The Zebra, Pelican and Puffin Pedestrian Crossings Regulations and General Directions 1997

PART ITHE ZEBRA, PELICAN AND PUFFIN PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS REGULATIONS 1997

SECTION IPRELIMINARY

Citation and commencement

1.  This Part of this Instrument—

(a)may be cited—

(i)as the Zebra, Pelican and Puffin Pedestrian Crossings Regulations 1997, and

(ii)together with Part II of this Instrument, as the Zebra, Pelican and Puffin Pedestrian Crossings Regulations and General Directions 1997; and

(b)shall come into force on 15th December 1997.

Revocation

2.  (1)  The “Zebra” Pedestrian Crossings Regulations 1971(1), the “Zebra” Pedestrian Crossings (Amendment) Regulations 1990(2) and, so far as they consist of or comprise regulations, the “Pelican” Pedestrian Crossings Regulations and General Directions 1987(3) are hereby revoked.

(2) Any crossing which, immediately before the coming into force of these Regulations, was constituted a Pelican or a Zebra crossing in accordance with the regulations revoked by paragraph (1) which were applicable to it (“the applicable regulations”) shall, notwithstanding the revocation of the applicable regulations, be treated as constituted in accordance with these Regulations for so long as the traffic signs situated at or near it and the manner in which its presence and limits are indicated comply with the applicable regulations.

(3) Paragraph (2) shall cease to have effect on 15th December 2002.

Interpretation

3.  (1)  In these Regulations unless the context otherwise requires—

“the 1984 Act” means the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984;

“the 1994 Regulations” means the Traffic Signs Regulations 1994(4);

“carriageway” means—

(a)

in relation to a crossing on a highway in England or Wales or on a road in Scotland, a way constituting or comprised in the highway or road being a way over which the public has a right of way for the passage of vehicles; and

(b)

in relation to a crossing on any other road in England or Wales to which the public has access, that part of the road to which vehicles have access,

but does not include in either case any central reservation (whether within the limits of the crossing or not);

“central reservation” means—

(a)

in relation to a road comprising a single carriageway, any provision (including a refuge for pedestrians) which separates one part of the carriageway from another part;

(b)

in relation to a road which comprises two or more carriageways any land or permanent work which separates those carriageways from one another;

“controlled area” means a Pelican controlled area, a Puffin controlled area or a Zebra controlled area;

“crossing” means a crossing for pedestrians established—

(a)

in the case of a trunk road, by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 24 of the 1984 Act; and

(b)

in the case of any other road, by a local traffic authority pursuant to section 23 of that Act;

“driver” in relation to a vehicle which is a motor cycle or pedal cycle means the person riding the vehicle who is in control of it;

“give-way line” means a road marking placed adjacent to a Zebra crossing in accordance with regulation 6(1) and Schedule 1;

“indicator for pedestrians” means the traffic sign of that description prescribed for the purposes of a Pelican crossing by regulation 5(2)(a) and paragraphs 2(c) and 5 of Part I and Part II of Schedule 2;

“layout or character” in relation to a road means the layout or character of the road itself and does not include the layout or character of any land or premises adjacent to the road;

“mm” means millimetres;

“one-way street” means a road on which the driving of vehicles otherwise than in one particular direction is prohibited;

“pedestrian demand unit” means the traffic sign of that description prescribed for the purposes of a Puffin crossing by regulation 5(3)(a) and paragraphs 1(b) and 3 of Part I and Part II of Schedule 3;

“pedestrian light signals” means the traffic sign of that description prescribed for the purposes of a Pelican crossing by regulation 5(2)(a) and paragraphs 2(b) and 4 of Part I of Schedule 2;

“Pelican controlled area” means an area of carriageway in the vicinity of a Pelican crossing the limits of which are indicated in accordance with regulation 6(2) and Schedule 4;

“Pelican crossing” means a crossing—

(a)

at which there are traffic signs of the size, colour and type prescribed by regulation 5(2)(a) and Schedule 2;

(b)

the limits of which are indicated in accordance with regulation 5(2)(b) and Schedule 4;

“primary signal” means vehicular light signals so placed as to face vehicular traffic approaching a Pelican or a Puffin crossing and placed beyond the stop line and in front of the line of studs nearest the stop line indicating the limits of the crossing in accordance with regulation 6(3) and Schedule 4;

“Puffin controlled area” means an area of the carriageway in the vicinity of a Puffin crossing the limits of which are indicated in accordance with regulation 6(2) and Schedule 4;

“Puffin crossing” means a crossing—

(a)

at which there are traffic signs of the size, colour and type prescribed by regulation 5(3)(a) and Schedule 3;

(b)

the limits of which are indicated in accordance with regulation 5(3)(b) and Schedule 4;

“refuge for pedestrians” means a part of a road to which vehicles do not have access and on which pedestrians may wait after crossing one part of the carriageway and before crossing the other;

“retroreflecting material” means material which reflects a ray of light back towards the source of that light;

“road marking” means a traffic sign consisting of a line or mark or legend on a road and includes a stud;

“secondary signal” means vehicular light signals so placed as to face vehicular traffic approaching a Pelican or Puffin crossing but sited beyond the furthest limit of the crossing as viewed from the direction of travel of the traffic;

“stop line” means, in relation to a vehicle approaching a Pelican or Puffin crossing, the transverse continuous white line (indicated in accordance with regulation 6(3) and Schedule 4 and parallel to the limits of the crossing) which is on the same side of the crossing as the vehicle;

“stud” means a mark or device on the carriageway, whether or not projecting above the surface of the carriageway;

“system of staggered crossings” means two or more Pelican crossings or two or more Puffin crossings provided on a road on which there is a central reservation and where—

(a)

there is one crossing on each side of the central reservation; and

(b)

taken together the two crossings do not lie along a straight line;

“two-way street” means a road which is not a one-way street;

“vehicular light signals” means, in relation to a Pelican or Puffin crossing, the traffic sign of that description prescribed (in the case of a Pelican crossing) by regulation 5(2)(a) and paragraphs 2(a) and 3 of Part I of Schedule 2 or (in the case of a Puffin crossing) by regulation 5(3)(a) and paragraphs 1(a) and 2 of Part I of Schedule 3;

“Zebra controlled area” means an area of carriageway in the vicinity of a Zebra crossing the limits of which are indicated in accordance with regulation 6(1) and Part II of Schedule 1; and

“Zebra crossing” means a crossing—

(a)

at which there are traffic signs of the size, colour and type prescribed by regulation 5(1)(a) and Part I of Schedule 1; and

(b)

the limits of which are indicated in accordance with regulation 5(1)(b) and Part II of Schedule 1.

(2) In these Regulations, unless it is expressly provided otherwise or the context otherwise requires—

(a)a reference to a numbered regulation or Schedule is a reference to the regulation or, as the case may be, the Schedule so numbered in these Regulations;

(b)a reference in a regulation or Schedule to a numbered paragraph is a reference to the paragraph so numbered in the regulation or, as the case may be, in the Schedule in which the reference occurs; and

(c)a reference to a sub-paragraph followed by a number or letter is a reference to the sub-paragraph bearing that number or letter in the paragraph in which the reference occurs.

Application of Regulations

4.  These Regulations apply to a crossing which is a Zebra, Pelican or Puffin crossing.

SECTION 11FORM OF CROSSINGS

Traffic signs and road markings for indicating crossings

5.  (1)  A Zebra crossing shall be indicated by—

(a)the placing at or near the crossing of traffic signs of the size, colour and type specified in Part I of Schedule 1;

(b)the placing on the carriageway to indicate the limits of the crossing of road markings of the size, colour and type specified in Part II of Schedule 1.

(2) A Pelican crossing shall be indicated by—

(a)the placing at or near the crossing of traffic signs of the size, colour and type specified in Schedule 2;

(b)the placing on the carriageway to indicate the limits of the crossing of road markings of the size, colour and type specified in Schedule 4.

(3) A Puffin crossing shall be indicated by—

(a)the placing at or near the crossing of traffic signs of the size, colour and type specified in Schedule 3;

(b)the placing on the carriageway to indicate the limits of the crossing of road markings of the size, colour and type specified in Schedule 4.

Give-way and stop lines and controlled areas

6.  (1)  On each side of a Zebra crossing, there shall be laid out a Zebra controlled area (including a give-way line) indicated by road markings of the size, colour and type, and generally in the manner, specified in Part II of Schedule 1.

(2) On each side of a Pelican or Puffin crossing, there shall be laid out a Pelican controlled area or a Puffin controlled area indicated by road markings of the size, colour and type, and generally in the manner, specified in Schedule 4.

(3) A stop line or stop lines of the size, colour and type specified in Schedule 4 shall be placed next to a Pelican or Puffin crossing in the manner specified in that Schedule.

Dimensions

7.  (1)  Dimensions indicated on any diagram shown in the Schedules to these Regulations are expressed in millimetres.

(2) A dimension (other than one specified as a maximum or minimum dimension) specified in a diagram in Schedule 2 or 3 may be varied if, in the case of a dimension of the length specified in column (2) of an item in the table below, the variation does not exceed the extent specified in column (3) of the item.

TABLE
(1)(2)(3)
ItemLength of dimensionExtent of variation
(1)less than 10 mm1 mm
(2)10 mm or more but less than 50 mm10 % of the dimension
(3)50 mm or more but less than 300 mm7.5% of the dimension
(4)300 mm or more5% of the dimension

(3) A dimension (other than one specified as a maximum or minimum dimension) specified in any diagram in Schedule 1 or in Schedule 4 may be varied if, in the case of a dimension of the length specified in column (2) of an item in the table below, the variation does not exceed the extent specified in column (3) of the item.

TABLE
(1)(2)(3)
ItemLength of dimensionExtent of variation
(1)300 mm or more

(i)20% of the dimension where the varied dimension is greater than the specified dimension; or

(ii)10% of the dimension where the varied dimension is less than the specified dimension

(2)less than 300 mm

(i)30% of the dimension where the varied dimension is greater than the specified dimension; or

(ii)10% of the dimension where the varied dimension is less than the specified dimension

(4) Where maximum and minimum dimensions are specified for any element of a traffic sign or road marking, the dimension chosen for that element must not be less than the minimum and must not exceed the maximum.

(5) Where any diagram in a Schedule to these Regulations specifies a dimension for an element of a traffic sign or road marking together with a dimension for that element in brackets, the dimensions so specified shall be alternatives.

(6) A dimension specified in the 1994 Regulations in relation to a traffic sign prescribed by those Regulations and referred to in these Regulations may be varied to the extent permitted by the 1994 Regulations.

Additional equipment

8.  A traffic authority may provide at, or fix to any traffic sign or post placed for the purposes of, a crossing in accordance with these Regulations any object, device, apparatus or equipment—

(a)in connection with the proper operation of the crossing; or

(b)which they consider appropriate for giving information or assistance to disabled persons wishing to use the crossing.

Additional traffic signs

9.  In addition to the traffic signs prescribed in regulation 5 a traffic sign shown in diagram 610, 611, 612, 613 or 616 in Schedule 2 or diagram 810 in Schedule 4, or a road marking shown in diagram 1029 or the white triangular markings included in the road marking shown in diagram 1061 of Schedule 6, to the 1994 Regulations may, if the traffic authority think fit, be placed at or near a crossing.

Non-compliance with requirements of this Section

10.  (1)  Where, as respects a crossing or controlled area, the requirements of this Section of these Regulations as to the placing of traffic signs and road markings to indicate the crossing or controlled area have not been complied with in every respect, the crossing or, as the case may be, the controlled area shall nevertheless be treated as complying with these Regulations if the non-compliance—

(a)is not such as materially to affect the general appearance of the crossing or the controlled area;

(b)does not, in the case of a Pelican or Puffin crossing, affect the proper operation of the vehicular and pedestrian signals at the crossing; and

(c)does not relate to the size of the controlled area.

(2) Nothing in any other provision of these Regulations shall be taken to restrict the generality of paragraph (1).

SECTION IIISIGNIFICANCE OF TRAFFIC SIGNS AT CROSSINGS

Scope of Section III

11.  The provisions of this Section of these Regulations (except regulation 16) are made under section 64(1) of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 for the purpose of prescribing the warnings, information, requirements, restrictions and prohibitions which are to be conveyed to traffic by traffic signs and road markings of the size, colour and type prescribed by Section II.

Significance of vehicular light signals at Pelican crossings

12.  (1)  The significance of the vehicular light signals prescribed by regulation 5(2)(a) and paragraph 3 of Schedule 2 for the purpose of indicating a Pelican crossing shall be as follows—

(a)the green signal shall indicate that vehicular traffic may proceed beyond the stop line and across the crossing;

(b)the green arrow signal shall indicate that vehicular traffic may proceed beyond the stop line and through the crossing only for the purpose of proceeding in the direction indicated by the arrow;

(c)except as provided by sub-paragraph (e) the steady amber signal shall convey the same prohibition as the red signal except that, as respects a vehicle which is so close to the stop line that it cannot safely be stopped without proceeding beyond the stop line, it shall convey the same indication as the green signal or, if the amber signal was immediately preceded by a green arrow signal, as that green arrow signal;

(d)except as provided in sub-paragraph (e), the red signal shall convey the prohibition that vehicular traffic shall not proceed beyond the stop line;

(e)when a vehicle is being used for fire brigade, ambulance, national blood service or police purposes and the observance of the prohibition conveyed by the steady amber or the red signal in accordance with sub-paragraph (c) or (d) would be likely to hinder the use of that vehicle for the purpose for which it is being used, then those sub-paragraphs shall not apply to the vehicle, and the steady amber and the red signal shall each convey the information that the vehicle may proceed beyond the stop line if the driver—

(i)accords precedence to any pedestrian who is on that part of the carriageway which lies within the limits of the crossing or on a central reservation which lies between two crossings which do not form part of a system of staggered crossings; and

(ii)does not proceed in a manner or at a time likely to endanger any person or any vehicle approaching or waiting at the crossing, or to cause the driver of any such vehicle to change its speed or course in order to avoid an accident; and

(f)the flashing amber signal shall convey the information that traffic may proceed across the crossing but that every pedestrian who is on the carriageway or a central reservation within the limits of the crossing (but not if he is on a central reservation which lies between two crossings forming part of a system of staggered crossings) before any part of a vehicle has entered those limits, has the right of precedence within those limits over that vehicle, and the requirement that the driver of a vehicle shall accord such precedence to any such pedestrian.

(2) Vehicular traffic proceeding beyond a stop line in accordance with paragraph (1) shall proceed with due regard to the safety of other road users and subject to any direction given by a constable in uniform or a traffic warden or to any other applicable prohibition or restriction.

(3) In this regulation, references to the “stop line” in relation to a Pelican crossing where the stop line is not visible are to be treated as references to the post or other structure on which the primary signal is mounted.

Significance of vehicular light signals at Puffin crossings

13.  (1)  The significance of the vehicular light signals at a Puffin crossing prescribed by regulation 5(3)(a) and paragraph 2 of Schedule 3 shall be as follows—

(a)the green signal shall indicate that vehicular traffic may proceed beyond the stop line and across the crossing;

(b)the green arrow signal shall indicate that vehicular traffic may proceed beyond the stop line and through the crossing only for the purpose of proceeding in the direction indicated by the arrow;

(c)except as provided by sub-paragraph (f), the amber signal shall, when shown alone, convey the same prohibition as the red signal, except that, as respects any vehicle which is so close to the stop line that it cannot safely be stopped without proceeding beyond the stop line, it shall convey the same indication as the green signal or, if the amber signal was immediately preceded by a green arrow signal, as that green arrow signal;

(d)except as provided in sub-paragraph (f), the red signal shall convey the prohibition that vehicular traffic shall not proceed beyond the stop line;

(e)except as provided by sub-paragraph (f), the red-with-amber signal shall denote an impending change to green in the indication given by the signals but shall convey the same prohibition as the red signal;

(f)when a vehicle is being used for fire brigade, ambulance, national blood service or police purposes and the observance of the prohibition conveyed by the amber, red or red-with-amber signal in accordance with sub-paragraph (c), (d) or (e) would be likely to hinder the use of that vehicle for the purpose for which it is being used, then those sub-paragraphs shall not apply to the vehicle, and the red signal, red-with-amber and amber signals shall each convey the information that the vehicle may proceed beyond the stop line if the driver—

(i)accords precedence to any pedestrian who is on that part of the carriageway which lies within the limits of the crossing or on a central reservation which lies between two crossings which do not form part of a system of staggered crossings; and

(ii)does not proceed in a manner or at a time likely to endanger any person or any vehicle approaching or waiting at the crossing, or to cause the driver of any such vehicle to change its speed or course in order to avoid an accident.

(2) Vehicular traffic proceeding beyond a stop line in accordance with paragraph (1) shall proceed with due regard to the safety of other road users and subject to any direction given by a constable in uniform or a traffic warden or to any other applicable prohibition or restriction.

(3) In this regulation, references to the “stop line” in relation to a Puffin crossing where the stop line is not visible are to be treated as references to the post or other structure on which the primary signal is mounted.

Significance of give-way lines at Zebra crossings

14.  A give-way line included in the markings placed pursuant to regulation 5(1)(b) and Part II of Schedule 1 shall convey to vehicular traffic proceeding towards a Zebra crossing the position at or before which a vehicle should be stopped for the purpose of complying with regulation 25 (precedence of pedestrians over vehicles at Zebra crossings).

Significance of pedestrian light signals and figures on pedestrian demand units

15.  (1)  The significance of the red and steady green pedestrian light signals whilst they are illuminated at a Pelican crossing and of the red and green figures on a pedestrian demand unit whilst they are illuminated at a Puffin crossing shall be as follows—

(a)the red pedestrian light signal and the red figure shall both convey to a pedestrian the warning that, in the interests of safety, he should not cross the carriageway; and

(b)the steady green pedestrian light signal and the steady green figure shall both indicate to a pedestrian that he may cross the carriageway and that drivers may not cause vehicles to enter the crossing.

(2) The flashing green pedestrian light signal at a Pelican crossing shall convey—

(a)to a pedestrian who is already on the crossing when the flashing green signal is first shown the information that he may continue to use the crossing and that, if he is on the carriageway or a central reservation within the limits of that crossing (but not if he is on a central reservation which lies between two crossings which form part of a system of staggered crossings) before any part of a vehicle has entered those limits, he has precedence over that vehicle within those limits; and

(b)to a pedestrian who is not already on the crossing when the flashing green light is first shown the warning that he should not, in the interests of safety, start to cross the carriageway.

(3) Any audible signal emitted by any device for emitting audible signals provided in conjunction with the steady green pedestrian light signal or the green figure, and any tactile signal given by any device for making tactile signals similarly provided, shall convey to a pedestrian the same indication as the steady green pedestrian light signal or as the green figure as the case may be.

Significance of additional traffic signs

16.  A traffic sign placed in accordance with regulation 9 shall convey the information, prohibition or requirement specified in relation to it by the 1994 Regulations.

SECTION IVMOVEMENT OF TRAFFIC AT CROSSINGS

Scope of Section IV

17.  This Section of these Regulations is made under section 25 of the 1984 Act with respect to the movement of traffic at and in the vicinity of crossings.

Prohibition against the stopping of vehicles on crossings

18.  The driver of a vehicle shall not cause the vehicle or any part of it to stop within the limits of a crossing unless he is prevented from proceeding by circumstances beyond his control or it is necessary for him to stop to avoid injury or damage to persons or property.

Pedestrians not to delay on crossings

19.  No pedestrian shall remain on the carriageway within the limits of a crossing longer than is necessary for that pedestrian to pass over the crossing with reasonable despatch.

Prohibition against the stopping of vehicles in controlled areas

20.  (1)  For the purposes of this regulation and regulations 21 and 22 the word “vehicle” shall not include a pedal bicycle not having a sidecar attached to it, whether or not additional means of propulsion by mechanical power are attached to the bicycle.

(2) Except as provided in regulations 21 and 22 the driver of a vehicle shall not cause it or any part of it to stop in a controlled area.

Exceptions to regulation 20

21.  Regulation 20 does not prohibit the driver of a vehicle from stopping it in a controlled area—

(a)if the driver has stopped it for the purpose of complying with regulation 25 or 26;

(b)if the driver is prevented from proceeding by circumstances beyond his control or it is necessary for him to stop to avoid injury or damage to persons or property; or

(c)when the vehicle is being used for police, fire brigade or ambulance purposes.

Further exceptions to regulation 20

22.  (1)  Regulation 20 does not prohibit the driver of a vehicle from stopping it in a controlled area—

(a)for so long as may be necessary to enable the vehicle to be used for the purposes of—

(i)any building operation, demolition or excavation;

(ii)the removal of any obstruction to traffic;

(iii)the maintenance, improvement or reconstruction of a road; or

(iv)the laying, erection, alteration, repair or cleaning in or near the crossing of any sewer or of any main, pipe or apparatus for the supply of gas, water or electricity, or of any telecommunications apparatus kept installed for the purposes of a telecommunications code system or of any other telecommunications apparatus lawfully kept installed in any position,

but only if the vehicle cannot be used for one of those purposes without stopping in the controlled area; or

(b)if the vehicle is a public service vehicle being used—

(i)in the provision of a local service; or

(ii)to carry passengers for hire or reward at separate fares,

and the vehicle, having proceeded past the crossing to which the controlled area relates, is waiting in that area in order to take up or set down passengers; or

(c)if he stops the vehicle for the purpose of making a left or right turn.

(2) In paragraph (1) “local service” has the meaning given in section 2 of the Transport Act 1985(5) but does not include an excursion or tour as defined by section 137(1) of that Act.

Prohibition against vehicles proceeding across Pelican or Puffin crossings

23.  When vehicular light signals at a Pelican or Puffin crossing are displaying the red light signal the driver of a vehicle shall not cause it to contravene the prohibition given by that signal by virtue of regulation 12 or 13.

Prohibition against vehicles overtaking at crossings

24.  (1)  Whilst any motor vehicle (in this regulation called “the approaching vehicle”) or any part of it is within the limits of a controlled area and is proceeding towards the crossing, the driver of the vehicle shall not cause it or any part of it—

(a)to pass ahead of the foremost part of any other motor vehicle proceeding in the same direction; or

(b)to pass ahead of the foremost part of a vehicle which is stationary for the purpose of complying with regulation 23, 25 or 26.

(2) In paragraph (1)—

(a)the reference to a motor vehicle in sub-paragraph (a) is, in a case where more than one motor vehicle is proceeding in the same direction as the approaching vehicle in a controlled area, a reference to the motor vehicle nearest to the crossing; and

(b)the reference to a stationary vehicle is, in a case where more than one vehicle is stationary in a controlled area for the purpose of complying with regulation 23, 25 or 26, a reference to the stationary vehicle nearest the crossing.

Precedence of pedestrians over vehicles at Zebra crossings

25.  (1)  Every pedestrian, if he is on the carriageway within the limits of a Zebra crossing, which is not for the time being controlled by a constable in uniform or traffic warden, before any part of a vehicle has entered those limits, shall have precedence within those limits over that vehicle and the driver of the vehicle shall accord such precedence to any such pedestrian.

(2) Where there is a refuge for pedestrians or central reservation on a Zebra crossing, the parts of the crossing situated on each side of the refuge for pedestrians or central reservation shall, for the purposes of this regulation, be treated as separate crossings.

Precedence of pedestrians over vehicles at Pelican crossings

26.  When the vehicular light signals at a Pelican crossing are showing the flashing amber signal, every pedestrian, if he is on the carriageway or a central reservation within the limits of the crossing (but not if he is on a central reservation which forms part of a system of staggered crossings) before any part of a vehicle has entered those limits, shall have precedence within those limits over that vehicle and the driver of the vehicle shall accord such precedence to any such pedestrian.

(1)

S.I. 1971/1524.

(2)

S.I. 1990/1828.

(3)

S.I. 1987/16.

(4)

Part I of S.I. 1994/1519, to which there are amendments not relevant to these Regulations.