serious violence reduction order must specify the period for which it has effect, which must be a fixed period of not less than 6 months and not more than 2 years.

(3)Subsection (4) applies in relation to a serious violence reduction order if—

(a)the offender has been remanded in or committed to custody by an order of a court, or

(b)a custodial sentence has been imposed on the offender or the offender is serving or otherwise subject to a such a sentence.

(4)The order may provide that it does not take effect until the offender is released from custody or ceases to be subject to a custodial sentence.

(5)Where a court makes a serious violence reduction order and the offender is already subject to such an order, the earlier order ceases to have effect.

342ESerious violence reduction orders: powers of constablesU.K.

(1)This section applies where a serious violence reduction order is in effect.

(2)A constable may search the offender for the purpose of ascertaining whether the offender has a bladed article or an offensive weapon with them.

(3)A constable may detain the offender for the purpose of carrying out the search.

(4)A constable may seize anything that the constable finds in the course of the search if the constable reasonably suspects it to be a bladed article or an offensive weapon.

(5)The powers in this section may be exercised only while the offender is in a public place.

(6)A constable may use reasonable force, if necessary, for the purpose of exercising a power conferred by this section.

(7)The powers conferred on a constable by this section are additional to powers which the constable has at common law or by virtue of any other enactment and does not affect those powers.

342FRetention and disposal of things seized under section 342EU.K.

(1)Any thing seized by a constable under section 342E may be retained in accordance with regulations made by the Secretary of State under this section.

(2)The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision—

(a)regulating the retention and safekeeping of things seized by a constable under section 342E, and

(b)regulating the disposal and destruction of such things in such circumstances as the regulations may prescribed.

(3)Regulations under this section are subject to the negative resolution procedure.

342GOffences relating to a serious violence reduction orderU.K.

(1)Where a serious violence reduction order is in effect, the offender commits an offence if the offender—

(a)fails without reasonable excuse to do anything the offender is required to do by the order,

(b)without reasonable excuse does anything the offender is prohibited from doing by the order,

(c)notifies to the police, in purported compliance with the order, any information which the offender knows to be false,

(d)tells a constable that they are not subject to a serious violence reduction order, or

(e)intentionally obstructs a constable in the exercise of any power conferred by section 342E.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months, or a fine, or both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years, or a fine, or both.

(3)In relation to an offence committed before the coming into force of paragraph 24(2) of Schedule 22 (maximum sentence that may be imposed on summary conviction of offence triable either way) the reference in subsection (2)(a) to 12 months is to be read as a reference to 6 months.

(4)If a person is convicted of an offence under this section, an order for conditional discharge under section 80 is not available to the court by or before which the person is convicted.

342HVariation, renewal or discharge of serious violence reduction orderU.K.

(1)A person within subsection (2) may apply to the appropriate court for an order varying, renewing or discharging a serious violence reduction order.

(2)Those persons are—

(a)the offender;

(b)the chief officer of police for the police area in which the offender lives;

(c)the chief officer of police for the police area in which the offender committed the offence on the basis of which the order was made;

(d)a chief officer of police who believes that the offender is in, or is intending to come to, the chief officer’s police area;

(e)where the offence on the basis of which the order was made is an offence to which this paragraph applies, the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force.

(3)Paragraph (e) of subsection (2) applies to an offence which—

(a)was committed at, or in relation to, a place within section 31(1)(a) to (f) of the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (jurisdiction of British Transport Police Force), or

(b)otherwise related to a railway within the meaning given by section 67 of the Transport and Works Act 1992 or a tramway within the meaning given by that section.

(4)An application under this section must be made in accordance with rules of court.

(5)Before making a decision on an application under this section, the court must hear—

(a)the person making the application, and

(b)any other person within subsection (2) who wishes to be heard.

(6)Subject to subsection (7), on an application under this section the court may make such order varying, renewing or discharging the serious violence reduction order as it thinks appropriate.

(7)The court may renew a serious violence reduction order, or vary such an order so as to lengthen its duration, only if it considers that to do so is necessary—

(a)to protect the public in England and Wales from the risk of harm involving a bladed article or offensive weapon,

(b)to protect any particular members of the public in England and Wales (including the offender) from such risk, or

(c)to prevent the offender from committing an offence involving a bladed article or offensive weapon.

(8)On making an order under this section varying or renewing a serious violence reduction order, the court must in ordinary language explain to the offender—

(a)the effects of the serious violence reduction order (as varied or renewed), and

(b)the powers that a constable has in respect of the offender under section 342E while the serious violence reduction order is in effect.

(9)In this section the “appropriate court” means—

(a)where the Crown Court or the Court of Appeal made the serious violence reduction order, the Crown Court;

(b)where a magistrates’ court made the serious violence reduction order and the application is made by the offender or the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force—

(i)that magistrates’ court, or

(ii)a magistrates’ court for the area in which the offender lives;

(c)where a magistrates’ court made the serious violence reduction order and the application is made by a chief officer of police—

(i)that magistrates’ court,

(ii)a magistrates’ court for the area in which the offender lives, or

(iii)a magistrates’ court acting for a local justice area that includes any part of the chief officer’s police area.

342IAppeal against serious violence reduction order etcU.K.

(1)An appeal against the making of a serious violence reduction order may be brought by the offender as if the order were a sentence passed on the offender for an offence.

(2)Where an application is made under section 342H for an order varying, renewing or discharging a serious violence reduction order—

(a)the person who made the application may appeal against a refusal to make an order under that section;

(b)the offender may appeal against the making of an order under that section which was made on the application of a chief officer of police or the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force;

(c)a chief officer of police within subsection (2) of that section may appeal against the making of an order under that section which was made on the application of the offender;

(d)where the offence on the basis of which the serious violence reduction order was made is an offence to which this paragraph applies, the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force may appeal against the making of an order under that section which was made on the application of the offender.

(3)Paragraph (d) of subsection (2) applies to an offence which—

(a)was committed at, or in relation to, a place within section 31(1)(a) to (f) of the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (jurisdiction of British Transport Police Force), or

(b)otherwise related to a railway within the meaning given by section 67 of the Transport and Works Act 1992 or a tramway within the meaning given by that section.

(4)An appeal under subsection (2)—

(a)is to be made to the Court of Appeal if the application under section 342H was made to the Crown Court;

(b)is to be made to the Crown Court in any other case.

(5)On an appeal under subsection (2) to the Crown Court, the court may make—

(a)such orders as may be necessary to give effect to its determination of the appeal, and

(b)such incidental and consequential orders as appear to it to be appropriate.

342JGuidanceU.K.

(1)The Secretary of State may issue guidance to—

(a)constables,

(b)chief officers of police, and

(c)the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force,

in relation to serious violence reduction orders.

(2)The guidance may in particular include—

(a)guidance about the exercise by constables, chief officers of police and the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force of their functions under this Chapter,

(b)guidance about identifying offenders in respect of whom it may be appropriate for applications for serious violence reduction orders to be made, and

(c)guidance about providing assistance to prosecutors in connection with applications for serious violence reduction orders.

(3)The Secretary of State may revise any guidance issued under this section.

(4)The Secretary of State must arrange for any guidance issued under this section to be published.

(5)A constable, chief officer of police or the chief constable of the British Transport Police Force must have regard to any guidance issued under this section.

342KGuidance: Parliamentary procedureU.K.

(1)Before issuing guidance under section 342J, the Secretary of State must lay a draft of the guidance before Parliament.

(2)If, within the 40-day period, either House of Parliament resolves not to approve the draft guidance, the guidance may not be issued.

(3)If no such resolution is made within that period, the Secretary of State may issue the guidance.

(4)In this section “the 40-day period”, in relation to draft guidance, means the period of 40 days beginning with the day on which the draft is laid before Parliament (or, if it is not laid before each House on the same day, the later of the days on which it is laid).

(5)In calculating the 40-day period, no account is to be taken of any period during which—

(a)Parliament is dissolved or prorogued, or

(b)both Houses are adjourned for more than 4 days.

342LSerious violence reduction orders: interpretationU.K.

In this Chapter—

CHAPTER 2U.K.Sexual harm prevention orders

343Sexual harm prevention orderE+W

[F2(1)In this Code a “sexual harm prevention order” means an order made under this Chapter in respect of an offender.

(1A)A sexual harm prevention order may—

(a)prohibit the offender from doing anything described in the order;

(b)require the offender to do anything described in the order.]

(2)The only prohibitions [F3or requirements] that may be included in a sexual harm prevention order are those necessary for the purpose of—

(a)protecting the public or any particular members of the public from sexual harm from the offender, or

(b)protecting children or vulnerable adults generally, or any particular children or vulnerable adults, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom.

[F4(3)The prohibitions or requirements which are imposed on the offender by a sexual harm prevention order must, so far as practicable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any conflict with the offender’s religious beliefs,

(b)any interference with the times, if any, at which the offender normally works or attends any educational establishment, and

(c)any conflict with any other court order or injunction to which the offender may be subject (but see section 349).]

344Meaning of “sexual harm”E+W

(1)In this Chapter, “sexual harm” from a person means physical or psychological harm caused—

(a)by the person committing one or more offences listed in Schedule 3 to the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (sexual offences for the purposes of Part 2 of that Act), or

(b)(in the context of harm outside the United Kingdom) by the person doing, outside the United Kingdom, anything which would constitute an offence listed in that Schedule if done in any part of the United Kingdom.

(2)Where an offence listed in that Schedule is listed subject to a condition that relates—

(a)to the way in which the offender is dealt with in respect of an offence so listed, or

(b)to the age of any person,

that condition is to be disregarded in determining for the purposes of subsection (1) whether the offence is listed in that Schedule.

Commencement Information

I15S. 344 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

345Sexual harm prevention order: availability on convictionE+W

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence listed in Schedule 3 or 5 to the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (sexual offences, and other offences, for the purposes of Part 2 of that Act), the court dealing with the offender in respect of the offence may make a sexual harm prevention order.

(2)Where an offence listed in Schedule 3 to that Act is listed subject to a condition that relates—

(a)to the way in which the offender is dealt with in respect of an offence so listed, or

(b)to the age of any person,

that condition is to be disregarded in determining for the purposes of subsection (1) whether the offence is listed in that Schedule.

Commencement Information

I16S. 345 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

346Exercise of power to make sexual harm prevention orderE+W

[F5(1)] Where a sexual harm prevention order is available to a court, the court may make such an order only if satisfied that it is necessary to do so for the purpose of—

(a)protecting the public or any particular members of the public from sexual harm from the offender, or

(b)protecting children or vulnerable adults generally, or any particular children or vulnerable adults, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom.

[F6(2)If a list has been published under section 172 of the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 (list of countries where children are at a high risk of sexual abuse or sexual exploitation) and has not been withdrawn, the court must have regard to the list in considering—

(a)whether a sexual harm prevention order is necessary for the purpose of protecting children generally, or any particular children, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom, and

(b)in particular, whether a prohibition on foreign travel (see section 348) is necessary for that purpose.]

347Sexual harm prevention orders: matters to be specifiedE+W

(1)A sexual harm prevention order must specify—

(a)the prohibitions [F7and requirements] included in the order, and

(b)for each prohibition [F8or requirement], the period for which it is to have effect (the [F9“specified period”]).

See section 348 for further matters to be included in the case of a prohibition on travelling to any country outside the United Kingdom.

(2)The [F10specified period] must be—

(a)a fixed period of not less than 5 years, or

(b)an indefinite period (so that the prohibition [F11or requirement] has effect until further order).

This is subject to section 348(1) (prohibition on foreign travel).

(3)A sexual harm prevention order—

(a)may specify fixed periods for some of its prohibitions [F12or requirements] and an indefinite period for others;

(b)may specify different periods for different prohibitions [F12or requirements].

[F13347ASexual harm prevention orders: requirements included in order etc.U.K.

(1)A sexual harm prevention order that imposes a requirement to do something on an offender must specify a person who is to be responsible for supervising compliance with the requirement.

The person may be an individual or an organisation.

(2)Before including such a requirement in a sexual harm prevention order, the court must receive evidence about its suitability and enforceability from—

(a)the individual to be specified under subsection (1), if an individual is to be specified;

(b)an individual representing the organisation to be specified under subsection (1), if an organisation is to be specified.

(3)Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply in relation to electronic monitoring requirements (see instead section 348A(5) and (6)).

(4)It is the duty of a person specified under subsection (1)—

(a)to make any necessary arrangements in connection with the requirements for which the person has responsibility (“the relevant requirements”);

(b)to promote the offender’s compliance with the relevant requirements;

(c)if the person considers that—

(i)the offender has complied with all the relevant requirements, or

(ii)the offender has failed to comply with a relevant requirement,

to inform the appropriate chief officer of police.

(5)In subsection (4)(c) the “appropriate chief officer of police means—

(a)the chief officer of police for the police area in which it appears to the person specified under subsection (1) that the offender lives, or

(b)if it appears to that person that the offender lives in more than one police area, whichever of the chief officers of police of those areas the person thinks it is most appropriate to inform.

(6)An offender subject to a requirement imposed by a sexual harm prevention order must—

(a)keep in touch with the person specified under subsection (1) in relation to that requirement, in accordance with any instructions given by that person from time to time, and

(b)notify that person of any change of the offender’s home address.

These obligations have effect as requirements of the order.

(7)In this section “home address”, in relation to an offender, means—

(a)the address of the offender’s sole or main residence in the United Kingdom, or

(b)where the offender has no such residence, the address or location of a place in the United Kingdom where the offender can regularly be found and, if there is more than one such place, such one of those places as the offender may select.]

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 347A(4)(c) modified (29.11.2022) by 2003 c. 42, s. 137(3)(bb) (as inserted by Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 (c. 32), ss. 179(d), 208(1); S.I. 2022/1227, reg. 3(h))

348Sexual harm prevention orders: prohibitions on foreign travelE+W

(1)A prohibition on foreign travel contained in a sexual harm prevention order must be for a fixed period of not more than 5 years.

(2)Subsection (1) does not prevent a prohibition on foreign travel from being extended for a further period (of no more than 5 years each time) under section 350.

(3)A “prohibition on foreign travel” means—

(a)a prohibition on travelling to any country outside the United Kingdom named or described in the order,

(b)a prohibition on travelling to any country outside the United Kingdom other than a country named or described in the order, or

(c)a prohibition on travelling to any country outside the United Kingdom.

(4)A sexual harm prevention order that contains a prohibition within subsection (3)(c)—

(a)must require the offender to surrender all of the offender's passports at a police station, and

(b)must specify—

(i)the police station at which the passports are to be surrendered, and

(ii)the period within which they must be surrendered (if not surrendered on or before the date when the prohibition takes effect).

(5)Any passports surrendered must be returned as soon as reasonably practicable after the offender ceases to be subject to a sexual harm prevention order containing a prohibition within subsection (3)(c) (unless the offender is subject to an equivalent prohibition under another order).

(6)Subsection (5) does not apply in relation to—

(a)a passport issued by or on behalf of the authorities of a country outside the United Kingdom if the passport has been returned to those authorities;

(b)a passport issued by or on behalf of an international organisation if the passport has been returned to that organisation.

(7)In this section “passport” means—

(a)a United Kingdom passport within the meaning of the Immigration Act 1971;

(b)a passport issued by or on behalf of the authorities of a country outside the United Kingdom, or by or on behalf of an international organisation;

(c)a document that can be used (in some or all circumstances) instead of a passport.

Commencement Information

I19S. 348 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

349Making of sexual harm prevention order: effect on other ordersU.K.

(1)Where a court makes a sexual harm prevention order in relation to an offender who is already subject to—

(a)a sexual harm prevention order, or

(b)an order under section 103A of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (sexual harm prevention orders under that Act),

the earlier order ceases to have effect.

(2)Where a court makes a sexual harm prevention order in relation to an offender who is already subject to—

(a)a sexual offences prevention order under section 104 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003, or

(b)a foreign travel order under section 114 of that Act,

the earlier order ceases to have effect (whichever part of the United Kingdom it was made in) unless the court orders otherwise.

Commencement Information

I20S. 349 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

350Sexual harm prevention orders: variations, renewals and dischargesE+W

(1)Where a sexual harm prevention order has been made in respect of an offender, a person within subsection (2) may apply to the appropriate court for an order varying, renewing or discharging the sexual harm prevention order.

(2)The persons are—

(a)the offender;

(b)the chief officer of police for the area in which the offender resides;

(c)a chief officer of police who believes that the offender is in, or is intending to come to, that officer's police area.

(3)An application under subsection (1) may be made—

(a)where the appropriate court is the Crown Court, in accordance with rules of court;

(b)in any other case, by complaint.

[F14(3A)If a list has been published under section 172 of the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 (list of countries where children are at high risk of sexual abuse or sexual exploitation) and has not been withdrawn, a person mentioned in subsection (2)(b) or (c) must have regard to the list in considering—

(a)whether to apply for an order varying or renewing a sexual harm prevention order for the purpose of protecting children generally, or any particular children, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom, and

(b)in particular, whether to apply for an order imposing, varying or renewing a prohibition on foreign travel for that purpose.]

(4)Subsection (5) applies where an application under subsection (1) is made.

(5)After hearing—

(a)the person making the application, and

(b)if they wish to be heard, the other persons mentioned in subsection (2),

the court may make any order, varying, renewing or discharging the sexual harm prevention order, that it considers appropriate.

This is subject to subsections (6) and (7).

(6)An order may be renewed, or varied so as to impose additional prohibitions [F15or requirements] on the offender, only if it is necessary to do so for the purpose of—

(a)protecting the public or any particular members of the public from sexual harm from the offender, or

(b)protecting children or vulnerable adults generally, or any particular children or vulnerable adults, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom.

Any renewed or varied order may contain only such prohibitions [F16and requirements] as are necessary for this purpose.

[F17(6A)Any additional prohibitions or requirements that are imposed on the offender must, so far as practicable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any conflict with the offender’s religious beliefs,

(b)any interference with the times, if any, at which the offender normally works or attends any educational establishment, and

(c)any conflict with any other court order or injunction to which the offender may be subject.]

[F18(6B)If a list has been published under section 172 of the Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Act 2022 and has not been withdrawn, the court must have regard to the list in considering—

(a)whether an order varying or renewing the sexual harm prevention order is necessary for the purpose of protecting children generally, or any particular children, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom, and

(b)in particular, whether an order imposing, varying or renewing a prohibition on foreign travel is necessary for that purpose.]

(7)The court must not discharge an order before the end of the period of 5 years beginning with the day on which the order was made, without the consent of the offender and—

(a)where the application is made by a chief officer of police, that chief officer, or

(b)in any other case, the chief officer of police for the area in which the offender resides.

(8)Subsection (7) does not apply to an order containing a prohibition on foreign travel and no other prohibitions [F19or requirements].

(9)In this section “the appropriate court” means—

(a)where the Crown Court or the Court of Appeal made the sexual harm prevention order, the Crown Court;

(b)where a magistrates' court made the order and the offender is aged 18 or over—

(i)the court which made the order, if it is an adult magistrates' court,

(ii)a magistrates' court acting in the local justice area in which the offender resides, or

(iii)if the application is made by a chief officer of police, any magistrates' court acting for a local justice area that includes any part of the chief officer's police area;

(c)where a youth court made the order and the offender is aged under 18—

(i)that court,

(ii)a youth court acting in the local justice area in which the offender resides, or

(iii)if the application is made by a chief officer of police, any youth court acting for a local justice area that includes any part of the chief officer's police area.

In this subsection “adult magistrates' court” means a magistrates' court that is not a youth court.

(10)For circumstances in which a sexual harm prevention order ceases to have effect when a court in the United Kingdom makes another order, see the following provisions of the Sexual Offences Act 2003—

(a)section 103C(6) (sexual harm prevention order under that Act);

(b)section 136ZB(2) (certain orders made by a court in Northern Ireland or Scotland).

351Variation of sexual harm prevention order by court in Northern IrelandE+W+N.I.

(1)This section applies where a sexual harm prevention order has been made in respect of an offender who—

(a)is residing in Northern Ireland, or

(b)is in or intends to come to Northern Ireland.

(2)An application may be made to the appropriate court in Northern Ireland—

(a)by the offender, or

(b)by the Chief Constable of the Police Service of Northern Ireland,

for an order varying the sexual harm prevention order.

(3)An application under subsection (2) may be made—

(a)where the appropriate court is the Crown Court, in accordance with rules of court;

(b)in any other case, by complaint.

(4)Subsection (5) applies where an application under subsection (2) is made.

(5)After hearing—

(a)the person making the application, and

(b)the other person mentioned in subsection (2) (if that person wishes to be heard),

the court may make any order varying the sexual harm prevention order that it considers appropriate.

This is subject to subsections (6) and (7).

(6)An order may be varied so as to impose additional prohibitions [F20or requirements] on the offender only if it is necessary to do so for the purpose of—

(a)protecting the public in Northern Ireland, or any particular members of the public in Northern Ireland, from sexual harm from the offender, or

(b)protecting children or vulnerable adults generally, or any particular children or vulnerable adults, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom.

(7)An order as varied under this section may contain only such prohibitions [F21and requirements] as are necessary for the purpose of—

(a)protecting the public or any particular members of the public from sexual harm from the offender, or

(b)protecting children or vulnerable adults generally, or any particular children or vulnerable adults, from sexual harm from the offender outside the United Kingdom.

(8)The offender may appeal against the making of an order under this section, or the refusal to make such an order—

(a)where the application for such an order was made to the Crown Court, to the Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland;

(b)in any other case, to a county court in Northern Ireland.

(9)On an appeal under subsection (8)(b), the county court may make such orders as may be necessary to give effect to its determination of the appeal, and may also make such incidental or consequential orders as appear to it to be just.

(10)In this section—

352Sexual harm prevention orders: notification requirementsE+W

(1)Where—

(a)a sexual harm prevention order is made in respect of an offender who was subject to the notification requirements immediately before the making of the order, and

(b)the offender would (apart from this subsection) cease to be subject to the notification requirements while the order (as renewed from time to time) has effect,

the offender remains subject to the notification requirements.

(2)Where a sexual harm prevention order is made in respect of an offender who was not subject to the notification requirements immediately before the making of the order—

(a)the order causes the offender to become subject to the notification requirements from the making of the order until the order (as renewed from time to time) ceases to have effect, and

(b)Part 2 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (notification and orders) applies to the offender, subject to the modification set out in subsection (3).

(3)References in that Part of that Act to the “relevant date” are references to the date of service of the sexual harm prevention order.

(4)In this section, “the notification requirements” means the notification requirements of Part 2 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003.

Commencement Information

I23S. 352 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

353Sexual harm prevention orders: appealsE+W

(1)An offender may appeal against the making of an order under section 350, or the refusal to make such an order—

(a)where the application for such an order was made to the Crown Court, to the Court of Appeal;

(b)in any other case, to the Crown Court.

(2)On an appeal under subsection (1)(b), the Crown Court may make such orders as may be necessary to give effect to its determination of the appeal, and may also make such incidental or consequential orders as appear to it to be just.

Commencement Information

I24S. 353 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

354Offence: breach of sexual harm prevention orderE+W

[F22(1)A person commits an offence if, without reasonable excuse, the person—

(a)does anything that the person is prohibited from doing by a sexual harm prevention order, or

(b)fails to do something that the person is required to do by a sexual harm prevention order.]

(2)See section 113 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 for offences in Scotland and Northern Ireland of [F23breaching such an order].

F24(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months, or a fine, or both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years, or a fine, or both.

(5)An order for conditional discharge is not available in respect of an offence under this section.

355Parenting order where sexual harm prevention order made in case of offender aged under 18E+W

See section 8(1)(b) of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 for powers of a court to make a parenting order under that Act in a case where it makes a sexual harm prevention order in respect of an offender aged under 18.

Commencement Information

I26S. 355 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

356Sexual harm prevention orders: supplementaryE+W

(1)The Secretary of State must issue guidance to chief officers of police in relation to the exercise by them of their powers with regard to sexual harm prevention orders under this Code.

(2)The Secretary of State may revise the guidance issued under subsection (1).

(3)The Secretary of State must arrange for any guidance issued or revised under subsection (1) or (2) to be published in such manner as the Secretary of State considers appropriate.

(4)Rules of court may, in relation to a person who reaches the age of 18 after proceedings against that person by virtue of section 350, have begun—

(a)prescribe circumstances in which the proceedings may or must remain in the youth court;

(b)make provision for the transfer of the proceedings from the youth court to a magistrates' court that is not a youth court.

Commencement Information

I27S. 356 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

357Disapplication of time limit for complaintsE+W

Section 127 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (time limits) does not apply to a complaint under any provision of this Chapter.

Commencement Information

I28S. 357 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

358Sexual harm prevention orders: interpretationE+W

In this Chapter—

Commencement Information

I29S. 358 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

CHAPTER 3E+WProtection from harassment

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C3Pt. 11 Ch. 3 modified by S.I. 2014/3300, reg.13(2) (as substituted (1.12.2020) by Sentencing Act 2020 (c. 17), s. 416(1), Sch. 24 para. 425 (with Sch. 27); S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2)

359Restraining orderE+W

(1)In this Code “restraining order” means an order made under section 360 against a person which prohibits the person from doing anything described in the order.

(2)A restraining order may have effect—

(a)for a period specified in the order, or

(b)until further order.

Commencement Information

I30S. 359 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

360Restraining order: availabilityE+W

(1)This section applies where a court is dealing with an offender for an offence.

(2)The court may make a restraining order under this section against the offender for the purpose of protecting the victim or victims of the offence, or any other person mentioned in the order, from conduct which—

(a)amounts to harassment, or

(b)will cause a fear of violence.

(3)But the court may make a restraining order under this section only if it does so in addition to dealing with the offender for the offence.

Commencement Information

I31S. 360 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

361Procedure for varying or discharging restraining orderE+W

(1)Where a person is subject to a restraining order—

(a)that person,

(b)the prosecution, or

(c)any other person mentioned in the order,

may apply to the court which made the order for it to be varied or discharged by a further order.

(2)Any person mentioned in the order is entitled to be heard on the hearing of an application under subsection (1).

Commencement Information

I32S. 361 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

362Evidence in proceedings relating to restraining ordersE+W

(1)This section applies to—

(a)proceedings under section 360 for the making of a restraining order;

(b)proceedings under section 361 or 363(6) for the variation or discharge of a restraining order.

(2)In any such proceedings, both the prosecution and the defence may lead, as further evidence, any evidence that would be admissible in proceedings for an injunction under section 3 of the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (civil remedy).

Commencement Information

I33S. 362 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

363Offence of breaching restraining orderE+W

(1)It is an offence for a person who is subject to a restraining order without reasonable excuse to do anything prohibited by the restraining order.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months, or a fine, or both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years, or a fine, or both.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply to conduct of a person on a particular occasion if the Secretary of State certifies that, in the opinion of the Secretary of State, anything done by that person on that occasion related to—

(a)national security,

(b)the economic well-being of the United Kingdom, or

(c)the prevention or detection of serious crime,

and was done on behalf of the Crown.

(4)A certificate under subsection (3) is conclusive evidence that subsection (1) does not apply to conduct of that person on that occasion.

(5)A document purporting to be a certificate under subsection (3) is to be received in evidence and, unless the contrary is proved, to be treated as being such a certificate.

(6)A court dealing with a person for an offence under this section may vary or discharge the restraining order by a further order.

Commencement Information

I34S. 363 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

364Restraining orders: meaning of “conduct” and “harassment”E+W

For the purposes of this Chapter—

Commencement Information

I35S. 364 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

CHAPTER 4E+WParenting orders

What a parenting order isE+W
365Parenting orderE+W

(1)A parenting order under this Chapter is an order which requires the person in respect of whom it is made (“the parent”)—

(a)to comply, for a period of not more than 12 months, with requirements specified in the order, and

(b)to attend, for a concurrent period of not more than 3 months, such counselling or guidance programme as may be specified in directions given by the responsible officer (see section 372).

(2)But a parenting order need not include a requirement under subsection (1)(b) if a parenting order (whether under this Chapter or any other enactment) has been made in respect of the parent on any previous occasion.

(3)If the parenting order provides this in accordance with section 366(7), 368(5) or 369(5), a counselling or guidance programme specified under subsection (1)(b) may be or include a residential course.

Commencement Information

I36S. 365 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

Parenting order for parent or guardian of offender aged under 18E+W
366Parenting order where offender is under 18E+W

(1)A parenting order under this section is available to a court by or before which an offender aged under 18 is convicted of an offence.

This is subject to section 370.

(2)Subsections (3) and (4) apply where a parenting order under this section is available.

(3)If the offender is aged under 16 at the time of conviction, the court must—

(a)make a parenting order under this section in respect of a parent or guardian of the offender if it is satisfied that the order would be desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender, or

(b)state in open court that it is not so satisfied, and why not.

But this does not apply if the court makes a referral order in respect of the offender.

(4)If the offender is aged 16 or 17 at the time of conviction, the court may make a parenting order under this section in respect of a parent or guardian of the offender if it is satisfied that the order would be desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender.

(5)Subsections (6) and (7) apply where a court makes a parenting order under this section in respect of a parent or guardian of an offender.

(6)The requirements that the court may specify in the order under section 365(1)(a) are requirements that it considers desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender.

(7)If the order contains a requirement under section 365(1)(b) and the court is satisfied that—

(a)the attendance of the parent or guardian at a residential course is likely to be more effective than that person's attendance at a non-residential course in preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender, and

(b)any interference with family life which is likely to result from the parent's or guardian's attendance at a residential course is proportionate in all the circumstances,

the court may provide in the order that a counselling or guidance programme which the parent or guardian is required to attend by virtue of the requirement may be or include a residential course.

(8)Before making a parenting order under this section in respect of a parent or guardian of an offender aged under 16, the court must obtain and consider information about—

(a)the offender's family circumstances, and

(b)the likely effect of the order on those circumstances.

(9)Where a parenting order is made under this section, the person in respect of whom it is made has the same right of appeal against it as if—

(a)that person had committed the offence mentioned in subsection (1), and

(b)the order were a sentence passed on that person for the offence.

Commencement Information

I37S. 366 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

367Report where court proposes both parenting order and referral orderE+W

(1)This section applies if a court proposes to make both—

(a)a referral order in respect of an offender, and

(b)a parenting order under section 366 (parenting order on conviction of a person aged under 18) in respect of a parent or guardian of the offender.

(2)Before making the parenting order the court must obtain and consider a report by an appropriate officer—

(a)indicating the requirements which that officer proposes should be included in the parenting order;

(b)indicating the reasons why the officer considers that those requirements would be desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender;

(c)if the offender is aged under 16, containing the information required by section 366(8).

(3)In subsection (2) “an appropriate officer” means—

(a)an officer of a provider of probation services,

(b)a social worker of a local authority, or

(c)a member of a youth offending team.

Commencement Information

I38S. 367 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

368Parenting order where parent or guardian of offender fails to attend meetings of youth offender panelE+W

(1)A parenting order under this section is available to a youth court where—

(a)an offender has been referred to a youth offender panel (see section 83), and

(b)a parent or guardian of the offender is referred by the panel to the youth court under section 93 in respect of a failure to comply with an order under section 90 (order requiring attendance at meetings of panel).

This is subject to section 370.

(2)Where a parenting order under this section is available, the youth court may make such an order if it is satisfied that—

(a)the parent or guardian has failed without reasonable excuse to comply with the order under section 90, and

(b)the parenting order would be desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender.

(3)Subsections (4) and (5) apply where the court makes a parenting order in respect of a parent or guardian of an offender.

(4)The requirements that the court may specify under section 365(1)(a) in an order under this section are requirements that it considers desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender.

(5)If the order contains a requirement under section 365(1)(b) and the court is satisfied that—

(a)the attendance of the parent or guardian at a residential course is likely to be more effective than that person's attendance at a non-residential course in preventing the commission of any further offence by the offender, and

(b)any interference with family life which is likely to result from the parent's or guardian's attendance at a residential course is proportionate in all the circumstances,

the court may provide in the order that a counselling or guidance programme which the parent or guardian is required to attend by virtue of the requirement may be or include a residential course.

(6)Before making a parenting order under this section where the offender is aged under 16, the court must obtain and consider information about—

(a)the offender's family circumstances, and

(b)the likely effect of the order on those circumstances.

(7)Where a parenting order is made under this section, the person in respect of whom it is made may appeal against it to the Crown Court.

(8)On an appeal under subsection (7) the Crown Court—

(a)may make such orders as may be necessary to give effect to its determination of the appeal, and

(b)may also make such incidental or consequential orders as appear to it to be just.

(9)An order of the Crown Court made on an appeal under subsection (7) is to be treated for the purposes of section 374 as having been made by the youth court.

Commencement Information

I39S. 368 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

Parenting order in case of certain offences related to school attendanceE+W
369Parenting order in respect of certain offences under Education Act 1996E+W

(1)A parenting order under this section is available to the court by or before which an offender is convicted of an offence under—

(a)section 443 of the Education Act 1996 (failure to comply with school attendance order), or

(b)section 444 of that Act (failure to secure regular attendance at school of registered pupil).

This is subject to section 370.

(2)Where a parenting order under this section is available, the court may make such an order in respect of the offender if satisfied that the order would be desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence under section 443 or 444 of the Education Act 1996.

(3)Subsections (4) and (5) apply where a court makes a parenting order under this section.

(4)The requirements that the court may specify under section 365(1)(a) are requirements that it considers desirable in the interests of preventing the commission of any further offence under section 443 or 444 of the Education Act 1996.

(5)If the order contains a requirement under section 365(1)(b) and the court is satisfied that—

(a)the attendance of that offender at a residential course is likely to be more effective than the offender's attendance at a non-residential course in preventing the commission of any further offence under section 443 or 444 of the Education Act 1996, and

(b)any interference with family life which is likely to result from that person's attendance at a residential course is proportionate in all the circumstances,

the court may provide in the order that a counselling or guidance programme which the offender is required to attend by virtue of the requirement may be or include a residential course.

(6)Before making a parenting order under this section in a case where the offence related to a person aged under 16, the court must obtain and consider information about—

(a)that person's family circumstances, and

(b)the likely effect of the order on those circumstances.

Commencement Information

I40S. 369 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

Provisions applying generally to parenting orders under CodeE+W
370Parenting order: availabilityE+W

A court may not make a parenting order under this Chapter in respect of a person unless it has been notified by the Secretary of State that arrangements for implementing such orders are available in the area in which it appears to the court that the person resides or will reside (and the notice has not been withdrawn).

Commencement Information

I41S. 370 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

371Parenting order: references where local authority has parental responsibilityE+W

Section 404 (certain references to parent or guardian to be read as references to local authority) does not apply to this Chapter.

Commencement Information

I42S. 371 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

372Making a parenting orderE+W

(1)This section applies where a court makes a parenting order under this Chapter in respect of a person (“the parent”).

(2)Requirements specified in a parenting order under this Chapter must, as far as practicable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any conflict with the parent's religious beliefs, and

(b)any interference with the times, if any, at which the parent normally works or attends an educational establishment.

(3)Before making a parenting order, a court must explain to the parent in ordinary language—

(a)the effect of the order and of the requirements proposed to be included in it;

(b)the consequences which may follow (under section 375) if the parent fails to comply with those requirements, and

(c)that the court has power (under section 374) to review the order on the application either of the parent or of the responsible officer.

(4)The parenting order must specify the responsible officer.

(5)The responsible officer must be—

(a)an officer of a provider of probation services acting in the local justice area in which it appears to the court that the parent resides or will reside,

(b)a social worker of the local authority in whose area it appears to the court that the parent resides or will reside,

(c)a person nominated by—

(i)a person appointed as director of children's services under section 18 of the Children Act 2004, or

(ii)a person appointed as chief education officer under section 532 of the Education Act 1996, or

(d)a member of a youth offending team established by the local authority in whose area it appears to the court that the parent resides or will reside.

(6)For the purposes of this Chapter, the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple form part of the City of London.

Commencement Information

I43S. 372 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

373Directions by the responsible officerE+W

Directions given by a responsible officer under a parenting order under this Code must, as far as practicable, be such as to avoid—

(a)any conflict with the parent's religious beliefs, and

(b)any interference with the times, if any, at which the parent normally works or attends an educational establishment.

For this purpose, “parent” means the person in respect of whom the parenting order is made.

Commencement Information

I44S. 373 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

374Discharge and variation of parenting orderE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a parenting order made under this Chapter is in force, and

(b)an application is made under this section by—

(i)the responsible officer, or

(ii)the person in respect of whom it is made

to the court which made the order.

(2)The court may make an order—

(a)discharging the parenting order, or

(b)varying the parenting order—

(i)by cancelling any provision included in it, or

(ii)by inserting in it (either in addition to or in substitution for any of its provisions) any provision that the court could include, if it were now making the order.

(3)Where an application under this section for the discharge of a parenting order is dismissed, no-one may make a further application under this section for its discharge except with the consent of the court which made the order.

Commencement Information

I45S. 374 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

375Offence of failure to comply with a requirement of a parenting orderE+W

(1)It is an offence for a person in respect of whom a parenting order made under this Chapter is in force to fail to comply with any requirement—

(a)included in the order, or

(b)specified in directions given by the responsible officer.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

Commencement Information

I46S. 375 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

CHAPTER 5E+WBinding over

376Binding over of parent or guardianE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person aged under 18 is convicted of an offence, and

(b)a court is sentencing the offender for the offence.

(2)The court has the following powers—

(a)the court may, with the consent of the offender's parent or guardian, order the parent or guardian to enter into a recognizance to take proper care of the offender and exercise proper control over the offender, and

(b)if—

(i)the parent or guardian refuses consent, and

(ii)the court considers the refusal unreasonable,

the court may order the parent or guardian to pay a fine not exceeding £1,000.

(3)For the purposes of this section—

(a)taking “care” of a person includes giving the person protection and guidance, and

(b)control” includes discipline.

(4)If the offender is aged under 16 when sentenced, the court must—

(a)exercise its powers under subsection (2), if satisfied, having regard to the circumstances of the case, that doing so would be desirable in the interests of preventing the offender from committing further offences, or

(b)state in open court that it is not so satisfied, and why not.

(5)Subsections (2) and (4) are subject to section 37(8) of the Mental Health Act 1983 (order under this section not to be made where hospital or guardianship order is made) and to—

(a)section 89(4)(b), and

(b)paragraph 16(2) of Schedule 4,

(restrictions on the powers of a court making or extending a referral order).

(6)If the court makes a youth rehabilitation order, a recognizance under this section may include a provision that the offender's parent or guardian ensure that the offender complies with the requirements of that order.

(7)The period of a recognizance under this section—

(a)may not be more 3 years, and

(b)must end before the offender reaches the age of 18.

(8)A recognizance under this section may not be for an amount of more than £1,000.

(9)In fixing the amount of a recognizance under this section, the court must take into account, in particular, the means of the parent or guardian so far as they appear or are known to the court (whether doing so has the effect of increasing or reducing the amount).

(10)Section 120 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (forfeiture of recognizances) applies in relation to a recognizance under this section as it applies in relation to a recognizance to keep the peace.

(11)A fine imposed under subsection (2)(b) is to be treated, for the purposes of any enactment, as being a sum adjudged to be paid by a conviction.

(12)Section 404 (certain references to parent or guardian to be read as references to local authority) does not apply to this section.

Commencement Information

I47S. 376 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

377Binding over of parent or guardian: appeals, variations and revocationsE+W

(1)A parent or guardian may appeal to the Crown Court against an order under section 376 made by a magistrates' court.

(2)A parent or guardian may appeal to the Court of Appeal against an order under section 376 made by the Crown Court as if—

(a)the parent or guardian had been convicted on indictment, and

(b)the order were a sentence passed on the conviction of the parent or guardian.

(3)A court may vary or discharge an order made by it under section 376 if, on the application of the parent or guardian, it appears to the court, having regard to any change in the circumstances since the order was made, to be in the interests of justice to do so.

Commencement Information

I48S. 377 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

378Other powers of the court to bind over to keep the peaceE+W

(1)For powers to bind over to keep the peace exercisable on conviction see, in particular—

(a)section 1 of the Justices of the Peace Act 1361;

(b)section 1(7) of the Justices of the Peace Act 1968.

(2)This section does not affect the exercise of those powers in other circumstances, or of other powers to bind over.

Commencement Information

I49S. 378 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2

CHAPTER 6E+WOther orders

379Other behaviour orders etcE+W

(1)For further orders available to a court dealing with an offender for particular offences in particular circumstances, see the following—

ProvisionType of orderType of offence
Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001
section 33travel restriction ordersentence of imprisonment for certain drug-trafficking offences
Licensed Premises (Exclusion of Certain Persons) Act 1980
section 1exclusion ordercertain offences committed on licensed premises
Football Spectators Act 1989
section 14A(3)banning order under Part 2relevant offence within the meaning of that Part
Serious Crime Act 2007
section 19serious crime prevention orderserious offence in England and Wales
Modern Slavery Act 2015
section 14slavery and trafficking prevention orderslavery or human trafficking offence (see Schedule 1)
Psychoactive Substances Act 2016
section 19prohibition orderoffence under section 4 to 8 of that Act and related offences.

(2)Part 2 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 makes provision about notification requirements in the case of a person convicted of an offence listed in Schedule 3 to that Act (sexual offences for the purposes of that Part of that Act).

Commencement Information

I50S. 379 in force at 1.12.2020 by S.I. 2020/1236, reg. 2