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Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Act 2015

Trafficking and exploitation risk orders

Section 26: Risk orders

116.Section 26 provides that the chief constable may apply to a sheriff for a trafficking and exploitation risk order (TERO) against an adult. A TERO differs from a TEPO in that it may be made where a person has not previously been convicted of a trafficking or exploitation offence but the person’s behaviour indicates a risk that others may be at harm as a result of that person committing such an offence and intervention at an early stage is necessary to prevent that harm. A TEPO can only be made where a relevant offence has already been committed.

117.Subsection (2) sets out the appropriate sheriff to whom an application for such an order may be made.

118.Subsection (3) sets out the tests for making a TERO. The sheriff may only make an order if satisfied that the person in respect of whom the order is sought has acted in a way which means that there is a risk the person may commit a relevant trafficking or exploitation offence (subsection (3)(a)) and it is necessary to make the prohibitions or requirements in the order for the purpose of protecting persons generally, or particular persons, from the physical or psychological harm which would be likely to occur if the person committed such an offence (subsection (3)(b)).

119.Subsection (4) provides that in assessing those tests the sheriff may consider conduct which occurred before this section comes into force.

Section 27: Contents of risk orders

120.Section 27 makes provision about the prohibitions or requirements (or both) that may be contained in a TERO. Each prohibition and requirement in a TERO is for a fixed period and the order itself is for a fixed period. The orders and the prohibitions or requirements may all be for the same period. However, the Act allows some requirements and prohibitions in the order to be set for a shorter period, if that is appropriate.

121.Subsection (2) provides that both the order and any prohibition or requirement in the order must have a specified fixed period of at least two years. However, this does not apply to a prohibition on foreign travel or to an order that contains a prohibition on foreign travel and no other prohibitions or requirements. Such a prohibition (or an order containing only such a prohibition) must be for a fixed period of no more than five years under section 28(1)).

122.Subsection (4) provides that a TERO may prohibit the person in respect of whom the order is made from doing things or require that person to do things. Different prohibitions and requirements may have effect for different periods.

123.Subsection (5) provides that if the sheriff makes a TERO in relation to a person already subject to such an order, the earlier order will cease to have effect.

Section 28: Prohibitions on foreign travel

124.Section 28 makes provision about prohibitions on foreign travel contained in a TERO.

125.As noted above, subsection (1) provides that a prohibition on foreign travel contained in a TERO, and any TERO which contains such a prohibition and no other prohibitions or requirements must be for a fixed period of not more than five years.

126.Subsection (2) defines a “prohibition on foreign travel” as a prohibition on travelling to countries outwith the UK (either by reference to particular countries or generally).

127.Subsection (3)(a) determines that a prohibition on foreign travel varied or renewed under section 29 may be varied or renewed for further fixed periods of no more than five years each time. Subsection (3)(b) requires that an order containing only a foreign travel restriction may be renewed for up to that fixed period.

128.Subsection (4) sets out the requirement on a person in respect of whom a TERO has been made containing a prohibition on foreign travel to all countries outwith the United Kingdom to surrender at a police station each passport that the person has. Subsection (5) provides that any passport surrendered must be returned as soon as is reasonably practicable after the person ceases to be subject to a prohibition on foreign travel to all countries outwith the United Kingdom. Circumstances where this subsection would not apply are provided for at subsection (6); for example, where a passport has already been returned to the relevant authority.

Section 29: Variation, renewal and discharge of risk orders

129.Section 29 makes provision about the variation, renewal or discharge of TEROs

130.Subsections (1) to (3) set out general powers in this context. The person in respect of whom the TERO is made or the chief constable may apply to the sheriff for variation, renewal or discharge of a TERO. Subsection (3) makes provision about shrieval jurisdiction in this connection. Where the sheriff receives such an application, the sheriff may vary, renew or discharge individual prohibitions or requirements or add new prohibitions or requirements, renew the whole order or discharge the whole order.

131.Subsection (4) provides that the sheriff must, before making an order under this section, give an opportunity to make representations to the person in respect of whom the order is made and the chief constable. Subsection (5) provides that after taking into account any such representations, the sheriff may then make any order the sheriff considers appropriate.

132.Subsection (6) sets out the tests the sheriff must consider when deciding whether to vary, renew or discharge TEROs (including by adding new prohibitions or requirements) or any prohibitions or requirements within them. Subsection (6)(a) applies the tests for the making of a TERO to any variation (including an increase or a relaxation of a requirement or prohibition), renewal or addition. Subsection (6)(b) applies those tests to any discharge of a prohibition or requirement or of an order.

Section 30: Interim risk orders

133.Section 30 provides that a sheriff may make an interim TERO while the main application under section 26 is being determined. The sheriff may make such an order if the sheriff considers it just to do so (subsection (1)) and such an order may contain prohibitions or requirements (or both) in relation to the person in respect of whom the order is to have effect (subsection (2)). Those prohibitions or requirements may relate to things to be done or not done in any part of Scotland or anywhere outwith Scotland (subsection (3)).

134.Subsection (4) provides that an interim TERO will only have effect for a fixed period, specified in the order, and will cease to have effect on the determination of the main application if that fixed period has not already expired.

135.Subsection (5) allows for an application for variation or discharge of an interim TERO (or a requirement or prohibition in the order) to be made to a sheriff in the sheriffdom of the sheriff who made the interim order by the person in respect of whom the order was made or the chief constable (subsection (6)).

Section 31: Appeals: risk orders

136.Section 31 provides for an appeals process in relation to TEROs and interim TEROs and any order varying or renewing such a TERO or interim TERO. The person in respect of whom the order was made or the chief constable may appeal against any of these orders.

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Explanatory Notes

Text created by the Scottish Government to explain what the Act sets out to achieve and to make the Act accessible to readers who are not legally qualified. Explanatory Notes were introduced in 1999 and accompany all Acts of the Scottish Parliament except those which result from Budget Bills.


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