The Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002

Regulation 4(4)


1.  Copyright, neighbouring rights, rights referred to in Directive 87/54/EEC(1) and Directive 96/9/EC(2) and industrial property rights.

2.  The freedom of the parties to a contract to choose the applicable law.

3.  Contractual obligations concerning consumer contracts.

4.  Formal validity of contracts creating or transferring rights in real estate where such contracts are subject to mandatory formal requirements of the law of the member State where the real estate is situated.

5.  The permissibility of unsolicited commercial communications by electronic mail.


Council Directive 87/54/EEC of 16 December 1986 on the legal protection of topographies of semiconductor products; O.J. L24, 27.1.87, p.36.


Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases; O.J. L77, 27.3.96, p.20.