xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"

PART 1SARREST AND CUSTODY

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Pt. 1 applied (with modifications) by 2003 c. 20, s. 31A (as inserted (25.1.2018) by The Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (Consequential Provisions) Order 2018 (S.I. 2018/46), art. 2(2)(a)(f), Sch. 2 para. 2 (with art. 6))

C2Pt. 1 applied (with modifications) by 1994 c. 33, s. 137ZA (as inserted (25.1.2018) by The Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (Consequential Provisions) Order 2018 (S.I. 2018/46), art. 2(2)(a)(f), Sch. 1 para. 4 (with art. 5(2)))

C3Pt. 1 applied (with modifications) by 2004 c. 20, s. 56A (as inserted (25.1.2018) by The Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (Consequential Provisions) Order 2018 (S.I. 2018/46), art. 2(2)(a)(f), Sch. 2 para. 3 (with art. 6))

C4Pt. 1 applied (with modifications) by 1987 c. 4, s. 2D (as inserted (25.1.2018) by The Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (Consequential Provisions) Order 2018 (S.I. 2018/46), art. 2(2)(a)(f), Sch. 2 para. 1 (with art. 6))

CHAPTER 1SARREST BY POLICE

Arrest without warrantS

1Power of a constableS

(1)A constable may arrest a person without a warrant if the constable has reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has committed or is committing an offence.

(2)In relation to an offence not punishable by imprisonment, a constable may arrest a person under subsection (1) only if the constable is satisfied that it would not be in the interests of justice to delay the arrest in order to seek a warrant for the person's arrest.

(3)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (2), it would not be in the interests of justice to delay an arrest in order to seek a warrant if the constable reasonably believes that unless the person is arrested without delay the person will—

(a)continue committing the offence, or

(b)obstruct the course of justice in any way, including by—

(i)seeking to avoid arrest, or

(ii)interfering with witnesses or evidence.

(4)For the avoidance of doubt, an offence is to be regarded as not punishable by imprisonment for the purpose of subsection (2) only if no person convicted of the offence can be sentenced to imprisonment in respect of it.

Commencement Information

I1S. 1 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 6)

2Exercise of the powerS

(1)A person may be arrested under section 1 more than once in respect of the same offence.

(2)A person may not be arrested under section 1 in respect of an offence if the person has been officially accused of committing the offence or an offence arising from the same circumstances as the offence.

(3)Where—

(a)a constable who is not in uniform arrests a person under section 1, and

(b)the person asks to see the constable's identification,

the constable must show identification to the person as soon as reasonably practicable.

Commencement Information

I2S. 2 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

Procedure following arrestS

3Information to be given on arrestS

When a constable arrests a person (or as soon afterwards as is reasonably practicable), a constable must inform the person—

(a)that the person is under arrest,

(b)of the general nature of the offence in respect of which the person is arrested [F1(if any)],

(c)of the reason for the arrest,

(d)that the person is under no obligation to say anything, other than to give the information specified in section 34(4), and

(e)of the person's right to have—

(i)intimation sent to a solicitor under section 43, and

(ii)access to a solicitor under section 44.

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C10S. 3 applied (with modifications) by 1994 c. 33, s. 137D(3)(a), Sch. 7B Pt. 2 (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 1.3.2018 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 116(1)(3), 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 16; S.I. 2018/227, art. 2(f))

Commencement Information

I3S. 3 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

4Arrested person to be taken to police stationS

(1)Where a person is arrested by a constable outwith a police station, a constable must take the person as quickly as is reasonably practicable to a police station.

[F2(1A)But subsection (1) need not be complied with if—

(a)either the warrant under which the person was arrested or an enactment requires that following the arrest the person be taken to a particular place (other than a police station), and

(b)the taking of the person to that place would be unnecessarily delayed by taking the person to a police station first.]

(2)Subsection (1) ceases to apply, and the person must be released from police custody immediately, if—

(a)the person has been arrested [F3in respect of an offence] without a warrant,

(b)the person has not yet arrived at a police station in accordance with this section, and

(c)in the opinion of a constable there are no reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has committed—

(i)the offence in respect of which the person was arrested, or

(ii)an offence arising from the same circumstances as that offence.

(3)For the avoidance of doubt, subsection (1) ceases to apply if, before arriving at a police station in accordance with this section, the person is released from custody under—

(a)section 25(2), or

(b)section 28(3A) of the 1995 Act.

5Information to be given at police stationS

(1)Subsections (2) and (3) apply when—

(a)a person is in police custody having been arrested at a police station, or

(b)a person is in police custody and has been taken to a police station in accordance with section 4.

(2)The person must be informed as soon as reasonably practicable—

(a)that the person is under no obligation to say anything, other than to give the information specified in section 34(4),

(b)of any right the person has to have intimation sent and to have access to certain persons under—

(i)section 38,

(ii)section 40,

(iii)section 43,

(iv)section 44.

(3)The person must be provided as soon as reasonably practicable with such information (verbally or in writing) as is necessary to satisfy the requirements of Articles 3 and 4 of Directive 2012/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the right to information in criminal proceedings.

Commencement Information

I5S. 5 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

6Information to be recorded by policeS

(1)There must be recorded in relation to any arrest by a constable—

(a)the time and place of arrest,

[F4(b)either—

(i)the general nature of the offence in respect of which the person is arrested, or

(ii)if the person is arrested otherwise than in respect of an offence, the reason for the arrest,]

(c)if the person is taken from one place to another while in police custody (including to a police station in accordance with section 4)—

(i)the place from which, and time at which, the person is taken, and

(ii)the place to which the person is taken and the time at which the person arrives there,

(d)the time at which, and the identity of the constable by whom, the person is informed of the matters mentioned in section 3,

(e)the time at which the person ceases to be in police custody.

(2)Where relevant, there must be recorded in relation to an arrest by a constable—

(a)the reason that the constable who released the person from custody under subsection (2) of section 4 formed the opinion mentioned in paragraph (c) of that subsection,

(b)the time at which, and the identity of the person by whom, the person is—

(i)informed of the matters mentioned in subsection (2) of section 5, and

(ii)provided with information in accordance with subsection (3) of that section,

(c)the time at which, and the identity of the person by whom, the person is informed of the matters mentioned in section 20,

(d)the time at which the person requests that intimation be sent under—

(i)section 38,

(ii)section 43,

(e)the time at which intimation is sent under—

(i)section 38,

(ii)section 41,

(iii)section 42,

(iv)section 43.

(3)Where a person is in police custody and not officially accused of committing an offence, there must be recorded the time, place and outcome of any decision under section 7.

(4)Where a person is held in police custody by virtue of authorisation given under section 7 there must be recorded—

(a)the time at which the person is informed of the matters mentioned in section 8,

(b)the time, place and outcome of any custody review under section 13,

(c)the time at which any interview in the circumstances described in section 15(6) begins and the time at which it ends.

(5)If a constable considers whether to give authorisation under section 11 there must be recorded—

(a)whether a reasonable opportunity to make representations has been afforded in accordance with subsection (4)(a) of that section,

(b)if the opportunity referred to in paragraph (a) has not been afforded, the reason for that,

(c)the time, place and outcome of the constable's decision, and

(d)if the constable's decision is to give the authorisation—

(i)the grounds on which it is given,

(ii)the time at which, and the identity of the person by whom, the person is informed and reminded of things in accordance with section 12, and

(iii)the time at which the person requests that intimation be sent under section 12(3)(a) and the time at which it is sent.

(6)Where a person is held in police custody by virtue of authorisation given under section 11 there must be recorded—

(a)the time, place and outcome of any custody review under section 13,

(b)the time at which any interview in the circumstances described in section 15(6) begins and the time at which it ends.

(7)If a person is released from police custody on conditions under section 16, there must be recorded—

(a)details of the conditions imposed, and

(b)the identity of the constable who imposed them.

(8)If a person is charged with an offence by a constable while in police custody, there must be recorded the time at which the person is charged.

CHAPTER 2SCUSTODY: PERSON NOT OFFICIALLY ACCUSED

Keeping person in custodyS

7Authorisation for keeping in custodyS

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a person is in police custody having been arrested [F5in respect of an offence] without a warrant, and

(b)since being arrested, the person has not been charged with an offence by a constable.

(2)Authorisation to keep the person in custody must be sought as soon as reasonably practicable after the person—

(a)is arrested at a police station, or

(b)arrives at a police station, having been taken there in accordance with section 4.

(3)Authorisation may be given only by a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of sergeant or above, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in police custody.

(4)Authorisation may be given only if that constable is satisfied that the test in section 14 is met.

(5)If authorisation is refused, the person may continue to be held in police custody only if—

(a)a constable charges the person with an offence, or

(b)the person is detained under section 28(1A) of the 1995 Act (which allows for detention in connection with a breach of bail conditions).

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C11S. 7(2) excluded by 1995 c. 46, s. 28A(1) (as inserted (25.1.2018) by Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (asp 1), s. 117(2), sch. 2 para. 30; S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.)

Commencement Information

I7S. 7 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with arts. 4, 6)

8Information to be given on authorisationS

At the time when authorisation to keep a person in custody is given under section 7, the person must be informed of—

(a)the reason that the person is being kept in custody, and

(b)the 12 hour limit arising by virtue of section 9 and the fact that the person may be kept in custody for a further 12 hours under section 11.

Commencement Information

I8S. 8 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

912 hour limit: general ruleS

(1)Subsection (2) applies when—

(a)a person has been held in police custody for a continuous period of 12 hours, beginning with the time at which authorisation was given under section 7, and

(b)during that period the person has not been charged with an offence by a constable.

(2)The person may continue to be held in police custody only if—

(a)a constable charges the person with an offence,

(b)authorisation to keep the person in custody has been given under section 11, or

(c)the person is detained under section 28(1A) of the 1995 Act (which allows for detention in connection with a breach of bail conditions).

Commencement Information

I9S. 9 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

1012 hour limit: previous periodS

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a person is being held in police custody by virtue of authorisation given under section 7,

(b)authorisation has been given under that section to hold the person in police custody on a previous occasion, and

(c)the offence in connection with which the authorisation mentioned in paragraph (a) has been given is the same offence or arises from the same circumstances as the offence in connection with which the authorisation mentioned in paragraph (b) was given.

(2)The 12 hour period mentioned in section 9 is reduced by the length of the period during which the person was held in police custody by virtue of the authorisation mentioned in subsection (1)(b).

(3)Subsections (5) and (6) of section 15 apply for the purpose of calculating the length of the period during which the person was held in police custody by virtue of the authorisation mentioned in subsection (1)(b).

Commencement Information

I10S. 10 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

11Authorisation for keeping in custody beyond 12 hour limitS

(1)A constable may give authorisation for a person who is in police custody to be kept in custody for a continuous period of 12 hours, beginning when the 12 hour period mentioned in section 9 ends.

(2)Authorisation may be given only by a constable who—

(a)is of, or above, the rank of—

(i)inspector, if a constable believes the person to be 18 years of age or over,

(ii)chief inspector, if a constable believes the person to be under 18 years of age, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in police custody.

(3)Authorisation may be given only if—

(a)the person has not been held in police custody by virtue of authorisation given under this section in connection with—

(i)the offence in connection with which the person is in police custody, or

(ii)an offence arising from the same circumstances as that offence, and

(b)the constable is satisfied that—

(i)the test in section 14 will be met when the 12 hour period mentioned in section 9 ends,

(ii)the offence in connection with which the person is in police custody is an indictable offence, and

(iii)the investigation is being conducted diligently and expeditiously.

(4)Before deciding whether or not to give authorisation the constable must—

(a)where practicable afford a reasonable opportunity to make verbal or written representations to—

(i)the person, or

(ii)if the person so chooses, the person's solicitor, and

(b)have regard to any representations made.

(5)If authorisation is given, it is deemed to be withdrawn if the person is released from police custody before the 12 hour period mentioned in section 9 ends.

(6)Subsection (7) applies when—

(a)by virtue of authorisation given under this section, a person has been held in police custody for a continuous period of 12 hours (beginning with the time at which the 12 hour period mentioned in section 9 ended), and

(b)during that period the person has not been charged with an offence by a constable.

(7)The person may continue to be held in police custody only if—

(a)a constable charges the person with an offence, or

(b)the person is detained under section 28(1A) of the 1995 Act (which allows for detention in connection with a breach of bail conditions).

Commencement Information

I11S. 11 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

12Information to be given on authorisation under section 11S

(1)This section applies when authorisation to keep a person in custody is given under section 11.

(2)The person must be informed—

(a)that the authorisation has been given, and

(b)of the grounds on which it has been given.

(3)The person—

(a)has the right to have the information mentioned in subsection (2) intimated to a solicitor, and

(b)must be informed of that right.

(4)The person must be reminded about any right which the person has under Chapter 5.

(5)Subsection (4) does not require that a person be reminded about a right to have intimation sent under either of the following sections if the person has exercised the right already—

(a)section 38,

(b)section 43.

(6)Information to be given under subsections (2), (3)(b) and (4) must be given to the person as soon as reasonably practicable after the authorisation is given.

(7)Where the person requests that intimation be sent under subsection (3)(a), the intimation must be sent as soon as reasonably practicable.

Commencement Information

I12S. 12 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

13Custody reviewS

(1)A custody review must be carried out—

(a)when a person has been held in police custody for a continuous period of 6 hours by virtue of authorisation given under section 7, and

(b)again, if authorisation to keep the person in police custody is given under section 11, when the person has been held in custody for a continuous period of 6 hours by virtue of that authorisation.

(2)A custody review entails the consideration by a constable of whether the test in section 14 is met.

(3)A custody review must be carried out by a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of inspector or above, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in police custody.

(4)If the constable is not satisfied that the test in section 14 is met, the person may continue to be held in police custody only if—

(a)a constable charges the person with an offence, or

(b)the person is detained under section 28(1A) of the 1995 Act (which allows for detention in connection with a breach of bail conditions).

Commencement Information

I13S. 13 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

14Test for sections 7, 11 and 13S

(1)For the purposes of sections 7(4), 11(3)(b) and 13(2), the test is that—

(a)there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has committed an offence, and

(b)keeping the person in custody is necessary and proportionate for the purposes of bringing the person before a court or otherwise dealing with the person in accordance with the law.

(2)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1)(b), in considering what is necessary and proportionate for the purpose mentioned in that subsection regard may be had to—

(a)whether the person's presence is reasonably required to enable the offence to be investigated fully,

(b)whether the person (if liberated) would be likely to interfere with witnesses or evidence, or otherwise obstruct the course of justice,

(c)the nature and seriousness of the offence.

Commencement Information

I14S. 14 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

15Medical treatmentS

(1)Subsection (2) applies when—

(a)a person is in police custody having been arrested without a warrant,

(b)since being arrested, the person has not been charged with an offence by a constable, and

(c)the person is at a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment.

(2)If authorisation to keep the person in custody has not been given under section 7, that section has effect as if—

(a)each reference in subsection (2) of that section to a police station were a reference to the hospital, and

(b)the words after the reference to a police station in paragraph (b) of that subsection were omitted.

(3)Where authorisation is given under section 7 when a person is at a hospital, authorisation under that section need not be sought again if, while still in custody, the person is taken to a police station in accordance with section 4.

(4)Subsections (5) and (6) apply for the purpose of calculating the 12 hours mentioned in sections 9 and 11.

(5)Except as provided for in subsection (6), no account is to be taken of any period during which a person is—

(a)at a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, or

(b)being taken as quickly as is reasonably practicable—

(i)to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, or

(ii)to a police station from a hospital to which the person was taken for the purpose of receiving medical treatment.

(6)Account is to be taken of any period during which a person is both—

(a)at a hospital, or being taken to or from one, and

(b)being interviewed by a constable in relation to an offence which the constable has reasonable grounds to suspect the person of committing.

Commencement Information

I15S. 15 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

Investigative liberationS

16Release on conditionsS

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a person is being held in police custody by virtue of authorisation given under section 7,

(b)a constable has reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has committed a relevant offence, and

(c)either—

(i)the person has not been subject to a condition imposed under subsection (2) in connection with a relevant offence, or

(ii)it has not been more than 28 days since the first occasion on which a condition was imposed on the person under subsection (2) in connection with a relevant offence.

(2)If releasing the person from custody, a constable may impose any condition that an appropriate constable considers necessary and proportionate for the purpose of ensuring the proper conduct of the investigation into a relevant offence (including, for example, a condition aimed at securing that the person does not interfere with witnesses or evidence).

(3)A condition under subsection (2)—

(a)may not require the person to be in a specified place at a specified time,

(b)may require the person—

(i)not to be in a specified place, or category of place, at a specified time, and

(ii)to remain outwith that place, or any place falling within the specified category (if any), for a specified period.

(4)A condition imposed under subsection (2) is a liberation condition for the purposes of schedule 1.

(5)In subsection (2), “an appropriate constable” means a constable of the rank of sergeant or above.

(6)In this section, “a relevant offence” means—

(a)the offence in connection with which the authorisation under section 7 has been given, or

(b)an offence arising from the same circumstances as that offence.

Commencement Information

I16S. 16 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

17Conditions ceasing to applyS

(1)A condition imposed on a person under section 16(2) ceases to apply—

(a)at the end of the day falling 28 days after the first occasion on which a condition was imposed on the person under section 16(2) in connection with a relevant offence, or

(b)before then, if—

(i)the condition is removed by a notice under section 18,

(ii)the person is arrested in connection with a relevant offence,

(iii)the person is officially accused of committing a relevant offence, or

(iv)the condition is removed by the sheriff under section 19.

(2)In subsection (1), “a relevant offence” means—

(a)the offence in connection with which the condition was imposed, or

(b)an offence arising from the same circumstances as that offence.

Commencement Information

I17S. 17 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

18Modification or removal of conditionsS

(1)A constable may by notice modify or remove a condition imposed under section 16(2).

(2)A notice under subsection (1)—

(a)is to be given in writing to the person who is subject to the condition,

(b)must specify the time from which the condition is modified or removed.

(3)A constable of the rank of inspector or above must keep under review whether or not—

(a)there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that a person who is subject to a condition imposed under section 16(2) has committed a relevant offence, and

(b)the condition imposed remains necessary and proportionate for the purpose of ensuring the proper conduct of the investigation into a relevant offence.

(4)Where the constable referred to in subsection (3) is no longer satisfied as to the matter mentioned in paragraph (a) of that subsection, a constable must give notice to the person removing any condition imposed in connection with a relevant offence.

(5)Where the constable referred to in subsection (3) is no longer satisfied as to the matter mentioned in paragraph (b) of that subsection, a constable must give notice to the person—

(a)modifying the condition in question, or

(b)removing it.

(6)Where a duty to give notice to a person arises under subsection (4) or (5), the notice—

(a)is to be given in writing to the person as soon as practicable, and

(b)must specify, as the time from which the condition is modified or removed, the time at which the duty to give the notice arose.

(7)The modification or removal of a condition under subsection (1), (4) or (5) requires the authority of a constable of the rank of inspector or above.

(8)In this section, “a relevant offence” means—

(a)the offence in connection with which the condition was imposed, or

(b)an offence arising from the same circumstances as that offence.

Commencement Information

I18S. 18 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

19Review of conditionsS

(1)A person who is subject to a condition imposed under section 16(2) may apply to the sheriff to have the condition reviewed.

(2)Before disposing of an application under this section, the sheriff must give the procurator fiscal an opportunity to make representations.

(3)If the sheriff is not satisfied that the condition is necessary and proportionate for the purpose for which it was imposed, the sheriff may—

(a)remove the condition, or

(b)impose an alternative condition that the sheriff considers to be necessary and proportionate for that purpose.

(4)For the purposes of sections 17 and 18, a condition imposed by the sheriff under subsection (3)(b) is to be regarded as having been imposed under section 16(2).

Commencement Information

I19S. 19 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

CHAPTER 3SCUSTODY: PERSON OFFICIALLY ACCUSED

Person to be brought before courtS

20[F6Information to be given in particular cases]S

(1)Subsection (2) applies when—

(a)a person is in police custody having been arrested under a warrant in respect of [F7an offence listed in subsection (3)(b)], or

(b)a person—

(i)is in police custody having been arrested without a warrant, and

(ii)since being arrested, the person has been charged by a constable with [F8an offence listed in subsection (3)(b)].

(2)The person must be informed as soon as reasonably practicable—

(a)that the person's case at, or for the purposes of, any relevant hearing F9... in the course of the proceedings may be conducted only by a lawyer,

(b)that it is, therefore, in the person's interests to get the professional assistance of a solicitor, and

(c)that if the person does not engage a solicitor for the purposes of the conduct of the person's case at or for the purposes of the hearing, the court will do so.

[F10(3)For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2)—

(a)relevant hearing” is to be construed in accordance with section 288C(1A) or (as the case may be) 288DC(4) of the 1995 Act,

(b)the list is—

(i)an offence to which section 288C of the 1995 Act applies (certain sexual offending),

(ii)an offence to which section 288DC of the 1995 Act applies (domestic abuse cases).]

Textual Amendments

F8Words in s. 20(1)(b)(ii) substituted (1.4.2019) by Domestic Abuse (Scotland) Act 2018 (asp 5), s. 15(2), sch. para. 5(2)(a); S.S.I. 2018/387, reg. 2 (with reg. 7)

Commencement Information

I20S. 20 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

21Person to be brought before courtS

(1)Subsection (2) applies to a person when—

(a)the person is in police custody having been arrested under a warrant [F11granted for the purpose of having the person brought before a court in connection with an offence which the person is officially accused of committing], or

(b)the person—

(i)is in police custody having been arrested [F12in respect of an offence] without a warrant, and

(ii)since being arrested, the person has been charged with an offence by a constable.

(2)The person must be brought before a court (unless released from custody under section 25)—

(a)if practicable, before the end of the first day on which the court is sitting after the day on which this subsection began to apply to the person, or

(b)as soon as practicable after that.

(3)A person is deemed to be brought before a court in accordance with subsection (2) if the person appears before it by means of a live television link (by virtue of a determination by the court that the person is to do so by such means).

22Under 18s to be kept in place of safety prior to courtS

(1)Subsection (2) applies when—

(a)a person is to be brought before a court in accordance with section 21(2), and

(b)either—

(i)a constable believes the person is under 16 years of age, or

(ii)the person is subject to a compulsory supervision order, or an interim compulsory supervision order, made under the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011.

(2)The person must (unless released from custody under section 25) be kept in a place of safety until the person can be brought before the court.

(3)The place of safety in which the person is kept must not be a police station unless an appropriate constable certifies that keeping the person in a place of safety other than a police station would be—

(a)impracticable,

(b)unsafe, or

(c)inadvisable due to the person's state of health (physical or mental).

(4)A certificate under subsection (3) must be produced to the court when the person is brought before it.

(5)In this section—

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C12S. 22 applied by 1995 c. 46, s. 28A(2) (as inserted (25.1.2018) by Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (asp 1), s. 117(2), sch. 2 para. 30; S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.)

Commencement Information

I22S. 22 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

23Notice to parent that under 18 to be brought before courtS

(1)Subsection (2) applies when a person who is 16 years of age or over and subject to a supervision order or under 16 years of age—

(a)is to be brought before a court in accordance with section 21(2), or

(b)is released from police custody on an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a).

(2)A parent of the person mentioned in subsection (1) (if one can be found) must be informed of the following matters—

(a)the court before which the person is to be brought,

(b)the date on which the person is to be brought before the court,

(c)the general nature of the offence which the person has been officially accused of committing, and

(d)that the parent's attendance at the court may be required under section 42 of the 1995 Act.

(3)Subsection (2) does not require any information to be given to a parent if a constable has grounds to believe that giving the parent the information mentioned in that subsection may be detrimental to the wellbeing of the person mentioned in subsection (1).

(4)In this section—

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C13S. 23 applied (with modifications) by 1995 c. 46, s. 28A(2)(3) (as inserted (25.1.2018) by Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (asp 1), s. 117(2), sch. 2 para. 30; S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.)

Commencement Information

I23S. 23 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

24Notice to local authority that under 18 to be brought before courtS

(1)The appropriate local authority must be informed of the matters mentioned in subsection (4) when—

(a)a person to whom either subsection (2) or (3) applies is to be brought before a court in accordance with section 21(2), or

(b)a person to whom subsection (2) applies is released from police custody on an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a).

(2)This subsection applies to—

(a)a person who is under 16 years of age,

(b)a person who is—

(i)16 or 17 years of age, and

(ii)subject to a compulsory supervision order, or an interim compulsory supervision order, made under the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011.

(3)This subsection applies to a person if—

(a)a constable believes the person is 16 or 17 years of age,

(b)since being arrested, the person has not exercised the right to have intimation sent under section 38, and

(c)on being informed or reminded of the right to have intimation sent under that section after being officially accused, the person has declined to exercise the right.

(4)The matters referred to in subsection (1) are—

(a)the court before which the person mentioned in paragraph (a) or (as the case may be) (b) of that subsection is to be brought,

(b)the date on which the person is to be brought before the court, and

(c)the general nature of the offence which the person has been officially accused of committing.

(5)For the purpose of subsection (1), the appropriate local authority is the local authority in whose area the court referred to in subsection (4)(a) sits.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C14S. 24 applied (with modifications) by 1995 c. 46, s. 28A(2)(3) (as inserted (25.1.2018) by Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (asp 1), s. 117(2), sch. 2 para. 30; S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.)

Commencement Information

I24S. 24 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

Police liberationS

25Liberation by policeS

(1)Subsection (2) applies when—

(a)a person is in police custody having been arrested under a warrant (other than a warrant granted under section 37(1)), or

(b)a person—

(i)is in police custody having been arrested without a warrant, and

(ii)since being arrested, the person has been charged with an offence by a constable.

(2)A constable may—

(a)if the person gives an undertaking in accordance with section 26, release the person from custody,

(b)release the person from custody without such an undertaking,

(c)refuse to release the person from custody.

(3)Where a person is in custody as mentioned in subsection (1)(a), the person may not be released from custody under subsection (2)(b).

(4)A constable is not to be subject to any claim whatsoever by reason of having refused to release a person from custody under subsection (2)(c).

Commencement Information

I25S. 25 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

26Release on undertakingS

(1)A person may be released from police custody on an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a) only if the person signs the undertaking.

(2)The terms of an undertaking are that the person undertakes to—

(a)appear at a specified court at a specified time, and

(b)comply with any conditions imposed under subsection (3) while subject to the undertaking.

(3)The conditions which may be imposed under this subsection are—

(a)that the person does not—

(i)commit an offence,

(ii)interfere with witnesses or evidence, or otherwise obstruct the course of justice,

(iii)behave in a manner which causes, or is likely to cause, alarm or distress to witnesses,

(b)any further condition that a constable considers necessary and proportionate for the purpose of ensuring that any conditions imposed under paragraph (a) are observed.

(4)Conditions which may be imposed under subsection (3)(b) include—

(a)a condition requiring the person—

(i)to be in a specified place at a specified time, and

(ii)to remain there for a specified period,

(b)a condition requiring the person—

(i)not to be in a specified place, or category of place, at a specified time, and

(ii)to remain outwith that place, or any place falling within the specified category (if any), for a specified period.

(5)For the imposition of a condition under subsection (3)(b)—

(a)if it is of the kind described in subsection (4)(a), the authority of a constable of the rank of inspector or above is required,

(b)if it is of any other kind, the authority of a constable of the rank of sergeant or above is required.

(6)The requirements imposed by an undertaking to attend at a court and comply with conditions are liberation conditions for the purposes of schedule 1.

Commencement Information

I26S. 26 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

27Modification of undertakingS

(1)The procurator fiscal may by notice modify the terms of an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a) by—

(a)changing the court specified as the court at which the person is to appear,

(b)changing the time specified as the time at which the person is to appear at the court,

(c)removing or altering any condition imposed under section 26(3).

(2)A condition may not be altered under subsection (1)(c) so as to forbid or require something not forbidden or required by the terms of the condition when the person gave the undertaking.

(3)Notice under subsection (1) must be effected in a manner by which citation may be effected under section 141 of the 1995 Act.

Commencement Information

I27S. 27 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

28Rescission of undertakingS

(1)The procurator fiscal may by notice rescind an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a) (whether or not the person who gave it is to be prosecuted).

(2)The rescission of an undertaking by virtue of subsection (1) takes effect at the end of the day on which the notice is sent.

(3)Notice under subsection (1) must be effected in a manner by which citation may be effected under section 141 of the 1995 Act.

(4)A constable may arrest a person without a warrant if the constable has reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person is likely to fail to comply with the terms of an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a).

(5)Where a person is arrested under subsection (4) or subsection (6) applies—

(a)the undertaking referred to in subsection (4) or (as the case may be) (6) is rescinded, and

(b)this Part applies as if the person, since being most recently arrested, has been charged with the offence in connection with which the person was in police custody when the undertaking was given.

(6)This subsection applies where—

(a)a person who is subject to an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a) is in police custody (otherwise than as a result of having been arrested under subsection (4)), and

(b)a constable has reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has failed, or (if liberated) is likely to fail, to comply with the terms of the undertaking.

(7)The references in subsections (4) and (6)(b) to the terms of the undertaking are to the terms of the undertaking subject to any modification by—

(a)notice under section 27(1), or

(b)the sheriff under section 30(3)(b).

Commencement Information

I28S. 28 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

29Expiry of undertakingS

(1)An undertaking given under section 25(2)(a) expires—

(a)at the end of the day on which the person who gave it is required by its terms to appear at a court [F13(but see section 29A)], or

(b)if subsection (2) applies, at the end of the day on which the person who gave it is brought before a court having been arrested under the warrant mentioned in that subsection.

(2)This subsection applies where—

(a)a person fails to appear at court as required by the terms of an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a), and

(b)on account of that failure, a warrant for the person's arrest is granted.

(3)The references in subsections (1)(a) and (2)(a) to the terms of the undertaking are to the terms of the undertaking subject to any modification by notice under section 27(1).

Textual Amendments

F13Words in s. 29(1)(a) inserted (temp.) (27.5.2020) by virtue of Coronavirus (Scotland) (No.2) Act 2020 (asp 10), s. 16(1), sch. 2 para. 6(2) (with s. 9)

Commencement Information

I29S. 29 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

[F1429AExpiry of undertaking: coronavirus-related reason for non-appearanceS

(1)A court may modify the terms of an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a) by changing the time at which the person who gave it is to appear at the court if—

(a)the person has failed to appear at court as required by the terms of the undertaking,

(b)the court considers that the failure to appear is attributable to a reason relating to coronavirus, and

(c)the court does not consider it appropriate to grant a warrant for the person’s arrest on account of the failure to appear.

(2)Where a court modifies the terms of an undertaking under subsection (1), the procurator fiscal must give notice of the modification to the person who gave the undertaking as soon as reasonably practicable.

(3)Notice under subsection (2) must be effected in a manner by which citation may be effected under section 141 of the 1995 Act.

(4)The reference in subsection (1) to the terms of an undertaking are to the terms of the undertaking subject to any modification by notice under section 27(1).

(5)A reference in any enactment to the modification of the terms of an undertaking under section 27(1) is to be treated as including modification under subsection (1).

(6)In subsection (1)(b), “coronavirus” has the meaning given by section 1 of the Coronavirus (Scotland) Act 2020.]

Textual Amendments

F14S. 29A inserted (temp.) (27.5.2020) by virtue of Coronavirus (Scotland) (No.2) Act 2020 (asp 10), s. 16(1), sch. 2 para. 6(3) (with s. 9)

30Review of undertakingS

(1)A person who is subject to an undertaking containing a condition imposed under section 26(3)(b) may apply to the sheriff to have the condition reviewed.

(2)Before disposing of an application under this section, the sheriff must give the procurator fiscal an opportunity to make representations.

(3)If the sheriff is not satisfied that the condition is necessary and proportionate for the purpose for which it was imposed, the sheriff may modify the terms of the undertaking by—

(a)removing the condition, or

(b)imposing an alternative condition that the sheriff considers to be necessary and proportionate for that purpose.

Commencement Information

I30S. 30 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

CHAPTER 4SPOLICE INTERVIEW

Rights of suspectsS

31Information to be given before interviewS

(1)Subsection (2) applies to a person who—

(a)is in police custody, or

(b)is attending at a police station or other place voluntarily for the purpose of being interviewed by a constable.

(2)Not more than one hour before a constable interviews the person about an offence which the constable has reasonable grounds to suspect the person of committing, the person must be informed—

(a)of the general nature of that offence,

(b)that the person is under no obligation to say anything other than to give the information specified in section 34(4),

(c)about the right under section 32 to have a solicitor present during the interview, and

(d)if the person is in police custody, about any right which the person has under Chapter 5.

(3)A person need not be informed under subsection (2)(d) about a right to have intimation sent under either of the following sections if the person has exercised the right already—

(a)section 38,

(b)section 43.

(4)For the purpose of subsection (2), a constable is not to be regarded as interviewing a person about an offence merely by asking the person for the information specified in section 34(4).

(5)Where a person is to be interviewed by virtue of authorisation granted under section 35, before the interview begins the person must be informed of what was specified by the court under subsection (6) of that section.

Commencement Information

I31S. 31 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with arts. 4, 7)

32Right to have solicitor presentS

(1)Subsections (2) and (3) apply to a person who—

(a)is in police custody, or

(b)is attending at a police station or other place voluntarily for the purpose of being interviewed by a constable.

(2)The person has the right to have a solicitor present while being interviewed by a constable about an offence which the constable has reasonable grounds to suspect the person of committing.

(3)Accordingly—

(a)unless the person consents to being interviewed without having a solicitor present, a constable must not begin to interview the person about the offence until the person's solicitor is present, and

(b)the person's solicitor must not be denied access to the person at any time while a constable is interviewing the person about the offence.

(4)Despite subsection (3)(a) a constable may, in exceptional circumstances, proceed to interview the person without a solicitor being present if it is necessary to interview the person without delay in the interests of—

(a)the investigation or the prevention of crime, or

(b)the apprehension of offenders.

(5)A decision to allow the person to be interviewed without a solicitor present by virtue of subsection (4) may be taken only by a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of sergeant or above, and

(b)has not been involved in investigating the offence about which the person is to be interviewed.

(6)For the purposes of subsections (2) and (3), a constable is not to be regarded as interviewing a person about an offence merely by asking the person for the information specified in section 34(4).

(7)Where a person consents to being interviewed without having a solicitor present, there must be recorded—

(a)the time at which the person consented, and

(b)any reason given by the person at that time for waiving the right to have a solicitor present.

Commencement Information

I32S. 32 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with arts. 4, 7)

33Consent to interview without solicitorS

(1)Subsections (2) and (3) apply for the purpose of section 32(3)(a).

(2)A person may not consent to being interviewed without having a solicitor present if—

(a)the person is under 16 years of age

(b)the person is 16 or 17 years of age and subject to a compulsory supervision order, or an interim compulsory supervision order, made under the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011, or

(c)the person is 16 years of age or over and, owing to mental disorder, appears to a constable to be unable to—

(i)understand sufficiently what is happening, or

(ii)communicate effectively with the police.

(3)A person to whom this subsection applies (referred to in subsection (5) as “person A”) may consent to being interviewed without having a solicitor present only with the agreement of a relevant person.

(4)Subsection (3) applies to a person who is—

(a)16 or 17 years of age, and

(b)not precluded by subsection (2)(b) or (c) from consenting to being interviewed without having a solicitor present.

(5)For the purpose of subsection (3), “a relevant person” means—

(a)if person A is in police custody, any person who is entitled to access to person A by virtue of section 40(2),

(b)if person A is not in police custody, a person who is—

(i)at least 18 years of age, and

(ii)reasonably named by person A.

(6)In subsection (2)(c)—

(a)mental disorder” has the meaning given by section 328 of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003,

(b)the reference to the police is to any—

(i)constable, or

(ii)person appointed as a member of police staff under section 26(1) of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012.

Commencement Information

I33S. 33 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

Person not officially accusedS

34Questioning following arrestS

(1)Subsections (2) and (4) apply where—

(a)a person is in police custody in relation to an offence, and

(b)the person has not been officially accused of committing the offence or an offence arising from the same circumstances as the offence.

(2)A constable may put questions to the person in relation to the offence.

(3)For the avoidance of doubt, nothing in this section is to be taken to mean that a constable cannot put questions to the person in relation to any other matter.

(4)The person is under no obligation to answer any question, other than to give the following information—

(a) the person's name,

(b)the person's address,

(c)the person's date of birth,

(d)the person's place of birth (in such detail as a constable considers necessary or expedient for the purpose of establishing the person's identity), and

(e)the person's nationality.

(5)Subsection (2) is without prejudice to any rule of law as regards the admissibility in evidence of any answer given.

Commencement Information

I34S. 34 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

Person officially accusedS

35Authorisation for questioningS

(1)The court may authorise a constable to question a person about an offence after the person has been officially accused of committing the offence.

(2)The court may grant authorisation only if it is satisfied that allowing the person to be questioned about the offence is necessary in the interests of justice.

(3)In deciding whether to grant authorisation, the court must take into account—

(a)the seriousness of the offence,

(b)the extent to which the person could have been questioned earlier in relation to the information which the applicant believes may be elicited by the proposed questioning,

(c)where the person could have been questioned earlier in relation to that information, whether it could reasonably have been foreseen at that time that the information might be important to proving or disproving that the person has committed an offence.

(4)Where subsection (5) applies, the court must give the person an opportunity to make representations before deciding whether to grant authorisation.

(5)This subsection applies where—

(a)a warrant has been granted to arrest the person in respect of the offence, or

(b)the person has appeared before a court in relation to the offence.

(6)Where granting authorisation, the court—

(a)must specify the period for which questioning is authorised, and

(b)may specify such other conditions as the court considers necessary to ensure that allowing the proposed questioning is not unfair to the person.

(7)A decision of the court—

(a)to grant or refuse authorisation, or

(b)to specify, or not to specify, conditions under subsection (6)(b),

is final.

(8)In this section, “the court” means—

(a)where an indictment has been served on the person in respect of the High Court, a single judge of that court,

(b)in any other case, the sheriff.

Commencement Information

I35S. 35 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 8)

36Authorisation: further provisionS

(1)An application for authorisation may be made—

(a)where section 35(5) applies, by the prosecutor, or

(b)in any other case, by a constable.

(2)In subsection (1)(a), “the prosecutor” means—

(a)where an indictment has been served on the person in respect of the High Court, Crown Counsel, or

(b)in any other case, the procurator fiscal.

(3)Where an application for authorisation is made in writing (rather than orally) it must—

(a)be made in such form as may be prescribed by act of adjournal (or as nearly as may be in such form), and

(b)state whether another application has been made for authorisation to question the person about the offence or an offence arising from the same circumstances as the offence.

(4)Authorisation ceases to apply as soon as either—

(a)the period specified under section 35(6)(a) expires, or

(b)the person's trial in respect of the offence, or an offence arising from the same circumstances as the offence, begins.

(5)For the purpose of subsection (4)(b), a trial begins—

(a)in proceedings on indictment, when the jury is sworn,

(b)in summary proceedings, when the first witness for the prosecution is sworn.

(6)In this section—

Commencement Information

I36S. 36 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 8)

37Arrest to facilitate questioningS

(1)On granting authorisation under section 35, the court may also grant a warrant for the person's arrest if it seems to the court expedient to do so.

(2)The court must specify in a warrant granted under subsection (1) the maximum period for which the person may be detained under it.

(3)The person's detention under a warrant granted under subsection (1) must end as soon as—

(a)the period of the person's detention under the warrant becomes equal to the maximum period specified under subsection (2),

(b)the authorisation ceases to apply (see section 36(4)), or

(c)in the opinion of the constable responsible for the investigation into the offence referred to in section 35(1), there are no longer reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has committed—

(i)that offence, or

(ii)an offence arising from the same circumstances as that offence.

(4)For the purpose of subsection (3)(a), the period of the person's detention under the warrant begins when the person—

(a)is arrested at a police station, or

(b)arrives at a police station, having been taken there in accordance with section 4.

(5)For the avoidance of doubt—

(a)if the person is on bail when a warrant under subsection (1) is granted, the order admitting the person to bail is not impliedly recalled by the granting of the warrant,

(b)if the person is on bail when arrested under a warrant granted under subsection (1)—

(i)despite being in custody by virtue of the warrant the person remains on bail for the purpose of section 24(5)(b) of the 1995 Act,

(ii)when the person's detention under the warrant ends, the bail order continues to apply as it did immediately before the person's arrest,

(c)if the person is subject to an undertaking given under section 25(2)(a), the person remains subject to the undertaking despite—

(i)the granting of a warrant under subsection (1),

(ii)the person's arrest and detention under it.

Commencement Information

I37S. 37 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 8)

CHAPTER 5SRIGHTS OF SUSPECTS IN POLICE CUSTODY

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C15Pt. 1 Ch. 5 applied (with modifications) by 1994 c. 33, s. 137D(3)(b) Sch. 7B Pt. 2 (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 1.3.2018 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 116(1)(3), 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 16; S.I. 2018/227, art. 2(f))

Intimation and access to another personS

38Right to have intimation sent to other personS

(1)A person in police custody has the right to have intimation sent to another person of—

(a)the fact that the person is in custody,

(b)the place where the person is in custody.

(2)Intimation under subsection (1) must be sent—

(a)where a constable believes that the person in custody is under 16 years of age, regardless of whether the person requests that it be sent,

(b)in any other case, if the person requests that it be sent.

(3)The person to whom intimation is to be sent under subsection (1) is—

(a)where a constable believes that the person in custody is under 16 years of age, a parent of the person,

(b)in any other case, an adult reasonably named by the person in custody.

(4)Intimation under subsection (1) must be sent—

(a)as soon as reasonably practicable, or

(b)if subsection (5) applies, with no more delay than is necessary.

(5)This subsection applies where an appropriate constable considers some delay to be necessary in the interests of—

(a)the investigation or prevention of crime,

(b)the apprehension of offenders, or

(c)safeguarding and promoting the wellbeing of the person in custody, where a constable believes that person to be under 18 years of age.

(6)In subsection (5), “an appropriate constable” means a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of sergeant or above, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in custody.

(7)The sending of intimation may be delayed by virtue of subsection (5)(c) only for so long as is necessary to ascertain whether a local authority will arrange for someone to visit the person in custody under section 41(2).

(8)In this section and section 39—

Commencement Information

I38S. 38 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

39Right to have intimation sent: under 18sS

(1)This section applies where a constable believes that a person in police custody is under 18 years of age.

(2)At the time of sending intimation to a person under section 38(1), that person must be asked to attend at the police station or other place where the person in custody is being held.

(3)Subsection (2) does not apply if—

(a)a constable believes that the person in custody is 16 or 17 years of age, and

(b)the person in custody requests that the person to whom intimation is to be sent under section 38(1) is not asked to attend at the place where the person in custody is being held.

(4)Subsections (5) and (6) apply where—

(a)it is not practicable or possible to contact, within a reasonable time, the person to whom intimation is to be sent by virtue of section 38(3),

(b)the person to whom intimation is sent by virtue of section 38(3), if asked to attend at the place where the person in custody is being held, claims to be unable or unwilling to attend within a reasonable time, or

(c)a local authority, acting under section 41(9)(a), has advised against sending intimation to the person to whom intimation is to be sent by virtue of section 38(3).

(5)Section 38(3) ceases to have effect.

(6)Attempts to send intimation to an appropriate person under section 38(1) must continue to be made until—

(a)an appropriate person is contacted and agrees to attend, within a reasonable time, at the police station or other place where the person in custody is being held, or

(b)if a constable believes that the person in custody is 16 or 17 years of age, the person requests that (for the time being) no further attempt to send intimation is made.

(7)In subsection (6), “an appropriate person” means—

(a)if a constable believes that the person in custody is under 16 years of age, a person the constable considers appropriate having regard to the views of the person in custody,

(b)if a constable believes that the person in custody is 16 or 17 years of age, an adult who is named by the person in custody and to whom a constable is willing to send intimation without a delay by virtue of section 38(5)(a) or (b).

(8)The reference in subsection (4)(a) to its not being possible to contact a person within a reasonable time includes the case where, by virtue of section 38(5)(a) or (b), a constable delays sending intimation to the person.

Commencement Information

I39S. 39 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

40Right of under 18s to have access to other personS

(1)Access to a person in police custody who a constable believes is under 16 years of age must be permitted to—

(a)a parent of the person,

(b)where a parent is not available, a person sent intimation under section 38 in respect of the person in custody.

(2)Access to a person in police custody who a constable believes is 16 or 17 years of age must be permitted to a person sent intimation under section 38 in respect of the person in custody where the person in custody wishes to have access to the person sent intimation.

(3)Access to a person in custody under subsection (1) or (2) need not be permitted to more than one person at the same time.

(4)In exceptional circumstances, access under subsection (1) or (2) may be refused or restricted so far as the refusal or restriction is necessary—

(a)in the interests of—

(i)the investigation or prevention of crime, or

(ii)the apprehension of offenders, or

(b)for the wellbeing of the person in custody.

(5)A decision to refuse or restrict access to a person in custody under subsection (1) or (2) may be taken only by a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of sergeant or above, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in custody.

(6)In this section, “parent” includes guardian and any person who has the care of the person in custody.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C16S. 40 applied (12.2.2019 for specified purposes, 13.8.2020 in so far as not already in force) by Counter-Terrorism and Border Security Act 2019 (c. 3), s. 27(1)(g), Sch. 3 para. 40(2)(c) (with s. 25(9)); S.I. 2020/792, reg. 2(g)

Commencement Information

I40S. 40 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

41Social work involvement in relation to under 18sS

(1)Intimation of the fact that a person is in police custody and the place where the person is in custody must be sent to a local authority as soon as reasonably practicable if—

(a)a constable believes that the person may be subject to a supervision order, or

(b)by virtue of subsection (5)(c) of section 38, a constable has delayed sending intimation in respect of the person under subsection (1) of that section.

(2)A local authority sent intimation under subsection (1) may arrange for someone to visit the person in custody if—

(a)the person is subject to a supervision order, or

(b)the local authority—

(i)believes the person to be under 16 years of age, and

(ii)has grounds to believe that its arranging someone to visit the person would best safeguard and promote the person's wellbeing (having regard to the effect of subsection (4)(a)).

(3)Before undertaking to arrange someone to visit the person in custody under subsection (2), the local authority must be satisfied that anyone it arranges to visit the person in custody will be able to make the visit within a reasonable time.

(4)Where a local authority arranges for someone to visit the person in custody under subsection (2)—

(a)sections 38 and 40 cease to have effect, and

(b)the person who the local authority has arranged to visit the person in custody must be permitted access to the person in custody.

(5)In exceptional circumstances, access under subsection (4)(b) may be refused or restricted so far as the refusal or restriction is necessary—

(a)in the interests of—

(i)the investigation or prevention of crime, or

(ii)the apprehension of offenders, or

(b)for the wellbeing of the person in custody.

(6)A decision to refuse or restrict access to a person in custody under subsection (4)(b) may be taken only by a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of sergeant or above, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in custody.

(7)Where a local authority sent intimation under subsection (1) confirms that the person in custody is—

(a)over 16 years of age, and

(b)subject to a supervision order,

sections 38 to 40 are to be applied in respect of the person as if a constable believes the person to be under 16 years of age.

(8)Subsection (9) applies where a local authority might have arranged for someone to visit a person in custody under subsection (2) but—

(a)chose not to do so, or

(b)was precluded from doing so by subsection (3).

(9)The local authority may—

(a)advise a constable that the person to whom intimation is to be sent by virtue of section 38(3) should not be sent intimation if the local authority has grounds to believe that sending intimation to that person may be detrimental to the wellbeing of the person in custody, and

(b)give advice as to who might be an appropriate person to a constable considering that matter under section 39(7) (and the constable must have regard to any such advice).

(10)In this section, “supervision order” means compulsory supervision order, or interim compulsory supervision order, made under the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011.

Commencement Information

I41S. 41 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

Vulnerable personsS

42Support for vulnerable personsS

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a person is in police custody,

(b)a constable believes that the person is 16 years of age or over, and

(c)owing to mental disorder, the person appears to the constable to be unable to—

(i)understand sufficiently what is happening, or

(ii)communicate effectively with the police.

(2)With a view to facilitating the provision of support of the sort mentioned in subsection (3) to the person as soon as reasonably practicable, the constable must ensure that intimation of the matters mentioned in subsection (4) is sent to a person who the constable considers is suitable to provide the support.

(3)That is, support to—

(a)help the person in custody to understand what is happening, and

(b)facilitate effective communication between the person and the police.

(4)Those matters are—

(a)the place where the person is in custody, and

(b)that support of the sort mentioned in subsection (3) is, in the view of the constable, required by the person.

(5)In this section—

(a)mental disorder” has the meaning given by section 328 of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003,

(b)the references to the police are to any—

(i)constable, or

(ii)person appointed as a member of police staff under section 26(1) of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C17S. 42 modified by 2007 c. 11, s. 87(2B)(d) (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 17 para. 9(2))

C18S. 42 modified by 2013 c. 22, Sch. 21 para. 42B(5) (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 17 para. 10(3))

C19S. 42 modified by 2013 c. 22, Sch. 21 para. 42D(4) (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 17 para. 10(3))

C20S. 42 modified by 2007 c. 11, s. 87(2D)(c) (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 17 para. 9(2))

Commencement Information

I42S. 42 in force at 10.1.2020 by S.S.I. 2019/363, art. 3(a) (with art. 4)

Intimation and access to a solicitorS

43Right to have intimation sent to solicitorS

(1)A person who is in police custody has the right to have intimation sent to a solicitor of any or all of the following—

(a)the fact that the person is in custody,

(b)the place where the person is in custody,

(c)that the solicitor's professional assistance is required by the person,

(d)if the person has been officially accused of an offence—

(i)whether the person is to be released from custody, and

(ii)where the person is not to be released, the court before which the person is to be brought in accordance with section 21(2) and the date on which the person is to be brought before that court.

(2)Where the person requests that intimation be sent under subsection (1), the intimation must be sent as soon as reasonably practicable.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C21S. 43(1) applied (with modifications) by 1995 c. 46, s. 28A(3) (as inserted (25.1.2018) by Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (asp 1), s. 117(2), sch. 2 para. 30; S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.)

Commencement Information

I43S. 43 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

44Right to consultation with solicitorS

(1)A person who is in police custody has the right to have a private consultation with a solicitor at any time.

(2)In exceptional circumstances, the person's exercise of the right under subsection (1) may be delayed so far as that is necessary in the interests of—

(a)the investigation or the prevention of crime, or

(b)the apprehension of offenders.

(3)A decision to delay the person's exercise of the right under subsection (1) may be taken only by a constable who—

(a)is of the rank of sergeant or above, and

(b)has not been involved in the investigation in connection with which the person is in custody.

(4)In subsection (1), “consultation” means consultation by such method as may be appropriate in the circumstances and includes (for example) consultation by telephone.

Commencement Information

I44S. 44 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

CHAPTER 6SPOLICE POWERS AND DUTIES

Powers of policeS

45Use of reasonable forceS

A constable may use reasonable force—

(a)to effect an arrest,

(b)when taking a person who is in police custody to any place.

Commencement Information

I45S. 45 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

46Common law power of entryS

Nothing in this Part affects any rule of law concerning the powers of a constable to enter any premises for any purpose.

Commencement Information

I46S. 46 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

47Common law power of search etc.S

(1)Nothing in this Part affects any rule of law by virtue of which a constable may exercise a power of the type described in subsection (2).

(2)The type of power is a power that a constable may exercise in relation to a person by reason of the person's having been arrested and charged with an offence by a constable.

(3)Powers of the type described in subsection (2) include the power to—

(a)search the person,

(b)seize any item in the person's possession,

(c)cause the person to participate in an identification procedure.

Commencement Information

I47S. 47 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

48Power of search etc. on arrestS

(1)A constable may exercise in relation to a person to whom subsection (2) applies any power of the type described in section 47(2) which the constable would be able to exercise by virtue of a rule of law if the person had been charged with the relevant offence by a constable.

(2)This subsection applies to a person who—

(a)is in police custody having been arrested without a warrant, and

(b)has not, since being arrested, been charged with an offence by a constable.

(3)In subsection (1), “the relevant offence” means the offence in connection with which the person is in police custody.

Commencement Information

I48S. 48 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

49Taking drunk persons to designated placeS

(1)Where—

(a)a person is liable to be arrested in respect of an offence by a constable without a warrant, and

(b)the constable is of the opinion that the person is drunk,

the constable may take the person to a designated place (and do so instead of arresting the person).

(2)Nothing done under subsection (1)—

(a)makes a person liable to be held unwillingly at a designated place, or

(b)prevents a constable from arresting the person in respect of the offence referred to in that subsection.

(3)In this section, “designated place” is any place designated by the Scottish Ministers for the purpose of this section as a place suitable for the care of drunken persons.

Commencement Information

I49S. 49 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

Duties of policeS

50Duty not to detain unnecessarilyS

A constable must take every precaution to ensure that a person is not unreasonably or unnecessarily held in police custody.

Commencement Information

I50S. 50 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

51Duty to consider child's wellbeingS

(1)Subsection (2) applies when a constable is deciding whether to—

(a)arrest a child,

(b)hold a child in police custody,

(c)interview a child about an offence which the constable has reasonable grounds to suspect the child of committing, or

(d)charge a child with committing an offence.

(2)In taking the decision, the constable must treat the need to safeguard and promote the wellbeing of the child as a primary consideration.

(3)For the purposes of this section, a child is a person who is under 18 years of age.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C22S. 51 applied (with modifications) by 1994 c. 33, s. 137D(3)(c), Sch. 7B Pt. 2 (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 1.3.2018 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 116(1)(3), 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 16; S.I. 2018/227, art. 2(f))

Commencement Information

I51S. 51 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

52Duties in relation to children in custodyS

(1)A child who is in police custody at a police station is, so far as practicable, to be prevented from associating with any adult who is officially accused of committing an offence other than an adult to whom subsection (2) applies.

(2)This subsection applies to an adult if a constable believes that it may be detrimental to the wellbeing of the child mentioned in subsection (1) to prevent the child and adult from associating with one another.

(3)For the purposes of this section—

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C23S. 52 applied (with modifications) by 1994 c. 33, s. 137D(3)(d), Sch. 7B Pt. 2 (as inserted (31.1.2017 for specified purposes, 1.3.2018 in so far as not already in force) by Policing and Crime Act 2017 (c. 3), s. 116(1)(3), 183(1)(5)(e), Sch. 16; S.I. 2018/227, art. 2(f))

Commencement Information

I52S. 52 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

53Duty to inform Principal Reporter if child not being prosecutedS

(1)Subsections (2) and (3) apply if—

(a)a person is being kept in a place of safety in accordance with section 22(2) when it is decided not to prosecute the person for any relevant offence, and

(b)a constable has reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person has committed a relevant offence.

(2)The Principal Reporter must be informed, as soon as reasonably practicable, that the person is being kept in a place of safety under subsection (3).

(3)The person must be kept in a place of safety under this subsection until the Principal Reporter makes a direction under section 65(2) of the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011.

(4)An offence is a “relevant offence” for the purpose of subsection (1) if—

(a)it is the offence with which the person was officially accused, leading to the person being kept in the place of safety in accordance with section 22(2), or

(b)it is an offence arising from the same circumstances as the offence mentioned in paragraph (a).

(5)In this section, “place of safety” has the meaning given in section 202(1) of the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011.

Commencement Information

I53S. 53 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

CHAPTER 7SGENERAL

Common law and enactmentsS

54Abolition of pre-enactment powers of arrestS

A constable has no power to arrest a person without a warrant in respect of an offence that has been or is being committed other than—

(a)the power of arrest conferred by section 1,

(b)the power of arrest conferred by section 41(1) of the Terrorism Act 2000.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Commencement Information

I54S. 54 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

55Abolition of requirement for constable to chargeS

Any rule of law that requires a constable to charge a person with an offence in particular circumstances is abolished.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Commencement Information

I55S. 55 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch. (with art. 4)

56Consequential modificationS

Schedule 2 contains repeals and other provisions consequential on this Part.

Commencement Information

I56S. 56 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

Code of practice about investigative functionsS

57Code of practice about investigative functionsS

(1)The Lord Advocate must issue a code of practice on—

(a)the questioning, and recording of questioning, of persons suspected of committing offences, and

(b)the conduct of identification procedures involving such persons.

(2)The Lord Advocate—

(a)must keep the code of practice issued under subsection (1) under review,

(b)may from time to time revise the code of practice.

(3)The code of practice is to apply to the functions exercisable by or on behalf of—

(a)the Police Service of Scotland,

(b)such other bodies as are specified in the code (being bodies responsible for reporting offences to the procurator fiscal).

(4)Before issuing the code of practice, the Lord Advocate must consult publicly on a draft of the code.

(5)When preparing a draft of the code of practice for public consultation, the Lord Advocate must consult—

(a)the Lord Justice General,

(b)the Faculty of Advocates,

(c)the Law Society of Scotland,

(d)the Scottish Police Authority,

(e)the chief constable of the Police Service of Scotland,

(f)the Scottish Human Rights Commission,

(g)the Commissioner for Children and Young People in Scotland, F15...

[F16(ga)any body which the Lord Advocate intends to specify in the code under subsection (3)(b) and (where relevant) the Secretary of State, and]

(h)such other persons as the Lord Advocate considers appropriate.

(6)The Lord Advocate must lay before the Scottish Parliament a copy of the code of practice issued under this section.

(7)A court or tribunal in civil or criminal proceedings must take the code of practice into account when determining any question arising in the proceedings to which the code is relevant.

(8)Breach of the code of practice does not of itself give rise to grounds for any legal claim whatsoever.

(9)Subsections (3) to (8) apply to a revised code of practice under subsection (2)(b) as they apply to the code of practice issued under subsection (1).

[F17Modifications to Part as it applies in certain casesS

57AArrest without warrant otherwise than in respect of an offenceS

(1)In a case where—

(a)a constable arrests a person without a warrant, and

(b)the arrest is not in respect of an offence,

this Part applies subject to the modifications set out in section 57C.

(2)For the avoidance of doubt, where it is stated (in whatever terms) that a provision applies in the case of a person arrested without a warrant only if the arrest is in respect of an offence, subsection (1) does not cause that provision to apply in the case of a person who has been arrested otherwise than in respect of an offence.

(3)For the avoidance of doubt, the powers of arrest conferred by the following enactments are (for the purposes of this Part) powers to arrest otherwise than in respect of an offence—

(a)sections 6D and 7(5A) of the Road Traffic Act 1988;

(b)section 40 of the Prisons (Scotland) Act 1989;

(c)sections 19(6), 19AA(12) and 28(1) of the 1995 Act;

(d)section 4(1) of the Protection from Abuse (Scotland) Act 2001;

(e)section 5 of the Extradition Act 2003;

(f)section 28 of the Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007.

57BArrest under warrant other than an initiating warrantS

(1)In a case where a person is arrested by a constable under a relevant warrant, this Part applies subject to the modifications set out in section 57C.

(2)For the avoidance of doubt, subsection (1) does not cause section 21(2) to apply in the case of a person arrested under a relevant warrant.

(3)In this section, “relevant warrant” means any warrant other than one granted for the purpose of having a person brought before a court in connection with an offence which the person is officially accused of committing.

57CModifications applying by virtue of sections 57A and 57BS

(1)The modifications referred to in sections 57A(1) and 57B(1) are as follows.

(2)Chapter 3 applies as though for the words “brought before a court in accordance with section 21(2)” (in each place where they occur) there were substituted “brought before a court in accordance with an enactment, rule of law or a term of the warrant under which the person was arrested”.

(3)Section 23(2) applies as though—

(a)paragraph (c) read “the reason that the person is to be brought before the court,”, and

(b)paragraph (d) were omitted.

(4)Section 24 applies as though-

(a)in subsection (3)(c), for the words “officially accused” there were substituted “informed that the person is to be brought before a court”, and

(b)subsection (4)(c) read “the reason that the person is to be brought before the court.”.

(5)Section 43(1) applies as though for paragraph (d) there were substituted—

(d)if there is a requirement to bring the person before a court in accordance with an enactment, rule of law or a term of the warrant under which the person was arrested—

(i)whether the person is to be released from custody, and

(ii)where the person is not to be released, the court before which the person is to be brought in accordance with the requirement and the date on which the person is to be brought before that court.]

[F1857DArrest under an extradition arrest powerS

(1)In a case where a person is arrested under an extradition arrest power (within the meaning of section 174(2) of the Extradition Act 2003), this Part applies subject to the following further modifications.

(2)The following do not apply—

(a)sections 3 and 4,

(b)sections 25 to 30,

(c)section 50.

(3)In section 5—

(a)subsection (1)(b) is to be read as if the words “in accordance with section 4” were omitted,

(b)subsection (2)(a) is to be read as if the words “other than to give the information specified in section 34(4)” were omitted, and

(c)subsection (3) is to be read as if the words “of Articles 3 and 4” were omitted.

(4)Section 6 is to be read as if—

(a)in subsection (1)(c) the words “in accordance with section 4” were omitted,

(b)subsection (1)(d) were omitted,

(c)subsection (2)(a) were omitted,

(d)subsection (2)(c) were omitted, and

(e)subsections (3) to (8) were omitted.

(6)Section 23 is to be read as if—

(a)subsection (1)(b) were omitted,

(b)subsection (2)(d) were omitted.

(7)Section 24 is to be read as if subsection (1)(b) were omitted.

(8)Section 48 is to be read as if—

(a)for subsection (2) there were substituted—

(2)This subsection applies to a person who is in police custody having been arrested under an extradition arrest power (within the meaning of section 174(2) of the Extradition Act 2003)., and

(b)for subsection (3) there were substituted—

(3)In subsection (1), “the relevant offence” means the offence that would have been committed were the act constituting the relevant offence (within the meaning of section 164(3) of the Extradition Act 2003) done in Scotland.]

Disapplication of PartS

58Disapplication in relation to service offencesS

(1)References in this Part to an offence do not include a service offence.

(2)Nothing in this Part applies in relation to a person who is arrested in respect of a service offence.

[F19(2A)This section is subject to Schedule 4 to the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2016 (Consequential Provisions) Order 2018 (S.I. 2018/46).]

(3)In this section, “service offence” has the meaning given by section 50(2) of the Armed Forces Act 2006.

Textual Amendments

Commencement Information

I58S. 58 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

59Disapplication in relation to terrorism offencesS

(1)Nothing in this Part applies in relation to a person who is arrested under section 41(1) of the Terrorism Act 2000.

(2)Subsection (1) is subject to paragraph 18 of Schedule 8 to the Terrorism Act 2000.

Commencement Information

I59S. 59 in force at 25.1.2018 by S.S.I. 2017/345, art. 3, sch.

Powers to modify PartS

60Further provision about application of PartS

(1)The Scottish Ministers may by regulations modify this Part to provide that some or all of it—

(a)applies in relation to persons to whom it would otherwise not apply because of—

(i)section 58, or

(ii)section 59,

(b)does not apply in relation to persons arrested otherwise than under section 1.

(2)The Scottish Ministers may by regulations make such modifications to this Part as seem to them necessary or expedient in relation to its application to persons mentioned in subsection (1).

(3)Regulations under this section may make different provision for different purposes.

(4)Regulations under this section are subject to the affirmative procedure.

Commencement Information

I60S. 60 in force at 17.1.2017 by S.S.I. 2016/426, art. 2, sch.

61Further provision about vulnerable personsS

(1)The Scottish Ministers may by regulations—

(a)amend subsections (2)(c) and (6) of section 33,

(b)amend subsections (1)(c), (3) and (5) of section 42,

(c)specify descriptions of persons who may for the purposes of subsection (2) of section 42 be considered suitable to provide support of the sort mentioned in subsection (3) of that section (including as to training, qualifications and experience).

(2)Regulations under subsection (1) are subject to the affirmative procedure.

Commencement Information

I61S. 61 in force at 17.1.2017 by S.S.I. 2016/426, art. 2, sch.

Interpretation of PartS

62Meaning of constableS

In this Part, “constable” has the meaning given by section 99(1) of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012.

Commencement Information

I62S. 62 in force at 17.1.2017 by S.S.I. 2016/426, art. 2, sch.

63Meaning of officially accusedS

For the purposes of this Part, a person is officially accused of committing an offence if—

(a)a constable charges the person with the offence, or

(b)the prosecutor initiates proceedings against the person in respect of the offence.

64Meaning of police custodyS

(1)For the purposes of this Part, a person is in police custody from the time the person is arrested by a constable until any one of the events mentioned in subsection (2) occurs.

(2)The events are—

(a)the person is released from custody,

(b)the person is brought before a court in accordance with section 21(2),

(c)the person is brought before a court under section 28(2) or (3) of the 1995 Act,

[F20(ca)the person is brought before a court in accordance with—

(i)any other enactment or rule of law which requires that a person in custody be brought before a court, or

(ii)a term of the warrant under which the person was arrested,

(cb)the person is transferred in accordance with the law into the custody of a person who is neither—

(i)a constable, nor

(ii)a member of police staff appointed under section 26(1) of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012,]

(d)the Principal Reporter makes a direction under section 65(2)(b) of the Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011 that the person continue to be kept in a place of safety.

Textual Amendments

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C34S. 64(2)(cb) restricted (temp.) (27.5.2020) by Coronavirus (Scotland) (No.2) Act 2020 (asp 10), s. 16(1), sch. 2 para. 4 (with s. 9)

Commencement Information

I64S. 64 in force at 17.1.2017 by S.S.I. 2016/426, art. 2, sch.