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The Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986

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(see regulation 16)

SCHEDULE 3BRAKING REQUIREMENTS

1.  The braking requirements referred to in regulation 16(4) are set out in the Table and are to be interpreted in accordance with paragraphs 2 to 5 of this Schedule.

TABLE

(Schedule 3)

NumberRequirement
1

The vehicle shall be equipped with—

(a) one efficient braking system having two means of operation;

(b) one efficient split braking system having one means of operation; or

(c) two efficient braking systems each having a separate means of operation.

and in the case of a vehicle first used on or after 1st January 1968, no account shall be taken of a multi-pull means of operation unless, at first application, it operates a hydraulic, electric or pneumatic device which causes the application of brakes with total braking efficiency not less than 25%.

2

The vehicle shall be equipped with—

(a) one efficient braking system having two means of operation; or

(b) two efficient braking systems each having a separate means of operation.

3 The vehicle shall be equipped with an efficient braking system.
4

The braking system shall be so designed that in the event of failure of any part (other than a fixed member or a brake shoe anchor pin) through or by means of which the force necessary to apply the brakes is transmitted, there shall still be available for application by the driver brakes sufficient under the most adverse conditions to bring the vehicle to rest within a reasonable distance. The brakes so available shall be applied to—

(a) in the case of a track-laying vehicle, one track on each side of the vehicle;

(b) in the case of a wheeled motor vehicle, one wheel if the vehicle has 3 wheels and otherwise to at least half the wheels; and

(c) in the case of a wheeled trailer, at least one wheel if it has only 2 wheels and otherwise at least 2 wheels.

This requirement applies to the braking systems of both a trailer and the vehicle by which it is being drawn except that if the drawing vehicle complies with regulation 15, Community Directive 79/489 or ECE Regulation 13.03, 13.04, or 13.05, the requirements applies only to the braking system of the drawing vehicle. It does not apply to vehicles having split braking systems (which are subject to regulation 18(3)(b)) or to road rollers. (The expressions `part' and `half the wheels' are to be interpreted in accordance with paragraphs (3) and (4) respectively).

5The braking system shall be so designed and constructed that, in the event of the failure of any part thereof, there shall still be available for application by the driver a brake sufficient under the most adverse conditions to bring the vehicle to rest within a reasonable distance.
6

The braking system of a vehicle, when drawing a trailer which complies with regulation 15, Community Directive 79/489 or ECE Regulation 13.03, 13.04 or 13.05, shall be so constructed that, in the event of a failure of any part (other than a fixed member or brake shoe anchor pin) of the service braking system of the drawing vehicle (excluding the means of operation of a split braking system) the driver can still apply brakes to at least one wheel of the trailer, if it has only 2 wheels, and otherwise to at least 2 wheels, by using the secondary braking system of the drawing vehicle.

(The expression “part” is to be interpreted in accordance with paragraph 3).

7The application of any means of operation of a braking system shall not affect or operate the pedal or hand lever of any other means of operation.
8The braking system shall not be rendered ineffective by the non-rotation of the engine of the vehicle or, in the case of a trailer, the engine of the drawing vehicle (steam-propelled vehicles, other than locomotives and buses, are excluded from this requirement).
9

At least one means of operation shall be capable of causing brakes to be applied directly, and not through the transmission gear, to at least half the wheels of the vehicle. This requirement does not apply to a works truck with an unladen weight not exceeding 7370 kg, or to an industrial tractor; and it does not apply to a vehicle with more than 4 wheels if—

(a) the drive is transmitted to all wheels other than the steering wheels without the interposition of a differential driving gear or similar mechanism between the axles carrying the driving wheels; and

(b) the brakes applied by one means of operation apply directly to 2 driving wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle; and

(c) the brakes applied by another means of operation act directly on all the other driving wheels.

(The expression “half the wheels” is to be interpreted in accordance with paragraph (4)).

10The brakes of a trailer shall come into operation automatically on its overrun or, in the case of a track-laying trailer drawn by a vehicle having steerable wheels at the front or a wheeled trailer, the driver of, or some other person on, the drawing vehicle or on the trailer shall be able to apply the brakes on the trailer.
11The brakes of a trailer shall come into operation automatically on its overrun or the driver of the drawing vehicle shall be able to apply brakes to all the wheels of the trailer, using the means of operation which applies the service brakes of the drawing vehicle.
12The brakes of the vehicle shall apply to all wheels other than the steering wheels.
13The brakes of the vehicle shall apply to at least 2 wheels.
14The brakes of the vehicle shall apply in the case of a wheeled vehicle to at least 2 wheels if the vehicle has no more than 4 wheels and to at least half the wheels if the vehicle has more than 4 wheels; and in the case of a track-laying vehicle to all the tracks.
15The brakes shall apply to all the wheels.
16

The parking brake shall be so designed and constructed that—

(a)

in the case of a wheeled heavy motor car or motor car, its means of operation is independent of the means of operation of any split braking system with which the vehicle is fitted;

(b)

in the case of a motor vehicle other than a motor cycle or an invalid carriage, either—

(i)

it is capable of being applied by direct mechanical action without the intervention of any hydraulic, electric or pneumatic device; or

(ii)

the vehicle complies with requirement 15; and

(c)

it can at all times when the vehicle is not being driven or is left unattended be set so as—

(i)

in the case of a track-laying vehicle, to lock the tracks; and

(ii)

in the case of a wheeled vehicle, to prevent the rotation of at least one wheel in the case of a three wheeled vehicle and at least two wheels in the case of a vehicle with more than three wheels.

17 The parking brake shall be capable of being set so as effectively to prevent two at least of the wheels from revolving when the trailer is not being drawn.
18

The parking brake shall be so designed and constructed that—

(a) in the case of a motor vehicle, its means of operation (whether multi-pull or not) is independent of the means of operation of any braking system required by regulation 18 to have a total braking efficiency of not less than 50%; and

(b) in the case of a trailer, its brakes can be applied and released by a person standing on the ground by a means of operation fitted to the trailer; and

(c) in either case, its braking force, when the vehicle is not being driven or is left unattended (and in the case of a trailer, whether the braking force is applied by the driver using the service brakes of the drawing vehicle or by a person standing on the ground in the manner indicated in sub-paragraph (b)) can at all times be maintained in operation by direct mechanical action without the intervention of any hydraulic, electric or pneumatic device and, when so maintained, can hold the vehicle stationary on a gradient of at least 16% without the assistance of stored energy.

2.  For the purposes of requirement 3 in the Table, in the case of a motor car or heavy motor car propelled by steam and not used as a bus, the engine shall be deemed to be an efficient braking system with one means of operation if the engine is capable of being reversed and, in the case of a vehicle first used on or after 1st January 1927, is incapable of being disconnected from any of the driving wheels of the vehicle except by the sustained effort of the driver.

3.  For the purpose of requirements 4 and 6 in the Table, in the case of a wheeled motor car and of a vehicle first used on or after 1st October 1938 which is a locomotive, a motor tractor, a heavy motor car or a track-laying motor car, every moving shaft which is connected to or supports any part of a braking system shall be deemed to be part of the system.

4.  For the purpose of requirements 4 and 9 in the Table, in determining whether brakes apply to at least half the wheels of a vehicle, not more than one front wheel shall be treated as a wheel to which brakes apply unless the vehicle is—

(a)a locomotive or motor tractor with more than 4 wheels;

(b)a heavy motor car or motor car first used before 1st October 1938;

(c)a motor car with an unladen weight not exceeding 1020 kg;

(d)a motor car which is a passenger vehicle but is not a bus;

(e)a works truck;

(f)a heavy motor car or motor car with more than 3 wheels which is equipped in respect of all its wheels with brakes which are operated by one means of operation; or

(g)a track-laying vehicle.

5.  In this Schedule a “multi-pull means of operation” means a device forming part of a braking system which causes the muscular energy of the driver to apply the brakes of that system progressively as a result of successive applications of that device by the driver.

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