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The Welfare of Livestock Regulations 1994

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Regulation 3(3)

SCHEDULE 3PIGS

PART IGENERAL CONDITIONS

1.  (1)  No person shall tether or cause to be tethered any pig except while it is undergoing any examination, test, treatment or operation carried out for any veterinary purpose.

(2) This paragraph shall not apply in relation to the use on any land before 1st January 1999 of any tether which was in use on that land before 1st October 1991.

2.  (1)  A pig shall be free to turn round without difficulty at all times.

(2) The dimension of any stall or pen shall be such that the internal area is not less than the square of the length of the pig, and no internal side is less than seventy five per cent of the length of the pig, the length of the pig in each case being measured from the tip of its snout to the base of its tail while it is standing with its back straight.

(3) This paragraph shall not apply in relation to a female pig for the period between seven days before the predicted day of her farrowing and the day on which the weaning of her piglets (including any piglets fostered by her) is complete.

(4) A person shall not be guilty of an offence under this paragraph by reason of the keeping of a pig in a stall or pen—

(a)while it is undergoing any examination, test, treatment or operation carried out for veterinary purposes;

(b)for the purposes of service, artificial insemination or collection of semen;

(c)while it is fed on any particular occasion;

(d)for the purposes of marking, washing or weighing it;

(e)while its accommodation is being cleaned;

(f)while it is awaiting loading for transportation,

provided that the period during which it is so kept is not longer than necessary for the purpose in view.

(5) A pig shall not be regarded as being kept in a stall or pen in which it could not be kept without contravention of this paragraph if it is in a stall or pen which it can enter or leave at will, provided that the stall or pen is entered from a stall or pen in which the pig is kept without contravention of this paragraph.

(6) This paragraph shall not apply in relation to the use on any land before 1st January 1999 of any stall or pen which was in use on that land before 1st October 1991.

3.  Materials used for the construction of housing for pigs, and all equipment with which pigs may come into contact, shall not be harmful to the pigs and shall be capable of being thoroughly cleansed and disinfected.

4.  Subject to paragraph 22 of this Part, insulation, heating and ventilation of the building must ensure that the air circulation, dust level, temperature, air relative humidity and gas concentrations are kept within limits which are not harmful to the pigs.

5.  The interior of any building (including the floor) to which pigs have access shall be so constructed and maintained that there are no sharp edges or protrusions likely to cause injury or distress to the pigs.

6.  No inadequately constructed or insecure fittings shall be used for restraining pigs.

7.  (1)  All automatic equipment shall be thoroughly inspected by a stock-keeper, or other competent person, not less than once each day to check that there is no defect in it.

(2) Where a defect is found in the automatic equipment (whether on inspection of the equipment in accordance with this paragraph or at any other time)—

(a)the defect shall be rectified forthwith, or

(b)if this is impracticable, such measures shall immediately be taken and shall be maintained until the defect is rectified, as are required to safeguard the pigs from suffering unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress as a result of the defect.

(3) Where the automatic equipment includes a ventilation system the system shall contain—

(a)an alarm which will give adequate warning of the failure of that system to function properly (which alarm will operate even if the principal electricity supply to it has failed) and

(b)additional equipment or means of ventilation (whether automatic or not) which, in the event of such a failure of the ventilation system, will provide adequate ventilation so as to prevent the pigs from suffering unnecessary distress as a result of the failure.

(4) The alarm system mentioned in the preceding sub-paragraph shall be tested and the additional equipment mentioned there shall be thoroughly inspected, in each case, by a stock-keeper or other competent person not less than once every seven days in order to check that there is no defect in it and, if any defect is found in such alarm or equipment (whether or not on it being tested or inspected in accordance with this paragraph) it shall be rectified forthwith.

8.  Subject to paragraph 22 of this Part, pigs must not be kept permanently in darkness. To meet their behavioural and physiological needs, appropriate natural or artificial lighting shall be provided; if the latter, it must function for a period at least equivalent to the period of natural light normally available between 9.00 a.m. and 5.00 p.m. In addition, suitable lighting (fixed or portable) strong enough to allow the pigs to be inspected at any time shall be available.

9.  (1)  Pigs shall be thoroughly inspected by a stock-keeper not less than once each day to check that they are in a state of well-being.

(2) Where pigs are found not to be in a state of well-being (whether on inspection in accordance with this paragraph or at any other time) such measures shall immediately be taken as are required to safeguard them from unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress. Sick or injured pigs shall, where necessary, be isolated in suitable accommodation with dry, comfortable bedding. Veterinary advice must be obtained as soon as possible for pigs which are not responding to the stock-keeper’s care.

10.  If pigs are kept together, measures must be taken to prevent fighting which goes beyond normal behaviour. Pigs which show persistent aggression towards others or are victims of such aggression shall be isolated or kept separate from the group.

11.  Subject to paragraph 22 of this Part, accommodation used for pigs shall be constructed in such a way as to allow each pig to—

(a)stand up, lie down and rest without difficulty;

(b)have a clean place in which it can rest, and

(c)see other pigs, unless the pig is isolated for veterinary reasons.

12.  Where tethers are permitted in accordance with paragraph 1 above, they must not cause injury to the pigs and must be inspected regularly and adjusted as necessary to ensure a comfortable fit. Each tether shall be of sufficient length to allow the pigs to move as stipulated in paragraph 11 above. The design must be such as to avoid, as far as possible, any risk of strangulation or injury.

13.  Housing, pens, equipment and utensils used for pigs must be properly cleansed and disinfected as necessary to prevent cross-infection and the build-up of disease-carrying organisms, and faeces, urine and uneaten or spilt food must be removed as often as necessary to minimise smell and avoid attracting flies or rodents.

14.  Where pigs are kept in a building they shall be kept on, or have access at all times to, a lying area which is clean, comfortable and does not adversely affect them, and is well-drained or well maintained with dry bedding. Where bedding is provided, this must be clean, dry and not harmful to the pigs.

15.  Subject to paragraph 22 of this Part, where pigs are kept in a building, floors shall be smooth but not slippery so as to prevent injury to the pigs and so designed as not to cause injury or suffering to pigs standing or lying on them. They must be suitable for the size and weight of the pigs and form a rigid, even and stable surface.

16.  All pigs shall be fed on a wholesome diet appropriate to their species, age, weight and behavioural and physiological needs, which is fed to them in sufficient quantity to maintain them in good health and to promote a positive state of well-being.

17.  All pigs must be fed at least once a day. Where pigs are housed in a group and do not have continuous access to feed, or are not fed by an automatic feeding system, each pig must have access to the food at the same time as the others in the feeding group.

18.  All pigs shall be provided with an adequate supply of fresh drinking water each day.

19.  Feeding and watering equipment must be designed, constructed, placed and maintained so that contamination of the pigs' feed and water is minimised.

20.  In addition to the measures normally taken to prevent tail-biting and other vices and in order to enable them to satisfy their behavioural needs, all pigs, taking into account environment and stocking density, must have access to straw or other material or object suitable to satisfy those needs.

21.  No person shall apply an electrical current to pigs for the purposes of immobilisation.

22.  Where pigs are kept in an environment which involves maintaining high temperatures and high humidity (known as the “sweat-box system”) paragraphs 4, 8, 11 and 15 of this Part shall not apply until 1st July 1995, after which date the use of any such system is prohibited.

PART IIBOARS

Boar pens shall be sited and constructed so as to allow the boar to turn round and to hear, see and smell other pigs, and to provide for clean resting areas. The lying area shall be dry and comfortable. The minimum pen size for an adult boar shall be six square metres, except that a larger area shall be provided when pens are used for service.

PART IIISOWS AND GILTS

1.  Gilts and sows between weaning their piglets and the perinatal period shall, where necessary, be treated against external and internal parasites. If they are placed in farrowing crates, pregnant sows and gilts shall be thoroughly clean.

2.  Gilts and sows between weaning their piglets and the perinatal period shall be provided with a clean, adequately drained, comfortable lying area and shall, if necessary, be given suitable nesting material.

3.  During farrowing, an unobstructed area behind the sow or gilt shall be available for the ease of natural or assisted farrowing.

4.  Farrowing pens where sows are kept loose must have some means of protecting the piglets, such as farrowing rails.

PART IVPIGLETS

1.  If necessary, piglets shall be provided with a source of heat and a solid, dry and comfortable lying area away from the sow where all of them can rest at the same time.

2.  Where a farrowing crate is used, the piglets must have sufficient space to be able to be suckled without difficulty.

3.  Neither tail docking nor tooth clipping shall be carried out routinely but only when there is evidence, on the farm, that injuries to sows' teats or to other piglets have occurred or are likely to occur as a result of not carrying out these procedures. Where tooth clipping appears necessary, this shall only be carried out within seven days of birth.

4.  Piglets must not be weaned from the sow at an age of less than three weeks unless the welfare or health of the dam or piglets would otherwise be adversely affected.

PART VWEANERS AND REARING PIGS

1.  Pigs shall be placed in groups as soon as possible after weaning. They shall be kept in stable groups with as little mixing as possible.

2.  All accommodation newly built or rebuilt or brought into use for the first time on or after 1st January 1994 shall comply with at least the following requirements:

The unobstructed floor area available to each weaner or rearing pig reared in a group must be at least:

  • 0.15 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is 10 kg or less,

  • 0.20 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 10 kg but less than or equal to 20 kg,

  • 0.30 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 20 kg but less than or equal to 30 kg,

  • 0.40 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 30 kg but less than or equal to 50 kg,

  • 0.55 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 50 kg but less than or equal to 85 kg,

  • 0.65 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 85 kg but less than or equal to 110 kg,

  • 1.00 square metre for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 110 kg.

3.  From 1st January 1998 the minimum standards provided for in the preceding paragraph shall apply to all accommodation.

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