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The Double Taxation Relief (Taxes on Income) (Mongolia) Order 1996

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SCHEDULECONVENTION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE GOVERNMENT OF MONGOLIA FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND CAPITAL

The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Mongolia;

Desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and capital and with a view to promoting economic co-operation between the two countries;

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1Personal scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2Taxes covered

(1) This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of a Contracting State, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

(2) There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property and taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.

(3) The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:

(a)in the case of Mongolia:

(i)the individual income tax;

(ii)the corporate income tax;

  • (hereinafter referred to as “Mongolian tax”);

(b)in the case of the United Kingdom:

(i)the income tax;

(ii)the corporation tax; and

(iii)the capital gains tax;

  • (hereinafter referred to as “United Kingdom tax”).

(4) This Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of this Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes referred to in paragraph (3). The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws within a reasonable period of time after such changes.

Article 3General definitions

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)the term “United Kingdom” means Great Britain and Northern Ireland, including any area outside the territorial sea of the United Kingdom which in accordance with international law has been or may hereafter be designated, under the laws of the United Kingdom concerning the Continental Shelf, as an area within which the rights of the United Kingdom with respect to the sea bed and sub-soil and their natural resources may be exercised;

(b)the term “Mongolia” means when used in a geographical sense all the territory of Mongolia;

(c)the term “national” means:

(i)in relation to the United Kingdom, any British citizen, or any British subject not possessing the citizenship of any other Commonwealth country or territory, provided he has the right of abode in the United Kingdom; and any legal person, partnership, association or other entity deriving its status as such from the law in force in the United Kingdom;

(ii)in relation to Mongolia, any individual possessing the nationality of Mongolia and any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in Mongolia;

(d)the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean the United Kingdom or Mongolia, as the context requires;

(e)the term “person” comprises an individual, a company and any other body of persons, but subject to paragraph (2) of this Article does not include a partnership;

(f)the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

(g)the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

(h)the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship, aircraft, road vehicle or railway operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship, aircraft, road vehicle or railway is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;

(i)the term “competent authority” means, in the case of the United Kingdom, the Commissioners of Inland Revenue or their authorised representative, and, in the case of Mongolia, the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative.

(2) A partnership which is treated as a taxable unit under the laws of Mongolia shall be treated as a person for the purposes of this Convention.

(3) Where, under any provision of this Convention, a partnership is entitled, as a resident of Mongolia, to exemption from tax in the United Kingdom of any income or capital gains, that provision shall not be construed as restricting the right of the United Kingdom to tax any member of the partnership who is a resident of the United Kingdom on his share of such income or capital gains; but any such income or gains shall be treated for the purposes of Article 24 of this Convention as income or gains from sources in Mongolia.

(4) As regards the application of this Convention by a Contracting State any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that Contracting State concerning the taxes to which this Convention applies.

Article 4Residence

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature. But the term does not include any person who is liable to tax in that Contracting State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein.

(2) Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(a)he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both Contracting States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

(b)if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has no permanent home available to him in either Contracting State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has an habitual abode;

(c)if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State of which he is a national;

(d)if he is a national of both Contracting States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

(3) Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which its place of effective management is situated.

Article 5Permanent establishment

(1) For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

(2) The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

(a)a place of management;

(b)a branch;

(c)an office;

(d)a factory;

(e)a workshop;

(f)a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

(3) A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than 12 months.

(4) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

(a)the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

(b)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

(c)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

(d)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

(e)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

(f)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e) of this paragraph, provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article, where a person—other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph (6) of this Article applies—is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph (4) of this Article which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

(6) An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise and the transactions between the agent and the enterprise are not made under arm’s length conditions, he shall not be considered to be an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.

(7) The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6Income from immovable property

(1) Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

(2) The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, aircraft, and railway and road vehicles shall not be regarded as immovable property.

(3) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

(4) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (3) of this Article shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7Business profits

(1) The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

(2) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (3) of this Article, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

(3) In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including a reasonable allocation of executive and general administrative expenses incurred for the purposes of the enterprise as a whole, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

(4) Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine according to its law the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph (2) of this Article shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

(5) No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

(6) For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

(7) Where the profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8International transport

(1) Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships, aircraft, road vehicles or railways in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

(2) For the purposes of this Article, profits from the operation of ships, aircraft, road vehicles or railways in international traffic include:

(a)income from the rental on a bareboat basis of ships, aircraft, or railway or road vehicles; and

(b)profits from the use, maintenance or rental of containers (including trailers and related equipment for the transport of containers) used for the transport of goods or merchandise;

where such rental or such use, maintenance or rental, as the case may be, is incidental to the operation of ships, aircraft, road vehicles or railways in international traffic.

(3) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency, but only to so much of the profits so derived as is attributable to the participant in proportion to its share in the joint operation.

Article 9Associated enterprises

(1) Where:

(a)an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State; or

(b)the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State;

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, may be included by a Contracting State in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

(2) Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State—and taxes accordingly—profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10Dividends

(1) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

(2) However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends the tax so charged shall not exceed:

(a)5 per cent. of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which controls, directly or indirectly, at least 10 per cent. of the voting power in the company paying the dividends;

(b)15 per cent. of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

(3) The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights assimilated to income from shares by the taxation laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident and also includes any other item (other than interest relieved from tax under Article 11 of this Convention) which, under the laws of the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividend is a resident, is treated as a dividend or distribution of a company.

(4) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14 of this Convention, as the case may be, shall apply.

(5) Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in that other State.

(6) The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the shares or other rights in respect of which the dividend is paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.

Article 11Interest

(1) Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

(2) However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent. of the gross amount of the interest.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of this Article, where interest is paid to a bank carrying on a bona fide banking business which is a resident of the other Contracting State and is the beneficial owner of the interest, the tax charged in the Contracting State in which the interest arises shall not exceed 7 per cent. of the gross amount of the interest.

(4) The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures. The term interest shall not include any item which is treated as a dividend under the provisions of Article 10 of this Convention.

(5) The provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (12) and (13) of this Article shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14 of this Convention, as the case may be, shall apply.

(6) Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

(7) Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest paid exceeds, for whatever reason, the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount of interest. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

(8) Any provision in the laws of either Contracting State relating only to interest paid to a non-resident company shall not operate so as to require such interest paid to a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State to be treated as a distribution or dividend by the company paying such interest. The preceding sentence shall not apply to interest paid to a company which is a resident of one of the Contracting States in which more than 50 per cent. of the voting power is controlled, directly or indirectly, by a person or persons who are residents of the other Contracting State.

(9) The relief from tax provided for in paragraph (2) of this Article shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest:

(a)is exempt from tax on such income in the Contracting State of which he is a resident; and

(b)sells or makes a contract to sell the holding from which such interest is derived within three months of the date on which he acquired that debt-claim.

(10) The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.

(11) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of this Article, interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State if it is derived and beneficially owned by the Government of the other Contracting State or a local authority thereof.

(12) Notwithstanding paragraphs (2) and (3) of this Article, interest arising in Mongolia which is paid to and beneficially owned by a resident of the United Kingdom shall be exempt from tax in Mongolia if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or any other debt-claim or credit guaranteed or insured by the United Kingdom Export Credits Guarantee Department.

(13) Notwithstanding paragraphs (2) and (3) of this Article, interest arising in the United Kingdom which is paid to and beneficially owned by a resident of Mongolia shall be exempt from tax in the United Kingdom if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or any other debt-claim or credit guaranteed or insured by the Trade and Development Bank of Mongolia.

Article 12Royalties

(1) Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

(2) However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties the tax so charged shall not exceed 5 per cent. of the gross amount of the royalties.

(3) The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work (including cinematograph films, and films or tapes for radio or television broadcasting), any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information (know-how) concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

(4) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14 of this Convention, as the case may be, shall apply.

(5) Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State where the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

(6) Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties paid exceeds, for whatever reason, the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

(7) The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the rights in respect of which the royalties are paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.

Article 13Capital gains

(1) Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 of this Convention and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

(2) Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

(a)shares, other than shares quoted on an approved Stock Exchange, deriving their value or the greater part of their value directly or indirectly from immovable property situated in the other Contracting State, or

(b)an interest in a partnership or trust the assets of which consist principally of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State, or of shares referred to in sub-paragraph (a) above,

may be taxed in that other State.

(3) Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

(4) Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft or railway or road vehicles operated in international traffic by an enterprise of that Contracting State or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft or railway or road vehicles shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(5) Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs (1), (2), (3) and (4) of this Article shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident provided that those gains are subject to tax in that Contracting State.

(6) The provisions of paragraph (5) of this Article shall not affect the right of a Contracting State to levy according to its law a tax on capital gains from the alienation of any property derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned Contracting State at any time during the five years immediately preceding the alienation of the property.

Article 14Independent personal services

(1) Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that Contracting State except in the following circumstances, when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State:

(a)if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State; or

(b)if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the calendar year concerned; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other Contracting State during that calendar year may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

(2) The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15Dependent personal services

(1) Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of this Convention, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

(a)the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned; and

(b)the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and

(c)the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

(3) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft or railway or road vehicle operated in international traffic may be taxed in the Contracting State of which the enterprise operating the ship or aircraft or railway or road vehicle is a resident.

Article 16Directors' fees

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17Artistes and sportsmen

(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 14 and Article 15 of this Convention, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

(2) Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15 of this Convention, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article, income derived from activities performed in a Contracting State by an artiste or sportsman shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the artiste or sportsman is a resident if the visit to the first mentioned Contracting State is wholly or substantially supported by public funds of one or both of the Contracting States or of political subdivisions or local authorities thereof.

Article 18Pensions

(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of Article 19 of this Convention, pensions and other similar remuneration paid in consideration of past employment to a resident of a Contracting State and any annuity paid to such a resident shall be taxable only in that State.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article, pensions paid and other similar payments made by the Government of a Contracting State or political subdivision or a local authority thereof under a public scheme which is part of the social security system of that Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(3) The term “annuity” means a stated sum payable to an individual periodically at stated times during his life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money’s worth.

Article 19Government service

(1) (a) Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b)Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

(i)is a national of that State; or

(ii)did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

(2) (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b)Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of and a national of that State.

(3) The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 of this Convention shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20Teachers and researchers

(1) Subject to paragraph (2) of this Article, an individual who visits one of the Contracting States for a period not exceeding two years for the purpose of teaching or engaging in research at a university, college, school or other recognised educational institution in that Contracting State, and who immediately before that visit was a resident of the other Contracting State, shall be taxable only in that other State on any remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding two years from the date he first visits that State for such purpose.

(2) Where, under the provisions of this Convention taken together with the law in force in the other State, a teacher or researcher referred to in paragraph (1) of this Article is exempt from tax in that other State on his remuneration, or is entitled to a deduction equal to that remuneration in computing his liability to tax in that other State, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.

(3) The provisions of this Article shall apply to income from research only if such research is undertaken by the individual in the public interest and not primarily for the benefit of a private person or persons.

Article 21Students

A student, business apprentice or trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training shall be exempt from tax in that first-mentioned State on the following:

(a)

payments derived from sources outside that Contracting State for the purpose of his maintenance, education, study, research or training; and

(b)

income derived from personal services performed in that Contracting State in an amount not exceeding £1500 sterling or its equivalent in Mongolian currency in any fiscal year.

Article 22Other income

(1) Items of income beneficially owned by a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, which are not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention, other than income paid out of trusts or the estates of deceased persons in the course of administration, shall be taxable only in that State.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph (2) of Article 6 of this Convention, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14 of this Convention, as the case may be, shall apply.

(3) Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer of income under this Article and the beneficial owner, or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the payment exceeds, for whatever reason, the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payment shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

(4) The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the rights in respect of which the income is paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.

Article 23Capital

(1) Capital represented by immovable property referred to in Article 6 of this Convention, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

(2) Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other State.

(3) Capital represented by ships or aircraft or railway or road vehicles operated in international traffic, and by movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft or railway or road vehicles, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the profits are taxable in accordance with Article 8 of the Convention.

(4) All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 24Elimination of double taxation

(1) Subject to the provisions of the law of the United Kingdom regarding the allowance as a credit against United Kingdom tax of tax payable in a territory outside the United Kingdom (which shall not affect the general principle hereof):

(a)Mongolian tax payable under the laws of Mongolia and in accordance with this Convention, whether directly or by deduction, on profits, income or chargeable gains from sources within Mongolia (excluding in the case of a dividend, tax payable in respect of the profits out of which the dividend is paid) shall be allowed as a credit against any United Kingdom tax computed by reference to the same profits, income or chargeable gains by reference to which the Mongolian tax is computed;

(b)in the case of a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Mongolia to a company which is a resident of the United Kingdom and which controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent. of the voting power in the company paying the dividend, the credit shall take into account (in addition to any Mongolian tax for which credit may be allowed under the provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph) the Mongolian tax payable by the company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid.

(2) Where a resident of Mongolia derives income from the United Kingdom the amount of tax that is payable in the United Kingdom in accordance with the provisions of this Convention may be deducted from the Mongolian tax imposed on that resident. The amount of the deduction, however, shall not exceed the amount of the Mongolian tax on that income computed in accordance with the taxation laws and regulations of Mongolia.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (1) of this Article, profits, income and capital gains owned by a resident of a Contracting State which may be taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other Contracting State.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (1) of this Article, the term “Mongolian tax payable” shall be deemed to include any amount which would have been payable as Mongolian tax for any year but for a reduction of tax granted for that year or any part thereof as a result of the application of the following provisions of Mongolian law:

(a)sub-paragraph (i) of paragraph 1 of Article 20 of the Foreign Investment Law of Mongolia so far as it was in force on, and has not been modified since, the date of signature of this Convention, or has been modified only in minor respects so as not to affect its general character; or

(b)any other provision which may subsequently be made granting a reduction of tax which is agreed by the competent authorities of the Contracting States to be of a substantially similar character, if it has not been modified thereafter or has been modified only in minor respects so as not to affect its general character.

(5) Relief from United Kingdom tax by virtue of paragraph (4) of this Article shall not be given where the profits, income or chargeable gains in respect of which tax would have been payable but for the exemption or reduction of tax granted under the provisions referred to in that paragraph arise or accrue more than ten years after the date on which this Convention enters into force.

(6) The period referred to in paragraph (5) of this Article may be extended by agreement between the Contracting States.

Article 25Limitation of relief

(1) Where under any provision of this Convention any income is relieved from tax in a Contracting State and, under the law in force in the other Contracting State a person, in respect of that income, is subject to tax by reference to the amount thereof which is remitted to or received in that other Contracting State and not by reference to the full amount thereof, then the relief to be allowed under this Convention in the first-mentioned Contracting State shall apply only to so much of the income as is taxed in the other Contracting State.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other Article of this Convention, a resident of a Contracting State who, as a consequence of domestic law concerning incentives to promote foreign investment, is not subject to tax or is subject to tax at a reduced rate in that Contracting State on income or capital gains, shall not receive the benefit of any reduction in or exemption from tax provided for in this Convention by the other Contracting State if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of such resident or a person connected with such resident was to obtain the benefits of this Convention.

Article 26Non-discrimination

(1) Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.

(2) The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.

(3) Except where the provisions of paragraph (1) of Article 9, paragraph (7) or (10) of Article 11, or paragraph (6) or (7) of Article 12 of this Convention apply and subject to the provisions of paragraph (8) of Article 11, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

(4) Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

(5) Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as obliging either Contracting State to grant to individuals not resident in that State any of the personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for tax purposes which are granted to individuals so resident or to its nationals.

(6) The provisions of this Article shall apply to the taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

Article 27Mutual agreement procedure

(1) Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph (1) of Article 26 of this Convention, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national.

(2) The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

(3) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention.

(4) The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 28Exchange of information

(1) The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Convention, in particular, to prevent fraud and to facilitate the administration of statutory provisions against legal avoidance. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

(2) In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Article be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a)to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b)to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c)to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

Article 29Members of diplomatic or permanent missions and consular posts

Nothing in this Convention shall affect any fiscal privileges accorded to members of diplomatic or permanent missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 30Entry into force

Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other through diplomatic channels the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Convention. This Convention shall enter into force on the date of the later of these notifications and shall thereupon have effect:

(a)

in the United Kingdom:

(i)

in respect of income tax and capital gains tax, for any year of assessment beginning on or after 6th April in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force;

(ii)

in respect of corporation tax, for any financial year beginning on or after 1st April in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force;

(b)

in Mongolia:

(i)

in respect of tax withheld at source, for amounts paid or credited on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force;

(ii)

in respect of other taxes, for any taxable year beginning on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force.

Article 31Termination

This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by one of the Contracting States. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year beginning after the expiry of five years from the date of entry into force of the Convention. In such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

(a)

in the United Kingdom:

(i)

in respect of income tax and capital gains tax, for any year of assessment beginning on or after 6th April in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given;

(ii)

in respect of corporation tax, for any financial year beginning on or after 1st April in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given;

(b)

in Mongolia:

(i)

in respect of tax withheld at source, for amounts paid or credited on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given;

(ii)

in respect of other taxes, for any taxable year beginning on or after 1st January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.

Done in duplicate at London this 23rd day of April 1996 in the English and Mongolian languages, both texts being equally authoritative.

Malcolm Rifkind

For the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:

For the Government of Mongolia:

Tsogt

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