xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"

Part IU.K. Copyright

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Pt. I (ss. 1-179) modified by S.I. 1989/988, art. 2(3)

C2Pt. I (ss. 1-179) extended by S.I. 1989/1293, arts. 2(3), 3, 4(4)-(6)

C3Pt. I (ss. 1-179) applied (with modifications) by S.I. 1993/942, arts. 2(3), 5, Sch. 4 (with art. 6)

C4Pt. I (ss. 1-179) applied by S.I. 1993/942, arts. 4, 5, Sch. 4 (with art. 6)

Pt. I (ss. 1-179) applied (with modifications) (22.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1751, arts. 2(3), 3, 4(3)(5), 5, 7, Schs. 2, 4, 5 (as amended (22.4.2003) by S.I. 2003/774, arts. 2-5) (which S.I. and amending S.I. were revoked (1.5.2005) by S.I. 2005/852, art. 8(b)(d))

C5Pt. 1 (ss. 1-179) extended in part (with modifications) by The Copyright (Bermuda) Order 2003 (S.I. 2003/1517), art. 2, Sch. (the amendment coming into force in accordance with art. 1 of the amending S.I.)

C7Pt. 1 (ss. 1-179) extended (with modifications) (1.5.2005) by The Copyright and Performances (Application to Other Countries) Order 2005 (S.I. 2005/852), arts. 2-5, Sch. (with art. 7) (which S.I. was revoked (6.4.2006) by SI 2006/316, art. 1(3))

C8Pt. 1 (ss. 1-179) extended in part (with modifications) by The Copyright (Gibraltar) Order 2005 (S.I. 2005/853), art. 2, Sch. (the amendment coming into force in accordance with art. 1 of the amending S.I.)

C9Pt. 1 (ss. 1-179) extended (with modifications) (6.4.2006) by The Copyright and Performances (Application to Other Countries) Order 2006 (S.I. 2006/316), {arts. 2- 5}, Sch. (with art. 7) (which S.I. was revoked (6.4.2007) by S.I. 2007/273, art. 1(3))

C10Pt. 1 (ss. 1-179) extended (with modifications) (6.4.2007) by The Copyright and Performances (Application to Other Countries) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/273), arts. 2-5, Sch. (with art. 7) (which S.I. was revoked (6.4.2008) by SI 2008/677, art. 1(3))

C11Pt. 1 (ss. 1-179) extended (with modifications) (6.4.2008) by The Copyright and Performances (Application to Other Countries) Order 2008 (S.I. 2008/677), arts. 2-5, Sch. (with art. 7)

C13Pt. 1 applied in part (with modifications) (6.4.2013) by The Copyright and Performances (Application to Other Countries) Order 2013 (S.I. 2013/536), arts. 1(1), 2, 4, 5, Schs. (with art. 8)

C14Pt. 1 extended in part (Cayman Islands) (with modifications) (coming into force in accordance with art. 1 of the amending Order) by The Copyright (Cayman Islands) Order 2015 (S.I. 2015/795), arts. 1, 2, Sch. (as amended by The Copyright (Cayman Islands) (Amendment) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/370), arts. 1, 2-40)

C23Pt. 1: power to extend conferred (27.4.2017) by Digital Economy Act 2017 (c. 30), ss. 118(1), 119(7)(8)(a)

Chapter XU.K. Miscellaneous and General

InterpretationU.K.

172 General provisions as to construction.U.K.

(1)This Part restates and amends the law of copyright, that is, the provisions of the M1Copyright Act 1956, as amended.

(2)A provision of this Part which corresponds to a provision of the previous law shall not be construed as departing from the previous law merely because of a change of expression.

(3)Decisions under the previous law may be referred to for the purpose of establishing whether a provision of this Part departs from the previous law, or otherwise for establishing the true construction of this Part.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C24Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

Marginal Citations

[F1[F2172A Meaning of EEA and related expressions.U.K.

[F3(1)In this Part—

F4(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)F5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

Textual Amendments

F1S. 172A inserted (1.1.1996) by S.I. 1995/3297, reg. 11(1) (with Pt. III)

F2S. 172A(1) and sidenote substituted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 9(5) (with Pt. III)

F4S. 172A(2) omitted (31.12.2020) by virtue of The Intellectual Property (Copyright and Related Rights) (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 (S.I. 2019/605), regs. 1(2), 18 (with reg. 38) (as amended by S.I. 2020/1050, regs. 1(2), 4); 2020 c. 1, Sch. 5 para. 1(1)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C25Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

173 Construction of references to copyright owner.U.K.

(1)Where different persons are (whether in consequence of a partial assignment or otherwise) entitled to different aspects of copyright in a work, the copyright owner for any purpose of this Part is the person who is entitled to the aspect of copyright relevant for that purpose.

(2)Where copyright (or any aspect of copyright) is owned by more than one person jointly, references in this Part to the copyright owner are to all the owners, so that, in particular, any requirement of the licence of the copyright owner requires the licence of all of them.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C26Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

174 Meaning of “educational establishment” and related expressions.U.K.

(1)The expression “educational establishment” in a provision of this Part means—

(a)any school, and

(b)any other description of educational establishment specified for the purposes of this Part, or that provision, by order of the Secretary of State.

(2)The Secretary of State may by order provide that the provisions of this Part relating to educational establishments shall apply, with such modifications and adaptations as may be specified in the order, in relation to teachers who are employed by a [F6local authority (as defined in section 579(1) of the Education Act 1996) or (in Northern Ireland) a local education authority,] to give instruction elsewhere to pupils who are unable to attend an educational establishment.

(3)In subsection (1)(a) “school”—

(a)in relation to England and Wales, has the same meaning as in [F7the Education Act 1996];

(b)in relation to Scotland, has the same meaning as in the M2Education (Scotland) Act 1962, except that it includes an approved school within the meaning of the M3Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968; and

(c)in relation to Northern Ireland, has the same meaning as in the M4Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order 1986.

(4)An order under subsection (1)(b) may specify a description of educational establishment by reference to the instruments from time to time in force under any enactment specified in the order.

(5)In relation to an educational establishment the expressions “teacher” and “pupil” in this Part include, respectively, any person who gives and any person who receives instruction.

(6)References in this Part to anything being done “on behalf of” an educational establishment are to its being done for the purposes of that establishment by any person.

(7)An order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

Textual Amendments

F7Words in s. 174(3) substituted (1.11.1996) by 1996 c. 56, ss. 582(1), 583(2), Sch. 37 Pt. I para. 83 (with Sch. 39)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C27Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

Marginal Citations

175 Meaning of publication and commercial publication.U.K.

(1)In this Part “publication”, in relation to a work—

(a)means the issue of copies to the public, and

(b)includes, in the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, making it available to the public by means of an electronic retrieval system;

and related expressions shall be construed accordingly.

(2)In this Part “commercial publication”, in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work means—

(a)issuing copies of the work to the public at a time when copies made in advance of the receipt of orders are generally available to the public, or

(b)making the work available to the public by means of an electronic retrieval system;

and related expressions shall be construed accordingly.

(3)In the case of a work of architecture in the form of a building, or an artistic work incorporated in a building, construction of the building shall be treated as equivalent to publication of the work.

(4)The following do not constitute publication for the purposes of this Part and references to commercial publication shall be construed accordingly—

(a)in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work—

(i)the performance of the work, or

(ii)the [F8communication to the public of the work] (otherwise than for the purposes of an electronic retrieval system);

(b)in the case of an artistic work—

(i)the exhibition of the work,

(ii)the issue to the public of copies of a graphic work representing, or of photographs of, a work of architecture in the form of a building or a model for a building, a sculpture or a work of artistic craftsmanship,

(iii)the issue to the public of copies of a film including the work, or

(iv)the [F8communication to the public of the work] (otherwise than for the purposes of an electronic retrieval system);

(c)in the case of a sound recording or film—

(i)the work being played or shown in public, or

(ii)the [F8communication to the public of the work].

(5)References in this Part to publication or commercial publication do not include publication which is merely colourable and not intended to satisfy the reasonable requirements of the public.

(6)No account shall be taken for the purposes of this section of any unauthorised act.

Textual Amendments

F8Words in s. 175(4)(a)(ii)(b)(iv)(c)(ii) substituted (31.10.2003) by The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2498), reg. 2(1), Sch. 1 para. 6(1) (with regs. 31-40)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C28Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

176 Requirement of signature: application in relation to body corporate.U.K.

(1)The requirement in the following provisions that an instrument be signed by or on behalf of a person is also satisfied in the case of a body corporate by the affixing of its seal—

(2)The requirement in the following provisions that an instrument be signed by a person is satisfied in the case of a body corporate by signature on behalf of the body or by the affixing of its seal—

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C29Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

177 Adaptation of expressions for Scotland.U.K.

In the application of this Part to Scotland—

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C30Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

178 Minor definitions.U.K.

In this Part—

Textual Amendments

F9Words in s. 178 inserted (6.5.1999) by 1998 c. 46, s. 125(1), Sch. 8 para. 25(7)(a); S.I. 1998/3178, art. 2(2), Sch. 3

F10S. 178: words in definition of "the Crown" inserted by Government of Wales Act 2006 (c. 32), s. 160(1), Sch. 10 para. 29(2) (with Sch. 11 para. 22), the amending provision coming into force immediately after "the 2007 election" (held on 3.5.2007) subject to s. 161(4)(5) of the amending Act, which provides for certain provisions to come into force for specified purposes immediately after the end of "the initial period" (which ended with the day of the first appointment of a First Minister on 25.5.2007) - see ss. 46, 161(1)(4)(5) of the amending Act.

F11Words in s. 178 inserted (31.12.2020) by The Intellectual Property (Copyright and Related Rights) (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 (S.I. 2019/605), regs. 1(2), 19 (with reg. 38) (as amended by S.I. 2020/1050, regs. 1(2), 4); 2020 c. 1, Sch. 5 para. 1(1)

F12Words in s. 178 inserted (6.5.1999) by 1998 c. 46, s. 125(1), Sch. 8 para. 25(7)(b); S.I. 1998/3178, art. 2(2), Sch. 3

F13Words in s. 178 cease to have effect (2.12.1999) by virtue of 1998 c. 47, s. 99, Sch. 13 para. 8(7) (with s. 95); S.I. 1999/3209, art. 2, Sch.

F14S. 178: words in definition of "parliamentary proceedings" inserted by Government of Wales Act 2006 (c. 32), s. 160(1), Sch. 10 para. 29(3) (with Sch. 11 para. 22), the amending provision coming into force immediately after "the 2007 election" (held on 3.5.2007) subject to s. 161(4)(5) of the amending Act, which provides for certain provisions to come into force for specified purposes immediately after the end of "the initial period" (which ended with the day of the first appointment of a First Minister on 25.5.2007) - see ss. 46, 161(1)(4)(5) of the amending Act.

F15S. 178: definition of "private study" inserted (31.10.2003) by The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2498), reg. 2(1), Sch. 1 para. 15(3) (with regs. 31-40)

F16Definition in s. 178 inserted (1.12.1996 with effect in relation to films made on or after 31.7.1994) by S.I. 1996/2967, regs. 18(5), 36 (with Pt. III)

F17Definition in s. 178 inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 11(5) (with Pt. III)

F18Definition in s. 178 omitted (1.12.1996) by virtue of S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 10(3) (with Pt. III)

F19Definition in s. 178 inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 10(3) (with Pt. III)

F20S. 178: definition of "wireless broadcast" inserted (31.10.2003) by The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2498), reg. 2(1), Sch. 1 para. 15(3) (with regs. 31-40)

F21Words in s. 178 inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 8 (with Pt. III)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C31Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)

179 Index of defined expressions.U.K.

The following Table shows provisions defining or otherwise explaining expressions used in this Part (other than provisions defining or explaining an expression used only in the same section)—

[F22accessible copy (in sections 31A to 31F)section 31F(4)]
account of profits and accounts (in Scotland)section 177
acts restricted by copyrightsection 16(1)
adaptationsection 21(3)
F23. . .F23. . .
[F24archivist (in sections 40A to 43)section 43A(5)]
article (in a periodical)section 178
artistic worksection 4(1)
assignment (in Scotland)section 177
authorsections 9 and 10(3)
[F25authorised body (in sections 31B to 31BB)section 31F(6)]
broadcast (and related expressions)section 6
buildingsection 4(2)
businesssection 178
F26. . . F27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
collective worksection 178
commencement (in Schedule 1)paragraph 1(2) of that Schedule
commercial publicationsection 175
[F28communication to the publicsection 20]
computer-generatedsection 178
[F29conducted for profit (in sections 40A to 43)section 43A(4)]
copy and copyingsection 17
copyright (generally)section 1
copyright (in Schedule 1)paragraph 2(2) of that Schedule
copyright ownersections 101(2) and 173
Copyright Tribunalsection 145
copyright worksection 1(2)
costs (in Scotland)section 177
countrysection 178
[F30country of origin][F30section 15A.]
the Crownsection 178
Crown copyrightsections 163(2) and 164(3)
[F29curator (in sections 40A to 43)section 43A(5)]
[F31database][F31section 3A(1)]
defendant (in Scotland)section 177
delivery up (in Scotland)section 177
[F25disabled person (in sections 31A to 31F)section 31F(2) and (3)]
dramatic worksection 3(1)
educational establishmentsections 174(1) to (4)
electronic and electronic formsection 178
employed, employee, employer and employmentsection 178
[F32excepted sound recordingsection 72(1A)]
exclusive licencesection 92(1)
[F33 the EEA [F34and EEA state]][F35section 172A]
existing works (in Schedule 1)paragraph 1(3) of that Schedule
facsimile copysection 178
film[F36section 5B]
future copyrightsection 91(2)
general licence (in sections 140 and 141)section 140(7)
graphic worksection 4(2)
infringing copysection 27
injunction (in Scotland)section 177
interlocutory relief (in Scotland)section 177
international organisationsection 178
issue of copies to the public[F37section 18]
joint authorship (work of)sections 10(1) and (2)
judicial proceedingssection 178
[F38lawful user (in sections 50A to 50C)][F38section 50A(2).]
[F39lending][F39section 18A(2) to (6)]
[F40librarian (in sections 40A to 43section 43A(5)]
[F29library (in sections 40A to 43)section 43A(2)]
licence (in sections 125 to 128)section 124
licence of copyright ownersections 90(4), 91(3) and 173
licensing body (in Chapter VII)section 116(2)
licensing scheme (generally)section 116(1)
licensing scheme (in sections 118 to 121)section 117
literary worksection 3(1)
made (in relation to a literary, dramatic or musical work)section 3(2)
[F29museum (in sections 40A to 43)section 43A(3)]
musical worksection 3(1)
[F41national of the United Kingdom section 178]
[F42needletime][F42section 135A]
the new copyright provisions (in Schedule 1)paragraph 1(1) of that Schedule
the 1911 Act (in Schedule 1)paragraph 1(1) of that Schedule
the 1956 Act (in Schedule 1)paragraph 1(1) of that Schedule
on behalf of (in relation to an educational establishment)section 174(5)
[F31original (in relation to a database)][F31section 3A(2)]
Parliamentary copyrightsections 165(2) and (7) [F43166(6) [F44166A(3) [F45166B(3) 166C(3) and 166D(3)]]]
parliamentary proceedingssection 178
performancesection 19(2)
photographsection 4(2)
plaintiff (in Scotland)section 177
F46. . .F46. . .
F46. . .F46. . .
[F47private studysection 178]
[F48producer (in relation to a sound recording or film][F48section 178.]
programme (in the context of broadcasting)section 6(3)
prospective owner (of copyright)section 91(2)
[F49public library][F49section 178.]
publication and related expressionssection 175
published edition (in the context of copyright in the typographical arrangement)section 8
pupilsection 174(5)
rental[F50section 18A(2) to (6)]
[F39rental right][F39section 178.]
reprographic copies and repographic copyingsection 178
reprographic processsection 178
sculpturesection 4(2)
signedsection 176
sound recording[F51sections 5A and 135A]
sufficient acknowledgementsection 178
sufficient disclaimersection 178
[F25supply (in sections 31B to 31BB)section 31F(7)]
teachersection 174(5)
telecommunications systemsection 178
[F42terms of payment][F42section 135A]
typefacesection 178
unauthorised (as regards things done in relation to a work)section 178
unknown (in relation to the author of a work)section 9(5)
unknown authorship (work of)section 9(4)
F23. . .F23. . .
[F52wireless broadcastsection 178]
wireless telegraphysection 178
work (in Schedule 1)paragraph 2(1) of that Schedule
work of more than one author (in Chapter VII)section 116(4)
writing and writtensection 178

Textual Amendments

F26S. 179: entry for "cable programme, cable programme service (and related expressions)" repealed (31.10.2003) by The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2498), reg. 2(2), Sch. 2 (with regs. 31-40)

F30Words in s. 179 inserted (1.1.1996) by S.I. 1995/3297, reg. 8(2) (with Pt. III)

F31Words in s. 179 inserted (1.1.1998) by S.I. 1997/3032, reg. 11 (with Pt. IV)

F34Words in s. 179 substituted (31.12.2020) by The Intellectual Property (Copyright and Related Rights) (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 (S.I. 2019/605), regs. 1(2), 20(a) (with reg. 38) (as amended by S.I. 2020/1050, regs. 1(2), 4); 2020 c. 1, Sch. 5 para. 1(1)

F35Words in s. 179 inserted (1.1.1996) by S.I. 1995/3297, reg. 11(2) (with Pt. III)

F36Words in s. 179 substituted (1.1.1996) by S.I. 1995/3297, reg. 9(5)(a) (with Pt. III)

F37Words in s. 179 inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 9(6)(b) (with Pt. III)

F38Words in s. 179 inserted (1.1.1993) by S.I. 1992/3233, reg. 9

F39Words in s. 179 inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 10(4) (with Pt. III)

F41Words in s. 179 inserted (31.12.2020) by The Intellectual Property (Copyright and Related Rights) (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 (S.I. 2019/605), regs. 1(2), 20(b) (with reg. 38) (as amended by S.I. 2020/1050, regs. 1(2), 4); 2020 c. 1, Sch. 5 para. 1(1)

F43Words in s. 179 substituted (6.5.1999) by 1998 c. 46, s. 125(1), Sch. 8 para. 25(8); S.I. 1998/3178, art. 2(2), Sch. 3

F44Words in s. 179 substituted (2.12.1999) by 1998 c. 47, s. 99, Sch. 13 para. 8(8) (with s. 95); S.I. 1999/3209, art. 2, Sch.

F45Words in s. 179 substituted by Government of Wales Act 2006 (c. 32), s. 160(1), Sch. 10 para. 30 (with Sch. 11 para. 22), the amending provision coming into force immediately after "the 2007 election" (held on 3.5.2007) subject to s. 161(4)(5) of the amending Act, which provides for certain provisions to come into force for specified purposes immediately after the end of "the initial period" (which ended with the day of the first appointment of a First Minister on 25.5.2007) - see ss. 46, 161(1)(4)(5) of the amending Act.

F48Words in s. 179 inserted (1.12.1996 with effect in relation to films made on or after 1.7.1994) by S.I. 1996/2967, regs. 18(6), 36 (with Pt. III)

F49Words in s. 179 inserted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 11(6) (with Pt. III)

F50Words in s. 179 substituted (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 10(4) (with Pt. III)

F51Words in s. 179 substituted (1.1.1996) by S.I. 1995/3297, reg. 9(5)(b) (with Pt. III)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C32Ss. 161, 162, 171(1)(3), 172-179 applied (1.12.1996) by S.I. 1996/2967, reg. 17(4) (with Pt. III)