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Part IVU.K. Winding Up of Companies Registered under the Companies Acts

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C3Pt. 4 (ss. 73-219) extended (with modifications) by Building Societies Act 1986 (c 53, SIF 16), ss. 54(3)(a)(5)(a), 90, 126(3), Sch. 15 (as amended (13.3.2018) by The Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (Consequential Amendments, Savings and Transitional Provisions) Regulations 2018 (S.I. 2018/208), regs. 1(3), 2(2))

C4Pts. 1-7 (ss. 1-251) applied (with modifications) by S.I. 1989/1276, arts. 2, 3

Pt. 4 (ss. 73-219) applied (with modifications) (1.2.1993) by Friendly Societies Act 1992 (c. 40), ss. 21(1), 22, 23, Sch. 10 para. 1(a) (with ss. 7(5), 93(4)); S.I. 1993/16, art. 2, Sch. 3

Pt. 4 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(4)(5)(8)(9) (as amended (1.7.2005) by S.I. 2005/1516, art. 4)

Pt. 4 applied (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 10(2)(3)(6), Sch. 4 Pt. II, Sch. 7 (as amended (1.7.2005) by S.I. 2005/1516, art. 5)

C6Pt. 4: power to apply or incorporate conferred (6.4.2001) by 2000 c. 12, s. 14(1); S.I. 2000/3316, art. 2

Pt. 4: power to apply (with modifications) conferred (20.11.2003) by Health and Social Care (Community Health and Standards) Act 2003 (c. 43), ss. 25(6), 26

Pt. 4: power to apply (with modifications) conferred (E.W.) (1.3.2007) by National Health Service Act 2006 (c. 41), ss. 54(8), 55, 277

C8Pt. 4 amended (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 371(2)(b); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

C9Pt. 4 (except s. 185) modified (S.) (prosp.) by Bankruptcy and Diligence etc. (Scotland) Act 2007 (asp 3), ss. 45(5), 227(3) (subject to s. 45(1) and with ss. 45(6), 223)

C11Pt. 4 applied (with modifications) (S.) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4, Schs. 2, 3) (as modified) (temp.) (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 paras. 8(1)(2), 14 (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

C13Pts. 1-4 applied (with modifications) (E.W.S.) (8.7.2021) by The Payment and Electronic Money Institution Insolvency Regulations 2021 (S.I. 2021/716), reg. 2, Sch. 1 para. 3 (with reg. 5)

Chapter IE+W+S Preliminary

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F1Introductory]E+W+S

Textual Amendments

F1S. 73 and cross-heading substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(2)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

[F273Scheme of this PartE+W+S

(1)This Part applies to the winding up of a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in England and Wales or Scotland.

(2)The winding up may be either—

(a)voluntary (see Chapters 2 to 5), or

(b)by the court (see Chapter 6).

(3)This Chapter and Chapters 7 to 10 relate to winding up generally, except where otherwise stated.]

Textual Amendments

F2S. 73 and cross-heading substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(2)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

ContributoriesE+W+S

74 Liability as contributories of present and past members.E+W+S

(1)When a company is wound up, every present and past member is liable to contribute to its assets to any amount sufficient for payment of its debts and liabilities, and the expenses of the winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(2)This is subject as follows—

(a)a past member is not liable to contribute if he has ceased to be a member for one year or more before the commencement of the winding up;

(b)a past member is not liable to contribute in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to be a member;

(c)a past member is not liable to contribute, unless it appears to the court that the existing members are unable to satisfy the contributions required to be made by them F3. . . ;

(d)in the case of a company limited by shares, no contribution is required from any member exceeding the amount (if any) unpaid on the shares in respect of which he is liable as a present or past member;

(e)nothing in [F4the Companies Acts] or this Act invalidates any provision contained in a policy of insurance or other contract whereby the liability of individual members on the policy or contract is restricted, or whereby the funds of the company are alone made liable in respect of the policy or contract;

(f)a sum due to any member of the company (in his character of a member) by way of dividends, profits or otherwise is not deemed to be a debt of the company, payable to that member in a case of competition between himself and any other creditor not a member of the company, but any such sum may be taken into account for the purpose of the final adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(3)In the case of a company limited by guarantee, no contribution is required from any member exceeding the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the company’s assets in the event of its being wound up; but if it is a company with a share capital, every member of it is liable (in addition to the amount so undertaken to be contributed to the assets), to contribute to the extent of any sums unpaid on shares held by him.

Textual Amendments

F3Words in s. 74(2)(c) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(3)(a)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F4Words in s. 74(2)(e) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(3)(b)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C16S. 74(2)(a) modified (temp.) (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 paras. 8(1)(2), 10 (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

75 Directors, etc. with unlimited liability.E+W+S

F5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F5S. 75 omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(4)} (with arts. 9, 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

76 Liability of past directors and shareholders.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where a company is being wound up and—

(a)it has under [F6Chapter 5 of Part 18 of the Companies Act 2006 (acquisition by limited company of its own shares: redemption or purchase by private company out of capital)] made a payment out of capital in respect of the redemption or purchase of any of its own shares (the payment being referred to below as “the relevant payment”), and

(b)the aggregate amount of the company’s assets and the amounts paid by way of contribution to its assets (apart from this section) is not sufficient for payment of its debts and liabilities, and the expenses of the winding up.

(2)If the winding up commenced within one year of the date on which the relevant payment was made, then—

(a)the person from whom the shares were redeemed or purchased, and

(b)the directors who signed the [F7statement] made in accordance with [F8section 714(1) to (3) of the Companies Act 2006] for purposes of the redemption or purchase (except a director who shows that he had reasonable grounds for forming the opinion set out in the [F7statement],

are, so as to enable that insufficiency to be met, liable to contribute to the following extent to the company’s assets.

(3)A person from whom any of the shares were redeemed or purchased is liable to contribute an amount not exceeding so much of the relevant payment as was made by the company in respect of his shares; and the directors are jointly and severally liable with that person to contribute that amount.

(4)A person who has contributed any amount to the assets in pursuance of this section may apply to the court for an order directing any other person jointly and severally liable in respect of that amount to pay him such amount as the court thinks just and equitable.

(5)[F9Section 74 does not apply] in relation to liability accruing by virtue of this section.

(6)F10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F6Words in s. 76(1)(a) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(5)(a)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F8Words in s. 76(2)(b) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(5)(b)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F9Words in s. 76(5) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(5)(c)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F10S. 76(6) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(5)(d)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

77 Limited company formerly unlimited.E+W+S

(1)This section applies in the case of a company being wound up which was at some former time registered as unlimited but has [F11re-registered as a limited company.]

(2)Notwithstanding section 74(2)(a) above, a past member of the company who was a member of it at the time of re-registration, if the winding up commences within the period of 3 years beginning with the day on which the company was re-registered, is liable to contribute to the assets of the company in respect of debts and liabilities contracted before that time.

(3)If no persons who were members of the company at that time are existing members of it, a person who at that time was a present or past member is liable to contribute as above notwithstanding that the existing members have satisfied the contributions required to be made by them F12. . .

This applies subject to section 74(2)(a) above and to subsection (2) of this section, but notwithstanding section 74(2)(c).

(4)Notwithstanding section 74(2)(d) and (3), there is no limit on the amount which a person who, at that time, was a past or present member of the company is liable to contribute as above.

Textual Amendments

F11Words in s. 77(1) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(6)(a)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F12Words in s. 77(3) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(6)(b)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

78 Unlimited company formerly limited.E+W+S

(1)This section applies in the case of a company being wound up which was at some former time registered as limited but has been re-registered as unlimited F13. . . .

(2)A person who, at the time when the application for the company to be re-registered was lodged, was a past member of the company and did not after that again become a member of it is not liable to contribute to the assets of the company more than he would have been liable to contribute had the company not been re-registered.

Textual Amendments

F13Words in s. 78(1) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(7)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

79 Meaning of “contributory”.E+W+S

(1)In this Act F14. . . the expression “contributory” means every person liable to contribute to the assets of a company in the event of its being wound up, and for the purposes of all proceedings for determining, and all proceedings prior to the final determination of, the persons who are to be deemed contributories, includes any person alleged to be a contributory.

(2)The reference in subsection (1) to persons liable to contribute to the assets does not include a person so liable by virtue of a declaration by the court under section 213 (imputed responsibility for company’s fraudulent trading) or section 214 (wrongful trading) in Chapter X of this Part.

(3)A reference in a company’s articles to a contributory does not (unless the context requires) include a person who is a contributory only by virtue of section 76.

F15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F14Words in s. 79(1) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(8)(a)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F15Words in s. 79(3) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(8)(b)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

80 Nature of contributory’s liability.E+W+S

The liability of a contributory creates a debt (in England and Wales in the nature of [F16an ordinary contract debt]) accruing due from him at the time when his liability commenced, but payable at the times when calls are made for enforcing the liability.

Textual Amendments

F16Words in s. 80 text substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(9)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

81 Contributories in case of death of a member.E+W+S

(1)If a contributory dies either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories, his personal representatives, and the heirs and legatees of heritage of his heritable estate in Scotland, are liable in a due course of administration to contribute to the assets of the company in discharge of his liability and are contributories accordingly.

(2)Where the personal representatives are placed on the list of contributories, the heirs or legatees of heritage need not be added, but they may be added as and when the court thinks fit.

(3)If in England and Wales the personal representatives make default in paying any money ordered to be paid by them, proceedings may be taken for administering the estate of the deceased contributory and for compelling payment out of it of the money due.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

82 Effect of contributory’s bankruptcy.E+W+S

(1)The following applies if a contributory becomes bankrupt, either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories.

(2)His trustee in bankruptcy represents him for all purposes of the winding up, and is a contributory accordingly.

(3)The trustee may be called on to admit to proof against the bankrupt’s estate, or otherwise allow to be paid out of the bankrupt’s assets in due course of law, any money due from the bankrupt in respect of his liability to contribute to the company’s assets.

(4)There may be proved against the bankrupt’s estate the estimated value of his liability to future calls as well as calls already made.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

83[F17Companies registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006]E+W+S

(1)The following applies in the event of a company being wound up which [F18is registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006.].

(2)Every person is a contributory, in respect of the company’s debts and liabilities contracted before registration, who is liable—

(a)to pay, or contribute to the payment of, any debt or liability so contracted, or

(b)to pay, or contribute to the payment of, any sum for the adjustment of the rights of the members among themselves in respect of any such debt or liability, or

(c)to pay, or contribute to the amount of, the expenses of winding up the company, so far as relates to the debts or liabilities above mentioned.

(3)Every contributory is liable to contribute to the assets of the company, in the course of the winding up, all sums due from him in respect of any such liability.

(4)In the event of the death, bankruptcy or insolvency of any contributory, provisions of this Act, with respect to the personal representatives, to the heirs and legatees of heritage of the heritable estate in Scotland of deceased contributories and to the trustees of bankrupt or insolvent contributories respectively, apply.

Textual Amendments

F17S. 83 heading substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(10)(a)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F18Words in s. 83(1) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(10)(b)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Chapter IIE+W+S Voluntary Winding Up (Introductory and General)

Resolutions for, and commencement of, voluntary winding upE+W+S

84 Circumstances in which company may be wound up voluntarily.E+W+S

(1)A company may be wound up voluntarily—

(a)when the period (if any) fixed for the duration of the company by the articles expires, or the event (if any) occurs, on the occurrence of which the articles provide that the company is to be dissolved, and the company in general meeting has passed a resolution requiring it be wound up voluntarily;

(b)if the company resolves by special resolution that it be wound up voluntarily;

(c)F19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(2)In this Act the expression “a resolution for voluntary winding up” means a resolution passed under [F20either of the paragraphs] of subsection (1).

[F21(2A)Before a company passes a resolution for voluntary winding up it must give written notice of the resolution to the holder of any qualifying floating charge to which section 72A applies.

(2B)Where notice is given under subsection (2A) a resolution for voluntary winding up may be passed only—

(a)after the end of the period of five business days beginning with the day on which the notice was given, or

(b)if the person to whom the notice was given has consented in writing to the passing of the resolution.]

[F22(3)Chapter 3 of Part 3 of the Companies Act 2006 (resolutions affecting a company's constitution) applies to a resolution under paragraph (a) of subsection (1) as well as a special resolution under paragraph (b).]

[F23(4)This section has effect subject to section 43 of the Commonhold and Leasehold Reform Act 2002.]

Textual Amendments

F20Words in s. 84(2) substituted (1.10.2007 with application as noted in Sch. 4 para. 39(5) of the amending S.I.) by The Companies Act 2006 (Commencement No. 3, Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/2194), art. 10(1), Sch. 4 para. 39(3) (with art. 12)

F22S. 84(3) substituted (1.10.2007 with application as noted in Sch. 4 para. 39(5) of the amending S.I.) by The Companies Act 2006 (Commencement No. 3, Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/2194), art. 10(1), Sch. 4 para. 39(4) (with art. 12)

F23S. 84(4) added (E.W.) (27.9.2004) by 2002 c. 15, ss. 68, 181(1), Sch. 5 para. 6; S.I. 2004/1832, art. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C20S. 84 modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3 (as amended (1.10.2009) by S.S.I. 2009/310, reg. 4, Sch. 2 para. 1(a))

C22S. 84(3) amended (1.7.1999) by 1998 c. 46, Sch. 8 para. 23(2)-(3) (as amended (28.6.2016) by The Building Societies (Floating Charges and Other Provisions) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/679), arts. 1(1), 6)

85 Notice of resolution to wind up.E+W+S

(1)When a company has passed a resolution for voluntary winding up, it shall, within 14 days after the passing of the resolution, give notice of the resolution by advertisement in the Gazette.

(2)If default is made in complying with this section, the company and every officer of it who is in default is liable to a fine and, for continued contravention, to a daily default fine.

For purposes of this subsection the liquidator is deemed an officer of the company.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

86 Commencement of winding up.E+W+S

A voluntary winding up is deemed to commence at the time of the passing of the resolution for voluntary winding up.

Consequences of resolution to wind upE+W+S

87

(1)In case of a voluntary winding up, the company shall from the commencement of the winding up cease to carry on its business, except so far as may be required for its beneficial winding up.

(2)However, the corporate state and corporate powers of the company, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in its articles, continue until the company is dissolved.

88 Avoidance of share transfers, etc. after winding-up resolution.E+W+S

Any transfer of shares, not being a transfer made to or with the sanction of the liquidator, and any alteration in the status of the company’s members, made after the commencement of a voluntary winding up, is void.

Declaration of solvencyE+W+S

89 Statutory declaration of solvency.E+W+S

(1)Where it is proposed to wind up a company voluntarily, the directors (or, in the case of a company having more than two directors, the majority of them) may at a directors’ meeting make a statutory declaration to the effect that they have made a full inquiry into the company’s affairs and that, having done so, they have formed the opinion that the company will be able to pay its debts in full, together with interest at the official rate (as defined in section 251), within such period, not exceeding 12 months from the commencement of the winding up, as may be specified in the declaration.

(2)Such a declaration by the directors has no effect for purposes of this Act unless—

(a)it is made within the 5 weeks immediately preceding the date of the passing of the resolution for winding up, or on that date but before the passing of the resolution, and

(b)it embodies a statement of the company’s assets and liabilities as at the latest practicable date before the making of the declaration.

(3)The declaration shall be delivered to the registrar of companies before the expiration of 15 days immediately following the date on which the resolution for winding up is passed.

(4)A director making a declaration under this section without having reasonable grounds for the opinion that the company will be able to pay its debts in full, together with interest at the official rate, within the period specified is liable to imprisonment or a fine, or both.

(5)If the company is wound up in pursuance of a resolution passed within 5 weeks after the making of the declaration, and its debts (together with interest at the official rate) are not paid or provided for in full within the period specified, it is to be presumed (unless the contrary is shown) that the director did not have reasonable grounds for his opinion.

(6)If a declaration required by subsection (3) to be delivered to the registrar is not so delivered within the time prescribed by that subsection, the company and every officer in default is liable to a fine and, for continued contravention, to a daily default fine.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

90 Distinction between “members’” and “creditors’” voluntary winding up.E+W+S

A winding up in the case of which a directors’ statutory declaration under section 89 has been made is a “members’ voluntary winding up”; and a winding up in the case of which such a declaration has not been made is a “creditors’ voluntary winding up”.

Chapter IIIE+W+S Members’ Voluntary Winding Up

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

91 Appointment of liquidator.E+W+S

(1)In a members’ voluntary winding up, the company in general meeting shall appoint one or more liquidators for the purpose of winding up the company’s affairs and distributing its assets.

(2)On the appointment of a liquidator all the powers of the directors cease, except so far as the company in general meeting or the liquidator sanctions their continuance.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C29S. 91(1)(2) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

Ss. 91-93 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4, Sch. 2

92 Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator.E+W+S

(1)If a vacancy occurs by death resignation or otherwise in the office of liquidator appointed by the company, the company in general meeting may, subject to any arrangement with its creditors, fill the vacancy.

(2)For that purpose a general meeting may be convened by any contributory or, if there were more liquidators than one, by the continuing liquidators.

(3)The meeting shall be held in manner provided by this Act or by the articles, or in such manner as may, on application by any contributory or by the continuing liquidators, be determined by the court.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C30Ss. 91-93 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4, Sch. 2

S. 92(1)(2)(3)(4) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

[F2492AProgress report to company F25...E+W+S

(1)Subject to [F26section 96], F27... the liquidator must—

(a)for each prescribed period produce a progress report relating to the prescribed matters; and

(b)within such period commencing with the end of the period referred to in paragraph (a) as may be prescribed send a copy of the progress report to—

(i)the members of the company; and

(ii)such other persons as may be prescribed.

(2)A liquidator who fails to comply with this section is liable to a fine.]

Textual Amendments

F25Words in s. 92A title repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(2)-(4), 5(1)(b) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F26Words in s. 92A(1) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 16; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F27Words in s. 92A(1) repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(2)-(4), 5(1)(a) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F2993 General company meeting at each year’s end [F28(Scotland)]E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F29S. 93 repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(2)-(4), 5(2) (with arts. 14, 15) (with savings by S.S.I. 2016/141, art. 16 (as inserted (S.) (1.8.2017) by The Public Services Reform (Corporate Insolvency and Bankruptcy) (Scotland) Order 2017 (S.S.I. 2017/209), arts. 1(2), 8(3)) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

[F3094Final account prior to dissolutionE+W+S

(1)As soon as the company's affairs are fully wound up the liquidator must make up an account of the winding up, showing how it has been conducted and the company's property has been disposed of.

(2)The liquidator must send a copy of the account to the members of the company before the end of the period of 14 days beginning with the day on which the account is made up.

(3)The liquidator must send a copy of the account to the registrar of companies before the end of that period (but not before sending it to the members of the company).

(4)If the liquidator does not comply with subsection (2) the liquidator is liable to a fine.

(5)If the liquidator does not comply with subsection (3) the liquidator is liable to a fine and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine.]

Textual Amendments

F30S. 94 substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 18; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

95 Effect of company’s insolvency.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where the liquidator is of the opinion that the company will be unable to pay its debts in full (together with interest at the official rate) within the period stated in the directors’ declaration under section 89.

[F31(1A)The liquidator must before the end of the period of 7 days beginning with the day after the day on which the liquidator formed that opinion—

(a)make out a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company, and

(b)send it to the company's creditors.]

F32(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F32(2A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F32(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)The statement as to the affairs of the company F33. . . shall show—

(a)particulars of the company’s assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of the company’s creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed.

[F34(4A)The statement as to the affairs of the company shall be F35...—

(a)in the case of a winding up of a company registered in England and Wales [F36be verified by the liquidator], by a statement of truth; and

(b)in the case of a winding up of a company registered in Scotland, [F37contain a statutory declaration by the liquidator].]

[F38(4B)The company's creditors may in accordance with the rules nominate a person to be liquidator.

(4C)The liquidator must in accordance with the rules seek such a nomination from the company's creditors.]

F39(5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F39(6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F39(7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(8)If the liquidator without reasonable excuse fails to comply with [F40subsections (1) to (4A)], he is liable to a fine.

Textual Amendments

F31S. 95(1A) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 19(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F32S. 95(2)-(3) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 19(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F35Words in s. 95(4A) repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(2)-(4), 8(a) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F36Words in s. 95(4A)(a) inserted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(2)-(4), 8(b) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F37Words in s. 95(4A)(b) substituted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(2)-(4), 8(c) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F38S. 95(4B)(4C) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 19(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F39S. 95(5)-(7) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 19(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F40Words in s. 95(8) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 19(5); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C31S. 95 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

S. 95 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

[F4196 Conversion to creditors’ voluntary winding up.E+W+S

(1)The winding up becomes a creditors' voluntary winding up as from the day on which—

(a)the company's creditors under section 95 nominate a person to be liquidator, or

(b)the procedure by which the company's creditors were to have made such a nomination concludes without a nomination having been made.

(2)As from that day this Act has effect as if the directors' declaration under section 89 had not been made.

(3)The liquidator in the creditors' voluntary winding up is to be the person nominated by the company's creditors under section 95 or, where no person has been so nominated, the existing liquidator.

(4)In the case of the creditors nominating a person other than the existing liquidator any director, member or creditor of the company may, within 7 days after the date on which the nomination was made by the creditors, apply to the court for an order either—

(a)directing that the existing liquidator is to be liquidator instead of or jointly with the person nominated by the creditors, or

(b)appointing some other person to be liquidator instead of the person nominated by the creditors.

[F42(4A)The court shall grant an application under subsection (4) made by the holder of a qualifying floating charge in respect of the company's property (within the meaning of paragraph 14 of Schedule B1) unless the court thinks it right to refuse the application because of the particular circumstances of the case.]

(5)The “existing liquidator” is the person who is liquidator immediately before the winding up becomes a creditors' voluntary winding up.]

Textual Amendments

F41S. 96 substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 20(1); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F42S. 96(4A) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 20(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Chapter IVE+W+S Creditors’ Voluntary Winding Up

97 Application of this Chapter.E+W+S

(1)Subject as follows, this Chapter applies in relation to a creditors’ voluntary winding up.

(2)Sections [F4399 and 100] do not apply where, under section 96 in Chapter III, a members’ voluntary winding up has become a creditors’ voluntary winding up.

Textual Amendments

F43Words in s. 97(2) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 21; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C32S. 97 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

F4498 Meeting of creditors.E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F44S. 98 omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 22; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

99 Directors to lay statement of affairs before creditors.E+W+S

[F45(1)The directors of the company must, before the end of the period of 7 days beginning with the day after the day on which the company passes a resolution for voluntary winding up—

(a)make out a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company, and

(b)send the statement to the company's creditors.]

(2)The statement as to the affairs of the company F46. . . shall show—

(a)particulars of the company’s assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of the company’s creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed.

[F47(2A)The statement as to the affairs of the company shall [F48be verified by some or all of the directors]

(a)in the case of a winding up of a company registered in England and Wales, [F49be verified by some or all of the directors] by a statement of truth; and

(b)in the case of a winding up of a company registered in Scotland, [F50by affidavit] [F50contain a statutory declaration by some or all of the directors].]

[F51(3)If the directors without reasonable excuse fail to comply with subsection (1), (2) or (2A), they are guilty of an offence and liable to a fine.]

Textual Amendments

F45S. 99(1) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 23(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F48Words in s. 99(2A) repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 9(a) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F49Words in s. 99(2A)(a) inserted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 9(b) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F50Words in s. 99(2A)(b) substituted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 9(c) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F51S. 99(3) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 23(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

100 Appointment of liquidator.E+W+S

[F52(1)The company may nominate a person to be liquidator at the company meeting at which the resolution for voluntary winding up is passed.

(1A)The company's creditors may in accordance with the rules nominate a person to be liquidator.

(1B)The directors of the company must in accordance with the rules seek such a nomination from the company's creditors.]

(2)The liquidator shall be the person nominated by the creditors or, where no person has been so nominated, the person (if any) nominated by the company.

(3)In the case of different persons being nominated, any director, member or creditor of the company may, within 7 days after the date on which the nomination was made by the creditors, apply to the court for an order either—

(a)directing that the person nominated as liquidator by the company shall be liquidator instead of or jointly with the person nominated by the creditors, or

(b)appointing some other person to be liquidator instead of the person nominated by the creditors.

Textual Amendments

F52S. 100(1)-(1B) substituted for s. 100(1) (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 24; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C34S. 100 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C36S. 100(1)(3) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

101 Appointment of liquidation committee.E+W+S

[F53(1)The creditors may in accordance with the rules appoint a committee (“the liquidation committee”) of not more than 5 persons to exercise the functions conferred on it by or under this Act.]

(2)If such a committee is appointed, the company may, either at the meeting at which the resolution for voluntary winding up is passed or at any time subsequently in general meeting, appoint such number of persons as they think fit to act as members of the committee, not exceeding 5.

(3)However, the creditors may, if they think fit, [F54decide] that all or any of the persons so appointed by the company ought not to be members of the liquidation committee; and if the creditors so [F54decide]

(a)[F55those persons] are not then, unless the court otherwise directs, qualified to act as members of the committee; and

(b)on any application to the court under this provision the court may, if it thinks fit, appoint other persons to act as such members in place of [F55those persons].

(4)[F56In Scotland, the liquidation committee has, in addition to the powers and duties conferred and imposed on it by this Act, such of the powers and duties of commissioners on a bankrupt estate as may be conferred and imposed on liquidation committees by the rules.]

Textual Amendments

F53S. 101(1) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 25(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F54Word in s. 101(3) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 25(3)(a); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F55Words in s. 101(3) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 25(3)(b); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C37S. 101 amended (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, ss. 365(5)(b), 371(2)(b); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

S. 101 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C38S. 101(2) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

F57102 Creditors’ meeting where winding up converted under s. 96.E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F57S. 102 omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 26; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

103 Cesser of directors’ powers.E+W+S

On the appointment of a liquidator, all the powers of the directors cease, except so far as the liquidation committee (or, if there is no such committee, the creditors) sanction their continuance.

104 Vacancy in office of liquidator.E+W+S

If a vacancy occurs, by death, resignation or otherwise, in the office of a liquidator (other than a liquidator appointed by, or by the direction of, the court), the creditors may fill the vacancy.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C39S. 104 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

[F58104AProgress report to company and creditors F59... F60...E+W+S

(1)[F61The] liquidator must—

(a)for each prescribed period produce a progress report relating to the prescribed matters; and

(b)within such period commencing with the end of the period referred to in paragraph (a) as may be prescribed send a copy of the progress report to—

(i)the members and creditors [F62, other than opted-out creditors] of the company; and

(ii)such other persons as may be prescribed.

(2)A liquidator who fails to comply with this section is liable to a fine.]

Textual Amendments

F59Word in s. 104A heading omitted (26.5.2015) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), ss. 136(3)(b), 164(3)(i)(v)

F60Words in s. 104A heading repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 6(1)(b) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F61Word in s. 104A(1) substituted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 6(1)(a) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F62Words in s. 104A(1)(b)(i) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 27; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

F64105 Meetings of company and creditors at each year’s end [F63(Scotland)].E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

F64S. 105 repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 6(2) (with arts. 14, 15) (with savings by by S.S.I. 2016/141, art. 16 (as inserted (S.) (1.8.2017) by The Public Services Reform (Corporate Insolvency and Bankruptcy) (Scotland) Order 2017 (S.S.I. 2017/209), arts. 1(2), 8(3)) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

[F65106Final account prior to dissolution.E+W+S

(1)As soon as the company's affairs are fully wound up the liquidator must make up an account of the winding up, showing how it has been conducted and the company's property has been disposed of.

(2)The liquidator must, before the end of the period of 14 days beginning with the day on which the account is made up—

(a)send a copy of the account to the company's members,

(b)send a copy of the account to the company's creditors (other than opted-out creditors), and

(c)give the company's creditors (other than opted-out creditors) a notice explaining the effect of section 173(2)(e) and how they may object to the liquidator's release.

(3)The liquidator must during the relevant period send to the registrar of companies—

(a)a copy of the account, and

(b)a statement of whether any of the company's creditors objected to the liquidator's release.

(4)The relevant period is the period of 7 days beginning with the day after the last day of the period prescribed by the rules as the period within which the creditors may object to the liquidator's release.

F66(4A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F66(4B). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)If the liquidator does not comply with subsection (2) the liquidator is liable to a fine.

(6)If the liquidator does not comply with subsection (3) the liquidator is liable to a fine and, for continued contravention, a daily default fine.

[F67(7)Subsection (8) applies where, immediately before the liquidator sends a copy of the account of the winding up to the registrar under subsection (3), there are EU insolvency proceedings open in respect of the company in one or more other member States.

(8)The liquidator must send to the registrar, with the copy of the account, a statement—

(a)identifying those proceedings,

(b)identifying the member State liquidator appointed in each of those proceedings, and

(c)indicating, in relation to each of those member State liquidators, whether that member State liquidator consents to the company being dissolved.]]

Textual Amendments

F65S. 106 substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 29; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C41Ss. 94, 106 applied with modifications by Building Societies Act 1986 (c. 53, SIF 16), ss. 54(3)(a)(5)(a), 90, 126(3), Sch. 15 para. 56(1)

C42S. 106 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C45S. 106(3)(5) amended (1.7.1999) by 1998 c. 46, s. 125, Sch. 8 para. 23(2)(3) (with s. 126(3)-(11)); SI. 1998/3178, arts. 2, 3 (as amended (28.6.2016) by The Building Societies (Floating Charges and Other Provisions) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/679), arts. 1(1), 6)

Chapter VE+W+S Provisions Applying to both kinds of Voluntary Winding Up

107 Distribution of company’s property.E+W+S

Subject to the provisions of this Act as to preferential payments, the company’s property in a voluntary winding up shall on the winding up be applied in satisfaction of the company’s liabilities pari passu and, subject to that application, shall (unless the articles otherwise provide) be distributed among the members according to their rights and interests in the company.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

108 Appointment or removal of liquidator by the court.E+W+S

(1)If from any cause whatever there is not liquidator acting, the court may appoint a liquidator.

(2)The court may, on cause shown, remove a liquidator and appoint another.

109 Notice by liquidator of his appointment.E+W+S

(1)The liquidator shall, within 14 days after his appointment, publish in the Gazette and deliver to the registrar of companies for registration a notice of his appointment in the form prescribed by statutory instrument made by the Secretary of State.

(2)If the liquidator fails to comply with this section, he is liable to a fine and, for continued contravention, to a daily default fine.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C48S. 109 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

110 Acceptance of shares, etc., as consideration for sale of company property.E+W

(1)This section applies, in the case of a company proposed to be, or being, wound up voluntarily, where the whole or part of the company’s business or property is proposed to be transferred or sold

[F68(a)]to another company (“the transferee company"), whether or not the latter is a [F69company registered under the Companies Act 2006][F68, or

(b)to a limited liability partnership (the “transferee limited liability partnership").]

(2)With the requisite sanction, the liquidator of the company being, or proposed to be, wound up (“the transferor company") may receive, in compensation or part compensation for the transfer or [F70sale—

(a)in the case of the transferee company, shares, policies or other like interests in the transferee company for distribution among the members of the transferor company, or

(b)in the case of the transferee limited liability partnership, membership in the transferee limited liability partnership for distribution among the members of the transferor company.]

(3)The sanction requisite under subsection (2) is—

(a)in the case of a members’ voluntary winding up, that of a special resolution of the company, conferring either a general authority on the liquidator or an authority in respect of any particular arrangement, and

(b)in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up, that of either the court or the liquidation committee.

(4)Alternatively to subsection (2), the liquidator may (with that sanction) enter into any other arrangement whereby the members of the transferor [F71company may—

(a)in the case of the transferee company, in lieu of receiving cash, shares, policies or other like interests (or in addition thereto) participate in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the transferee company, or

(b)in the case of the transferee limited liability partnership, in lieu of receiving cash or membership (or in addition thereto), participate in some other way in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the transferee limited liability partnership.]

(5)A sale or arrangement in pursuance of this section is binding on members of the transferor company.

(6)A special resolution is not invalid for purposes of this section by reason that it is passed before or concurrently with a resolution for voluntary winding up or for appointing liquidators; but, if an order is made within a year for winding up the company by the court, the special resolution is not valid unless sanctioned by the court.

Extent Information

E1This version of this provision extends to England and Wales only; a separate version has been created for Scotland only

Textual Amendments

F68Words in s. 110(1) inserted (6.4.2001) by S.I. 2001/1090, reg. 9, Sch. 5 para. 15(2)

F69Words in s. 110(1)(a) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(11)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F70Word in s. 110(2) substituted (6.4.2001) by S.I. 2001/1090, reg. 9, Sch. 5 para. 15(3)

F71Words in s. 110(4) substituted (6.4.2001) by S.I. 2001/1090, reg. 9, Sch. 5 para. 15(4)

110 Acceptance of shares, etc., as consideration for sale of company property.S

(1)This section applies, in the case of a company proposed to be, or being, wound up voluntarily, where the whole or part of the company’s business or property is proposed to be transferred or sold

[F279(a)]to another company (“the transferee company”), whether or not the latter is a [F280company registered under the Companies Act 2006][F279, or

(b)to a limited liability partnership (the “transferee limited liability partnership”).]

(2)With the requisite sanction, the liquidator of the company being, or proposed to be, wound up (“the transferor company”) may receive, in compensation or part compensation for the transfer or [F281sale–

(a)in the case of the transferee company, shares, policies or other like interests in the company for distribution among the members of the transferor company, or

(b)in the case of the transferee limited liability partnership, membership in the limited liability partnership for distribution among the members of the transferor company.]

(3)The sanction requisite under subsection (2) is—

(a)in the case of a members’ voluntary winding up, that of a special resolution of the company, conferring either a general authority on the liquidator or an authority in respect of any particular arrangement, and

(b)in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up, that of either the court or the liquidation committee.

(4)Alternatively to subsection (2), the liquidator [F282may-

(a)in the case of the transferee company, in lieu of receiving cash, shares, policies or other like interests (or in addition thereto) participate in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the company, or

(b)in the case of the transferee limited liability partnership, in lieu of receiving cash, or membership (or in addition thereto) participate in some other way in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the limited liability partnership.]

(5)A sale or arrangement in pursuance of this section is binding on members of the transferor company.

(6)A special resolution is not invalid for purposes of this section by reason that it is passed before or concurrently with a resolution for voluntary winding up or for appointing liquidators; but, if an order is made within a year for winding up the company by the court, the special resolution is not valid unless sanctioned by the court.

Extent Information

E2This version of this provision extends to Scotland only; a separate version has been created for England and Wales only

Textual Amendments

F279Words in s. 110(1) inserted (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 5, Sch. 4 para. 1(2)

F280Words in s. 110(1)(a) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(11)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F281Words in s. 110(2) substituted (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 5, Sch. 4 para. 1(3)

F282Words in s. 110(4) substituted (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 5, Sch. 4 para. 1(4)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C413S. 110 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

S. 110 modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

111 Dissent from arrangement under s. 110.E+W+S

(1)This section applies in the case of a voluntary winding up where, for the purposes of section 110(2) or (4), there has been passed a special resolution of the transferor company providing the sanction requisite for the liquidator under that section.

(2)If a member of the transferor company who did not vote in favour of the special resolution expresses his dissent from it in writing, addressed to the liquidator and left at the company’s registered office within 7 days after the passing of the resolution, he may require the liquidator either to abstain from carrying the resolution into effect or to purchase his interest at a price to be determined by agreement or by arbitration under this section.

(3)If the liquidator elects to purchase the member’s interest, the purchase money must be paid before the company is dissolved and be raised by the liquidator in such manner as may be determined by special resolution.

(4)For purposes of an arbitration under this section, the provisions of the M1Companies Clauses Consolidation Act 1845 or, in the case of a winding up in Scotland, the M2Companies Clauses Consolidation (Scotland) Act 1845 with respect to the settlement of disputes by arbitration are incorporated with this Act, and—

(a)in the construction of those provisions this Act is deemed the special Act and “the company” means the transferor company, and

(b)any appointment by the incorporated provisions directed to be made under the hand of the secretary or any two of the directors may be made in writing by the liquidator (or, if there is more than one liquidator, then any two or more of them).

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C50S. 111 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

S. 111 modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

Marginal Citations

112 Reference of questions to court.E+W+S

(1)The liquidator or any contributory or creditor may apply to the court to determine any question arising in the winding up of a company, or to exercise, as respects the enforcing of calls or any other matter, all or any of the powers which the court might exercise if the company were being wound up by the court.

(2)The court, if satisfied that the determination of the question or the required exercise of power will be just and beneficial, may accede wholly or partially to the application on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit, or may make such other order on the application as it thinks just.

(3)A copy of an order made by virtue of this section staying the proceedings in the winding up shall forthwith be forwarded by the company, or otherwise as may be prescribed, to the registrar of companies, who shall enter it in his records relating to the company.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C51S. 112 amended (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 365(2); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

S. 112 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

113 Court’s power to control proceedings (Scotland).E+W+S

If the court, on the application of the liquidator in the winding up of a company registered in Scotland, so directs, no action or proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company except by leave of the court and subject to such terms as the court may impose.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C53S. 113 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

114 No liquidator appointed or nominated by company.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where, in the case of a voluntary winding up, no liquidator has been appointed or nominated by the company.

(2)The powers of the directors shall not be exercised, except with the sanction of the court or (in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up) so far as may be necessary to secure compliance with sections F72... 99 (statement of affairs) [F73and 100(1B) (nomination of liquidator by creditors)], during the period before the appointment or nomination of a liquidator of the company.

(3)Subsection (2) does not apply in relation to the powers of the directors—

(a)to dispose of perishable goods and other goods the value of which is likely to diminish if they are not immediately disposed of, and

(b)to do all such other things as may be necessary for the protection of the company’s assets.

(4)If the directors of the company without reasonable excuse fail to comply with this section, they are liable to a fine.

Textual Amendments

F72Words in s. 114(2) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 30(a); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F73Words in s. 114(2) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 30(b); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C54S. 114 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

115 Expenses of voluntary winding up.E+W+S

[F74After the payment of any liabilities to which section 174A applies,] all expenses properly incurred in the winding up, including the remuneration of the liquidator, are payable out of the company’s assets in priority to all other claims.

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C55S. 115 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

116 Saving for certain rights.E+W+S

The voluntary winding up of a company does not bar the right of any creditor or contributory to have it wound up by the court; but in the case of an application by a contributory the court must be satisfied that the rights of the contributories will be prejudiced by a voluntary winding up.

Chapter VIE+W+S Winding Up by the Court

Jurisdiction (England and Wales)E+W+S

117 High Court and county court jurisdiction.E+W+S

(1)The High Court has jurisdiction to wind up any company registered in England and Wales.

(2)Where [F75in the case of a company registered in England and Wales the amount of its] share capital paid up or credited as paid up does not exceed £120,000, then (subject to this section) the county court F76... has concurrent jurisdiction with the High Court to wind up the company.

[F77(2A)Despite subsection (2), proceedings for the exercise of the jurisdiction to wind up a company registered in England and Wales may be commenced only in the High Court if the place which has longest been the company’s registered office during the 6 months immediately preceding the presentation of the petition for winding up is in the district that is the London insolvency district for the purposes of the second Group of Parts of this Act.]

(3)The money sum for the time being specified in subsection (2) is subject to increase or reduction by order under section 416 in Part XV.

F78(4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)Every court in England and Wales having winding-up jurisdiction has for the purposes of that jurisdiction all the powers of the High Court; and every prescribed officer of the court shall perform any duties which an officer of the High Court may discharge by order of a judge of that court or otherwise in relation to winding up.

F79(6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F80(7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F81(8)The Lord Chief Justice may nominate a judicial office holder (as defined in section 109(4) of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005) to exercise his functions under this section.]

Textual Amendments

F75Words in s. 117(2) substituted (22.4.2014) by Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(3), Sch. 9 para. 93(a)(i); S.I. 2014/954, art. 2(c) (with art. 3) (with transitional provisions and savings in S.I. 2014/956, arts. 3-11)

F76Words in s. 117(2) omitted (22.4.2014) by virtue of Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(3), Sch. 9 para. 93(a)(ii); S.I. 2014/954, art. 2(c) (with art. 3) (with transitional provisions and savings in S.I. 2014/956, arts. 3-11)

F77S. 117(2A) inserted by S.I. 1991/724, Sch. Pt. 1 (as amended) (E.W.) (22.4.2014) by The High Court and County Court Jurisdiction (Amendment) Order 2014 (S.I. 2014/821), arts. 1, 2(10)(a)(ii) (with art. 3)

F78S. 117(4) omitted (22.4.2014) by virtue of Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(3), Sch. 9 para. 93(b); S.I. 2014/954, art. 2(c) (with art. 3) (with transitional provisions and savings in S.I. 2014/956, arts. 3-11)

F79S. 117(6) omitted (22.4.2014) by virtue of Crime and Courts Act 2013 (c. 22), s. 61(3), Sch. 9 para. 93(b); S.I. 2014/954, art. 2(c) (with art. 3) (with transitional provisions and savings in S.I. 2014/956, arts. 3-11)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C56S. 117 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 7(3), Sch. 3 Pt. II para. 6

S. 117 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 5

S. 117 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 10(1), Sch. 6 para. 1

S. 117 applied (with modifications) (2.4.2001) by 2000 c. 39, s. 8, Sch. 4 Pt. I para. 5; S.I. 2001/766, art. 2(1)(a) (subject to art. 3)

C57S. 117 modified (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 9(a), Sch. 5 para. 1

118 Proceedings taken in wrong court.E+W+S

(1)Nothing in section 117 invalidates a proceeding by reason of its being taken in the wrong court.

(2)The winding up of a company by the court in England and Wales, or any proceedings in the winding up, may be retained in the court in which the proceedings were commenced, although it may not be the court in which they ought to have been commenced.

119 Proceedings in county court; case stated for High Court.E+W+S

(1)If any question arises in any winding-up proceedings in a county court which all the parties to the proceedings, or which one of them and the judge of the court, desire to have determined in the first instance in the High Court, the judge shall state the facts in the form of a special case for the opinion of the High Court.

(2)Thereupon the special case and the proceedings (or such of them as may be required) shall be transmitted to the High Court for the purposes of the determination.

Jurisdiction (Scotland)E+W+S

120 Court of Session and sheriff court jurisdiction.E+W+S

(1)The Court of Session has jurisdiction to wind up any company registered in Scotland.

(2)When the Court of Session is in vacation, the jurisdiction conferred on that court by this section may (subject to the provisions of this Part) be exercised by the judge acting as vacation judge [F82in pursuance of section 4 of the Admnistration of Justice (Scotland) Act 1933].

(3)Where the amount of a company’s share capital paid up or credited as paid up does not exceed £120,000, the sheriff court of the sheriffdom in which the company’s registered office is situated has concurrent jurisdiction with the Court of Session to wind up the company; but—

(a)the Court of Session may, if it thinks expedient having regard to the amount of the company’s assets to do so—

(i)remit to a sheriff court any petition presented to the Court of Session for winding up such a company, or

(ii)require such a petition presented to a sheriff court to be remitted to the Court of Session; and

(b)the Court of Session may require any such petition as above mentioned presented to one sheriff court to be remitted to another sheriff court; and

(c)in a winding up in the sheriff court the sheriff may submit a stated case for the opinion of the Court of Session on any question of law arising in that winding up.

(4)For purposes of this section, the expression “registered office” means the place which has longest been the company’s registered office during the 6 months immediately preceding the presentation of the petition for winding up.

(5)The money sum for the time being specified in subsection (3) is subject to increase or reduction by order under section 416 in Part XV.

F83(6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C58S. 120 extended (with modifications) by S.I. 1989/638, regs. 19(2), 21

S. 120 applied (with modifications) (2.4.2001) by 2000 c. 39, s. 8, Sch. 4 Pt. I para. 5; S.I. 2001/766, art. 2(1)(a) (subject to art. 3)

121 Power to remit winding up to Lord Ordinary.E+W+S

(1)The Court of Session may, by Act of Sederunt, make provision for the taking of proceedings in a winding up before one of the Lords Ordinary; and, where provision is so made, the Lord Ordinary has, for the purposes of the winding up all the powers and jurisdiction of the court.

(2)However, the Lord Ordinary may report to the Inner House any matter which may arise in the course of a winding up.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Grounds and effect of winding-up petitionE+W+S

122 Circumstances in which company may be wound up by the court.E+W+S

(1)A company may be wound up by the court if—

(a)the company has by special resolution resolved that the company be wound up by the court,

(b)being a public company which was registered as such on its original incorporation, the company has not been issued with [F84a trading certificate under section 761 of the Companies Act 2006 (requirement as to minimum share capital)] and more than a year has expired since it was so registered,

(c)it is an old public company, within the meaning of the [F85Schedule 3 to the Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009],

(d)the company does not commence its business within a year from its incorporation or suspends its business for a whole year;

F86(e). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(f)the company is unable to pay its debts,

F87(fa). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(g)the court is of the opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.

(2)In Scotland, a company which the Court of Session has jurisdiction to wind up may be wound up by the Court if there is subsisting a floating charge over property comprised in the company’s property and undertaking, and the court is satisfied that the security of the creditor entitled to the benefit of the floating charge is in jeopardy.

For this purpose a creditor’s security is deemed to be in jeopardy if the Court is satisfied that events have occurred or are about to occur which render it unreasonable in the creditor’s interests that the company should retain power to dispose of the property which is subject to the floating charge.

Textual Amendments

F85Words in s. 122(1)(c) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(12)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F87S. 122(1)(fa) omitted (26.6.2020) by virtue of Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), s. 49(1), Sch. 3 para. 10 (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C60S. 122 applied (with modifications) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8, Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 6(a)

C61S. 122 modified by 1986 c. 53, Sch. 15 para. 16(2) (as substituted (28.6.2016) by The Building Societies (Floating Charges and Other Provisions) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/679), art. 1(1)(4), 2)

C62S. 122 excluded by 1986 c. 53, Sch. 15 para. 16(1) (as substituted (28.6.2016) by The Building Societies (Floating Charges and Other Provisions) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/679), art. 1(1)(4), 2)

C64S. 122(1)(b) excluded (27.7.1999) by 1999 c. 20, ss. 2(5), 5(1), Sch. 2 Pt. II para. 9(b) (with s. 15)

S. 122(1)(b) excluded (8.10.2004) by The European Public Limited-Liability Company Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/2326), regs. 85, 88, Sch. 4 para. 9(b) (with Sch. 4 para. 11)

C65S. 122(1)(f) modified by S.I. 1989/1058, reg. 18(2)

S. 122(1)(f) extended (1.4.1992) by S.I. 1992/613, reg. 49(2)

S. 122(1)(f): power to modify conferred (E.W.) (6.3.1992) by 1992 c. 14, s. 14(3), Sch. 4 para. 10(1) (with s. 118(1)(2))

C67S. 122(1)(f) restricted (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 para. 5(1)-(3)(4) (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

C68S. 122(2) applied (with modifications) (1.8.2014) by Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014 (c. 14), s. 62(1)-(4), 154 (with s. 62(7), Sch. 5)

123 Definition of inability to pay debts.E+W+S

(1)A company is deemed unable to pay its debts—

(a)if a creditor (by assignment or otherwise) to whom the company is indebted in a sum exceeding £750 then due has served on the company, by leaving it at the company’s registered office, a written demand (in the prescribed form) requiring the company to pay the sum so due and the company has for 3 weeks thereafter neglected to pay the sum or to secure or compound for it to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditor, or

(b)if, in England and Wales, execution or other process issued on a judgment, decree or order of any court in favour of a creditor of the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part, or

(c)if, in Scotland, the induciae of a charge for payment on an extract decree, or an extract registered bond, or an extract registered protest, have expired without payment being made, or

(d)if, in Northern Ireland, a certificate of unenforceability has been granted in respect of a judgment against the company, or

(e)if it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due.

(2)A company is also deemed unable to pay its debts if it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that the value of the company’s assets is less than the amount of its liabilities, taking into account its contingent and prospective liabilities.

(3)The money sum for the time being specified in subsection (1)(a) is subject to increase or reduction by order under section 416 in Part XV.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C69S. 123 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8, Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 7(a)

S. 123 applied (1.10.1996) by 1996 c. 52, s. 7, Sch. 1 Pt. II para. 14(2); S.I. 1996/2402, art. 3 (subject to transitional provisions and savings in Sch.)

C70S. 123 applied (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 166(3), 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 3

124 Application for winding up.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, an application to the court for the winding up of a company shall be by petition presented either by the company, or the directors, or by any creditor or creditors (including any contingent or prospective creditor or creditors), contributory or contributories, F88... [F89or by [F90the designated officer for a magistrates' court] in the exercise of the power conferred by section 87A of the Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 (enforcement of fines imposed on companies)], or by all or any of those parties, together or separately.

(2)Except as mentioned below, a contributory is not entitled to present a winding-up petition unless either—

(a)the number of members is reduced below 2, or

(b)the shares in respect of which he is a contributory, or some of them, either were originally allotted to him, or have been held by him, and registered in his name, for at least 6 months during the 18 months before the commencement of the winding up, or have devolved on him through the death of a former holder.

(3)A person who is liable under section 76 to contribute to a company’s assets in the event of its being wound up may petition on either of the grounds set out in section 122(1)(f) and (g), and subsection (2) above does not then apply; but unless the person is a contributory otherwise than under section 76, he may not in his character as contributory petition on any other ground.

F91. . .

F92(3A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)A winding-up petition may be presented by the Secretary of State—

(a)if the ground of the petition is that in section 122(1)(b) or (c), or

[F93(b)in a case falling within section 124A [F94or 124B] below.]

[F95(4AA)A winding up petition may be presented by the [F96Financial Conduct Authority] in a case falling within section 124C(1) or (2).]

[F97(4A)A winding-up petition may be presented by the Regulator of Community Interest Companies in a case falling within section 50 of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004.]

(5)Where a company is being wound up voluntarily in England and Wales, a winding-up petition may be presented by the official receiver attached to the court as well as by any other person authorised in that behalf under the other provisions of this section; but the court shall not make a winding-up order on the petition unless it is satisfied that the voluntary winding up cannot be continued with due regard to the interests of the creditors or contributories.

Textual Amendments

F90Words in s. 124(1) substituted (1.4.2005) by Courts Act 2003 (c. 39), ss. 109(1), 110, Sch. 8 para. 294; S.I. 2005/910, art. 3(y)

F91Words in s. 122(1)(c) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(12)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F94Words in s. 124(4)(b) inserted (8.10.2004) by The European Public Limited-Liability Company Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/2326), reg. 73(4)(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C74S. 124 restricted (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 para. 2(1)-(4)(5) (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

C75S. 124 restricted (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 para. 3(1)-(4)(5) (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

C76S. 124 restricted (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 para. 1(1)-(3)(4) (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

C79S. 124(4)(b) applied by 2007 c. 27, s. 27A(3) (as inserted (1.3.2016) by Serious Crime Act 2015 (c. 9), s. 88(1), Sch. 1 para. 20; S.I. 2016/148, reg. 3(f))

[F98124A Petition for winding up on grounds of public interest.E+W+S

(1)Where it appears to the Secretary of State from—

(a)any report made or information obtained under Part XIV [F99(except section 448A)] of the M3 Companies Act 1985 (company investigations, &c.),

[F100(b)any report made by inspectors under—

(i)section 167, 168, 169 or 284 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, or

(ii)where the company is an open-ended investment company (within the meaning of that Act), regulations made as a result of section 262(2)(k) of that Act;

(bb)any information or documents obtained under section 165, 171, 172, 173 or 175 of that Act,]

(c)any information obtained under section 2 of the M4 Criminal Justice Act 1987 or [F101section 28 of the Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995] (fraud investigations), or

(d)any information obtained under section 83 of the Companies Act 1989 (powers exercisable for purpose of assisting overseas regulatory authorities),

that it is expedient in the public interest that a company should be wound up, he may present a petition for it to be wound up if the court thinks it just and equitable for it to be so.

(2)This section does not apply if the company is already being wound up by the court.]

Textual Amendments

F100S. 124A(b)(bb) substituted for s. 124A(b) (1.12.2001) by S.I. 2001/3649, arts. 1, 305

F101Words in s. 124A(1) substituted (1.4.1996) by virtue of 1995 c. 40, ss. 5, 7(2), Sch. 4 para. 56(2) and 1978 c. 30, s. 17(2)(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Marginal Citations

F102124B Petition for winding up of SEE+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F103124CPetition for winding up of SCEE+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125 Powers of court on hearing of petition.E+W+S

(1)On hearing a winding-up petition the court may dismiss it, or adjourn the hearing conditionally or unconditionally, or make an interim order, or any other order that it thinks fit; but the court shall not refuse to make a winding-up order on the ground only that the company’s assets have been mortgaged to an amount equal to or in excess of those assets, or that the company has no assets.

(2)If the petition is presented by members of the company as contributories on the ground that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up, the court, if it is of opinion—

(a)that the petitioners are entitled to relief either by winding up the company or by some other means, and

(b)that in the absence of any other remedy it would be just and equitable that the company should be wound up,

shall make a winding-up order; but this does not apply if the court is also of the opinion both that some other remedy is available to the petitioners and that they are acting unreasonably in seeking to have the company wound up instead of pursuing that other remedy.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C82S. 125 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 9

S. 125 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 10(1)(a), Sch. 6 para. 3

126 Power to stay or restrain proceedings against company.E+W+S

(1)At any time after the presentation of a winding-up petition, and before a winding-up order has been made, the company, or any creditor or contributory, may—

(a)where any action or proceeding against the company is pending in the High Court or Court of Appeal in England and Wales or Northern Ireland, apply to the court in which the action or proceeding is pending for a stay of proceedings therein, and

(b)where any other action or proceeding is pending against the company, apply to the court having jurisdiction to wind up the company to restrain further proceedings in the action or proceeding;

and the court to which the application is so made may (as the case may be) stay, sist or restrain the proceedings accordingly on such terms as it thinks fit.

(2)In the case of [F104a company registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006], where the application to stay, sist or restrain is by a creditor, this section extends to actions and proceedings against any contributory of the company.

[F105(3)Subsection (1) applies in relation to any action being taken in respect of the company under Part 1 of Schedule 8 to the Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (enforcement by deduction from accounts) as it applies in relation to any action or proceeding mentioned in paragraph (b) of that subsection.]

Textual Amendments

F104Words in s. 126(2) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(14)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F105S. 126(3) inserted (18.11.2015) by Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (c. 33), Sch. 8 para. 27

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C85S. 126 excluded (25.4.1991) by Companies Act 1989 (c. 40), ss. 154, 155, 161(4); S.I. 1991/878, art. 2, Sch..

S. 126 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C87S. 126(2) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

127 Avoidance of property dispositions, etc.E+W+S

[F106(1)] In a winding up by the court, any disposition of the company’s property, and any transfer of shares, or alteration in the status of the company’s members, made after the commencement of the winding up is, unless the court otherwise orders, void.

[F106(2)This section has no effect in respect of anything done by an administrator of a company while a winding-up petition is suspended under paragraph 40 of Schedule B1.]

[F107(3)This section has no effect in respect of anything done during a moratorium under Part A1, or during a period mentioned in section 5(4)(a) following the end of a moratorium, where the winding-up order was made on a petition presented before the moratorium begins, unless the petition was presented under section 367 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 on the ground mentioned in section 367(3)(b) of that Act.]

Textual Amendments

F106S. 127 renumbered as s. 127(1) and s. 127(2) added (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 15 (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C90 S. 127 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

S. 127 modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

C91S. 127 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

128 Avoidance of attachments, etc.E+W+S

(1)Where a company registered in England and Wales is being wound up by the court, any attachment, sequestration, distress or execution put in force against the estate or effects of the company after the commencement of the winding up is void.

(2)This section, so far as relates to any estate or effects of the company situated in England and Wales, applies in the case of a company registered in Scotland as it applies in the case of a company registered in England and Wales.

[F108(3)In subsection (1) “attachment” includes a hold notice or a deduction notice under Part 1 of Schedule 8 to the Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (enforcement by deduction from accounts) and, if subsection (1) has effect in relation to a deduction notice, it also has effect in relation to the hold notice to which the deduction notice relates (whenever the hold notice was given).]

Textual Amendments

F108S. 128(3) inserted (18.11.2015) by Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (c. 33), Sch. 8 para. 28

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C93S. 128 excluded (25.4.1991) by Companies Act 1989 (c. 40), ss. 154, 155, 161(4); S.I. 1991/878, art. 2, Sch. .

C94 S. 128 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C95S. 128 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

Commencement of winding upE+W+S

129 Commencement of winding up by the court.E+W+S

(1)If, before the presentation of a petition for the winding up of a company by the court, a resolution has been passed by the company for voluntary winding up, the winding up of the company is deemed to have commenced at the time of the passing of the resolution; and unless the court, on proof of fraud or mistake, directs otherwise, all proceedings taken in the voluntary winding up are deemed to have been validly taken.

[F109(1A)Where the court makes a winding-up order by virtue of paragraph 13(1)(e) of Schedule B1, the winding up is deemed to commence on the making of the order.]

(2)In any other case, the winding up of a company by the court is deemed to commence at the time of the presentation of the petition for winding up.

Textual Amendments

F109S. 129(1A) inserted (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 16 (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C97S. 129 applied (7.2.1994) by 1993 c. 48, s. 144(4)(b)(i) (with s. 6(8)); S.I. 1994/86, art. 2

C101S. 129(1A) modified by S.I. 2012/3013, Sch. 2 para. 38 (as inserted (4.7.2018) by The Insolvency of Registered Providers of Social Housing Regulations 2018 (S.I. 2018/728), regs. 1, 3(6), Sch. 2)

C104S. 129(2) modified (temp.) (retrospective to 27.4.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), Sch. 10 paras. 8(1)(2), 9 (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

130 Consequences of winding-up order.E+W+S

(1)On the making of a winding-up order, a copy of the order must forthwith be forwarded by the company (or otherwise as may be prescribed) to the registrar of companies, who shall enter it in his records relating to the company.

(2)When a winding-up order has been made or a provisional liquidator has been appointed, no action or proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company or its property, except by leave of the court and subject to such terms as the court may impose.

(3)When an order has been made for winding up a company [F110registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006], no action or proceeding shall be commenced or proceeded with against the company or its property or any contributory of the company, in respect of any debt of the company, except by leave of the court, and subject to such terms as the court may impose.

[F111(3A)In subsections (2) and (3), the reference to an action or proceeding includes action in respect of the company under Part 1 of Schedule 8 to the Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (enforcement by deduction from accounts).]

(4)An order for winding up a company operates in favour of all the creditors and of all contributories of the company as if made on the joint petition of a creditor and of a contributory.

Textual Amendments

F110Words in s. 130(3) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(15)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F111S. 130(3A) inserted (18.11.2015) by Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (c. 33), Sch. 8 para. 29

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C107S. 130 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

C110S. 130(1) amended (1.7.1999) by 1998 c. 46, s. 125, Sch. 8 para. 23(2)(3); S.I. 1998/3178, arts. 2, 3 (as amended (28.6.2016) by The Building Societies (Floating Charges and Other Provisions) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/679), arts. 1(1), 6)

S. 130(1) applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

Investigation proceduresE+W+S

131 Company’s statement of affairs.E+W+S

(1)Where the court has made a winding-up order or appointed a provisional liquidator, the official receiver may require some or all of the persons mentioned in subsection (3) below to make out and submit to him a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company.

(2)The statement F112. . . shall show—

(a)particulars of the company’s assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of the company’s creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed or as the official receiver may require

[F113(2A)The statement shall [F114be verified by the persons required to submit it]

(a)in the case of an appointment of a provisional liquidator or a winding up by the court in England and Wales [F115be verified by the persons required to submit it], by a statement of truth; and

(b)in the case of an appointment of a provisional liquidator or a winding up by the court in Scotland, [F116by affidavit] [F116contain a statutory declaration by the persons required to submit it].]

(3)The persons referred to in subsection (1) are—

(a)those who are or have been officers of the company;

(b)those who have taken part in the formation of the company at any time within one year before the relevant date;

(c)those who are in the company’s employment, or have been in its employment within that year, and are in the official receiver’s opinion capable of giving the information required;

(d)those who are or have been within that year officers of, or in the employment of, a company which is, or within that year was, an officer of the company.

(4)Where any persons are required under this section to submit a statement of affairs to the official receiver, they shall do so (subject to the next subsection) before the end of the period of 21 days beginning with the day after that on which the prescribed notice of the requirement is given to them by the official receiver.

(5)The official receiver, if he thinks fit, may—

(a)at any time release a person from an obligation imposed on him under subsection (1) or (2) above; or

(b)either when giving the notice mentioned in subsection (4) or subsequently, extend the period so mentioned;

and where the official receiver has refused to exercise a power conferred by this subsection, the court, if it thinks fit, may exercise it.

(6)In this section—

(a)in a case where a provisional liquidator is appointed, the date of his appointment; and

(b)in a case where no such appointment is made, the date of the winding-up order.

(7)If a person without reasonable excuse fails to comply with any obligation imposed under this section, he is liable to a fine and, for continued contravention, to a daily default fine.

(8)In the application of this section to Scotland references to the official receiver are to the liquidator or, in a case where a provisional liquidator is appointed, the provisional liquidator.

Textual Amendments

F114Words in s. 131(2A) repealed (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 10(a) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F115Words in s. 131(2A)(a) inserted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 10(b) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

F116Words in s. 131(2A)(b) substituted (S.) (1.4.2016 for specified purposes, 6.4.2019 in so far as not already in force) by The Public Services Reform (Insolvency) (Scotland) Order 2016 (S.S.I. 2016/141), arts. 1(3)(4), 10(c) (with arts. 14, 15) (see S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(a))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C111S. 131 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 7(3), Sch. 3 Pt. II para. 7

s. 131 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8, Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 10

S. 131 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C112S. 131 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

132 Investigation by official receiver.E+W+S

(1)Where a winding-up order is made by the court in England and Wales, it is the duty of the official receiver to investigate—

(a)if the company has failed, the causes of the failure; and

(b)generally, the promotion, formation, business, dealings and affairs of the company,

and to make such report (if any) to the court as he thinks fit.

(2)The report is, in any proceedings, prima facie evidence of the facts stated in it.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

133 Public examination of officersE+W+S

(1)Where a company is being wound up by the court, the official receiver or, in Scotland, the liquidator may at any time before the dissolution of the company apply to the court for the public examination of any person who—

(a)is or has been an officer of the company; or

(b)has acted as liquidator or administrator of the company or as receiver or manager or, in Scotland, receiver of its property; or

(c)not being a person falling within paragraph (a) or (b), is or has been concerned, or has taken part, in the promotion, formation or management of the company.

(2)Unless the court otherwise orders, the official receiver or, in Scotland, the liquidator shall make an application under subsection (1) if he is requested in accordance with the rules to do so by—

(a)one-half, in value, of the company’s creditors; or

(b)three-quarters, in value, of the company’s contributories.

(3)On an application under subsection (1), the court shall direct that a public examination of the person to whom the application relates shall be held on a day appointed by the court; and that person shall attend on that day and be publicly examined as to the promotion, formation or management of the company or as to the conduct of its business and affairs, or his conduct or dealings in relation to the company.

(4)The following may take part in the public examination of a person under this section and may question that person concerning the matters mentioned in subsection (3), namely—

(a)the official receiver;

(b)the liquidator of the company;

(c)any person who has been appointed as special manager of the company’s property or business;

(d)any creditor of the company who has tendered a proof or, in Scotland, submitted a claim in the winding up;

(e)any contributory of the company.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C115S.133 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 11

S. 133 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 7(3), Sch. 3 Pt. II para. 8

s. 133 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), SCh. 4, Pt. II, para. 11

S. 133 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

134 Enforcement of s. 133.E+W+S

(1)If a person without reasonable excuse fails at any time to attend his public examination under section 133, he is guilty of a contempt of court and liable to be punished accordingly.

(2)In a case where a person without reasonable excuse fails at any time to attend his examination under section 133 or there are reasonable grounds for believing that a person has absconded, or is about to abscond, with a view to avoiding or delaying his examination under that section, the court may cause a warrant to be issued to a constable or prescribed officer of the court—

(a)for the arrest of that person; and

(b)for the seizure of any books, papers, records, money or goods in that person’s possession.

(3)In such a case the court may authorise the person arrested under the warrant to be kept in custody, and anything seized under such a warrant to be held, in accordance with the rules, until such time as the court may order.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C117S. 134 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

Appointment of liquidatorE+W+S

135 Appointment and powers of provisional liquidator.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, the court may, at any time after the presentation of a winding-up petition, appoint a liquidator provisionally.

(2)In England and Wales, the appointment of a provisional liquidator may be made at any time before the making of a winding-up order; and either the official receiver or any other fit person may be appointed.

(3)In Scotland, such an appointment may be made at any time before the first appointment of liquidators.

(4)The provisional liquidator shall carry out such functions as the court may confer on him.

(5)When a liquidator is provisionally appointed by the court, his powers may be limited by the order appointing him.

136 Functions of official receiver in relation to office of liquidator.E+W+S

(1)The following provisions of this section have effect, subject to section 140 below, on a winding-up order being made by the court in England and Wales.

(2)The official receiver, by virtue of his office, becomes the liquidator of the company and continues in office until another person becomes liquidator under the provisions of this Part.

(3)The official receiver is, by virtue of his office, the liquidator during any vacancy.

(4)At any time when he is the liquidator of the company, the official receiver may [F117in accordance with the rules seek nominations from] the company’s creditors and contributories for the purpose of choosing a person to be liquidator of the company in place of the official receiver.

(5)It is the duty of the official receiver—

(a)as soon as practicable in the period of 12 weeks beginning with the day on which the winding-up order was made, to decide whether to exercise his power under sub-section (4) F118... , and

(b)if in pursuance of paragraph (a) he decides not to exercise that power, to give notice of his decision, before the end of that period, to the court and to the company’s creditors and contributories, and

(c)(whether or not he has decided to exercise that power) to exercise his power F119... under subsection (4) if he is at any time requested, in accordance with rules, to do so by one-quarter, in value, of the company’s creditors;

and accordingly, where the duty imposed by paragraph (c) arises before the official receiver has performed a duty imposed by paragraph (a) or (b), he is not required to perform the latter duty.

(6)A notice given under subsection (5)(b) to the company’s creditors shall contain an explanation of the creditors’ power under subsection (5)(c) to require the official receiver to [F120seek nominations from] the company’s creditors and contributories.

Textual Amendments

F117Words in s. 136(4) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 31(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F118Words in s. 136(5)(a) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 31(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F119Words in s. 136(5)(c) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 31(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F120Words in s. 136(6) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 31(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C124S. 136 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II, para. 12

137 Appointment by Secretary of State.E+W+S

(1)In a winding up by the court in England and Wales the official receiver may, at any time when he is the liquidator of the company, apply to the Secretary of State for the appointment of a person as liquidator in his place.

(2)If [F121nominations are sought from the company's creditors and contributories] in pursuance of a decision under section 136(5)(a), but no person is chosen to be liquidator as a result F122..., it is the duty of the official receiver to decide whether to refer the need for an appointment to the Secretary of State.

(3)On an application under subsection (1), or a reference made in pursuance of a decision under subsection (2), the Secretary of State shall either make an appointment or decline to make one.

(4)Where a liquidator has been appointed by the Secretary of State under subsection (3), the liquidator shall give notice of his appointment to the company’s creditors or, if the court so allows, shall advertise his appointment in accordance with the directions of the court.

(5)In that notice or advertisement the liquidator [F123must explain the procedure for establishing a liquidation committee under section 141.]

Textual Amendments

F121Words in s. 137(2) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 32(2)(a); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F122Words in s. 137(2) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 32(2)(b); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F123Words in s. 137(5) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 32(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C126S. 137 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 13

138 Appointment of liquidator in Scotland.E+W+S

(1)Where a winding-up order is made by the court in Scotland, a liquidator shall be appointed by the court at the time when the order is made.

(2)The liquidator so appointed (here referred to as “the interim liquidator”) continues in office until another person becomes liquidator in his place under this section or the next.

(3)The interim liquidator shall (subject to the next subsection) as soon as practicable in the period of 28 days beginning with the day on which the winding-up order was made or such longer period as the court may allow, [F124in accordance with the rules seek nominations from] the company’s creditors and contributories for the purpose of choosing a person (who may be the person who is the interim liquidator) to be liquidator of the company in place of the interim liquidator.

(4)If it appears to the interim liquidator, in any case where a company is being wound up on grounds including its inability to pay its debts, that it would be inappropriate to [F125seek a nomination from the company's contributories under subsection (3), he may seek a nomination only from] the company’s creditors for the purpose mentioned in that subsection.

(5)If [F126a nomination is sought from the company's creditors, or nominations are sought from the company's creditors and contributories,] in pursuance of this section but no person is appointed or nominated [F127as a result], the interim liquidator shall make a report to the court which shall appoint either the interim liquidator or some other person to be liquidator of the company.

(6)A person who becomes liquidator of the company in place of the interim liquidator shall, unless he is appointed by the court, forthwith notify the court of that fact.

Textual Amendments

F124Words in s. 138(3) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 33(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F125Words in s. 138(4) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 33(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F126Words in s. 138(5) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 33(4)(a); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F127Words in s. 138(5) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 33(4)(b); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C128S. 138 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

139 Choice of liquidator [F128by] creditors and contributories.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where a company is being wound up by the court and [F129nominations are sought from the company's creditors and contributories] for the purpose of choosing a person to be liquidator of the company.

(2)The creditors and the contributories [F130may in accordance with the rules] nominate a person to be liquidator.

(3)The liquidator shall be the person nominated by the creditors or, where no person has been so nominated, the person (if any) nominated by the contributories.

(4)In the case of different persons being nominated, any contributory or creditor may, within 7 days after the date on which the nomination was made by the creditors, apply to the court for an order either—

(a)appointing the person nominated as liquidator by the contributories to be a liquidator instead of, or jointly with, the person nominated by the creditors; or

(b)appointing some other person to be liquidator instead of the person nominated by the creditors.

Textual Amendments

F128Word in s. 139 heading substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 34(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F129Words in s. 139(1) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 34(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F130Words in s. 139(2) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 34(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C130S. 139 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 14

S. 139 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

140 Appointment by the court following administration or voluntary arrangement.E+W+S

[F131(1)Where a winding-up order is made immediately upon the appointment of an administrator ceasing to have effect, the court may appoint as liquidator of the company the person whose appointment as administrator has ceased to have effect.]

(2)Where a winding-up order is made at a time when there is a supervisor of a voluntary arrangement approved in relation to the company under Part I, the court may appoint as liquidator of the company the person who is the supervisor at the time when the winding-up order is made.

(3)Where the court makes an appointment under this section, the official receiver does not become the liquidator as otherwise provided by section 136(2), and [F132section 136(5)(a) and (b) does not apply.]

Textual Amendments

F131S. 140(1) substituted (15.9.2003) by 2002 c. 40, ss. 248(3), 279, Sch. 17 para. 17 (with s. 249(1)-(3)(6)); S.I. 2003/2093, art. 2(1), Sch. 1 (subject to arts. 3-8 (as amended by S.I. 2003/2332, art. 2))

F132Words in s. 140(3) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 35; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C132S. 140 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 15 (as amended (1.7.2005) by S.I. 2005/1516, art. 9(3))

S. 140 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

Liquidation committeesE+W+S

141 Liquidation committee (England and Wales).E+W+S

[F133(1)This section applies where a winding up order has been made by the court in England and Wales.

(2)If both the company's creditors and the company's contributories decide that a liquidation committee should be established, a liquidation committee is to be established in accordance with the rules.

(3)If only the company's creditors, or only the company's contributories, decide that a liquidation committee should be established, a liquidation committee is to be established in accordance with the rules unless the court orders otherwise.

(3A)A “liquidation committee” is a committee having such functions as are conferred on it by or under this Act.

(3B)The liquidator must seek a decision from the company's creditors and contributories as to whether a liquidation committee should be established if requested, in accordance with the rules, to do so by one-tenth in value of the company's creditors.

(3C)Subsection (3B) does not apply where the liquidator is the official receiver.]

(4)The liquidation committee is not to be able or required to carry out its functions at any time when the official receiver is liquidator; but at any such time its functions are vested in the Secretary of State except to the extent that the rules otherwise provide.

(5)Where there is for the time being no liquidation committee, and the liquidator is a person other than the official receiver, the functions of such a committee are vested in the Secretary of State except to the extent that the rules otherwise provide.

Textual Amendments

F133S. 141(1)-(3C) substituted for (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 36; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C133S. 141 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 16

S. 141 amended (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 371(4)(b); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

142 Liquidation committee (Scotland).E+W+S

[F134(1)This section applies where a winding up order has been made by the court in Scotland.

(2)If both the company's creditors and the company's contributories decide that a liquidation committee should be established, a liquidation committee is to be established in accordance with the rules.

(3)If only the company's creditors, or only the company's contributories, decide that a liquidation committee should be established, a liquidation committee is to be established in accordance with the rules unless the court orders otherwise.

[F135(3A)A “liquidation committee” is a committee having such functions as are conferred on it by or under this Act.]

(4)A liquidator appointed by the court other than under section 139(4)(a) must seek a decision from the company's creditors and contributories as to whether a liquidation committee should be established if requested, in accordance with the rules, to do so by one-tenth in value of the company's creditors.]

(5)Where in the case of any winding up there is for the time being no liquidation committee, the functions of such a committee are vested in the court except to the extent that the rules otherwise provide.

(6)[F136[F137A “liquidation committee” is a committee having the powers and duties conferred and imposed on it by this Act, and] such of the powers and duties of commissioners in a sequestration as may be conferred and imposed on such committees by the rules.]

Textual Amendments

F134S. 142(1)-(4) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 37(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F137Words in s. 142(6) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 37(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C136S. 142 amended (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 371(4)(b); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

S. 142 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

The liquidator’s functionsE+W+S

143 General functions in winding up by the court.E+W+S

(1)The functions of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the court are to secure that the assets of the company are got in, realised and distributed to the company’s creditors and, if there is a surplus, to the persons entitled to it.

(2)It is the duty of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the court in England and Wales, if he is not the official receiver—

(a)to furnish the official receiver with such information,

(b)to produce to the official receiver, and permit inspection by the official receiver of, such books, papers and other records, and

(c)to give the official receiver such other assistance,

as the official receiver may reasonably require for the purposes of carrying out his functions in relation to the winding up.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C139S. 143 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 17

S. 143 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C140S. 143 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

144 Custody of company’s property.E+W+S

(1)When a winding-up order has been made, or where a provisional liquidator has been appointed, the liquidator or the provisional liquidator (as the case may be) shall take into his custody or under his control all the property and things in action to which the company is or appears to be entitled.

(2)In a winding up by the court in Scotland, if and so long as there is no liquidator, all the property of the company is deemed to be in the custody of the court.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C143S. 144 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C144S. 144 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

145 Vesting of company property in liquidator.E+W+S

(1)When a company is being wound up by the court, the court may on the application of the liquidator by order direct that all or any part of the property of whatsoever description belonging to the company or held by trustees on its behalf shall vest in the liquidator by his official name; and thereupon the property to which the order relates vests accordingly.

(2)The liquidator may, after giving such indemnity (if any) as the court may direct, bring or defend in his official name any action or other legal proceeding which relates to that property or which it is necessary to bring or defend for the purpose of effectually winding up the company and recovering its property.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C146S. 145 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C147S. 145 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

[F138146Final accountE+W+S

(1)This section applies where a company is being wound up by the court and the liquidator is not the official receiver.

(2)If it appears to the liquidator that the winding up of the company is for practical purposes complete the liquidator must make up an account of the winding up, showing how it has been conducted and the company's property has been disposed of.

(3)The liquidator must—

(a)send a copy of the account to the company's creditors (other than opted-out creditors), and

(b)give the company's creditors (other than opted-out creditors) a notice explaining the effect of section 174(4)(d) and how they may object to the liquidator's release.

(4)The liquidator must during the relevant period send to the court and the registrar of companies—

(a)a copy of the account, and

(b)a statement of whether any of the company's creditors objected to the liquidator's release.

(5)The relevant period is the period of 7 days beginning with the day after the last day of the period prescribed by the rules as the period within which the creditors may object to the liquidator's release.

F139(6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F139(7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

Textual Amendments

F138S. 146 substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 38; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C149S. 146 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 18

S. 146 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

F140146AOfficial receiver’s duty to send statement to registrar about other proceedingsE+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

General powers of courtE+W+S

147 Power to stay or sist winding up.E+W+S

(1)The court may at any time after an order for winding up, on the application either of the liquidator or the official receiver or any creditor or contributory, and on proof to the satisfaction of the court that all proceedings in the winding up ought to be stayed or sisted, make an order staying or sisting the proceedings, either altogether or for a limited time, on such terms and conditions as the court thinks fit.

(2)The court may, before making an order, require the official receiver to furnish to it a report with respect to any facts or matters which are in his opinion relevant to the application.

(3)A copy of every order made under this section shall forthwith be forwarded by the company, or otherwise as may be prescribed, to the registrar of companies, who shall enter it in his records relating to the company.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C153S. 147 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 19

S. 147 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C154S. 147 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

148 Settlement of list of contributories and application of assets.E+W+S

(1)As soon as may be after making a winding-up order, the court shall settle a list of contributories, with power to rectify the register of members in all cases where rectification is required F141. . . , and shall cause the company’s assets to be collected, and applied in discharge of its liabilities.

(2)If it appears to the court that it will not be necessary to make calls on or adjust the rights of contributories, the court may dispense with the settlement of a list of contributories.

(3)In settling the list, the court shall distinguish between persons who are contributories in their own right and persons who are contributories as being representatives of or liable for the debts of others.

Textual Amendments

F141Words in s. 148(1) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(16)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C157S. 148 modified by S.I. 1986/1918, Rule 5

C158S. 148 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

149 Debts due from contributory to company.E+W+S

(1)The court may, at any time after making a winding-up order, make an order on any contributory for the time being on the list of contributories to pay, in manner directed by the order, any money due from him (or from the estate of the person who he represents) to the company, exclusive of any money payable by him or the estate by virtue of any call F142. . . .

(2)The court in making such an order may—

(a)in the case of an unlimited company, allow to the contributory by way of set-off any money due to him or the estate which he represents from the company on any independent dealing or contract with the company, but not any money due to him as a member of the company in respect of any dividend or profit, and

(b)in the case of a limited company, make to any director or manager whose liability is unlimited or to his estate the like allowance.

(3)In the case of any company, whether limited or unlimited, when all the creditors are paid in full (together with interest at the official rate) any money due on any account whatever to a contributory from the company may be allowed to him by way of set-off against any subsequent call.

Textual Amendments

F142Words in s. 149(1) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(16)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C159S. 149 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

150 Power to make calls.E+W+S

(1)The court may, at any time after making a winding-up order, and either before or after it has ascertained the sufficiency of the company’s assets, make calls on all or any of the contributories for the time being settled on the list of the contributories to the extent of their liability, for payment of any money which the court considers necessary to satisfy the company’s debts and liabilities, and the expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, and make an order for payment of any calls so made.

(2)In making a call the court may take into consideration the probability that some of the contributories may partly or wholly fail to pay it.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C160S. 150 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

F143151 Payment into bank of money due to company.E+W+S

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Textual Amendments

152 Order on contributory to be conclusive evidence.E+W+S

(1)An order made by the court on a contributory is conclusive evidence that the money (if any) thereby appearing to be due or ordered to be paid is due, but subject to any right of appeal.

(2)All other pertinent matters stated in the order are to be taken as truly stated as against all persons and in all proceedings except proceedings in Scotland against the heritable estate of a deceased contributory; and in that case the order is only prima facie evidence for the purpose of charging his heritable estate, unless his heirs or legatees of heritage were on the list of contributories at the time of the order being made.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C161S. 152 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

153 Power to exclude creditors not proving in time.E+W+S

The court may fix a time or times within which creditors are to prove their debts or claims or to be excluded from the benefit of any distribution made before those debts are proved.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C162S. 153 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

154 Adjustment of rights of contributories.E+W+S

The court shall adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves and distribute any surplus among the persons entitled to it.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C164S. 154 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

155 Inspection of books by creditors, etc.E+W+S

(1)The court may, at any time after making a winding-up order, make such order for inspection of the company’s books and papers by creditors and contributories as the court thinks just; and any books and papers in the company’s possession may be inspected by creditors and contributories accordingly, but not further or otherwise.

(2)Nothing in this section excludes or restricts any statutory rights of a government department or person acting under the authority of a government department.

[F144(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) above, references to a government department shall be construed as including references to any part of the Scottish Administration.]

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C166S. 155 excluded (6.4.1997) by 1995 c. 26, s. 26(1); S.I. 1997/664, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. II (with transitional adaptations, modifications and savings in arts. 3-14)

C167S. 155 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

156 Payment of expenses of winding up.E+W+S

The court may, in the event of the assets being insufficient to satisfy the liabilities, make an order as to the payment out of the assets of the expenses incurred in the winding up in such order of priority as the court thinks just.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C170S. 156 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

157 Attendance at company meetings (Scotland).E+W+S

In the winding up by the court of a company registered in Scotland, the court has power to require the attendance of any officer of the company at any meeting of creditors or of contributories, or of a liquidation committee, for the purpose of giving information as to the trade, dealings, affairs or property of the company.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C172S. 157 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

158 Power to arrest absconding contributory.E+W+S

The court, at any time either before or after making a winding-up order, on proof of probable cause for believing that a contributory is about to quit the United Kingdom or otherwise to abscond or to remove or conceal any of his property for the purpose of evading payment of calls, may cause the contributory to be arrested and his books and papers and moveable personal property to be seized and him and them to be kept safely until such time as the court may order.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C174S. 158 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

159 Powers of court to be cumulative.E+W+S

Powers conferred [F145on the court by this Act] are in addition to, and not in restriction of, any existing powers of instituting proceedings against a contributory or debtor of the company, or the estate of any contributory or debtor, for the recovery of any call or other sums.

Textual Amendments

F145Words in s. 159 substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(17)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

160 Delegation of powers to liquidator (England and Wales).E+W+S

(1)Provision may be made by rules for enabling or requiring all or any of the powers and duties conferred and imposed on the court in England and Wales F146... in respect of the following matters—

[F147(a)the seeking of decisions on any matter from creditors and contributories,]

(b)the settling of lists of contributories and the rectifying of the register of members where required, and the collection and application of the assets,

(c)the payment, delivery, conveyance, surrender or transfer of money, property, books or papers to the liquidator,

(d)the making of calls,

(e)the fixing of a time within which debts and claims must be proved,

to be exercised or performed by the liquidator as an officer of the court, and subject to the court’s control.

(2)But the liquidator shall not, without the special leave of the court, rectify the register of members, and shall not make any call without either that special leave or the sanction of the liquidation committee.

Textual Amendments

F146Words in s. 160(1) omitted (1.10.2009) by virtue of The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(18)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

F147S. 160(1)(a) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 39; S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Enforcement of, and appeal from, ordersE+W+S

161 Orders for calls on contributories (Scotland).E+W+S

(1)In Scotland, where an order, interlocutor or decree has been made for winding up a company by the court, it is competent to the court, on production by the liquidators of a list certified by them of the names of the contributories liable in payment of any calls, and of the amount due by each contributory, and of the date when that amount became due, to pronounce forthwith a decree against those contributories for payment of the sums so certified to be due, with interest from that date until payment (at 5 per cent. per annum) in the same way and to the same effect as if they had severally consented to registration for execution, on a charge of 6 days, of a legal obligation to pay those calls and interest.

(2)The decree may be extracted immediately, and no suspension of it is competent, except on caution or consignation, unless with special leave of the court.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C178S. 161 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

162 Appeals from orders in Scotland.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the provision of this section and to rules of court, an appeal from any order or decision made or given in the winding up of a company by the court in Scotland under this Act lies in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as an appeal from an order or decision of the court in cases within its ordinary jurisdiction.

(2)In regard to orders of judgments pronounced by the judge acting as vacation judge [F148in pursuance of section 4 of the M5Administration of Justice (Scotland) Act 1933]

(a)none of the orders specified in Part I of Schedule 3 to this Act are subject to review, reduction, suspension or stay of execution, and

(b)every other order or judgment (except as mentioned below) may be submitted to review by the Inner House by reclaiming motion enrolled within 14 days from the date of the order or judgment.

(3)However, an order being one of those specified in Part II of that Schedule shall, from the date of the order and notwithstanding that it has been submitted to review as above, be carried out and receive effect until the Inner House have disposed of the matter.

(4)In regard to orders or judgments pronounced in Scotland by a Lord Ordinary before whom proceedings in a winding up are being taken, any such order or judgment may be submitted to review by the Inner House by reclaiming motion enrolled within 14 days from its date; but should it not be so submitted to review during session, the provisions of this section in regard to orders or judgments pronounced by the judge acting as vacation judge apply.

(5)Nothing in this section affects provisions of [F149the Companies Acts] or this Act in reference to decrees in Scotland for payment of calls in the winding up of companies, whether voluntary or by the court.

Textual Amendments

F149Words in s. 162(5) substituted (1.10.2009) by The Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009, (S.I. 2009/1941) arts. 2(1), 8, {Sch. 1 para. 75(19)} (with art. 10, Sch. 1 para. 84)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C179S. 162 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C180S. 162 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

Marginal Citations

Chapter VIIE+W+S Liquidators

PreliminaryE+W+S

163 Style and title of liquidators.E+W+S

The liquidator of a company shall be described—

(a)where a person other than the official receiver is liquidator, by the style of “the liquidator” of the particular company, or

(b)where the official receiver is liquidator, by the style of “the official receiver and liquidator” of the particular company;

and in neither case shall he be described by an individual name.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C182 S. 163 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

164 Corrupt inducement affecting appointment.E+W+S

A person who gives, or agrees or offers to give, to any member or creditor of a company any valuable consideration with a view to securing his own appointment or nomination, or to securing or preventing the appointment or nomination of some person other than himself, as the company’s liquidator is liable to a fine.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C184 S. 164 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

Liquidator’s powers and dutiesE+W+S

165 Voluntary winding up.E+W+S

(1)This section has effect where a company is being wound up voluntarily, but subject to section 166 below in the case of a creditor’s voluntary winding up.

[F150(2)The liquidator may exercise any of the powers specified in Parts 1 to 3 of Schedule 4.]

(4)The liquidator may—

(a)exercise the court’s power of settling a list of contributories (which list is prima facie evidence of the liability of the persons named in it to be contributories),

(b)exercise the court’s power of making calls,

(c)summon general meetings of the company for the purpose of obtaining its sanction by [F151special resolution] or for any other purpose he may think fit.

(5)The liquidator shall pay the company’s debts and adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(6)Where the liquidator in exercise of the powers conferred on him by this Act disposes of any property of the company to a person who is connected with the company (within the meaning of section 249 in Part VII), he shall, if there is for the time being a liquidation committee, give notice to the committee of that exercise of his powers.

Textual Amendments

F150S. 165(2) substituted for s. 165(2)(3) (26.5.2015) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), ss. 120(2), 164(3)(i)(i)

F151Words in s. 165(4)(c) substituted (1.10.2007 with application as noted in Sch. 4 para. 41(2) of the amending S.I.) by The Companies Act 2006 (Commencement No. 3, Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/2194), art. 10(1), Sch. 4 para. 41(1)(b) (with art. 12)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C186 S. 165 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C188S. 165 modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

166 Creditors’ voluntary winding up.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where, in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up, a liquidator has been nominated by the company.

[F152(1A)The exercise by the liquidator of the power specified in paragraph 6 of Schedule 4 to this Act (power to sell any of the company's property) shall not be challengeable on the ground of any prior inhibition.]

(2)The powers conferred on the liquidator by section 165 shall not be exercised, except with the sanction of the court, [F153before—

(a)the company's creditors under section 100 nominate a person to be liquidator, or

(b)the procedure by which the company's creditors were to have made such a nomination concludes without a nomination having been made.]

(3)Subsection (2) does not apply in relation to the power of the liquidator—

(a)to take into his custody or under his control all the property to which the company is or appears to be entitled;

(b)to dispose of perishable goods and other goods the value of which is likely to diminish if they are not immediately disposed of; and

(c)to do all such other things as may be necessary for the protection of the company’s assets.

F154(4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)[F155If the directors fail to comply with—

( a)section 99(1), (2) or (2A), or

(b)section 100(1B),]

the liquidator shall, within 7 days of the relevant day, apply to the court for directions as to the manner in which that default is to be remedied.

(6)The relevant day” means the day on which the liquidator was nominated by the company or the day on which he first became aware of the default, whichever is the later.

(7)If the liquidator without reasonable excuse fails to comply with this section, he is liable to a fine.

Textual Amendments

F153Words in s. 166(2) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 40(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F154S. 166(4) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 40(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F155Words in s. 166(5) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 40(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C189S. 166 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C190S. 166(5) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

167 Winding up by the court.E+W+S

[F156(1)Where a company is being wound up by the court, the liquidator may exercise any of the powers specified in Parts 1 to 3 of Schedule 4.]

(2)Where the liquidator (not being the official receiver), in exercise of the powers conferred on him by this Act—

(a)disposes of any property of the company to a person who is connected with the company (within the meaning of section 249 in Part VII) or

(b)employs a solicitor to assist him in the carrying out of his functions,

he shall, if there is for the time being a liquidation committee, give notice to the committee of that exercise of his powers.

(3)The exercise by the liquidator in a winding up by the court of the powers conferred by this section is subject to the control of the court, and any creditor or contributory may apply to the court with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of any of those powers.

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C191S. 167 excluded (1.12.2001) by 2000 c. 8, s. 376(12); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

S. 167 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C192S. 167 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

C195S. 167(1) modified by The Insolvent Partnerships Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2421), Sch. 3 para. 8A(2) (as inserted (6.4.2017) by The Deregulation Act 2015 and Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (Consequential Amendments) (Savings) Regulations 2017 (S.I. 2017/540), reg. 1, Sch. 2 para. 7(2) (with reg. 4))

168 Supplementary powers (England and Wales).E+W+S

(1)This section applies in the case of a company which is being wound up by the court in England and Wales.

[F157(2)The liquidator may seek a decision on any matter from the company's creditors or contributories; and must seek a decision on a matter—

(a)from the company's creditors, if requested to do so by one-tenth in value of the creditors;

(b)from the company's contributories, if requested to do so by one-tenth in value of the contributories.]

(3)The liquidator may apply to the court (in the prescribed manner) for directions in relation to any particular matter arising in the winding up.

(4)Subject to the provisions of this Act, the liquidator shall use his own discretion in the management of the assets and their distribution among the creditors.

(5)If any person is aggrieved by an act or decision of the liquidator, that person may apply to the court; and the court may confirm, reverse or modify the act or decision complained of, and make such order in the case as it thinks just.

[F158(5A)Where at any time after a winding-up petition has been presented to the court against any person (including an insolvent partnership or other body which may be wound up under Part V of the Act as an unregistered company), whether by virtue of the provisions of the M6Insolvent Partnerships Order 1994 or not, the attention of the court is drawn to the fact that the person in question is a member of an insolvent partnership, the court may make an order as to the future conduct of the insolvency proceedings and any such order may apply any provisions of that Order with any necessary modifications.

(5B)Any order or directions under subsection (5A) may be made or given on the application of the official receiver, any responsible insolvency practitioner, the trustee of the partnership or any other interested person and may include provisions as to the administration of the joint estate of the partnership, and in particular how it and the separate estate of any member are to be administered.]

[F159(5C)Where the court makes an order for the winding up of an insolvent partnership under—

(a)section 72(1)(a) of the Financial Services Act 1986;

(b)section 92(1)(a) of the Banking Act 1987; or

(c)section 367(3)(a) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000,

the court may make an order as to the future conduct of the winding up proceedings, and any such order may apply any provisions of the Insolvent Partnerships Order 1994 with any necessary modifications.]

Textual Amendments

F157S. 168(2) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 41(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F158S. 168(5A)(5B)(5C) inserted (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 14(1)

F159S. 168(5C) substituted (3.7.2002) by S.I. 2002/1555, art. 15(2)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C198S. 168(1)-(3)(5) applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 20

C200S. 168(4) applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 145, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 3

C201S. 168(4) applied (with modifications) (8.7.2021) by The Payment and Electronic Money Institution Insolvency Regulations 2021 (S.I. 2021/716), regs. 2, 37 (with reg. 5)

Marginal Citations

169 Supplementary powers (Scotland).E+W+S

(1)F160. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(2)In a winding up by the court in Scotland, the liquidator has (subject to the rules) the same powers as a trustee on a bankrupt estate.

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C202S. 169 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

170 Enforcement of liquidator’s duty to make returns, etc.E+W+S

(1)If a liquidator who has made any default—

(a)in filing, delivering or making any return, account or other document, or

(b)in giving any notice which he is by law required to file, deliver, make or give,

fails to make good the default within 14 days after the service on him of a notice requiring him to do so, the court has the following powers.

(2)On an application made by any creditor or contributory of the company, or by the registrar of companies, the court may make an order directing the liquidator to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order.

(3)The court’s order may provide that all costs of and incidental to the application shall be borne by the liquidator.

(4)Nothing in this section prejudices the operation of any enactment imposing penalties on a liquidator in respect of any such default as is mentioned above.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C205S. 170 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C206S. 170 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

Removal; vacation of officeE+W+S

171 Removal, etc. (voluntary winding up).E+W+S

(1)This section applies with respect to the removal from office and vacation of office of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up voluntarily.

(2)Subject to the next subsection, the liquidator may be removed from office only by an order of the court or—

(a)in the case of a members’ voluntary winding up, by a general meeting of the company summoned specially for that puropose, or

(b)in the case of a creditors’ voluntary winding up, by a [F161decision of the company's creditors made by a qualifying decision procedure instigated] specially for that purpose in accordance with the rules.

[F162(3)Where the liquidator in a members' voluntary winding up was appointed by the court under section 108, a meeting such as is mentioned in subsection (2)(a) shall be summoned only if—

(a)the liquidator thinks fit,

(b)the court so directs, or

(c)the meeting is requested in accordance with the rules by members representing not less than one-half of the total voting rights of all the members having at the date of the request a right to vote at the meeting.

(3A)Where the liquidator in a creditors' voluntary winding up was appointed by the court under section 108, a qualifying decision procedure such as is mentioned in subsection (2)(b) is to be instigated only if—

(a)the liquidator thinks fit,

(b)the court so directs, or

(c)it is requested in accordance with the rules by not less than one-half in value of the company's creditors.]

(4)A liquidator shall vacate office if he ceases to be a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner in relation to the company.

(5)A liquidator may, in the prescribed circumstances, resign his office by giving notice of his resignation to the registrar of companies.

[F163(6)In the case of a members' voluntary winding up where the liquidator has produced an account of the winding up under section 94 (final account), the liquidator vacates office as soon as the liquidator has complied with section 94(3) (requirement to send final account to registrar).

(7)In the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up where the liquidator has produced an account of the winding up under section 106 (final account), the liquidator vacates office as soon as the liquidator has complied with section 106(3) (requirement to send final account etc. to registrar).]

Textual Amendments

F161Words in s. 171(2)(b) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 42(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F162S. 171(3)(3A) substituted for s. 171(3) (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 42(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F163S. 171(6)(7) substituted for s. 171(6) (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 42(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C209S. 171 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

C210S. 171 modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

C211S. 171(5)(6) amended (1.7.1999) by 1998 c. 46, s. 125, Sch. 8 para. 23(4)-(5) (with s. 126(3)-(11)); S.I. 1998/3178, arts. 2, 3 (as amended (28.6.2016) by The Building Societies (Floating Charges and Other Provisions) Order 2016 (S.I. 2016/679), arts. 1(1), 6)

172 Removal, etc. (winding up by the court).E+W+S

(1)This section applies with respect to the removal from office and vacationm of office of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the court, or of a provisional liquidator.

(2)Subject as follows, the liquidator may be removed from office only by an order of the court or by a [F164decision of the company's creditors made by a qualifying decision procedure instigated] specially for that purpose in accordance with the rules; and a provisional liquidator may be removed from office only by an order of the court.

(3)Where—

(a)the official receiver is liquidator otherwise than in succession under section 136(3) to a person who held office as a result of a nomination by F165... the company’s creditors or contributories, or

(b)the liquidator was appointed by the court otherwise than under section 139(4)(a) or 140(1), or was appointed by the Secretary of State,

[F166a qualifying decision procedure such as is mentioned in subsection (2) shall be instigated only if the liquidator thinks fit, the court so directs, or it] is requested, in accordance with the rules, by not less than one-quarter, in value, of the creditors.

(4)If appointed by the Secretary of State, the liquidator may be removed from office by a direction of the Secretary of State.

(5)A liquidator or provisional liquidator, not being the official receiver, shall vacate office if he ceases to be a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner in relation to the company.

(6)A liquidator may, in the prescribed circumstances, resign his office by giving notice of his resignation to the court.

(7)Where an order is made under section 204 (early dissolution in Scotland) for the dissolution of the company, the liquidator shall vacate office when the dissolution of the company takes effect in accordance with that section.

[F167(8)Where the liquidator has produced an account of the winding up under section 146 (final account), the liquidator vacates office as soon as the liquidator has complied with section 146(4) (requirement to send account etc. to registrar and to court).]

[F168(9)Subsection (10) applies where, immediately before a liquidator gives notice to the court and the registrar under subsection (8) (or, where the liquidator gives notice to the court and the registrar on different days, immediately before the liquidator gives the first of those notices), there are EU insolvency proceedings open in respect of the company in one or more other member States.

(10)The liquidator must send to the court and the registrar, with the notice, a statement—

(a)identifying those proceedings,

(b)identifying the member State liquidator appointed in each of those proceedings, and

(c)indicating, in relation to each of those member State liquidators, whether that member State liquidator consents to the company being dissolved.]

Textual Amendments

F164Words in s. 172(2) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 43(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F165Words in s. 172(3)(a) omitted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by virtue of Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 43(3)(a); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F166Words in s. 172(3) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 43(3)(b); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F167S. 172(8) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 43(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C212S. 172 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 21

C213S. 172 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2

C215S. 172 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2 (as amended (S.) (8.12.2017) by The Insolvency (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2017 (S.I. 2017/1119), reg. 1(1), Sch. 1 para. 57(3))

C216S. 172(8) amended (1.12.2001) by S.I. 2001/1228, arts. 1(2)(c)(3), 32(1); S.I. 2001/3538, art. 2(1)

Release of liquidatorE+W+S

173 Release (voluntary winding up).E+W+S

(1)This section applies with respect to the release of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up voluntarily.

(2)A person who has ceased to be a liquidator shall have his release with effect from the following time, that is to say—

[F169(a)in the following cases, the time at which notice is given to the registrar of companies in accordance with the rules that the person has ceased to hold office—

(i)the person has been removed from office by a general meeting of the company,

(ii)the person has been removed from office by a decision of the company's creditors and the company's creditors have not decided against his release,

(iii)the person has died;

(b)in the following cases, such time as the Secretary of State may, on the application of the person, determine—

(i)the person has been removed from office by a decision of the company's creditors and the company's creditors have decided against his release,

(ii)the person has been removed from office by the court,

(iii)the person has vacated office under section 171(4);]

(c)in the case of a person who has resigned, such time as may be prescribed;

(d)in the case of a person who has vacated office under subsection [F170(6)] of section 171, the time at which he vacated office;

[F171(e)in the case of a person who has vacated office under section 171(7)—

(i)if any of the company's creditors objected to the person's release before the end of the period for so objecting prescribed by the rules, such time as the Secretary of State may, on an application by that person, determine, and

(ii)otherwise, the time at which the person vacated office.]

[F172(2A)Where the person is removed from office by a decision of the company's creditors, any decision of the company's creditors as to whether the person should have his release must be made by a qualifying decision procedure.]

(3)In the application of subsection (2) to the winding up of a company registered in Scotland, the references to a determination by the Secretary of State as to the time from which a person who has ceased to be liquidator shall have his release are to be read as references to such a determination by the Accountant of Court.

(4)Where a liquidator has his release under subsection (2), he is, with effect from the time specified in that subsection, discharged from all liability both in respect of acts or omissions of his in the winding up and otherwise in relation to his conduct as liquidator.

But nothing in this section prevents the exercise, in relation to a person who has had his release under subsection (2), of the court’s powers under section 212 of this Act (summary remedy against delinquent directors, liquidators, etc.).

Textual Amendments

F169S. 173(2)(a)(b) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 44(2); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F170Word in s. 173(2)(d) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 44(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F171S. 173(2)(e) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 44(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F172S. 173(2A) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 44(5); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C218S. 173(2) modified (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(2), Sch. 3

S. 173 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

174 Release (winding up by the court).E+W+S

(1)This section applies with respect to the release of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the court, or of a provisional liquidator.

(2)Where the official receiver has ceased to be liquidator and a person becomes liquidator in his stead, the official receiver has his release with effect from the following time, that is to say—

(a)in a case where that person was nominated by [F173the company's] creditors or contributories, or was appointed by the Secretary of State, the time at which the official receiver gives notice to the court that he has been replaced;

(b)in a case where that person is appointed by the court, such time as the court may determine.

(3)If the official receiver while he is a liquidator gives notice to the Secretary of State that the winding up is for practical purposes complete, he has his release with effect from such time as the Secretary of State may determine.

(4)A person other than the official receiver who has ceased to be a liquidator has his release with effect from the following time, that is to say—

[F174(a)in the following cases, the time at which notice is given to the court in accordance with the rules that the person has ceased to hold office—

(i)the person has been removed from office by a decision of the company's creditors and the company's creditors have not decided against his release,

(ii)the person has died;

(b)in the following cases, such time as the Secretary of State may, on the application of the person, determine—

(i)the person has been removed from office by a decision of the company's creditors and the company's creditors have decided against his release;

(ii)the person has been removed from office by the court or the Secretary of State;

(iii)the person has vacated office under section 172(5) or (7);]

(c)in the case of a person who has resigned, such time as may be prescribed;

(d)in the case of a person who has vacated office under section 172(8)—

[F175(i)if any of the company's creditors objected to the person's release before the end of the period for so objecting prescribed by the rules, such time as the Secretary of State may, on an application by that person, determine, and

(ii)otherwise, the time at which the person vacated office.]

[F176(4ZA)Where the person is removed from office by a decision of the company's creditors, any decision of the company's creditors as to whether the person should have his release must be made by a qualifying decision procedure.]

[F177(4A)Where a winding-up order made by the court in England and Wales is rescinded, the person (whether the official receiver or another person) who is the liquidator of the company at the time the order is rescinded has his release with effect from such time as the court may determine.]

(5)A person who has ceased to hold office as a provisional liquidator has his release with effect from such time as the court may, on an application by him, determine.

(6)Where the official receiver or a liquidator or provisional liquidator has his release under this section, he is, with effect from the time specified in the preceding provisions of this section, discharged from all liability both in respect of acts or omissions of his in the winding up and otherwise in relation to his conduct as liquidator or provisional liquidator.

But nothing in this section prevents the exercise, in relation to a person who has had his release under this section, of the court’s powers under section 212 (summary remedy against delinquent directors, liquidators, etc.).

(7)In the application of this section to a case where the order for winding up has been made by the court in Scotland, the references to a determination by the Secretary of State as to the time from which a person who has ceased to be liquidator has his release are to such a determination by the Accountant of Court.

Textual Amendments

F173Words in s. 174(2)(a) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 45(2)(a); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F174S. 174(4)(a)(b) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 45(3); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F175S. 174(4)(d)(i)(ii) substituted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 45(4); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

F176S. 174(4ZA) inserted (26.5.2015 for specified purposes, 6.4.2017 for E.W. in so far as not already in force, 6.4.2019 for S. in so far as not already in force) by Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015 (c. 26), s. 164(1), Sch. 9 para. 45(5); S.I. 2015/1329, reg. 3(d); S.I. 2016/1020, reg. 4(e) (with reg. 5) (as amended by S.I. 2017/363, reg. 3); S.I. 2019/816, reg. 4(c) (with reg. 5)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C219S. 174 applied (with modifications) (1.12.1994) by S.I. 1994/2421, art. 8(3)(9), Sch. 4 Pt. II para. 22

S. 174 applied (with modifications) (S.) (6.4.2001) by S.S.I. 2001/128, reg. 4(1), Sch. 2

Chapter VIIIU.K. Provisions of General Application in Winding Up

[F178Moratorium: order of priority of payment of debtsE+W+S

Textual Amendments

F178S. 174A and cross-heading inserted (26.6.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), s. 49(1), Sch. 3 para. 13 (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

174AMoratorium debts etc: priorityE+W+S

(1)This section applies where proceedings for the winding up of a company are begun before the end of the period of 12 weeks beginning with the day after the end of any moratorium for the company under Part A1.

(2)In the winding up, the following are payable out of the company’s assets (in the order of priority shown) in preference to all other claims—

(a)any prescribed fees or expenses of the official receiver acting in any capacity in relation to the company;

(b)moratorium debts and priority pre-moratorium debts.

(3)In subsection (2)(b) “priority pre-moratorium debt” means—

(a)any pre-moratorium debt that is payable in respect of—

(i)the monitor’s remuneration or expenses,

(ii)goods or services supplied during the moratorium,

(iii)rent in respect of a period during the moratorium, or

(iv)wages or salary arising under a contract of employment, so far as relating to a period of employment before or during the moratorium,

(b)any pre-moratorium debt that—

(i)consists of a liability to make a redundancy payment, and

(ii)fell due before or during the moratorium, and

(c)any pre-moratorium debt that—

(i)arises under a contract or other instrument involving financial services,

(ii)fell due before or during the moratorium, and

(iii)is not relevant accelerated debt (see subsection (4)).

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3)(c)—

(5)The rules may make provision as to the order in which the debts mentioned in subsection (2)(b) rank among themselves in a case where the assets of the company are insufficient to meet them in full.

(6)The Secretary of State may by regulations made by statutory instrument amend this section for the purposes of changing the definition of “moratorium debt” or “priority pre-moratorium debt” in this section.

(7)Regulations under subsection (6) may make consequential, supplementary, incidental or transitional provision or savings.

(8)A statutory instrument containing regulations under subsection (6) may not be made unless a draft of the instrument has been laid before and approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.

(9)For the purposes of this section proceedings for the winding up of a company are begun when—

(a)a winding-up petition is presented, or

(b)a resolution for voluntary winding up is passed.

(10)Any rules made under section A18(4) (meaning of supply of goods or services) apply also for the purposes of subsection (3)(a)(ii) of this section.

(11)In this section—

Preferential debtsE+W+S

175 Preferential debts (general provision).E+W+S

(1)In a winding up the company’s preferential debts F179... shall be paid in priority to all other debts [F180after the payment of—

(a)any liabilities to which section 174A applies, and

(b)expenses of the winding up.]

[F181(1A)Ordinary preferential debts rank equally among themselves F182... and shall be paid in full, unless the assets are insufficient to meet them, in which case they abate in equal proportions.

(1B)Secondary preferential debts rank equally among themselves after the ordinary preferential debts and shall be paid in full, unless the assets are insufficient to meet them, in which case they abate in equal proportions.]

(2)Preferential debts—

F183(a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b)so far as the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors are insufficient to meet them, have priority over the claims of holders of debentures secured by, or holders of, any floating charge created by the company, and shall be paid accordingly out of any property comprised in or subject to that charge.

[F184(3)In this section “preferential debts”, “ordinary preferential debts” and “secondary preferential debts” each has the meaning given in section 386 in Part 12.]

Textual Amendments

F180S. 175(1)(a)(b) and words inserted (26.6.2020) by Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), s. 49(1), Sch. 3 para. 14(2) (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

F182Words in s. 175(1A) omitted (26.6.2020) by virtue of Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 (c. 12), s. 49(1), Sch. 3 para. 14(3) (with ss. 2(2), 5(2))

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C224S. 175 applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 263(1)(2) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch. para. 2