Search Legislation

The Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010

Status:

This is the original version (as it was originally made). This item of legislation is currently only available in its original format.

SECTION 2Descriptions and specific conditions
Use of waste in construction (U1)

1.—(1) The use of relevant waste in construction.

(2) The tables specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph are set out below.

Table 1
CodesWaste typesQuantity limitAdditional specific conditions
010102Waste from mineral non-metalliferous excavation5,000 tonnes
010408Waste gravel and crushed rock other than those mentioned in 010407
010409Waste sand and clays
020202Shellfish shells from which the soft tissue or flesh has been removed only
101208Waste ceramics, bricks, tiles and construction products (after thermal processing)
101314Waste concrete and concrete sludge
170101Concrete
170102Bricks
170103Tiles and ceramics
170107Mixtures of concrete, bricks, tiles and ceramics other than those mentioned in 170106
170506Dredging spoil other than those mentioned in 170505A
170508Track ballast other than those mentioned in 170507
191205Glass
191209Minerals (for example sand, stones)
191212Aggregates only
Table 2
CodesWaste typesQuantity limitAdditional specific conditions
020399, 020401Soil from cleaning and washing fruit and vegetables only1,000 tonnes
170302Bituminous mixtures other than those mentioned in 170301B
170504Soil and stones other than those mentioned in 170503
170506Dredging spoil other than those mentioned in 170505
191302Solid wastes from soil remediation other than those mentioned in 191301
200202Soil and stones
020103Plant tissue wasteB
030101Waste bark, cork and wood onlyB
191207Untreated wood other than those mentioned in 191206 onlyB
200138200137 onlyB
Table 3
CodesWaste types>Quantity limitsAdditional specific conditions
170302Bituminous mixtures other than those mentioned in 17030150,000 tonnesC
170504Road sub base onlyC

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)where the relevant waste falls within the first column of a table in sub-paragraph (2), the total quantity of waste used or stored over any 3-year period does not exceed the limit indicated in the third column of that table;

(b)where one or more waste type falling within the first column of any one table in sub-paragraph (2) is used or stored, the total quantity for all the waste types used or stored does not exceed the limit indicated in the third column of that table over any 3-year period;

(c)no waste is stored for longer than 12 months prior to use; and

(d)the operation complies with such of the following additional conditions as are specified in the fourth column of the table and for these purposes—

Athe waste is used only for drainage work carried on for the purposes of the Land Drainage Act 1991(1), the 1991 Act or the 1995 Act,
Bthe waste is used only for the construction of tracks, paths, bridleways or car parks and must be processed into chipped form prior to use,
Cthe waste is used only for the construction of roads.
Use of baled end-of-life tyres in construction (U2)

2.—(1) The use of relevant waste in construction.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
160103Baled end-of-life tyres only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste used or stored during the construction does not exceed 50 tonnes of baled tyres;

(b)the waste is not used more than once;

(c)the bales comply with standard PAS108(2); and

(d)no waste is stored for longer than 3 months prior to use.

Use of waste in the construction of entertainment or educational installations etc (U3)

3.—(1) The use of relevant waste in the construction of installations, exhibits, sets or demonstrations for entertainment or educational purposes.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
170102Bricks
170103Tiles and ceramics
170201, 200138Wood
170203, 200139Plastic
170401 to 170407, 170411, 200140Metals including their alloys
200101Paper and cardboard
200111Textiles

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific condition is that the total quantity of waste used or stored prior to use does not exceed 20 tonnes at any one time.

Burning of waste as a fuel in a small appliance (U4)

4.—(1) The burning of relevant waste as a fuel in an appliance if the requirements in sub-paragraph (4) are met.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
020103, 200201Plant tissue waste only
020107, 170201Untreated wood only
020304Vegetable waste unsuitable for consumption or processing
030101Waste bark and cork
030105Untreated sawdust and wood shavings other than those mentioned in 030104 only
030301Waste bark and wood
030310Fibre rejects (fibrous vegetable waste from virgin pulp preparation or paper pulp production) only
150103Untreated wooden packaging only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste burned over any period of 1 hour is less than 50kg;

(b)the total quantity of waste stored at any one time does not exceed 10 tonnes; and

(c)the waste is stored in a secure place.

(4) The requirements in this sub-paragraph are that—

(a)the appliance has a net rated thermal input of less than 0.4 megawatts; and

(b)where it is used together with other appliances (whether or not it is operated simultaneously with such other appliances), the aggregate net rated thermal input of all the appliances is less than 0.4 megawatts.

Use of waste derived biodiesel as fuel (U5)

5.—(1) The use of biodiesel derived from relevant waste as a fuel in a portable generator if the requirements in sub-paragraph (4) are met or in a motor vehicle and the storage of such biodiesel—

(a)in or on a motor vehicle or in such a portable generator; or

(b)at a place that is owned or occupied by the owner or user of the biodiesel.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
190210Waste derived biodiesel only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of biodiesel stored in or on a motor vehicle or in a portable generator at any one time does not exceed 1,000 litres;

(b)the total quantity of biodiesel stored at a place owned or occupied by the owner or user of the biodiesel at any one time does not exceed 5,000 litres; and

(c)the biodiesel is stored with secondary containment.

(4) The requirements in this sub-paragraph are that—

(a)the portable generator has a net rated thermal input of less than 0.4 megawatts; and

(b)where it is used together with other portable generators (whether or not it is operated simultaneously with such other generators) the aggregate net rated thermal input of all the generators is less than 0.4 megawatts.

Use of sludge for the purposes of re-seeding a waste water treatment plant (U6)

6.—(1) The use of relevant waste at a waste water treatment plant for the purposes of re-seeding the plant.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
190805Sludges from treatment of urban waste water
190812Sludges from biological treatment of industrial waste water other than those mentioned in 190811

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste used or stored at the plant at any one time does not exceed 1,000 cubic metres; and

(b)the waste was not produced at the plant.

Use of effluent to clean a highway gravel bed (U7)

7.—(1) The use of relevant waste from a water treatment works or a waste water treatment plant to clean a highway gravel bed.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
190899Effluent only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste used over any 24-hour period does not exceed 10 cubic metres;

(b)the highway gravel bed has sealed drainage to ensure that the condition in paragraph (c) can be met;

(c)all waste used in and produced by the cleaning operation is collected; and

(d)the waste meets any relevant conditions specified in the environmental permit authorising the operation of the water treatment works or waste water treatment plant.

Use of waste for a specified purpose (U8)

8.—(1) The use of relevant waste for a specified purpose.

(2) For the purposes of this paragraph—

(a)the table specifying relevant waste and the limits referred to in sub-paragraph (3)(a) and (b) is set out below;

(b)“specified purpose” is a purpose specified in the third column of the table.

CodesWaste typesSpecified purposeQuantity limit (at any one time)
030105, 191207Wood shavings, woodchip, oversized compost, sawdust onlyUse in horse menages1,000 tonnes
191204Shredded or granulated rubber and end-of-life tyres onlyUse in horse menages1,000 tonnes
191201Shredded paper and cardboardUse as animal bedding100 tonnes
030305, 030311Paper pulp and paper sludge from paper recycling onlyUse as animal bedding100 tonnes
030105, 191207Wood shavings, woodchip, oversized compost, sawdust onlyUse as animal bedding100 tonnes
160103End-of-life tyresUse as a weight on cover sheeting on agricultural premises or use as crash barriers40 tonnes
150102Geotextile bags (flexible intermediate bulk containers) onlyUse as reinforcement in construction100 bags
020202Shellfish shells from which the soft tissue or flesh has been removed onlyUse for ornamental purposes50 tonnes
191205Crushed glass onlyUse for ornamental purposes50 tonnes
200127*, 200128, 080111*, 080112Paints (excluding specialist and industrial paints, wood preservatives, aerosol and spray paints, inks, adhesives and resins)Use as paint1,000 litres
190599Compost produced for the purposes of growing mushrooms onlyUse in growing mushrooms1,000 tonnes
170102, 170904Stones and bricks capable of being used in their existing state onlyUse in construction of buildings, fencing, barriers, containment or similar above ground construction100 tonnes
170201, 191207, 200138Non-hazardous wood including telegraph poles and railway sleepersUse in construction of buildings, fencing, barriers, containment or similar above ground construction100 tonnes
110105*, 110107*, 190902, 190903, 190906Aluminium hydroxide (A1OH) and ferric chloride (FeCl) and sludges/solutions from the treatment of water onlyUse in treating waste water effluent and in water treating processes50 cubic metres
100201, 100202, 170504, 191209Blast furnace slag and stones onlyUse as filter media at waste water treatment works50,000 tonnes

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total amount of waste used or stored at any one time does not exceed the quantity limit specified in the fourth column;

(b)in relation to any relevant waste to which code 160103 applies (end-of-life tyres), within the quantity limit specified for that waste type, not more than 10 tonnes is stored together;

(c)the waste is not treated or required to be treated prior to use; and

(d)in relation to any relevant waste to which code 110105* (aluminium hydroxide),110107* (ferric chloride), 190902, 190903 or 190906 (sludges/solutions from the treatment of water) applies, the waste is stored—

(i)with secondary containment, and

(ii)in a location with sealed drainage.

Use of waste to manufacture finished goods (U9)

9.—(1) The use of relevant waste to manufacture finished goods.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph and the quantity limits referred to in sub-paragraph (3)(a) is set out below.

Codes>Waste typesQuantity limit (at any one time)Additional specific conditions
100101, 100102Ash only500 tonnesA
101208Ceramics100 tonnesA
101112, 150107, 191205, 200102Glass5,000 tonnesA
100105Gypsum only500 tonnesA
200199Lion faeces only5 tonnesB
120101, 120103, 150104, 160117, 160118, 191001, 191002, 191202, 191203, 200140Metals500 tonnesA
150101, 191201, 200101Paper and cardboard15,000 tonnesC, D
070213, 120105, 150102, 191204, 200139Plastics500 tonnesE
191204Rubber only30 tonnesE, F
020106Sheep, rabbit or deer faeces only100 tonnesB
040221, 040222, 150109, 191208, 200110, 200111Textiles1,000 tonnesB
030105, 030301, 150103, 191207, 200138Wood, bark, cork, sawdust, shavings, cuttings, particle board100 tonnesB

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that —

(a)the total quantity of waste used or stored at any one time does not exceed the quantity limit specified in the third column of the table in sub-paragraph (2);

(b)the waste is stored in a secure location at the place where the manufacturing is carried on;

(c)the operation does not involve any activity falling within a description in Part A(1) or Part A(2) of Part 2 of Schedule 1; and

(d)the operation complies with such of the following additional specific conditions as are specified in the fourth column of the table—

Athe waste is stored at a location with sealed drainage,
Bthe waste is stored indoors or in a secure container,
Cthe waste is stored in a baled form, in a container or indoors,
Dwithin the quantity limit specified in the third column of the table and notwithstanding additional specific condition C, up to 1,000 tonnes may be stored outdoors so long as it is stored in an enclosure designed and maintained to prevent the escape of litter,
Ethe waste is not subject to heat treatment,
Fthe total quantity of waste stored together does not exceed 10 tonnes.

(4) For the purposes of this paragraph, “finished goods” means goods that are ready for use by an end consumer without any further processing.

Spreading waste on agricultural land to confer benefit (U10)

10.—(1) The spreading of relevant waste on agricultural land to confer benefit to the land for the purposes of providing, maintaining or improving the soil’s ability to provide a growing medium by adding nutrients, lime or biomass.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph and the quantity and storage limits referred to in sub-paragraph (3) is set out below.

CodesWaste typesQuantity limitStorage limit (at any one time)PeriodAdditional specific conditions
010102, 010408, 170504Chalk only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnes12 monthsA
020106Farmyard and horse manure only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnes12 monthsA
020401, 020399Soil from cleaning and washing fruit and vegetables only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnes12 monthsA
020199Milk from agricultural premises only50 cubic metres of diluted milk per hectare200 tonnes24 hoursA, B, E
100101Ash from wood chip boilers produced pursuant to an operation described in paragraph U4 only1 tonne per hectare10 tonnes12 monthsA
170506Dredging spoil (other than those mentioned in 170505) generated from the creation or maintenance of habitats, ditches or ponds within parks, gardens, fields and forests only150 tonnes per hectare1,250 tonnes12 monthsC
020199Spent compost from the growing of mushrooms compost only50 tonnes per hectare500 tonnes12 monthsA
190599Compost produced pursuant to a treatment described in paragraph T23 or T26 only50 tonnes per hectare500 tonnes12 monthsA

190604

Digestate produced pursuant to a treatment described in paragraph T24 or T25 only

50 tonnes per hectare

200 tonnes12 monthsA
190812Waste consisting of biobed or biofilter material produced pursuant to a treatment described in paragraph T32 only

50 tonnes per hectare

200 tonnes

12 months

A, D

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste spread does not exceed the limit specified in the third column of the table in sub-paragraph (2) over the period specified in the fifth column;

(b)the total quantity of waste stored at any one time does not exceed the limit specified in the fourth column of the table;

(c)subject to additional specific conditions D and E in sub-paragraph (f), where they apply, no waste is stored for longer than 12 months prior to spreading;

(d)the waste is stored in a secure location prior to spreading;

(e)at the time the spreading begins—

(i)the land has not been frozen for 12 hours or more in the preceding 24 hours,

(ii)the land is not waterlogged, frozen or snow-covered; and

(f)the operation complies with such of the following additional specific conditions as are specified in the sixth column of the table—

A

the location of any waste which is stored or land which is spread is at

least 10 metres from a watercourse and 50 metres from a spring, well or borehole,

Bprior to spreading, the waste is diluted with not less than an equal quantity of water or slurry and the land is spread not more than once in any 4-week period,
Cthe waste is spread adjacent to the place from which it was dredged,
Dthe waste is stored for at least 12 months prior to spreading,
Ethe waste is not stored for longer than 24 hours prior to spreading.
Spreading waste on non-agricultural land to confer benefit (U11)

11.—(1) The spreading of relevant waste on land that is not agricultural land for the purposes of providing, maintaining or improving the soil’s ability to provide a growing medium by adding nutrients, lime or biomass.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph and the quantity and storage limits referred to in sub-paragraph (3) is set out below.

CodesWaste typesQuantity limit (over 12 months)Storage limit (at any one time)Additional specific conditions
010102, 010408, 170504Chalk only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA
020106Farmyard and horse manure only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA
020202Shellfish shells from which the soft tissue or flesh has been removed only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA
020399, 020401Soil from cleaning and washing fruit and vegetables only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA
100101Ash from wood chip boilers produced pursuant to an operation described in paragraph U4 only1 tonne per hectare10 tonnesA
170506Dredging spoil (other than those mentioned in 170505) generated from the creation or maintenance of habitats, ditches or ponds within parks, gardens, fields and forests only150 tonnes per hectare1,250 tonnesB
020199Spent compost from the growing of mushrooms only50 tonnes per hectare500 tonnesA
190599Compost produced pursuant to a treatment described in paragraph T23 or T26 only50 tonnes per hectare500 tonnesA
190604Digestate produced pursuant to a treatment described in paragraph T24 or T25 only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA
190812Waste consisting of biobed or biofilter material produced pursuant to a treatment described in paragraph T32 only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA, C
200108Coffee grounds only50 tonnes per hectare200 tonnesA

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste spread does not exceed the limit specified in the third column of the table in sub-paragraph (2) over any 12-month period;

(b)the total quantity of waste stored at any one time does not exceed the limit specified in the fourth column of the table;

(c)subject to additional specific condition C in sub-paragraph (f), where it applies, no waste is stored for longer than 12 months prior to spreading;

(d)the waste is stored in a secure location prior to spreading;

(e)at the time the spreading begins—

(i)the land has not been frozen for 12 hours or more in the preceding 24 hours,

(ii)the land is not waterlogged, frozen or snow-covered; and

(f)the operation complies with such of the following additional specific conditions as are specified in the fifth column of the table—

Athe location of any waste which is stored or land which is spread is at least 10 metres from a watercourse and 50 metres from a spring, well or borehole,
Bthe waste is spread adjacent to the place from which it was dredged,
Cthe waste is stored for at least 12 months prior to spreading.
Use of mulch (U12)

12.—(1) The use of relevant waste as a mulch.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
020103, 191207, 200201Untreated wood and plant matter

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste used or stored over any period of 1 month does not exceed 100 tonnes; and

(b)the waste is stored in a secure location prior to use.

Spreading of plant matter to confer benefit (U13)

13.—(1) The spreading of relevant waste at the place of production to confer benefit.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
020103, 020107, 020304, 200201Plant tissue only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste spread over any 12-month period does not exceed 50 tonnes per hectare;

(b)at the time the spreading begins—

(i)the land has not been frozen for 12 hours or more in the preceding 24 hours,

(ii)the land is not waterlogged, frozen or snow-covered; and

(c)except for waste which is spread on the banks of the waters from which it was produced, no waste is spread within 50 metres of any watercourse, spring, well or borehole.

Incorporation of ash into soil (U14)

14.—(1) The incorporation of ash which is relevant waste into soil resulting from a qualifying operation.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
020103, 020107, 200201Ash from burning of plant tissue only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste incorporated into soil does not exceed 10 tonnes per hectare; and

(b)ashes of burnt cereal, straw or cereal stubble are not allowed, without reasonable excuse, proof of which lies on the establishment or undertaking carrying on the operation, to remain on the soil for longer than 24 hours after the commencement of the burning but must be incorporated into the soil—

(i)within that period, or

(ii)in a case where, having regard to wind conditions to do so would be likely to cause nuisance, as soon as conditions allow.

(4) For the purposes of this paragraph, a “qualifying operation” is one that—

(a)involves the burning of cereal straw or cereal stubble;

(b)falls within a description in paragraph D7; and

(c)complies with the specific conditions specified in that paragraph and the general conditions specified in Chapter 3.

Pig and poultry ash (U15)

15.—(1) The spreading of relevant waste on agricultural land at the place of production.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types
190112Ash from the incineration of pig and poultry carcasses only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)the total quantity of waste spread over any 12-month period does not exceed 150kg per hectare;

(b)the waste is mixed with an equal volume or more of manure or slurry prior to spreading;

(c)the waste is stored in a secure place prior to spreading;

(d)the location of the waste which is stored or land which is spread is at least—

(i)10 metres from a watercourse,

(ii)50 metres from a spring, well or borehole; and

(e)at the time of the spreading—

(i)the land has not been frozen for 12 hours or more in the preceding 24 hours,

(ii)the land is not waterlogged, frozen or snow-covered.

Use of depolluted end-of-life vehicles for vehicle parts (U16)

16.—(1) The use of relevant waste for vehicle parts.

(2) The table specifying relevant waste for the purposes of this paragraph is set out below.

CodesWaste types

160106

End-of-life vehicles, containing neither liquids nor other hazardous components
160122Non-hazardous components from end-of-life vehicles only

(3) For the purposes of this paragraph, the specific conditions are that—

(a)no more than two depolluted end-of-life vehicles are stored at any one time;

(b)in relation to relevant waste to which code 160122 applies (non-hazardous components from end-of-life vehicles), the total quantity of waste stored at any one time does not exceed 5 cubic metres;

(c)the waste is stored in a secure place;

(d)the waste is stored on an impermeable surface; and

(e)the operation is for the purposes of re-using the waste.

(4) For the purposes of this paragraph and in relation to an end-of-life vehicle, “depolluted” means that the vehicle has been subjected to all of the operations described in paragraph 3 of Annex 1 to the End-of-Life Vehicles Directive.

(2)

PAS 108:2007, Specification for the production of tyre bales for use in construction, ISBN 978 0 580 50349 8.

Back to top

Options/Help

Print Options

You have chosen to open The Whole Instrument

The Whole Instrument you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Instrument as a PDF

The Whole Instrument you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open the Whole Instrument

The Whole Instrument you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open Schedules only

The Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

Close

Legislation is available in different versions:

Latest Available (revised):The latest available updated version of the legislation incorporating changes made by subsequent legislation and applied by our editorial team. Changes we have not yet applied to the text, can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area.

Original (As Enacted or Made):The original version of the legislation as it stood when it was enacted or made. No changes have been applied to the text.

Close

Opening Options

Different options to open legislation in order to view more content on screen at once

Close

Explanatory Memorandum

Explanatory Memorandum sets out a brief statement of the purpose of a Statutory Instrument and provides information about its policy objective and policy implications. They aim to make the Statutory Instrument accessible to readers who are not legally qualified and accompany any Statutory Instrument or Draft Statutory Instrument laid before Parliament from June 2004 onwards.

Close

More Resources

Access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item from this tab. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as enacted version that was used for the print copy
  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • correction slips
  • links to related legislation and further information resources
Close

Impact Assessments

Impact Assessments generally accompany all UK Government interventions of a regulatory nature that affect the private sector, civil society organisations and public services. They apply regardless of whether the regulation originates from a domestic or international source and can accompany primary (Acts etc) and secondary legislation (SIs). An Impact Assessment allows those with an interest in the policy area to understand:

  • Why the government is proposing to intervene;
  • The main options the government is considering, and which one is preferred;
  • How and to what extent new policies may impact on them; and,
  • The estimated costs and benefits of proposed measures.
Close

More Resources

Use this menu to access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as made version that was used for the print copy
  • correction slips

Click 'View More' or select 'More Resources' tab for additional information including:

  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • links to related legislation and further information resources