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Value Added Tax Act 1994

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Changes and effects yet to be applied to Section 78:

Changes and effects yet to be applied to the whole Act associated Parts and Chapters:

Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 7(12) inserted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 7(6) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 51A repealed by S.I. 2008/1146 art. 5(2)(a) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 51A by 1995 c. 4, s. 26(1) never came into force)
  • s. 58ZA inserted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 57 (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 83(1)(b) words omitted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 72(a)(i) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 83(1)(b) words omitted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 72(a)(ii) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 83(1)(d) omitted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 72(b) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 83(1)(j) omitted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 72(c) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 83(1)(p)(iii) and word omitted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 72(d) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • s. 83(1)(w) omitted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 72(e) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • Sch. 4A para. 9D(2) words substituted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 89(11)(a)(ii) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • Sch. 4A para. 9D(2)(b) words substituted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 89(11)(a)(i) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • Sch. 4A para. 9D(3)(a) words substituted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 89(11)(b) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))
  • Sch. 9ZA para. 18A inserted by S.I. 2020/1544 reg. 3(2)
  • Sch. 9ZA para. 81(6)(7) inserted by S.I. 2020/1544 reg. 4
  • Sch. 9ZB para. 6(2)(b) inserted by S.I. 2020/1544 reg. 5(c)
  • Sch. 9ZB para. 31A inserted by S.I. 2020/1544 reg. 6
  • Sch. 9ZB para. 6(2)(a) words in Sch. 9ZB para. 6(2) renumbered as Sch. 9ZB para. 6(2)(a) by S.I. 2020/1544 reg. 5(a)
  • Sch. 9ZB para. 6(2)(a) words substituted by S.I. 2020/1544 reg. 5(b)
  • Sch. 10 para. 8(2) (3) inserted by 1995 c. 4 s. 26(2) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 26 repealed (1.6.2008) without ever being in force by S.I. 2008/1146, art. 5)
  • Sch. 11 para. 2(5E)(5F) inserted by 2018 c. 22 Sch. 8 para. 97(2)(f) (See S.I. 2019/105, S.I. 2020/1495, reg. 21, S.I. 2020/1545, Pt. 4 and 2020 c. 26, Sch. 7 para. 7(7)-(9))

78 Interest in certain cases of official error.U.K.

(1)Where, due to an error on the part of the Commissioners, a person has—

(a)accounted to them for an amount by way of output tax which was not output tax due from him [F1and, as a result, they are liable under section 80(2A) to pay (or repay) an amount to him,] or

(b)failed to claim credit under section 25 for an amount for which he was entitled so to claim credit and which they are in consequence liable to pay to him, or

(c)(otherwise than in a case falling within paragraph (a) or (b) above) paid to them by way of VAT an amount that was not VAT due and which they are in consequence liable to repay to him, or

(d)suffered delay in receiving payment of an amount due to him from them in connection with VAT,

then, if and to the extent that they would not be liable to do so apart from this section, they shall pay interest to him on that amount for the applicable period, but subject to the following provisions of this section.

[F2(1A)In subsection (1) above—

(a)references to an amount which the Commissioners are liable in consequence of any matter to pay or repay to any person are references, where a claim for the payment or repayment has to be made, to only so much of that amount as is the subject of a claim that the Commissioners are required to satisfy or have satisfied; and

(b)the amounts referred to in paragraph (d) do not include any amount payable under this section.]

(2)Nothing in subsection (1) above requires the Commissioners to pay interest—

(a)on any amount which falls to be increased by a supplement under section 79; or

(b)where an amount is increased under that section, on so much of the increased amount as represents the supplement.

(3)Interest under this section shall be payable at [F3the rate applicable under section 197 of thr Finance Act 1996]. and the first such order may prescribe, for cases where interest runs from before the date on which that order is expressed to come into force, rates for periods ending before that date.

(4)The “applicable period” in a case falling within subsection (1)(a) or (b) above is the period—

(a)beginning with the appropriate commencement date, and

(b)ending with the date on which the Commissioners authorise payment of the amount on which the interest is payable.

(5)In subsection (4) above, the “appropriate commencement date”—

(a)in a case where an amount would have been due from the person by way of VAT in connection with the relevant return, had his input tax and output tax been as stated in that return, means the date on which the Commissioners received payment of that amount; and

(b)in a case where no such payment would have been due from him in connection with that return, means the date on which the Commissioners would, apart from the error, have authorised payment of the amount on which the interest is payable;

and in this subsection “the relevant return” means the return in which the person accounted for, or (as the case may be) ought to have claimed credit for, the amount on which the interest is payable.

(6)The “applicable period” in a case falling within subsection (1)(c) above is the period—

(a)beginning with the date on which the payment is received by the Commissioners, and

(b)ending with the date on which they authorise payment of the amount on which the interest is payable.

(7)The “applicable period” in a case falling within subsection (1)(d) above is the period—

(a)beginning with the date on which, apart from the error, the Commissioners might reasonably have been expected to authorise payment of the amount on which the interest is payable, and

(b)ending with the date on which they in fact authorise payment of that amount.

[F4(8)In determining in accordance with subsection (4), (6) or (7) above the applicable period for the purposes of subsection (1) above, there shall be left out of account any period by which the Commissioners’ authorisation of the payment of interest is delayed by the conduct of the person who claims the interest.

(8A)The reference in subsection (8) above to a period by which the Commissioners’ authorisation of the payment of interest is delayed by the conduct of the person who claims it includes, in particular, any period which is referable to—

(a)any unreasonable delay in the making of the claim for interest or in the making of any claim for the payment or repayment of the amount on which interest is claimed;

(b)any failure by that person or a person acting on his behalf or under his influence to provide the Commissioners—

(i)at or before the time of the making of a claim, or

(ii)subsequently in response to a request for information by the Commissioners,

with all the information required by them to enable the existence and amount of the claimant’s entitlement to a payment or repayment, and to interest on that payment or repayment, to be determined; and

(c)the making, as part of or in association with either—

(i)the claim for interest, or

(ii)any claim for the payment or repayment of the amount on which interest is claimed,

of a claim to anything to which the claimant was not entitled.

(9)In determining for the purposes of subsection (8A) above whether any period of delay is referable to a failure by any person to provide information in response to a request by the Commissioners, there shall be taken to be so referable, except so far as may be prescribed, any period which—

(a)begins with the date on which the Commissioners require that person to provide information which they reasonably consider relevant to the matter to be determined; and

(b)ends with the earliest date on which it would be reasonable for the Commissioners to conclude—

(i)that they have received a complete answer to their request for information;

(ii)that they have received all that they need in answer to that request; or

(iii)that it is unnecessary for them to be provided with any information in answer to that request.]

(10)The Commissioners shall only be liable to pay interest under this section on a claim made in writing for that purpose.

[F5(11)A claim under this section shall not be made more than [F64 years] after the end of the applicable period to which it relates.]

(12)In this section—

[F7(a)references to the authorisation by the Commissioners of the payment of any amount include references to the discharge by way of set-off (whether under section 81(3) or otherwise) of the Commissioners’ liability to pay that amount; and]

(b)any reference to a return is a reference to a return required to be made in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 11.

Textual Amendments

F1Words in s. 78(1)(a) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 4(6) of the amending Act) by Finance (No. 2) Act 2005 (c. 22), s. 4(2)

F2S. 78(1A) inserted (retrospectively) by 1997 c. 16, s. 44(1)

F3Words in s. 78(3) substituted (1.4.1997 with effect as mentioned in s. 197(7) of the amending Act) by 1996 c. 8, s. 197(6)(d)(ii)(7); S.I. 1997/1015, art. 2

F4S. 78(8)(8A)(9) substituted for s. 78(8)(9) (19.3.1997 with effect as mentioned in s. 44(5) of the amending Act) by 1997 c. 16, s. 44(4)(5)

F5S. 78(11) substituted (with effect retrospectively as mentioned in s. 44(2) of the amending Act) by 1997 c. 16, s. 44(2)

F6Words in s. 78(11) substituted (1.4.2009) by Finance Act 2008 (c. 9), s. 118(2), Sch. 39 para. 35; S.I. 2009/403, art. 2(1) (with art. 5)

F7S. 78(12)(a) substituted (with effect retrospectively as mentioned in s. 44(3) of the amending Act) by 1997 c. 16, s. 44(3)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 78 amended (with effect retrospectively as mentioned in s. 44(2)(6) of the amending Act) by 1997 c. 16, s. 44(2)(6)

S. 78 power to amend (1.4.1997) by 1996 c. 8, s. 197(2)(c)(7); S.I. 1997/1015, art. 2

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