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The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2005

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PART 1PRELIMINARY

Title, commencement and application

1.  These Regulations —

(a)may be cited as the Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2005;

(b)shall come into force on 1st January 2006; and

(c)shall apply in relation to England only.

Interpretation

2.—(1) In these Regulations —

“the Act” means the Food Safety Act 1990(1);

“the Agency” means the Food Standards Agency;

“authorised officer”, in relation to an enforcement authority, means any person (whether or not an officer of the authority) who is authorised by them in writing, either generally or specially, to act in matters arising under the Hygiene Regulations;

“the Community Regulations” means Regulation 852/2004, Regulation 853/2004 and Regulation 854/2004;

“enforcement authority” means the authority which, by virtue of regulation 5, is responsible for enforcing and executing the Hygiene Regulations;

“food authority” has the meaning that it bears by virtue of section 5 of the Act, except that it does not include the appropriate Treasurer referred to in section 5(1)(c) of the Act (which deals with the Inner Temple and Middle Temple);

“the Hygiene Regulations” means these Regulations and the Community Regulations;

“premises” includes any establishment, any place, vehicle, stall or moveable structure and any ship or aircraft; and

“Regulation 178/2002”, “Regulation 852/2004”, “Regulation 853/2004” and “Regulation 854/2004” have the meanings respectively given to them in Schedule 1; and

“specified Community provision” means any provision of the Community Regulations that is specified in column 1 of Schedule 2 and whose subject-matter is described in column 2 of that Schedule.

(2) Subject to paragraph (3), any expression other than one defined in paragraph (1) that is used both in these Regulations and in the Act has the meaning it bears in the Act.

(3) Any expression used both in these Regulations and in Regulation 178/2002 or the Community Regulations has the meaning it bears in Regulation 178/2002 or the Community Regulations.

(4) Where, apart from this paragraph, any period of less than seven days which is specified in these Regulations would include any day which is —

(a)a Saturday, a Sunday, Christmas Day or Good Friday; or

(b)a day which is a bank holiday under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971(2),

that day shall be excluded from the period.

Presumptions that food is intended for human consumption

3.—(1) The following paragraphs shall apply for the purposes of these Regulations.

(2) Any food commonly used for human consumption shall, if placed on the market or offered, exposed or kept for placing on the market, be presumed, until the contrary is proved, to have been placed on the market or, as the case may be, to have been or to be intended for placing on the market for human consumption.

(3) The following, namely —

(a)any food commonly used for human consumption which is found on premises used for the preparation, storage, or placing on the market of that food; and

(b)any article or substance commonly used in the manufacture of food for human consumption which is found on premises used for the preparation, storage or placing on the market of that food,

shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, to be intended for placing on the market, or for manufacturing food for placing on the market, for human consumption.

(4) Any article or substance capable of being used in the composition or preparation of any food commonly used for human consumption which is found on premises on which that food is prepared shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to be intended for such use.

Competent authority

4.  The competent authority for the purposes of the Community Regulations shall be the Agency except where it has delegated competences as provided for in those Regulations.

Enforcement

5.—(1) In respect of any food business operator to whose operations Regulation 852/2004 applies but Regulation 853/2004 does not apply —

(a)the Agency shall enforce and execute the Hygiene Regulations in so far as the operator concerned is carrying out primary production and those associated operations listed in paragraph 1 of Part AI of Annex I to Regulation 852/2004 other than the associated operations described in sub–paragraphs (a) and (c) of that paragraph in so far as they concern wild game; and

(b)the food authority in whose area the food business operator carries out his operations shall enforce and execute the Hygiene Regulations in so far as the operator concerned is carrying out operations which are not enforced and executed by the Agency pursuant to sub–paragraph (a).

(2) In respect of any food business operator to whose operations both Regulation 852/2004 and Regulation 853/2004 apply —

(a)the Agency shall enforce and execute the Hygiene Regulations in so far as the operator concerned is carrying out operations in relation to the following establishments and activities —

(i)slaughterhouses,

(ii)game handling establishments,

(iii)cutting plants placing fresh meat on the market, and

(iv)the activities in respect of eggs set out in Chapter I of Section X of Annex III to Regulation 853/2004; and

(b)the Agency or the food authority in whose area the food business operator carries out his operations shall enforce and execute the Hygiene Regulations in so far as the operator concerned is carrying out operations in relation to any establishment or activity that is not specified in sub–paragraph (a).

(3) In respect of —

(a)collection centres and tanneries supplying raw material for the production of gelatine intended for human consumption pursuant to paragraph 5 of Chapter I of Section XIV of Annex III to Regulation 853/2004; and

(b)collection centres and tanneries supplying raw material for the production of collagen intended for human consumption pursuant to paragraph 5 of Chapter I of Section XV of Annex III to Regulation 853/2004,

the food authority in whose area the collection centre or tannery concerned is situated shall enforce and execute the Hygiene Regulations.

(4) Each food authority shall enforce and execute these Regulations in its area in relation to the matters regulated by —

(a)Schedules 3 to 5; and

(b)Schedule 6 in so far as it applies in relation to raw milk intended for direct human consumption other than raw cows' milk.

(5) The Agency shall enforce and execute these Regulations in relation to the matters regulated by Schedule 6 in so far as it applies in relation to raw cows' milk intended for direct human consumption.

PART 2MAIN PROVISIONS

Hygiene improvement notices

6.—(1) If an authorised officer of an enforcement authority has reasonable grounds for believing that a food business operator is failing to comply with the Hygiene Regulations, he may by a notice served on that person (in these Regulations referred to as a “hygiene improvement notice”) —

(a)state the officer’s grounds for believing that the food business operator is failing to comply with the Hygiene Regulations;

(b)specify the matters which constitute the food business operator’s failure to comply;

(c)specify the measures which, in the officer’s opinion, the food business operator must take in order to secure compliance; and

(d)require the food business operator to take those measures, or measures which are at least equivalent to them, within such period (not being less than 14 days) as may be specified in the notice.

(2) Any person who fails to comply with a hygiene improvement notice shall be guilty of an offence.

Hygiene prohibition orders

7.—(1) If —

(a)a food business operator is convicted of an offence under these Regulations; and

(b)the court by or before which he is so convicted is satisfied that the health risk condition is fulfilled with respect to the food business concerned,

the court shall by an order impose the appropriate prohibition.

(2) The health risk condition is fulfilled with respect to any food business if any of the following involves risk of injury to health (including any impairment, whether permanent or temporary), namely —

(a)the use for the purposes of the business of any process or treatment;

(b)the construction of any premises used for the purposes of the business, or the use for those purposes of any equipment; and

(c)the state or condition of any premises or equipment used for the purposes of the business.

(3) The appropriate prohibition is —

(a)in a case falling within sub–paragraph (a) of paragraph (2), a prohibition on the use of the process or treatment for the purposes of the business;

(b)in a case falling within sub–paragraph (b) of that paragraph, a prohibition on the use of the premises or equipment for the purposes of the business or any other food business of the same class or description; and

(c)in a case falling within sub–paragraph (c) of that paragraph, a prohibition on the use of the premises or equipment for the purposes of any food business.

(4) If —

(a)a food business operator is convicted of an offence under these Regulations; and

(b)the court by or before which he is so convicted thinks it proper to do so in all the circumstances of the case,

the court may, by an order, impose a prohibition on the food business operator participating in the management of any food business, or any food business of a class or description specified in the order.

(5) As soon as practicable after the making of an order under paragraph (1) or (4) (in these Regulations referred to as a “hygiene prohibition order”), the enforcement authority shall —

(a)serve a copy of the order on the relevant food business operator; and

(b)in the case of an order made under paragraph (1), affix a copy of the order in a conspicuous position on such premises used for the purposes of the food business as they consider appropriate,

and any person who knowingly contravenes such an order shall be guilty of an offence.

(6) A hygiene prohibition order shall cease to have effect —

(a)in the case of an order made under paragraph (1), on the issue by the enforcement authority of a certificate to the effect that they are satisfied that the food business operator has taken sufficient measures to secure that the health risk condition is no longer fulfilled with respect to the food business; and

(b)in the case of an order made under paragraph (4), on the giving by the court of a direction to that effect.

(7) The enforcement authority shall issue a certificate under sub–paragraph (a) of paragraph (6) within three days of their being satisfied as mentioned in that sub–paragraph; and on an application by the food business operator for such a certificate, the authority shall —

(a)determine, as soon as is reasonably practicable and in any event within 14 days, whether or not they are so satisfied; and

(b)if they determine that they are not so satisfied, give notice to the food business operator of the reasons for that determination.

(8) The court shall give a direction under sub–paragraph (b) of paragraph (6) if, on an application by the food business operator, the court thinks it proper to do so having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including in particular the conduct of the food business operator since the making of the order; but no such application shall be entertained if it is made —

(a)within six months of the making of the hygiene prohibition order; or

(b)within three months of the making by the food business operator of a previous application for such a direction.

(9) Where a magistrates' court makes an order under paragraph (2) of regulation 8 with respect to any food business, paragraph (1) shall apply as if the food business operator had been convicted by the court of an offence under these Regulations.

(10) Where the commission of an offence by a food business operator leads to the conviction of another person pursuant to regulation 10, paragraph (4) shall apply in relation to that other person as it applies in relation to the food business operator and any reference in paragraph (5) or (8) to the food business operator shall be construed accordingly.

Hygiene emergency prohibition notices and orders

8.—(1) If an authorised officer of an enforcement authority is satisfied that the health risk condition is fulfilled with respect to any food business he may by a notice served on the relevant food business operator (in these Regulations referred to as a “hygiene emergency prohibition notice”) impose the appropriate prohibition.

(2) If a magistrates' court is satisfied, on the application of such an officer, that the health risk condition is fulfilled with respect to any food business, the court shall, by an order (in these Regulations referred to as a “hygiene emergency prohibition order”), impose the appropriate prohibition.

(3) Such an officer shall not apply for a hygiene emergency prohibition order unless, at least one day before the date of the application, he has served notice on the relevant food business operator of his intention to apply for the order.

(4) Paragraphs (2) and (3) of regulation 7 shall apply for the purposes of this regulation as they apply for the purposes of that regulation, but as if the reference in paragraph (2) to risk of injury to health were a reference to imminent risk of injury.

(5) As soon as practicable after the service of a hygiene emergency prohibition notice, an authorised officer of an enforcement authority shall affix a copy of the notice in a conspicuous position on such premises used for the purposes of the food business as he considers appropriate; and any person who knowingly contravenes such a notice shall be guilty of an offence.

(6) As soon as practicable after the making of a hygiene emergency prohibition order, an authorised officer of an enforcement authority shall —

(a)serve a copy of the order on the relevant food business operator; and

(b)affix a copy of the order in a conspicuous position on such premises used for the purposes of the food business as he considers appropriate,

and any person who knowingly contravenes such an order shall be guilty of an offence.

(7) A hygiene emergency prohibition notice shall cease to have effect —

(a)if no application for a hygiene emergency prohibition order is made within the period of three days beginning with the service of the notice, at the end of that period; or

(b)if such an application is so made, on the determination or abandonment of the application.

(8) A hygiene emergency prohibition notice or a hygiene emergency prohibition order shall cease to have effect on the issue by the enforcement authority of a certificate to the effect that they are satisfied that the food business operator has taken sufficient measures to secure that the health risk condition is no longer fulfilled with respect to the food business.

(9) The enforcement authority shall issue a certificate under paragraph (8) within three days of their being satisfied as mentioned in that paragraph; and on an application by the food business operator for such a certificate, the authority shall —

(a)determine as soon as is reasonably practicable and in any event within 14 days whether or not they are so satisfied; and

(b)if they determine that they are not so satisfied, give notice to the food business operator of the reasons for that determination.

(10) Where a hygiene emergency prohibition notice is served on a food business operator, the enforcement authority shall compensate him in respect of any loss suffered by reason of his complying with the notice unless —

(a)an application for a hygiene emergency prohibition order is made within the period of three days beginning with the service of the notice; and

(b)the court declares itself satisfied, on the hearing of the application, that the health risk condition was fulfilled with respect to the food business at the time when the notice was served,

and any disputed question as to the right to or the amount of any compensation payable under this paragraph shall be determined by arbitration.

Remedial action notices and detention notices

9.—(1) Where it appears to an authorised officer of an enforcement authority that in respect of an establishment subject to approval under Article 4(2) of Regulation 853/2004 —

(a)any of the requirements of the Hygiene Regulations is being breached; or

(b)inspection under the Hygiene Regulations is being hampered,

he may, by a notice served on the relevant food business operator or his duly authorised representative (in these Regulations referred to as a “remedial action notice”)—

(c)prohibit the use of any equipment or any part of the establishment specified in the notice;

(d)impose conditions upon or prohibit the carrying out of any process; or

(e)require the rate of operation to be reduced to such extent as is specified in the notice, or to be stopped completely.

(2) A remedial action notice shall be served as soon as practicable and shall state why it is being served.

(3) If it is served under paragraph (1)(a), it shall specify the breach and the action needed to remedy it.

(4) An authorised officer of the enforcement authority whose authorised officer served the original remedial action notice shall, as soon as he is satisfied that such action has been taken, withdraw the notice by a further notice in writing served on the food business operator or his duly authorised representative.

(5) An authorised officer of an enforcement authority may, at an establishment subject to approval under Article 4(2) of Regulation 853/2004, by a notice served on the relevant food business operator or his duly authorised representative (in this regulation referred to as a “detention notice”) require the detention of any animal or food for the purposes of examination (including the taking of samples).

(6) An authorised officer of the enforcement authority whose officer served the original detention notice shall, as soon as he is satisfied that the animal or food need no longer be detained, withdraw the notice by a further notice in writing served on the food business operator or his duly authorised representative.

(7) Any person who fails to comply with a remedial action notice or a detention notice shall be guilty of an offence.

Offences due to fault of another person

10.  Where the commission by any person of an offence under these Regulations is due to the act or default of some other person, that other person shall be guilty of the offence; and a person may be convicted of the offence by virtue of this regulation whether or not proceedings are taken against the first–mentioned person.

Defence of due diligence

11.—(1) In any proceedings for an offence under these Regulations, it shall, subject to paragraph (2), be a defence for the accused to prove that he took all reasonable precautions and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of the offence by himself or by a person under his control.

(2) If in any case the defence provided by paragraph (1) involves the allegation that the commission of the offence was due to an act or default of another person, or to reliance on information supplied by another person, the accused shall not, without leave of the court, be entitled to rely on that defence unless —

(a)at least seven clear days before the hearing; and

(b)where he has previously appeared before a court in connection with the alleged offence, within one month of his first such appearance,

he has served on the prosecutor a notice in writing giving such information identifying or assisting in the identification of that other person as was then in his possession.

PART 3ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

Procurement of samples

12.  An authorised officer of an enforcement authority may —

(a)purchase a sample of any food, or any substance capable of being used in the preparation of food;

(b)take a sample of any food, or any such substance, which —

(i)appears to him to be intended for placing on the market or to have been placed on the market, for human consumption, or

(ii)is found by him on or in any premises which he is authorised to enter by or under regulation 14;

(c)take a sample from any food source, or a sample of any contact material, which is found by him on or in any such premises; and

(d)take a sample of any article or substance which is found by him on or in any such premises and which he has reason to believe may be required as evidence in proceedings under any of the provisions of these Regulations.

Analysis etc. of samples

13.—(1) An authorised officer of an enforcement authority who has procured a sample under regulation 12 shall —

(a)if he considers that the sample should be analysed, submit it to be analysed —

(i)by the public analyst for the area in which the sample was procured, or

(ii)by the public analyst for the area which consists of or includes the area of the authority;

(b)if he considers that the sample should be examined, submit it to be examined by a food examiner.

(2) A person, other than such an officer, who has purchased any food, or any substance capable of being used in the preparation of food, may submit a sample of it —

(a)to be analysed by the public analyst for the area in which the purchase was made; or

(b)to be examined by a food examiner.

(3) If, in any case where a sample is proposed to be submitted for analysis under this regulation, the office of public analyst for the area in question is vacant, the sample shall be submitted to the public analyst for some other area.

(4) If, in any case where a sample is proposed to be or is submitted for analysis or examination under this regulation, the food analyst or examiner determines that he is for any reason unable to perform the analysis or examination, the sample shall be submitted or, as the case may be, sent by him to such other food analyst or examiner as he may determine.

(5) A food analyst or examiner shall analyse or examine as soon as practicable any sample submitted or sent to him under this regulation, but may, except where —

(a)he is the public analyst for the area in question; and

(b)the sample is submitted to him for analysis by an authorised officer of an enforcement authority,

demand in advance the payment of such reasonable fee as he may require.

(6) Any food analyst or examiner who has analysed or examined a sample shall give to the person by whom it was submitted a certificate specifying the result of the analysis or examination.

(7) Any certificate given by a food analyst or examiner under paragraph (6) shall be signed by him, but the analysis or examination may be made by any person acting under his direction.

(8) In any proceedings under these Regulations, the production by one of the parties —

(a)of a document purporting to be a certificate given by a food analyst or examiner under paragraph (6); or

(b)of a document supplied to him by the other party as being a copy of such a certificate,

shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in it unless, in a case falling within sub–paragraph (a), the other party requires that the food analyst or examiner shall be called as a witness.

(9) In this regulation where two or more public analysts are appointed for any area, any reference in these Regulations to the public analyst for that area shall be construed as a reference to either or any of them.

Powers of entry

14.—(1) An authorised officer of an enforcement authority other than the Agency shall, on producing, if so required, some duly authenticated document showing his authority, have a right at all reasonable hours —

(a)to enter any premises within the authority’s area or as the case may be district for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is or has been on the premises any contravention of the provisions of the Hygiene Regulations;

(b)to enter any premises, whether within or outside the authority’s area or as the case may be district, for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is on the premises any evidence of any such contravention within that area or district; and

(c)to enter any premises for the purpose of the performance by the authority of their functions under the Hygiene Regulations,

but admission to any premises used only as a private dwelling–house shall not be demanded as of right unless 24 hours' notice of the intended entry has been given to the occupier.

(2) An authorised officer of the Agency shall, on producing if so required some duly authenticated document showing his authority, have a right at all reasonable hours to enter any premises for the purpose of —

(a)ascertaining whether there is or has been on the premises any contravention of the provisions of the Hygiene Regulations;

(b)ascertaining whether there is on the premises any evidence of any such contravention; and

(c)the performance by the Agency of its functions under the Hygiene Regulations,

but admission to any premises used only as a private dwelling–house shall not be demanded as of right unless 24 hours' notice of the intended entry has been given to the occupier.

(3) If a justice of the peace, on sworn information in writing, is satisfied that there is reasonable ground for entry onto any premises for any such purpose as is mentioned in paragraph (1) or (2) and either —

(a)that admission to the premises has been refused, or a refusal is apprehended, and that notice of the intention to apply for a warrant has been given to the occupier; or

(b)that an application for admission, or the giving of such a notice, would defeat the object of the entry, or that the case is one of urgency, or that the premises are unoccupied or the occupier is temporarily absent,

the justice may by warrant signed by him authorise the authorised officer to enter the premises, if need be by reasonable force.

(4) Every warrant granted under this regulation shall continue in force for a period of one month.

(5) An authorised officer entering any premises by virtue of this regulation, or of a warrant issued under it, may take with him such other persons as he considers necessary, and on leaving any unoccupied premises which he has entered by virtue of such a warrant shall leave them as effectively secured against unauthorised entry as he found them.

(6) An authorised officer entering premises by virtue of this regulation, or of a warrant issued under it, may inspect any records (in whatever form they are held) relating to a food business and, where any such records are stored in any electronic form —

(a)may have access to, and inspect and check the operation of, any computer and any associated apparatus or material which is or has been in use in connection with the records; and

(b)may require any person having charge of, or otherwise concerned with the operation of, the computer, apparatus or material to afford him such assistance as he may reasonably require.

(7) Any officer exercising any power conferred by paragraph (6) may —

(a)seize and detain any records which he has reason to believe may be required as evidence in proceedings under any of the provisions of these Regulations; and

(b)where the records are stored in any electronic form, require the records to be produced in a form in which they may be taken away.

(8) If any person who enters any premises by virtue of this regulation, or of a warrant issued under it, discloses to any person any information obtained by him on the premises with regard to any trade secret, he shall, unless the disclosure was made in the performance of his duty, be guilty of an offence.

(9) Nothing in this regulation authorises any person, except with the permission of the local authority under the Animal Health Act 1981(3), to enter any premises —

(a)on which an animal or bird affected with any disease to which that Act applies is kept; and

(b)which is situated in a place declared under that Act to be infected with such a disease.

Obstruction etc. of officers

15.—(1) Any person who —

(a)intentionally obstructs any person acting in the execution of the Hygiene Regulations; or

(b)without reasonable cause, fails to give to any person acting in the execution of the Hygiene Regulations any assistance or information which that person may reasonably require of him for the performance of his functions under the Hygiene Regulations,

shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Any person who, in purported compliance with any such requirement as is mentioned in sub–paragraph (b) of paragraph (1) —

(a)furnishes information which he knows to be false or misleading in a material particular; or

(b)recklessly furnishes information which is false or misleading in a material particular,

shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) Nothing in sub–paragraph (b) of paragraph (1) shall be construed as requiring any person to answer any question or give any information if to do so might incriminate him.

Time limit for prosecutions

16.  No prosecution for an offence under these Regulations which is punishable under paragraph (2) of regulation 17 shall be begun after the expiry of —

(a)three years from the commission of the offence; or

(b)one year from its discovery by the prosecutor,

whichever is the earlier.

Offences and penalties

17.—(1) Subject to paragraph (4), any person who contravenes or fails to comply with any of the specified Community provisions shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subject to paragraph (3), a person guilty of an offence under these Regulations shall be liable —

(a)on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum; or

(b)on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, to a fine or to both.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under regulation 15 shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months or to both.

(4) A person shall be considered not to have contravened or failed to comply with Article 4(2) of Regulation 852/2004 as read with paragraph 4 of Chapter IV of Annex II to that Regulation (bulk foodstuffs in liquid, granulate or powder form to be transported in receptacles and/or containers/tankers reserved for the transport of foodstuffs) provided the requirements of Schedule 3 are complied with.

Offences by bodies corporate

18.—(1) Where an offence under these Regulations which has been committed by a body corporate is proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance of, or to be attributable to any neglect on the part of —

(a)any director, manager, secretary or other similar officer of the body corporate; or

(b)any person who was purporting to act in any such capacity,

he as well as the body corporate shall be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

(2) In sub–paragraph (a) of paragraph (1) “director”, in relation to any body corporate established by or under any enactment for the purpose of carrying on under national ownership any industry or part of an industry or undertaking, being a body corporate whose affairs are managed by its members, means a member of that body corporate.

Offences by Scottish partnerships

19.  Where an offence under these Regulations which has been committed by a Scottish partnership is proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance of, or to be attributable to any neglect on the part of, a partner, he, as well as the partnership shall be deemed to be guilty of that offence and liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Right of appeal

20.—(1) Any person who is aggrieved by —

(a)a decision of an authorised officer of an enforcement authority to serve a hygiene improvement notice;

(b)a decision of an enforcement authority to refuse to issue a certificate under paragraph (6) of regulation 7 or paragraph (8) of regulation 8; or

(c)a decision of an authorised officer of an enforcement authority to serve a remedial action notice,

may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(2) The procedure on an appeal to a magistrates' court under paragraph (1) shall be by way of complaint for an order, and the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980(4) shall apply to the proceedings.

(3) The period within which an appeal under paragraph (1) may be brought shall be —

(a)one month from the date on which notice of the decision was served on the person desiring to appeal; or

(b)in the case of an appeal against a decision to issue a hygiene improvement notice, the period specified in sub–paragraph (a) or, if it is shorter, the period specified in the notice pursuant to sub–paragraph (d) of paragraph (1) of regulation 6,

and the making of a complaint for an order shall be deemed for the purposes of this paragraph to be the bringing of the appeal.

Appeals to Crown Court

21.  A person who is aggrieved by —

(a)the dismissal by a magistrates' court of an appeal to it under paragraph (1) of regulation 20; or

(b)any decision of such a court to make a hygiene prohibition order or a hygiene emergency prohibition order,

may appeal to the Crown Court.

Appeals against hygiene improvement notices and remedial action notices

22.—(1) On an appeal against a hygiene improvement notice or a remedial action notice, the court may cancel or affirm the notice and, if it affirms it, may do so either in its original form or with such modifications as the court may in the circumstances think fit.

(2) Where any period specified in a hygiene improvement notice pursuant to sub–paragraph (d) of paragraph (1) of regulation 6 would otherwise include any day on which an appeal against that notice is pending, that day shall be excluded from that period.

(3) Any appeal shall be regarded as pending for the purposes of paragraph (2) until it is finally disposed of, is withdrawn or is struck out for want of prosecution.

Application of section 9 of the Food Safety Act 1990

23.  Section 9 of the Act (inspection and seizure of suspected food)(5) shall apply for the purposes of these Regulations with the modification that it shall apply in relation to an authorised officer of an enforcement authority as it applies in relation to an authorised officer of a food authority.

PART 4MISCELLANEOUS AND SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Power to issue codes of recommended practice

24.—(1) For the guidance of food authorities, the Secretary of State may issue codes of recommended practice as regards the execution and enforcement of the Hygiene Regulations and any such code shall be laid before Parliament after being issued.

(2) The Agency may, after consulting the Secretary of State, give a food authority a direction requiring them to take any specified steps in order to comply with a code issued under this regulation.

(3) In exercise of the functions conferred on them by or under the Hygiene Regulations, every food authority —

(a)shall have regard to any relevant provision of any such code; and

(b)shall comply with any direction which is given under this regulation and requires them to take any specified steps in order to comply with such a code.

(4) Any direction under paragraph (2) shall, on the application of the Agency, be enforceable by mandatory order.

(5) The Agency shall consult the Secretary of State before making an application under paragraph (4).

(6) Before issuing any code under this regulation, the Secretary of State shall have regard to any relevant advice given by the Agency.

Protection of officers acting in good faith

25.—(1) An officer of an enforcement authority is not personally liable in respect of any act done by him —

(a)in the execution or purported execution of the Hygiene Regulations; and

(b)within the scope of his employment,

if he did that act in the honest belief that his duty under the Hygiene Regulations required or entitled him to do it.

(2) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed as relieving any enforcement authority of any liability in respect of the acts of their officers.

(3) Where an action has been brought against an officer of an enforcement authority in respect of an act done by him —

(a)in the execution or purported execution of the Hygiene Regulations; but

(b)outside the scope of his employment,

the authority may indemnify him against the whole or a part of any damages which he has been ordered to pay or any costs which he may have incurred if they are satisfied that he honestly believed that the act complained of was within the scope of his employment.

(4) A public analyst appointed by a food authority shall be treated for the purposes of this regulation as being an officer of the authority, whether or not his appointment is a whole–time one.

Revocation and suspension of designations and appointments

26.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the Agency may at any time revoke or suspend —

(a)the appointment of an official veterinarian;

(b)the designation of an approved veterinarian; or

(c)the appointment of an official auxiliary,

if it appears to the Agency that the person in question is unfit to perform any of the functions of that post under the Hygiene Regulations.

(2) Where the Agency revokes or suspends a designation or appointment under paragraph (1), the Agency shall, as soon as practicable, give to the person whose designation or appointment has been revoked or suspended a notice in writing of the reasons for the revocation or suspension and shall afford him an opportunity of —

(a)making representations in writing to the Agency with regard to the revocation or suspension; or

(b)being heard by a person nominated by the Agency for the purpose pursuant to sub–paragraph (a) of paragraph (5).

(3) A notice given under paragraph (2) shall inform the person to whom it is given —

(a)of his right to make representations in writing;

(b)of the manner in which and the time (not being less than 21 days from the giving of the notice) within which such representations may be made;

(c)of his right to be heard; and

(d)of the manner in which and the time (not being less than 21 days from the giving of the notice) within which he may apply for an opportunity to be heard.

(4) In the event of the person whose designation or appointment has been revoked or suspended making any representations (whether orally or in writing) under paragraph (3) the Agency shall reconsider whether that person is unfit to perform any of the functions of the post held by him under the Hygiene Regulations and shall, as soon as practicable, reconsider its decision to revoke or suspend the designation or appointment under paragraph (1) in the light of those representations.

(5) Where a person requests the opportunity to be heard pursuant to sub–paragraph (b) of paragraph (2) —

(a)the Agency shall nominate a person to determine the matter from the list established under paragraph (6);

(b)the person so nominated shall serve a notice on the person requesting the opportunity to be heard and the Agency informing them of the time (not being less than 21 days from the giving of the notice) of the hearing; and

(c)the person so nominated shall, within 21 days of the hearing, notify the person requesting the opportunity to be heard and the Agency of his decision.

(6) The Agency shall establish and maintain a list of people who may be nominated for the purposes of this regulation and shall consult those organisations appearing to it to represent official veterinarians, approved veterinarians and official auxiliaries before including any person on the list.

Food which has not been produced, processed or distributed in accordance with the Hygiene Regulations

27.—(1) On an inspection of any food, an authorised officer of an enforcement authority may certify that it has not been produced, processed or distributed in compliance with the Hygiene Regulations.

(2) Where any food is certified as mentioned in paragraph (1) it shall be treated for the purposes of section 9 of the Act as failing to comply with food safety requirements.

(3) Where any food certified as mentioned in paragraph (1) is part of a batch, lot or consignment of food of the same class or description, all the food in the batch, lot or consignment shall, until it is proved that it has been produced, processed or distributed in compliance with the Hygiene Regulations, be treated for the purposes of paragraph (2) as having been so certified.

Service of documents

28.—(1) Any document which is required or authorised under the Hygiene Regulations to be served on a food business operator may be served —

(a)by delivering it to that person;

(b)in the case of an incorporated company or body, by delivering it to their secretary at their registered or principal office, or by sending it in a prepaid letter addressed to him at that office; or

(c)in the case of any other food business operator, by leaving it or sending it in a prepaid letter addressed to him at his usual or last known residence.

(2) Where a document is to be served on a food business operator under the Hygiene Regulations and it is not reasonably practicable to ascertain the name and address of the person on whom it should be served, or the premises of the food business operator are unoccupied, the document may be served by addressing it to the food business operator concerned in the capacity of occupier of those premises (naming them), and —

(a)by delivering it to some other person at the premises; and

(b)if there is no other person at the premises to whom it can be delivered, by affixing it or a copy of it to some conspicuous part of the premises.

Bulk transport in sea–going vessels of liquid oils or fats and the bulk transport by sea of raw sugar

29.  Schedule 3 (bulk transport in sea–going vessels of liquid oils or fats and the bulk transport by sea of raw sugar) shall have effect.

Temperature control requirements

30.  Schedule 4 (temperature control requirements) shall have effect.

Direct supply by the producer of small quantities of meat from poultry and lagomorphs slaughtered on the farm

31.  Schedule 5 (direct supply by the producer of small quantities of meat from poultry and lagomorphs slaughtered on the farm) shall have effect.

Restrictions on the sale of raw milk intended for direct human consumption

32.  Schedule 6 (restrictions on the sale of raw milk intended for direct human consumption) shall have effect.

Revocations

33.—(1) In so far as they apply in relation to England, the instruments specified in Column 1 of Schedule 7 are revoked to the extent specified in Column 3 of that Schedule.

(2) The following Regulations are revoked —

(a)the Gelatine (Intra–Community Trade) (England) Regulations 2001(6); and

(b)the Collagen and Gelatine (Intra–Community Trade) (England) (No. 2) Regulations 2003(7).

Signed by authority of the Secretary of State for Health

Caroline Flint

Parliamentary Under Secretary of State

Department of Health

21st July 2005

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