Search Legislation

The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 1996

What Version

 Help about what version
  • Latest available (Revised)
  • Original (As made)

Opening Options

 Help about opening options


This is the original version (as it was originally made). This item of legislation is currently only available in its original format.

Authorship of films

18.—(1) In section 9(2) (person to be taken to be author of work), for paragraph (a) (sound recordings and films) substitute—

(aa)in the case of a sound recording, the producer;

(ab)in the case of a film, the producer and the principal director;.

(2) In section 10 (works of joint authorship), after subsection (1) insert—

(1A) A film shall be treated as a work of joint authorship unless the producer and the principal director are the same person..

(3) In section 11 (first ownership of copyright), in subsection (2) (work made by employee in course of employment) after “literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work” insert “, or a film,”.

(4) In section 105 (presumptions relevant to sound recordings and films)—

(a)in subsections (2)(a) and (5)(a) for “author or director” substitute “director or producer”,

(b)in subsection (5), after paragraph (a) insert—

(aa)that a named person was the principal director of the film, the author of the screenplay, the author of the dialogue or the composer of music specifically created for and used in the film, or,.


(c)after subsection (5) add—

(6) For the purposes of this section, a statement that a person was the director of a film shall be taken, unless a contrary indication appears, as meaning that he was the principal director of the film..

(5) In section 178 (minor definitions), at the appropriate place insert—

  • “producer”, in relation to a sound recording or a film, means the person by whom the arrangements necessary for the making of the sound recording or film are undertaken;.

(6) In section 179 (index of defined expressions), at the appropriate place insert—

  • producer (in relation to a sound recording or film) section 178.

Back to top


Print Options


Legislation is available in different versions:

Latest Available (revised):The latest available updated version of the legislation incorporating changes made by subsequent legislation and applied by our editorial team. Changes we have not yet applied to the text, can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area.

Original (As Enacted or Made):The original version of the legislation as it stood when it was enacted or made. No changes have been applied to the text.


Opening Options

Different options to open legislation in order to view more content on screen at once


More Resources

Access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item from this tab. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as enacted version that was used for the print copy
  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • correction slips
  • links to related legislation and further information resources