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The Road Vehicles (Approval) Regulations 2009

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PART 2Requirements for Part 2 Vehicles

SECTION 1

1 Requirement2 Definitions and supplementary provisions3 Exemptions and modifications
1. Noise
1.

The vehicle must be fitted with an exhaust system including a silencer such that the exhaust gases must not escape into the atmosphere without first passing through the silencer.

2.

When:

(a)

the vehicle is held stationary on a level surface such that there is an unobstructed area not less than 3 metres wide all around the vehicle; and

(b)

the engine by which the vehicle is propelled is run at a constant rotational speed of 3/4S, the noise measured at 0.5 metres from the exhaust outlet at 45 degrees to the axis of the outlet pipe in a horizontal plane, must not exceed 99dB(A).

For the purposes of this item “S” means the rotational speed at which maximum power is produced.Paragraph 1 only applies to vehicles fitted with an internal combustion engine as part of the propulsion system for the vehicle.
2. Emissions
1.

The vehicle must not emit any avoidable smoke or avoidable visible vapour.

2.

When the engine by which the vehicle is propelled is running without load at a normal idling speed, the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust emissions from the engine must not exceed:

(a)

if the vehicle has an effective date before 1st August 1986, 4.5%;

(b)

if the vehicle has an effective date on or after 1st August 1986 and is not a vehicle descried in sub-paragraph (c) or (d) below, 3.5%;

(c)

if the vehicle is of a description mentioned in the Annex to the emissions publication and is either:

(i)

a passenger car having an effective date on or after 1st August 1992; or

(ii)

any other vehicle having an effective date on or after 1st August 1994,

the relevant percentage;

(d)

if the vehicle is not of a description mentioned in the Annex to the emissions publication and is:

(i)

a passenger car having an effective date on or after 1st August 1995 or any other vehicle having an effective date on or after 1st August 1997, 0.5% of the total exhaust emissions from the engine by volume.

(ii)

a passenger car or any other vehicle having an effective date on or after 1st September 2002, 0.3% of the total exhaust emissions from the engine by volume.

3.

If the engine by which the vehicle is propelled is run without a load at a rotational speed of 2,000 revolutions per minute, the hydrocarbon content of the exhaust emission from the engine must not exceed 0.12% if the vehicle is a vehicle described in paragraph 2(a) or 2(b) above;

4.

If the vehicle is one described in paragraph 2(c) or (d) above and the engine by which it is propelled is run without a load at a fast idling speed:

(a)

the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust emissions from the engine must not exceed 0.3% of the total exhaust emissions from the engine by volume;

(b)

if the vehicle has an effective date on or after 1st September 2002, the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust emissions from the engine must not exceed 0.2% of the total exhaust emissions from the engine by volume;

(c)

the hydrocarbon content of the exhaust emissions from the engine must not exceed 0.02% of the total exhaust emissions from the engine by volume; and

(d)

the lambda value must be between the relevant limits.

“the emissions publication” has the same meaning as in paragraph 7(b) of Schedule 7B of the Construction and Use Regulations(1);

“fast idling speed” means:

(a)

in the case of a vehicle of a description mentioned in the Annex to the emissions publication, a rotational speed between the minimum and maximum limits shown against that description of vehicle in columns 3(e) and (f) respectively of that Annex; or

(b)

in any other case, a rotational speed of between 2,500 and 3,000 revolutions per minute;

“the lambda value” means the ratio by mass of air to petrol vapour in the mixture entering the combustion chambers divided by 14.7;

“normal idling speed” means in the case of a vehicle of a description mentioned in the Annex to the emissions publication, a rotational speed between the minimum and maximum limits shown against that description of vehicle in columns 2(b) and 2(c) respectively of that Annex;

“passenger car” means a motor vehicle which:

(a)

is constructed or adapted for use for the carriage of passengers and is not a goods vehicle;

(b)

has no more than five seats in addition to the driver’s seat; and

(c)

has a weight not exceeding 2,500 kg maximum gross;

“relevant limits” means:

(a)

in the case of a vehicle of a description mentioned in the Annex to the emissions publication, the minimum and maximum limits shown against that description of vehicle in columns 3(c) and 3(d) respectively of that Annex; or

(b)

in any other case, 0.97 and 1.03;

“relevant percentage” means, in the case of a vehicle of a description mentioned in the Annex to the emissions publication, the percentage shown against that description of vehicle in column 1(a) of that Annex; and

“rotary piston engine” means an engine in which the torque is provided by means of one or more rotary pistons and not by any reciprocating piston; and any rotary piston engine is deemed to be a four-stroke engine.

1.

Does not apply to vehicles approved to item 41.

2.

For the purposes of this item, a vehicle that can be fuelled with both petrol and gaseous fuel, is to be regarded as a vehicle that can only be fuelled with a gaseous fuel, so long as:

(a)

the petrol system is fitted for emergency purposes only; and

(b)

the petrol tank cannot contain more than 15 litres of petrol.

3.

Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 do not apply to:

(a)

vehicles not propelled by a spark ignition engine;

(b)

vehicles having an effective date before 1st August 1975;

(c)

vehicles having an effective date before 1st August 1987 and propelled by a rotary piston engine.

4.

Paragraphs 2(a) and 2(b) do not apply to vehicles propelled by a 2-stroke engine.

5.

Paragraph 2(c) does not apply to:

(a)

a passenger car having an effective date on or after 1st August 1992 and before 1st August 1995;

(b)

any other vehicle having an effective date on or after 1st August 1994 and before 1st August 1997;

if the passenger car or other vehicle was not on the effective date, equipped with a catalyst exhaust emissions system, in which case paragraph 2(b) applies.

6.

Paragraphs 2(c) and 2(d) do not apply to vehicles having an effective date before 1st January 1999 which are either:

(a)

fuelled solely by either liquid petroleum gas or natural gas, or

(b)

bi-fuelled vehicles when controlled to operate on either of those gases.

7.

Paragraphs 3 and 4(b) do not apply to vehicles fuelled solely by natural gas or to bi-fuelled vehicles when controlled to operate on natural gas.

8.

Paragraph 4(c) does not apply to vehicles fuelled by liquid petroleum gas or natural gas.

9.

The requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

10.

An Approval issued to the most representative base vehicle remains valid irrespective of change in the reference mass.

3. Fuel Tanks
1.

The technical provisions of Section 5 of Annex I of Directive 70/221/EEC as amended by 2000/8/EC, with the exception of paragraphs 5.1, 5.2 and 5.12. No dripping test is to be performed.

2.

Vehicles (except those not fitted for liquid fuels at normal ambient conditions) must comply with the requirements of paragraph 5.1.2. of Annex I to Directive 70/220/EEC as amended by 91/441/EEC.

3.

For vehicles using gaseous fuels:

  • ECE Regulation 67.01 for LPG

    Or

  • ECE Regulation 110 for CNG

    Or

  • ECE Regulation 115 for LPG or CNG retro-fit.

In the case of a vehicle manufactured on or before 1st May 2009 the requirement in paragraph 5.9.1 for a tank cap to be fixed to the filler pipe does not apply.
4. Rear Registration Plate Space

The technical provisions of Directive 70/222/EEC;

Or

Space must be provided for a registration plate meeting the requirements of the Display of Registration Marks Regulations 2001(2).

5. Steering Effort

The technical provisions of paragraphs 4 and 5 of Annex I to Directive 70/311/EEC as amended by 1999/7/EC;

Or

In the case of a Manual or Power Assisted System, a test to ensure no obvious defect or undue stiffness is evident.

Manual or Power Assisted System” means a system that will operate in the event of failure of any power supply or assistance.
1.

The requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

2.

Directive 70/311/EEC, Annex I, paragraphs 4.1.1.2 and 4.2.1.1.2. do not apply to a steering control system designed to meet the needs of a driver with a physical disability.

6. Door latches and Hinges
1.

All doors, provided on the vehicle for the entry and exit of occupants, must be designed so as to allow easy and safe use. Doors fitted to the side of a vehicle must have both intermediate and fully latched positions. However, latching in an intermediate position is not required if a safety-bolt with an audible warning device is provided as specified in paragraph 2(b) below. Door latches must be designed to prevent the doors from opening accidentally.

2.

Where hinges are used on doors fitted to the side of a vehicle, other than folding doors, the hinges must be fitted at the front edge of the door. However, they may be fitted at the top or rear edge if either:

(a)

a device is fitted which automatically closes the door at least to the intermediate latched position if it is unlatched when the vehicle is moving in the forward direction; or

(b)

a safety-bolt is fitted to prevent such unlatching and an audible or visual warning device is provided which activates an audible warning if the vehicle is driven without the bolt in place.

3.

On hinged doors, the latch and striker assembly must be capable of withstanding any load which is likely to be applied in the course of normal driving (i.e. excluding crash impacts) in both the intermediate and fully latched positions. However if a safety-bolt with an audible warning device is provided as specified in paragraph 2(b) above, the requirement need be met only with the bolt in place.

For the purposes of this item, “longitudinal plane” means a vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal axis of a vehicle.
1.

Column 1, Paragraph 3 does not apply to doors which do not give direct access to a seat designed for normal use while a vehicle is travelling on a road. This includes any door, for which the longitudinal plane passing through the extreme inboard projecting point of such a door is more than 300mm distant from the longitudinal plane passing through the nearest edge of such a seat. For the purpose of this provision the seating position of a wheelchair is considered to be a seat.

2.

The latching requirements in paragraphs 1 and 3 do not apply to any power-operated door if the force applied by the power actuator is sufficient to keep the door completely closed even when any load is applied as described in paragraph 3.

3.

This item does not apply to doors meeting the technical requirements specified in paragraphs 7.6.4 to 7.6.6 or in paragraph 7.6.7 of Annex I to Directive 2001/85/EC.

7. Audible Warning
The vehicle must be fitted with an audible warning device which when operated emits a continuous uniform sound capable of giving audible warning of the approach or position of the vehicle to which it is fitted.For the purposes of this item an “audible warning device” does not include a bell, gong or siren.
8. Indirect Vision
The essential technical provisions of Directive 71/127/EEC as amended by Directive 88/321/EEC.
1.

Directive 71/127/EEC, Annex II, paragraph 1.4 does not apply.

2.

Field of view requirements do not apply to optional mirrors.

9. Braking
1.

The vehicle must comply with the requirements of paragraph 2.1 and 2.2 of Annex 1 of Directive 71/320/EEC as amended by Directive 98/12/EC; but in the application of that Annex (as so amended) for these purposes:

(a)

the second sentence of paragraph 2.2.1.2.4 does not apply;

(b)

paragraph 2.2.1.4.2 does not apply in relation to a vehicle which is fitted with a braking system having a split-circuit transmission which enables braking of not less than one wheel on each side of the vehicle, in the event of failure in a part of the transmission of the service braking system; and

(c)

paragraph 2.2.1.5.1 applies as if for the last sentence there were substituted the words “This condition must be met by automatic means”.

2.

If the vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock device it must comply with paragraph 2.2.1.23 of 71/320/EEC as amended by Directive 98/12/EC.

3.

The vehicle must comply with the requirements of paragraphs 2.2.1.11.1 and 2.2.1.11.2 of Directive 71/320/EEC as amended by Directive 98/12/EEC.

4.

The secondary braking system and service braking system must have the same control.

5.

The brake efficiency must be not less than:

(a)

for the service braking system:

(i)

in the case of a passenger vehicle, 60%; or

(ii)

in the case of a goods vehicle, 50%;

(b)

for the secondary braking system, in the case when the servo-assistance provided for the service braking (if any) fails and a force is applied to the control:

(i)

in the case of a passenger vehicle, 25% when the force applied is 50kg; or

(ii)

in the case of a goods vehicle, 25% when the force applied is 70kg.

(c)

for the parking braking system, 18%.

6.

The lateral brake distribution for the service braking system must:

(a)

in relation to each steering axle; and

(b)

for all values of total breaking force and vehicle speed,

be not less than 70%.

7.

The longitudinal brake distribution for the service braking system must, for all values of total braking force, vehicle speed and adjustment settings (if any), be greater than the ratio of the vertical forces transmitted to the road through the front and rear wheels respectively when the vehicle is in running order and being braked on a level surface.

8.

The capacity of the braking system to absorb and dissipate energy must be sufficient to ensure that all the required aspects of braking performance can be maintained under all normal operating conditions of the vehicle, including long hill descents, taking account of the vehicle’s speed capability, weight and weight distribution.

9.

Braking reaction time must comply with the requirements of paragraph 2.3 of Annex II to Directive 71/320/EEC as amended by Directive 98/12/EC.

For the purpose of this item:

“anti-lock device” has the same meaning as in Directive 71/320/EEC as amended by Directive 98/12/EC.

“brake efficiency” means maximum total brake force expressed as a percentage of the maximum gross weight;

“braking system”, “control”, “transmission”, “service braking system”, “secondary braking system” and “parking braking system”, have the same meanings respectively as in Directive 71/320/EEC as amended by Directive 98/12/EC;

“in running order” means:

(a)

with all fluids (such as oils and engine coolant) necessary for the vehicle to be driven, with the fuel tanks full, and having a spare wheel and a tool-kit;

(b)

carrying a driver weighing 68kg; and

(c)

not carrying any other load or passengers.

“lateral brake distribution”, in relation to an axle, means the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the lower to the higher of the braking forces transmitted by the tyres to the road surface for two wheels, on opposite sides of the vehicle on the same axle;

“longitudinal brake distribution” means the ratio of the braking forces transmitted by the tyres to the road surface through the front and rear wheels respectively when the vehicle is in running order and being braked on a level surface;

“maximum total brake force” means the total braking force when the brakes are fully applied;

“servo-assistance” means an energy supply which supplements the muscular energy of the driver;

“total braking force” means the total of the braking forces transmitted by the tyres to the road surface when the brakes are applied.

1.

The requirements in paragraph 1 for the driver to be able to operate the service braking system while keeping both hands on the steering control, and the secondary braking system while keeping at least one hand on the steering control, does not apply to a disabled person’s vehicle, so long as the vehicle is adapted for a disabled driver to enable him to control the steering at all times while operating either braking system.

2.

Paragraph 5(b) has effect in the case of a vehicle having a secondary brake operated by a means other than a foot control as if for “50kg” and “70kg” respectively there were substituted “40kg” and “60kg”.

3.

Paragraph 7 does not apply to a vehicle if the brakes acting on its rear wheels are fitted with an anti-lock device and were so fitted at the time of its manufacture except that this exemption shall not apply to:

(i)

an amateur-built vehicle;

(ii)

a vehicle manufactured using parts of a registered vehicle; and

(iii)

a rebuilt vehicle.

4.

The requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

10. Electro-magnetic Compatibility
The vehicle must comply with the essential technical requirements of paragraph 6 of Annex 1 to Directive 72/245/EEC as amended by Directive 89/491/EEC.
11. Diesel Smoke
1.

If the vehicle has an effective date on or after 1st August 1979, when the engine by which it is propelled is subject to the free-acceleration test, the coefficient of absorption of the exhaust emissions from the engine immediately after leaving the exhaust must not exceed:

(a)

if the engine of the vehicle is turbo-charged, 3.0 per metre, or

(b)

in any other case, 2.5 per metre.

2.

If the vehicle has an effective date on or after 1st July 2008, when the engine by which it is propelled is subject to the free-acceleration test, the coefficient of absorption of the exhaust emissions from the engine immediately after leaving the exhaust must not exceed 1.5 per metre.

For the purposes of this item:

“co-efficient of absorption” shall be construed in accordance with paragraph 3.5 of Annex VII to Directive 72/306/EEC;

“free acceleration” has the same meaning as in Annex II to Directive 77/143/EEC as amended by Directive 92/55/EEC.

This item:

(a)

applies only to vehicles propelled by a compression ignition engine;

(b)

does not apply to a vehicle which complies with Directive 2005/55/EC as amended by Directive 2008/74/EC.

12. Interior Fittings
1.

No surface (other than a surface of a window) of the vehicle interior which can be contacted by a sphere of 165mm diameter and which is within the specified zone, may include any fittings (e.g. controls and instruments) or design features which have any dangerous roughness or sharp edges.

2.

Switches and other controls mounted on the instrument panel which project by more than 9.5mm from the surface of the panel, can be contacted by a sphere of 165mm diameter and which are within the specified zone, must be so constructed and mounted that they would either retract into the surface of the panel or become detached from the panel when a horizontal force of 40kg is applied to them.

3.

The lower edge of the instrument panel which is within the specified zone must be rounded to a radius of curvature of not less than 19mm, or if it is covered with non-rigid material, not less than 5mm.

4.

The rearward and upward-facing parts of seat frames behind which there is a designated seating position, and which are within the head impact zone must be both covered with non-rigid material and have a radius of curvature of not less than 5mm.

5.

The handbrake control in the fully released position and the gear-lever control in any forward gear position must not have any radius of curvature of less than 3.2mm on surfaces which can be contacted by a sphere of 165mm diameter.

6.

Shelves and other similar items fitted below the level of the highest part of the instrument panel must be so constructed that their supports have no protruding edges and that all parts facing into the vehicle present a surface not less than 25mm high with edges rounded to a radius of curvature of not less than 3.2mm. This surface must also be covered with non-rigid material.

7.

On that part of the inner surface of the roof which is situated above or forward of the occupants and can be contacted by a sphere of165mm diameter, the width of projecting parts made of rigid material must not be less than the length of their projection from the surface and their edges must have a radius of curvature of not less than 5mm. Roof sticks or ribs made of rigid material, with the exception of the header rail of the glazed surfaces and door frames, must not project downwards by more than 19mm.

For the purposes of this item:

“air bag” means a flexible bag fitted to a vehicle and designed to be filled with gas under pressure in order to protect the driver or a front seat passenger in the event of a collision involving the front of the vehicle;

“designated seating position” means a position where there is a seat designed for normal use while the vehicle is travelling on the road;

“head impact zone” has the same meaning as in Directive 74/60/EEC;

“non-rigid material” means a material which has a hardness of less than 50 shore A;

“rigid material” means a material which has a hardness of no less than 50 shore A;

“sharp edge” means an edge of rigid material having a radius of curvature of less than 2.5mm, except in the case of projections of less than 3.2mm from the panel. In this case, the minimum radius of curvature does not apply provided that the height of the projection is not more than half its width and its edges are blunted;

specified zone” means the zone which:

(a)

is forward of the transverse plane of the torso reference line of the manikin as defined in paragraph 2.5 and appendix 1 of Annex 3 to Directive 77/649/EEC as amended by Directive 90/630/EEC with the manikin positioned in the rearmost designated seating position;

(b)

is above the horizontal plane passing through the point 150mm above the lowest part of the top of the front seat cushions; and

(c)

is outside the areas defined by paragraphs 2.3.1, 2.3.2 and 2.3.3 of Annex I to Directive 74/60/EEC as amended by Directive 78/632/EEC.

1.

Does not apply to a goods vehicle of category N1.

2.

Does not apply to any area inside a motor caravan, ambulance, or hearse which is not inside the head impact zone for any designated seating position for use during vehicle travel.

3.

An armoured vehicle is exempted from any requirement of this item if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose.

4.

Paragraph 1 does not apply to:

(a)

the edges of any interior fitting (if there is a gap of less than 20 mm wide between the edges);

(b)

any heating or ventilation grill element; or

(c)

any control mounted on the heating or ventilation grill element area; so long as they are blunted.

5.

Paragraph 1 does not apply to foot pedal controls.

6.

Paragraphs 1 and 2 do not apply to any switches, controls or associated equipment designed for the use by a disabled driver and fitted in the driver’s position so long as any edges are blunted.

7.

For the purpose of this item the seating position of a wheelchair is considered to be a seat.

8.

Paragraph 5 does not apply to:

(a)

any floor-mounted hand-brake control if, in the fully released position, no part of the control is in the specified zone; or

(b)

any hand-brake control mounted on or under the instrument panel if, in the fully released position, there is no possibility of the occupants of the vehicle contacting it in the event of a frontal impact.

9.

Paragraph 7 does not apply to parts covered with a non-rigid material; to the hood-frames of convertible vehicles; or to hood or tonneau cover press studs so long as they are blunted. For opening roofs, the requirements shall apply to parts, including devices for opening, closing and adjusting the roof, with the roof in the closed position.

10.

Paragraph 1 (in so far as it relates to the surface of an instrument panel) and paragraph 2 do not apply to any vehicle if:

(a)

it is fitted with air bags for the protection of the driver and the front seat passenger; and

(b)

those air bags were fitted at the time the vehicle was manufactured,

except that this exemption does not apply to:

(i)

an amateur-built vehicle,

(ii)

a vehicle manufactured in very low volume,

(iii)

a vehicle manufactured using parts of a registered vehicle, and

(iv)

a rebuilt vehicle,

as defined in Part 1 of this Schedule.

13. Anti-Theft and Immobiliser
1.

Either:

(a)

the technical provisions of Directive 74/61/EEC as amended by Directive 95/56/EC, or

(b)

the requirements specified in paragraph 2.

2.

The vehicle must be fitted with some form of anti-theft device, that is to say, a mechanical anti-theft device or immobiliser or a combination of these (in addition to any key operated switch normally used to start the engine) that prevents the vehicle being driven or moved under its own power. Such device(s) shall comply with the following requirements:

(a)

No anti-theft device is to operate on the braking system;

(b)

If any anti-theft device is, or incorporates, any mechanical device that acts upon a system that affects the control of the vehicle (e.g. the steering control):

(i)

it must not be possible to start the engine in the normal way until every such mechanical device has been deactivated,

(ii)

it must not be possible to activate any such mechanical device while the engine is running, and

(iii)

the action of activating any such mechanical device must be distinct and separate from that of stopping the engine.

3.

Any alarm system or immobiliser, excluding a panic alarm specified in paragraph 4, fitted to a vehicle must comply with paragraph 1.

4.

An optional panic alarm not forming part of an alarm system under paragraph 1 must comply with the following requirements:

(a)

the alarm signal to be audible and in addition may include optical alarm devices, or be a radio alarm, or any combination of the above;

(b)

the technical requirements of Directive 74/61/EEC as amended by Directive 95/56/EC, Annex VI, Part II, paragraphs 8.2 to 8.8, 9.1.2 to 9.2.1, 9.2.3 to 9.4, 9.6, 9.9 to 9.10, and 9.11.2 to 11 inclusive;

(c)

unsetting the panic alarm must immediately cut the alarm signal.

“immobiliser” has the same meaning as Directive 74/61/EEC as amended by Directive 95/56/EC.
1.

For the purpose of column 1, paragraph 3, compliance may be demonstrated by:

(a)

a base vehicle approval or test report; or

(b)

a separate technical unit approval or test report, and a completed installation certificate.

2.

The requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

14. Protective Steering
1.

No part of the steering control surface directed towards the driver which can be contacted by a sphere of 165mm in diameter may present any roughness or sharp edges with a radius of curvature of less than 2.5mm.

2.

The steering control must be designed, constructed and fitted so as not to embody components or accessories, including the horn control and other assemblies, capable of catching in the driver’s clothing or jewellery in normal driving movement.

3.

The steering control and column assembly as fitted to the vehicle or the steering control itself must offer a degree of protection to the driver in the event of a frontal impact by absorbing energy. This requirement shall be treated as met if either:

(a)

the vehicle complies with the requirements of paragraph 5.2 of Annex 1 of Directive 74/297/EEC; or

(b)

the steering control complies with the requirements of paragraphs 5.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.4 and 5.4.5 of Directive 74/297/EEC as amended by Directive 91/662/EEC.

4.

The vehicle must comply with the requirements of paragraph 5.1 of Annex 1 of Directive 74/297/EEC.

For the purposes of this item:

“driver’s air bag” means a flexible bag fitted to a vehicle and designed to be filled with gas under pressure in order to protect the driver in the event of a collision involving the front end of the vehicle.

“steering control” has the same meaning as in Directive 74/297/EEC.

1.

This item does not apply to:

(a)

an ambulances, motor caravan, or hearse if the vehicle has been derived from a goods vehicle having a maximum gross weight of not less than 1,500 kg;

(b)

an armoured vehicle;

(c)

a vehicle which complies with the technical requirements of Directive 96/79/EC.

2.

Paragraph 1 does not apply to any vehicle if:

(a)

it is fitted with a driver’s air bag;

(b)

the driver’s air bag was fitted and approved at the time the base vehicle was manufactured; and

(c)

all parts of the steering control are blunted, but this exemption does not apply to:

(i)

an amateur built vehicle;

(ii)

a vehicle manufactured in very low volume;

(iii)

a vehicle manufactured using parts of a registered vehicle;

(iv)

a rebuilt vehicle,

as defined in Part 1 of this Schedule.

3.

The requirements of this item do not apply to a disabled person’s vehicle insofar as the adaptation prevents the vehicle from complying but this exception does not apply where such adaptations can easily be removed, if necessary with the use of tools, in which case evidence of compliance before the vehicle was adapted is required.

15. Seat Strength
The technical provisions of: Directive 74/408/EEC as amended by Directive 2005/39/EC.
1.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance or hearse, the requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

2.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance or hearse, the requirements in column 1 do not apply to seats intended for use solely while the vehicle is stationary and any such seats must be clearly identified to users by means of a pictogram or a sign with appropriate text.

3.

This item does not apply to the anchorages of any seat designed for a disabled person, so long as such a seat is securely attached to the vehicle.

4.

In the case of a wheelchair accessible vehicle:

(a)

a wheelchair location shall be considered a seating position but the requirements in column 1, paragraph1, do not apply to the wheelchair,

(b)

for each wheelchair sufficient space must be provided, the longitudinal plane of the special area must be parallel to the longitudinal plane of the vehicle.

5.

The tests specified in Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 of Annex II to directive 74/408/EEC do not apply to a seat designed to provide a comparable level of safety.

6.

The provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 1 to Directive 2005/39/EC do not apply.

16. Exterior projections
1.

The essential technical provisions of Directive 74/483/EEC as amended by Directive 79/488/EEC, Annex I, paragraphs 5, 6.2, 6.5.1, 6.11 and 6.14.

2.

Handles, hinges, push buttons and fuel tank filler caps must not project more than 40 mm from the external surface unless they cannot under any circumstance project beyond the extreme outer edge of the vehicle, in which case they may project by up to 50 mm from the external surface. All handles must be enclosed in a protective surround or be recessed, unless they cannot in any circumstances project beyond the extreme outer edge of the vehicle.

3.

The open ends of door handles which rotate parallel to the plane of the door must be turned back towards the plane of the door. Such open ends must be directed rearwards unless the handles cannot under any circumstances project beyond the extreme outer edge of the vehicle and at least one of the following requirements is met:

(a)

the open end of the handle is shielded to the front by a protective surround, or

(b)

the open end of the handle is recessed into the vehicle bodywork, or

(c)

the gap measured laterally between the open end of the handle and the vehicle body is no more than 2 mm when the handle is in its normal position with the door latched.

4.

The open ends of handles, which pivot outwards in any direction, must face either rearwards or downwards, unless they have an independent return mechanism and cannot project more than 15 mm from the external surface should the return mechanism fail.

For the purposes of this item:

“extreme outer edge” and “external surface” have same meaning as in Directive 74/483/EEC.

1.

Does not apply to goods vehicles of category N1 or multi-purpose vehicles which are classed as M1 by virtue of paragraph 10 of Part 1 of this Schedule.

2.

The requirements according to the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply to the cab.

3.

Those parts of a motor caravan, ambulance or hearse, other than the driver’s cab, are exempt from any requirement of this item if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose.

4.

An armoured vehicle is exempt from any requirement of this item if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose.

5.

Does not apply to badges and other features of mass produced vehicles that cannot reasonably be removed or modified provided that such projections are blunted except that this exemption does not apply to:

(i)

an amateur-built vehicle,

(ii)

a vehicle manufactured in very low volume,

(iii)

a vehicle manufactured using parts of a registered vehicle, and

(iv)

a rebuilt vehicle,

as defined in Part 1 of this Schedule.

6.

Hood or tonneau cover press studs fitted to a convertible vehicle so long as they are blunted.

17. Speedometer and Reverse Gear
1.

The technical provisions of: Directive 75/443/EEC as amended by Directive 97/39/EC, Annex I and Annex II, paragraph 4.

2.

The vehicle must be fitted with a speedometer capable of indicating speed in mph at uniform intervals not exceeding 20 mph at all speeds up to the maximum speed of the vehicle.

1.

Annex II paragraphs 4.3 and 4.4 to Directive 75/443/EEC do not apply if the following requirements are met:

(a)

for all true speeds up to the design speed of the vehicle, the true speed must not exceed the indicated speed;

(b)

for all true speeds of between 25 mph and 70 mph (or the maximum speed if lower), the difference between the indicated speed and the true speed must not exceed V/10 + 6.25 mph where V = the true speed.

2.

Annex II paragraph 4.2.1 to Directive 75/443/EEC applies only where the speedometer is marked in km/h.

18. Plates (statutory)
1.

The technical provisions of: Directive 76/114/EEC as amended by Directive 78/507/EEC.

2.

Where the vehicle is the subject of a multi-stage build a plate is required on completion of each stage as appropriate. Information which has not changed from the base vehicle plate does not need to be marked on subsequent plates, except the vehicle identification number must be marked on every plate.

mass produced” means vehicles of the same family of types produced in numbers exceeding 300 per annum worldwide.
1.

In the case of M1 vehicles paragraphs 2.1.4 to 2.1.7 of the Annex to Directive 76/114/EEC do not apply.

2.

Where a vehicle is mass produced the following may apply:

(a)

the information on the plate required in column 1 may be on separate plates provided that the plates are fitted as close as possible to each other in a clearly visible position and every plate is marked with the vehicle identification number; and

(b)

the vehicle identification number may be marked in characters less than 4mm in height.

19. Seat Belt Anchorages

The technical provisions of: Directive 76/115/EEC as amended by Directive 2005/41/EC;

And

In the case of a wheelchair accessible vehicle the requirements in Section 2 of this Part.

1.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, or hearse, with a maximum mass equal to or exceeding 2500kg the requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

2.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, hearse, or other special purpose vehicle the requirements in column 1 do not apply to seats intended for use solely while the vehicle is stationary and any such seats must be clearly identified to users by means of a pictogram or a sign with appropriate text.

3.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, or hearse, at least anchorages for lap belts are required for all rear seating positions.

4.

In the case of armoured vehicles exemption from any requirement of this item is permitted if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose.

5.

Tests need not be performed provided that the vehicle is designed to meet the strength characteristics equivalent to those needed to satisfy the requirements of this item.

20. Installation of Lighting and Light Signalling Devices
1.

The essential technical provisions of UNECE Regulation 48.03.

2.

Dipped beam headlamps must be suitable for left hand rule of the road traffic.

1.

Paragraphs 6.2.6.2 and 6.2.6.3 of UNECE Regulation 48.03 (headlamp levelling) do not apply except where dipped beam headlamps with light sources having an objective luminous flux which exceed 2000 lumen are fitted.

2.

The requirements relating to S3 devices in paragraph 6.7 of UNECE Regulation 48.03 do not apply.

3.

In the case of a rear direction indicator which is one of a number of lamps having a common housing and fitted to a left-hand drive vehicle, paragraph 6.5.4.1 of UNECE regulation 48 applies as if for “400 mm” there were substituted “480 mm”.

4.

Exemption from one or more of the technical requirements is permitted for a special purpose vehicle where the special purpose makes it impossible to fully comply provided that all mandatory devices are installed and geometric visibility is unaffected.

5.

For vehicles with a maximum mass equal to or exceeding 2500kg the requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply to the cab.

6.

In the case of armoured vehicles exemption from any requirement of this item is permitted if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose and provided that all mandatory lighting devices are installed and that the geometric visibility is not affected.

7.

Paragraph 6.7.2.1 of UNECE Regulation 48.03 is to be read as if it also applied to M1 and N1 category vehicles.

8.

In paragraph 5.15 of UNECE Regulation 48.03, the text specifying the colour of the side marker lamp is to be read as if the words following the word “red” were deleted.

9.

Paragraph 6.3.4.1 of UNECE Regulation 48.03 does not apply.

10.

Paragraphs 6.9.2 and 6.10.2 of UNECE Regulation 48.03 are to be read as if the word “two” were replaced by “two or four”.

11.

In paragraph 5.15 of UNECE Regulation 48.03, the text specifying the colour of the end outline marker lamp is to be substituted by “white or amber in front, red at the rear”.

12.

In the case of a left hand drive vehicle where the requirements of UNECE Regulation 48.03, paragraph 6.18.7 are met, paragraph 6.5.4.1 is amended so that for “400 mm”, representing the distance from the extreme edge of the vehicle, substitute “510 mm”

13.

In the case of a left hand drive vehicle where the headlamp height above the ground as specified in paragraph 6.2.4.2 of UNECE Regulation 48.03 does not exceed 850mm, the requirement in paragraph 6.2.9 for headlamp cleaning does not apply.

21. Retro Reflectors
Directive 76/757/EEC as amended by Directive 97/29/EC.

For the purposes of this item:

“coefficient of luminous intensity” has the same meaning as in UNECE Regulation 3.02.

“standard mark” means a mark which, when applied to a lamp, reflector or device, indicates compliance with the requirements of a particular instrument; and a reference to the instrument to which a standard mark relates is to be construed accordingly.

This item, in so far as it requires any reflector or device to bear a particular standard mark (or one of two or more standard marks), does not apply if the device meets the standards as to coefficient of luminous intensity, of the instrument to which the standard mark (or as the case may be one of those standard marks) relates.
22. End-outline, Front-Position (side), Rear-Position (side), Stop, Side Marker, Daytime Running Lamps
Directive 76/758/EEC as amended by Directive 97/30/EC.For the purposes of this item “standard mark” means a mark which, when applied to a lamp, reflector or device, indicates compliance with the requirements of a particular instrument; and a reference to the instrument to which a standard mark relates is to be construed accordingly.This item, in so far as it requires any lamp or device (including a filament lamp) to bear a particular standard mark (or one of two or more standard marks), does not apply if the device meets the standards as to luminous intensity of the instrument to which the standard mark (or as the case may be one of those standard marks) relates.
23. Direction Indicators
Directive 76/759/EEC as amended by Directive 99/15/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
24. Rear registration Plate Lamps
Directive 76/760/EEC as amended by Directive 97/31/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
25. Headlamps (including bulbs)
Directive 76/761/EEC as amended by Directive 99/17/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
25A. Cornering Lamps (if fitted)
UNECE Regulation 119As item 22.As item 22.
26. Front Fog Lamps (if fitted)
Directive 76/762/EEC as amended by Directive 99/18/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
28. Rear fog Lamps
Directive 77/538/EEC as amended by Directive 99/14/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
29. Reversing Lamps
Directive 77/539/EEC as amended by Directive 97/32/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
30. Parking Lamps (if fitted)
Directive 77/540/EEC as amended by Directive 99/16/EC.As item 22.As item 22.
31. Seat Belts

The technical requirements of Directive 77/541/EEC as amended by Directive 2005/40/EC,

Or

A harness belt marked BS3254:Part 1:1988.

For the purposes of this item:

“adult belt” means a seat belt for an adult not being a disabled person’s belt;

“harness belt” means an adult belt which is a harness belt comprising a lap belt and shoulder straps.

1.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, or hearse, with a maximum mass equal to or exceeding 2500kg the requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

2.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, hearse, or other special purpose vehicle the requirements in column 1 do not apply to seats intended for use solely while the vehicle is stationary and any such seats must be clearly identified to users by means of a pictogram or a sign with appropriate text.

3.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, or hearse, at least lap belts are required for all rear seating positions.

4.

In the case of armoured vehicles exemption from any requirement of this item is permitted if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose.

5.

This item does not apply to an adult belt fitted to a vehicle, if the belt provides a level of safety equivalent to that provided by an adult belt which complies with the requirements of column 1.

6.

Seat belts which have been specially designed or adapted for use by an adult or young person who has a physical or mental impairment, and intended for use solely by such person are exempt.

(Note: Seat belt anchorages for such belts shall satisfy the requirements of item 19.)

7.

A seat belt bearing an approval mark in accordance with column 1 may be fitted, whether or not the seat belt has been type approved for the anchorages to which it is fitted, provided that the seat belt complies with the installation requirements of column 1.

32. Forward vision
The driver must have a clear and un-obscured view of the road ahead and to the side (180° forward).
33. Identification of Controls, Tell-tales and Indicator

The technical provisions of: paragraph 5 of Annex I to Directive 78/316/EEC as amended by Directive 94/53/EC,

Or

The symbols (including the colour of tell-tales when their presence is required) mentioned in Annex II of Directive 78/316 as amended by Directive 94/53/EC must be designed in accordance with Standard ISO 2575.

Instead of complying with column 1 it is sufficient for symbols or text, where fitted, to provide the driver with understandable information about the operation of the control in question.
34. Defrost/Demist
Vehicles must be fitted with adequate defrosting and demisting devices.“Adequate” means: sufficiently effective to ensure adequate visibility through the windscreen under all conditions.
35. Wash/Wipe
Vehicles must be fitted with adequate washing and wiping devices.“Adequate” means: sufficiently effective to ensure adequate visibility through the windscreen under all conditions.
36. Heating Systems (if fitted)
The technical provisions of Directive 2001/56/EC, Annex II, paragraph 3, excluding paragraph 3.1.
37. Wheel guards
The technical provisions of Directive 78/549/EEC, Annex I as amended by Directive 94/78/EC.
1.

Does not apply to a vehicle of category N1.

2.

Paragraph 3 of Annex I to directive 78/549/EEC does not apply.

3.

The requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

38. Head Restraints
The technical provisions of Directive 78/932/EEC.
1.

Does not apply to a vehicle of category N1.

2.

Does not apply to head restraints which comply with item 15.

3.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, or hearse, with a maximum mass equal to or exceeding 2500kg the requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

4.

In the case of a motor caravan, ambulance, hearse, or other special purpose vehicle:

(a)

the requirements in column 1 do not apply to seats intended for use solely while the vehicle is stationary; and

(b)

any seats which are not for use when travelling on a road must be clearly identified to users by means of a pictogram or a sign with appropriate text.

5.

Does not apply to a seat which is a wheelchair.

40. Engine power
An engine power and maximum power speed must be determined for each vehicle.
41. Diesel Emissions
1.

The technical provisions of Directive 88/77/EEC as amended by Directive 91/542/EEC Row B limit values.

2.

Vehicles manufactured on or after 1st October 2001:

Directive 88/77/EEC as amended by Directive 99/96/EC

Row A limit values.

3.

Vehicles manufactured on or after 1st October 2006:

Directive 88/77/EEC as amended by Directive 99/96/EC

Row B1 limit values.

4.

Vehicles manufactured on or after 1st October 2009:

Directive 88/77/EEC as amended by Directive 99/96/EC

Row B2 limit values.

1.

Does not apply to vehicles approved under item 2 or, in the case of a compression ignition engine, item 11.

2.

The requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

3.

Modification of exhaust system length after the last silencer is permissible without any further test.

4.

In the case of armoured vehicles exemption from any requirement of this item is permitted if it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the approval authority that it is impossible for the vehicle to comply due to its special purpose.

44. Masses & dimensions (cars)
The essential technical requirements of 92/21/EEC as amended by 95/48/EC.
1.

Does not apply to a goods vehicle of category N1.

2.

For motor caravans, in paragraph 3.1.1.2 of Annex II to Directive 92/21, for “2500mm” substitute “2600mm”.

3.

Paragraphs 3.1.1.3 and 3.3.3 of Annex II to Directive 92/21/EEC do not apply.

4.

In the case of wheelchair accessible vehicles, for the purpose of calculations, the mass of the wheelchair including the user is assumed to be 100 kg. The mass must be concentrated at the H point of the three dimensional machine.

45. Safety glass

Component:

UNECE Regulation 43.00.

Vehicle:

The technical provisions of UNECE Regulation 43.00, Annex 21.

UNECE Regulation 43, Annex 21, paragraphs 4.1.2 and 4.1.3. do not apply provided that driver’s forward vision is not distorted and that light transmission of at least 70% is maintained (60% in the case of armoured vehicles).
46. Tyres

Component:

The provisions of Directive 92/23/EEC as amended by Directive 2005/11/EC;

And

UNECE Regulation 64.01 in the case of a temporary use spare tyre (if fitted).

Vehicle Installation:

The technical provisions of Annex IV to Directive 92/23/EEC as amended by Directive 2005/11/EC.

1.

Annex V of Directive 92/23/EEC as amended by 2005/11/EC does not apply to vehicles manufactured before 1st October 2011.

2.

The requirements of column 1 do not apply to a tyre fitted to a vehicle, if the tyre provides a level of safety equivalent to a tyre that meets the requirements of column 1 which refer to the “component” element.

48. Masses and Dimensions
The technical provisions of: Directive 97/27/EC as amended, paragraph 7 of Annex I.
1.

Does not apply to a passenger vehicle of category M1.

2.

Directive 97/27/EC, Annex I, paragraphs 7.5, 7.8.3, 7.9, 7.10 and 7.11 do not apply.

49. External Projection of Cabs
The essential technical provisions of: sections 3 and 4 of Annex I to Directive 92/114/EEC.

Does not apply to a passenger vehicle of category M1 with the exception of vehicles which are classed as M1 by virtue of paragraph 10 of Schedule 5, Part 1.

Does not apply to badges and other features of mass produced vehicles that cannot reasonably be removed or modified provided that such projections are blunted.

50. Couplings (if fitted)

Coupling device:

The technical provisions of: Annex VII to Directive 94/20/EC.

Vehicle Installation:

Securely attached to structural parts of the vehicle and in such a position to allow the safe functioning and operation of the coupling.

1.

In the case of a wheelchair accessible vehicle, irrespective of mass, or a motor caravan, ambulance or hearse with a maximum mass equal to or exceeding 2500kg the requirements according to the category of the base or incomplete vehicle based on maximum mass may apply.

2.

Does not apply to couplings fitted as original equipment to mass produced vehicles which are compatible with trailer coupling devices complying with requirements of column 1.

60. Frontal Protection Systems (“Bull-bars”) (if fitted)
Directive 2005/66/EC.
General Construction
1.

All aspects of the design and construction of the vehicle and its equipment which are not covered by other subject matters in this Schedule, must be such that no danger is caused or likely to be caused to any person in the vehicle or on a road.

2.

In particular, under all normal conditions likely to be encountered while the vehicle is being driven on a road, including when the vehicle is loaded to its maximum gross weight and the axle weight of any one axle equals its maximum permitted axle weight:

(a)

it must be possible to control the vehicle safely, taking account of the vehicle’s speed and acceleration capabilities;

(b)

the clearance between any of the following parts of the vehicle, namely the tyres, wheels, other rotating components associated with the transmission of engine power or braking, moveable parts of the steering mechanism and fixed parts must be sufficient to ensure no risk of fouling and the wheels and wheel fixings shall be compatible;

(c)

the vehicle structure (chassis or integral chassis-body), must be designed and constructed so as to withstand the forces and vibration to which it is likely to be subject;

(d)

all entries and exits provided for the vehicle occupants (other than doors) must be so designed as to allow easy and safe use;

(e)

all aperture covers (other than doors) including tail gates, boot and bonnet lids, must be capable of being securely latched in the fully closed position;

(f)

the steering, suspension, axles and wheels must be designed, constructed and fitted so as to withstand the forces and vibration to which they are likely to be subject;

(g)

the electrical system, including the battery, electrical components and wires, must be securely attached to the vehicle. In particular, the maximum distance between attachments of wires, except those contained within hollow components, must be 300 mm and wires must be fitted and protected so as to avoid the risk of damage to insulation, such as abrasion. All components must be constructed and fitted so as to minimise the risk of corrosion and fire.

(h)

no part of the inside or outside of the vehicle should have high surface temperatures likely to cause injury to persons travelling in or entering or exiting the vehicle unless adequately protected.

SECTION 2Part A

1.    Wheelchair spaces

Any wheelchair space must be fitted with the following:

(d)A wheelchair and wheelchair user restraint system complying with item 19 of Directive 2007/46/EC, Annex XI, Appendix 3; or

(e)A restraint system comprising:

(i)a four point wheelchair tie-down system suitable for general wheelchair application; and

(ii)a wheelchair user restraint system comprising a minimum of three anchorage points to provide a pelvic and upper torso restraint system.

2.    Wheelchair tie-down devices

All wheelchair tie-down devices must comply with ISO 10542 and be marked accordingly.

3.    Location and geometry of anchorages

The geometry of the wheelchair tie-down and occupant restraint system anchorages and webbing must comply with ISO 10542. A surrogate wheelchair as defined in ISO 10542 or equivalent must be used for this purpose.

4.    Testing of restraint system anchorages

A static test shall be conducted on the anchorage points for both the wheelchair tie-downs and occupant restraints in accordance with the following requirements:

(f)the tests must be conducted on a vehicle or a representative section of a vehicle structure including any vehicle fittings that are likely to contribute to the strength or rigidity of the structure;

(g)the forces specified in 5 below must be applied by means of a surrogate wheelchair of adequate strength as defined in ISO 10542, or equivalent, with attachment points for the front and rear tie-downs and reproducing the geometry of the wheelchair tie-down system;

(h)the forces specified in 6 below must be applied by means of a traction device specified in paragraph 5.3.4 of Annex I to Directive 76/115/EEC as amended by Directive 96/38/EC and supported on the surrogate wheelchair defined in (b) above;

(i)the forces in (b) and (c) above must be applied simultaneously in the forward direction at an angle of 10° ± 5° above the horizontal plane. The force in (b) must be applied at a height of not less than 200 mm and not more than 300 mm measured vertically above the floor of the wheelchair space;

(j)the force in 5(b) must be applied in the rearward direction at an angle of 10° ± 5° above the horizontal plane at a height of not less than 200 mm and not more than 300 mm measured vertically above the floor of the wheelchair space;

(k)all forces must be applied as rapidly as possible through the central vertical axis of the wheelchair and wheelchair space; and

(l)all forces must be maintained for a period of not less than 0.2 seconds;

For test purposes the components comprising the wheelchair tie-down and occupant restraint devices may be replaced with components suitable for test purposes having a similar function.

5.    Forces applied to a wheelchair tie-down system

The force applied to the surrogate wheelchair:

(m)in the forward direction to be 24.50 kN;

(n)in the rearward direction to be 12.25 kN.

6.    Forces applied to an occupant restraint system

The forces must be those specified in paragraph 5.4 of Annex I to Directive 76/115/EEC as amended by Directive 96/38/EC

7.    Anchorage system performance

The anchorages will meet the test performance requirements if—

(o)no part of the system has failed, or become detached during the test;

(p)no part of the anchorage system has deformed to such an extent that sharp edges or protrusion may cause injury.

8.    Transitional provisions

In the case of a vehicle type for which evidence of a test is provided, and that test was conducted on or before 29th April 2009 the following variations apply:

(q)in paragraph 5(a) for “24.50 kN” substitute “22.25 kN”;

(r)in paragraph 5(b) for “12.25 kN” substitute “11.00 kN”.

Part B

Instead of complying with Part A an alternative wheelchair tie-down system, docking system or occupant restraint system may be fitted. This may include a rearward facing wheelchair arrangement with appropriate safety features. Evidence must be provided to the approval authority that the system offers an equivalent level of occupant protection for the wheelchair user.

(1)

S.I. 1986/1078. The relevant amendment is by S.I. 2008/1702.

(2)

S.I. 2001/561. Relevant amendments are by S.I. 2001/1079 and 2002/2687.

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