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Highways and Locomotives (Amendment) Act 1878

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Part IAmendment of Highway Law

Highway Districts

3Highway districts to be made so far as possible coincident with rural sanitary districts

In forming any highway districts, or in altering the boundaries of any highway districts, the county authority shall have regard to the boundaries of the rural sanitary districts in their county, and shall, so far as may be found practicable, form highway districts so as to be coincident in area with rural sanitary districts, or wholly contained within rural sanitary districts.

4Power for rural sanitary authority of district coincident with highway district to become highway board

Where a highway district, whether formed before or after the passing of this Act, is or becomes coincident in area with a rural sanitary district, the rural sanitary authority of such district may apply to the county authority, stating that they are desirous to-exercise the powers of a highway board under the Highway Acts within their district. On such application the county authority may, if they see fit, by order declare that from and after a day to be named in the order (in this Act called the commencement of the order) such rural sanitary authority shall exercise all the powers of a highway board under the Highway Acts; and as from the commencement of the order the existing highway board (if any) for the district shall be dissolved, and waywardens or surveyors shall not hold office or be elected for any parish in the district. An order made under this section may be amended, altered, or rescinded by a subsequent order of the county authority. Where a highway district, being coincident in area with a rural sanitary district, is situate in more than one county, an order under this section may be made by the county authority of any county in which any part of such district is situate, but such order, and any order amending, altering, or rescinding the same, shall not be of any force or effect until it has been approved by the county authority or authorities of the other county or counties in which any part of such district is situate.

5Consequences of rural sanitary authority becoming highway board

(1) From and after the commencement of the order declaring a rural sanitary authority entitled to exercise the powers of a highway board within their district, the following consequences shall ensue :

All such property, real or personal, including all interests easements and rights in to and out of property real and personal and including things in action, as belongs to or is vested in or would but for such order have belonged to or been vested in the highway board, or any surveyor or surveyors of any parish forming part of the district, shall pass to and vest in the rural sanitary authority for all the estate and interest of the highway board, or of such surveyor or surveyors, but subject to all debts and liabilities affecting the same :

All debts and liabilities incurred in respect of any property transferred to the rural sanitary authority may be enforced against that authority to the extent of the property transferred:

All such powers rights duties liabilities capacities and incapacities (except the power of obtaining payment of their expenses by the issue of precepts in manner provided by the Highway Acts, or the power of making, assessing, and levying highway rates) as are vested in or attached to or would .but for such order have become vested in or attached to the highway board, or any surveyor or surveyors of any parish forming part of the district, shall vest in and attach to the rural sanitary authority:

All property by this Act transferred to the rural sanitary authority shall be held by them on trust for the several parishes for the benefit of which it was held previously to such transfer.

(2)If at any time after a rural sanitary authority has become invested with the powers of a highway board in pursuance of this Act, the boundaries of the district of such authority are altered, the powers and jurisdiction of such authority in their capacity of highway board shall be exercised within such altered district; and on the application of any authority or person interested the Local Government Board may by order provide for the adjustment of any accounts, or the settlement of any doubt or difference so far as relates to highways consequent on the alteration of the boundaries of such rural sanitary district.

(3)All expenses incurred by a rural sanitary authority in the performance of their duties as a highway board shall be deemed to be general expenses of such authority within the meaning of the Public Health Act, 1875.

6Highway boards may combine to appoint a district surveyor

Any two or more highway boards may unite in appointing and paying the salary of a district surveyor, who shall in relation to the district of each of the boards by whom he is appointed have all the powers and duties of a district surveyor under the Highway Acts.

7Expenses of highway boards to be paid out of district fund

All expenses incurred by any highway board in maintaining and keeping in repair the highways of each parish within their district, and all other expenses legally incurred by such board, shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Highway Acts, on and after the twenty-fifth day of March one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine be deemed to have been incurred for the common use or benefit of the several parishes within their district, and shall be charged on the district fund: Provided, that if a highway board think it just, by reason of natural differences of soil or locality, or other exceptional circumstances, that any parish or parishes within their district should bear the expenses of maintaining its or their own highways, they may (with the approval of the county authority or authorities of the county or counties within which their district, or any part thereof, is situate) divide their district into two or more parts, and charge exclusively on each of such parts the expenses payable by such highway board in respect of maintaining and keeping in repair the highways situate in each such part;

so, nevertheless, that each such part shall consist of one or more highway parish or highway parishes.

8Charge of moneys to be hereafter borrowed

All moneys borrowed by a highway board after the twenty-fifth day of March one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine, under the Highway Acts, shall be charged on the district fund, but nothing in this Act shall affect the security, chargeability, or repayment of any moneys borrowed before the twenty-fifth day of March one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine.

9Audit of accounts of highway districts and parishes

The accounts of the highway authority of every highway district and highway parish shall be made up in such form as the Local Government Board shall from time to time prescribe, and shall be balanced to the twenty-fifth day of March in each year, and as soon as conveniently may be after such day the said accounts shall be audited and examined by the auditor of accounts relating to the relief of the poor for the audit district in which the highway district or highway parish, or the greater part thereof in rateable value, is situate. Every such auditor shall (as nearly as may be) have, in relation to the accounts of the highway authority of a highway district or highway parish, and of their officers, the same powers and duties as he has in the case of accounts relating to the relief of the poor; and any person aggrieved by the decision of the auditor shall have the same rights and remedies as in the case of such last-mentioned audit. The auditor shall receive such remuneration as the Local Government Board direct; and such remuneration, together with the expenses incident to the audit, shall be paid by the highway authority of the highway district or highway parish out of the fund or rate applicable to the repair of highways within such district or parish; and such remuneration and expenses may, in default of payment, be recovered in a summary manner. Section forty-four of the Highway Act, 1835, is hereby repealed, and section thirty-six of the Highway Act, 1864, is hereby repealed down to the words " to be paid out of the district fund," and the statement of receipt and expenditure by the said section directed to be furnished by every highway board within thirty days after the signature of the accounts by the chairman shall be furnished within thirty days after the completion of the audit under this section. Nothing in this section shall affect any proceeding commenced before the passing of this Act.

10Power of county authority to enforce performance of duty by defaulting highway authority

Where complaint is made to the county authority that the highway authority of any highway area within their jurisdiction has made default in maintaining or repairing all or any of the highways within their jurisdiction, the county authority, if satisfied after due inquiry and report by their surveyor that the authority has been guilty of the alleged default, shall make an order limiting a time for the performance of the duty of the highway authority in the matter of such complaint. If such duty is not performed by the time limited in the order, and the highway authority fail to show to the county authority sufficient cause why the order has not been complied with, the county authority may appoint some person to perform such duty, and shall by order direct that the expenses of performing the same, together with the reasonable remuneration of the person appointed for superintending such performance, shall be paid by the authority in default, and any order made for payment of such expenses and costs may be removed into the High Court of Justice, and be enforced in the same manner as if the same were an order of such court. Any person appointed under this section to perform the duty of a defaulting highway authority shall, in the performance and for the purpose of such duty, be invested with all the powers of such authority other than the powers of making rates or levying contributions by precept, and the county authority may from time to rime, by order, change any person so appointed. Where an order has been made by a county authority for the repair of a highway on a highway authority alleged to be in default, if such authority, within ten days after service on them of the order of the county authority, give .notice to the clerk of the peace that they decline to comply with the requisitions of such order-until their liability to repair the highway in respect to which they are alleged to have made default has been determined by a jury, it shall be the duty of the county authority either to satisfy the defaulting authority by cancelling or modifying in such manner as the authority may desire the order of the county authority, or else to submit to a jury the question of the liability of the defaulting authority to repair the highway. If the county authority decide to submit the question to a jury they shall direct a bill of indictment to be preferred to the next practicable assizes to be holden in and for their county, with a view to try the liability of the defaulting authority to repair the highway. Until the trial of the indictment is concluded the order of the county authority shall be suspended. On the conclusion of the trial, if the jury find the defendants guilty, the order of the county authority shall forthwith be deemed to come into force; but if the jury acquit the defendants the order of the county authority shall forthwith become void. The costs of the indictment, and of the proceedings consequent thereon, shall be paid by such parties to the proceedings as the court before whom the case is tried may direct. Any costs directed to be paid by the county authority shall be deemed to be expenses properly incurred by such authority, and shall be paid accordingly out of the county rate; and any costs directed to be paid by the highway authority shall be deemed to be expenses properly incurred by such authority in maintenance of the roads within their jurisdiction, and shall be paid out of the funds applicable to the maintenance of such roads.

11Duration of office of waywarden

Notwithstanding anything in the Highway Acts, waywardens; shall continue in office till the thirtieth day of April in the year following the year in which they were elected, and on that day their successors shall come into office.

12Repeal of part of section 7 of Highway Act, 1862

So much of section seven of the Highway Act, 1862, as prohibits the inclusion in a highway district of any parish or place the highways of which were, at the time of the passing of that Act, or within six months afterwards, under the superintendence of a board established in pursuance of section eighteen of the principal Act, unless with the consent of such board, is hereby repealed.

Main Roads

13Disturnpiked roads to become main roads, and half the expense of maintenance to be contributed out of county rate

For the purposes of this Act, and subject to its provisions, any road which has, within the period between the thirty-first day of December one thousand eight hundred and seventy and the date of the passing of this Act, ceased to be a turnpike road, and any road which, being at the time of the passing of this Act a turnpike road, may afterwards cease to be such, shall be deemed to be a main road; and one half of the expenses incurred from and after the twenty-ninth day of September one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight by the highway authority in the maintenance of such road shall, as to every part thereof which is within the limits of any highway area, be paid to the highway authority of such area by the county authority of the county in which such road is situate out of the county rate, on the certificate of the surveyor of the county authority, or of such other person or persons as the county authority may appoint, to the effect that such main road has been maintained to his or their satisfaction. Provided that no part of such expenses shall be included in—

(1)Any precept or warrant for the levying or collection of county rate within the metropolis, subject and without prejudice to any provision to be hereafter made; or

(2)Any order made on the council of any borough having a separate court of quarter sessions under section one hundred and seventeen of the Municipal Corporation Act, 1835. The term " expenses " in this section shall mean the cost of repairs defrayed out of current rates, and shall not include any repayment of principal moneys borrowed, or of interest payable thereon.

14Description of highway areas

The following areas shall be deemed to be highway areas for the purposes of this Act; (that is to say,)

(1)Urban sanitary districts :

(2)Highway districts :

(3)Highway parishes not included within any highway district or any urban sanitary district.

15Power to declare ordinary highway to be a main road

"Where it appears to any highway authority that any highway within their district ought to become a main road by reason of its being a medium of communication between great towns, or a thoroughfare to a railway station, or otherwise, such highway authority may apply to the county authority for an order declaring such road, as to such parts as aforesaid, to be a main road; and the county authority, if of opinion that there is probable cause for the application, shall cause the road to be inspected, and, if satisfied that it ought to be a main road, shall make an order accordingly. A copy of the order so made shall be forthwith deposited at the office of the. clerk of the peace of the county, and shall be open to the inspection of persons interested at all reasonable hours ; and the order so made shall not be of any validity unless and until it is confirmed by a further order of the county authority made within a period of not more than six months after the making of the first-mentioned order.

16Power to reduce main road to status of ordinary highway

If it appears to a county authority that any road within their county which, within the period between the thirty-first day of December one thousand eight hundred and seventy and the date of the passing of this Act, ceased to be a turnpike road ought not to become a main road in pursuance of this Act, such authority shall, before the first day of February one thousand eight hundred and seventy-nine, make an application to the Local Government Board for a provisional order declaring that such road ought not to become a main road. Subject as aforesaid, where it appears to a county authority that any road within their county which has become a main road in pursuance of this Act ought to cease to be a main road and become an ordinary highway, such authority may apply to the Local Government Board for a provisional order declaring that such road has ceased to be a main road and become an ordinary highway. The Local Government Board, if of opinion that there is probable cause for an application under this section, shall cause the road to be inspected, and if satisfied that it ought not to become or ought to cease to be a main road and become an ordinary highway shall make a provisional order accordingly, to be confirmed as herein-after mentioned. All expenses incurred in or incidental to the making or confirmation of any order under this section shall be defrayed by the county authority applying for such order.

17Turnpike road in several counties

"Where a turnpike road subject to one trust extends into divers counties, such road, for the purposes of this Act, shall be treated as a separate turnpike road in each county through which it passes.

18Accounts of expenses of maintenance of main roads

Every highway authority shall keep, in such form as may be directed by the county authority, a separate account of the expenses of the maintenance of the main roads within their jurisdiction, and shall forward copies thereof to the county authority at such time or times in every year as may be required by the county authority, and the accounts so kept shall, where the accounts of the highway authority are audited under this Act or under section two hundred and forty-seven of the Public Health Act, 1875, be audited in the same manner as the other accounts of such authority, and where the accounts of the highway authority are not so audited shall be subject to such audit as the county authority may direct. If any highway authority makes default in complying with the provisions of this section, or with any directions given in pursuance thereof by the county authority, the county authority may withhold all or any part of the contribution payable by them under this Act towards the expenses of the maintenance of main roads by such highway authority for the year in which such default occurs.

19Highway district situate in more than one county

"Where a highway district is situate in more than one county, the provisions of this Act, with respect to the expenses of the maintenance of main roads, shall apply as if the portion of such district situate in each county were a separate highway district in that county.

20Repair of main roads in certain cases

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Act, in the case of any county in which certain of the bridges within the county are repairable by the county at large, and others are repairable by the several hundreds within the county in which they are situate, it shall be lawful for the county authority from time to time, by order, to declare any main road or part of a main road within their county to be repairable to the extent only and in manner provided by section thirteen of this Act, either by the county or by the hundred in which such main road or part is situate, as they think fit; and where a main road or part thereof is declared to be repairable by a hundred, the expense of repairing the same shall, to the extent to which but for this section the expense or any contribution towards the expense of repairing the same would be repayable out of the county rate, be repayable out of a separate rate which shall be raised and charged in the like manner as the expenses of repairing the hundred bridges in the same hundred would have been raised and charged.

Bridges

21Certain existing bridges may be accepted by county authority

Any bridge erected before the passing of this Act in any county without such superintendence as is provided in section five of the statute of the forty-third year of King George the Third, chapter fifty-nine, and which is certified by the county surveyor or other person appointed in that behalf by the county authority to be in good repair and condition, shall, if the county authority see fit so to order, become and be deemed to be a bridge which the inhabitants of the county shall be liable to maintain and repair.

22Contribution out of county rates towards erecting bridges

The county authority may make such contribution as it sees fit out of the county rates towards the cost of any bridge to be hereafter erected, after the same has been certified in accordance with the provisions of section five of the statute of the forty-third year of King George the Third, chapter fifty-nine, as a proper bridge to be maintained by the inhabitants of the county ; so always that such contribution shall not exceed one half the cost of erecting such bridge.

Extraordinary Traffic

23Power of road authority to recover expenses of extraordinary traffic

Where by a certificate of their surveyor it appears to the authority which is liable or has undertaken to repair any highway, whether a main road or not, that, having regard to the average expense of repairing highways in the neighbourhood, extraordinary expenses have been incurred by such authority in repairing such highway by reason of the damage caused by excessive weight passing along the same, or extraordinary traffic thereon, such authority may recover in a summary manner from any person by whose order such weight or traffic has been conducted the amount of such expenses as may be proved to the satisfaction of the court having cognizance of the case to have been incurred by such authority by reason of the damage arising from such weight or traffic as aforesaid. Provided that any person against whom expenses are or may be recoverable under this section may enter into an agreement with such authority as is mentioned in this section for the payment to them of, a composition in, respect of such weight or traffic, and thereupon the persons so paying the same shall not be subject to any proceedings under this section.

Discontinuance of unnecessary Highways

24Unnecessary highways may be declared not repairable at the public expense

If any authority liable to keep any highway in repair is of opinion that so much of such highway as lies within any parish situate in a petty sessional division is unnecessary for public use, and therefore ought not to be maintained at the public expense, such authority (in this section referred to " as the applicant authority") may apply to the court, of summary jurisdiction of such petty sessional division to view by two or more justices, being members of the court, the highway to which such application relates, and on such view being had, if the court of summary jurisdiction is of opinion that the application ought to be proceeded with, it shall by notice in writing to the owners or reputed owners and occupiers of all lands abutting upon such highway, and by public notice, appoint a time and place, not earlier than one month from the date of such notice, at which it will be prepared to hear all persons objecting to such highway being declared unnecessary for public use, and not repairable at the expense of the public. On the day and at the place appointed, the court shall hear any persons objecting to an order being made by the court that such highway is unnecessary for public use and ought not to be repairable at the public expense, and shall make an order either dismissing the application or declaring such highway unnecessary for public use, and that it ought not to be repaired at the public expense. If the court make such last-mentioned order as aforesaid, the expenses of repairing such highway shall cease to be defrayed out of any public rate. Public notice of the time and place appointed for hearing a case under this section shall be given by the applicant authority as follows; that is to say,

(1)By advertising a notice of the time and place appointed for the hearing and the object of the hearing, with a description of the highway to which it refers in some local newspaper circulating in the district in which such highway is situate once at least in each of the four weeks preceding the hearing; and

(2)By causing a copy of such notice to be affixed, at least fourteen days before the hearing, to the principal doors of every church and chapel in the parish in which such highway is situate, or in some conspicuous position near such highway. And the application shall not be entertained by the court until the fact of such public notice having been given is proved to its satisfaction. If at any time after an order has been made by a court of summary jurisdiction under this section, upon application of any person interested in the maintenance of the highway in respect of which such order has been made, after one month's previous notice in writing thereof to the applicant authority, it appears to the court of quarter sessions that from any change of circumstances since the time of the making of any such order as aforesaid such highway has become of public use, and ought to be maintained at the public expense, the court of quarter sessions may direct that the liability of such highway to be maintained at the public expense shall revive from and after such day as they may name in their order, and such highway shall thenceforth be maintained out of the rate applicable to payment of the expenses of repairing other highways repairable by the applicant authority; and the said court of quarter sessions may by their order direct the expenses of and incident to such application to be paid as they may see fit. Any order of a court of summary jurisdiction under this section shall be deemed to be an order from which an appeal lies to a court of quarter sessions.

Appointment of Surveyors in certain Parishes

25Removal of doubt as, to appointment of surveyors in certain parishes

Whereas doubts have arisen whether a surveyor of highways can be appointed, in pursuance of the Highway Act, 1835, for a parish which does not maintain any highway: Be it therefore enacted, that it shall be lawful for the inhabitants in vestry assembled of any parish or place having a known legal boundary (notwithstanding that the inhabitants at large are not for the time being liable to maintain any highway or to contribute to any rate applicable to the maintenance of highways), or, on the neglect or refusal of such inhabitants, for the justices at a special sessions for the highways or in petty sessions assembled, at any time to exercise all the powers of the Highway Acts with respect to the election or appointment of a surveyor of highways with or without a salary for such parish or place ; and any surveyor so elected or appointed shall have all the powers and duties (including the power of making, assessing, and levying of highway rates) of a surveyor under the Highway Acts.

Byelaws by County Authority

26Power of county authority to make byelaws

A county authority may from time to time make, with respect to all or any main roads or other highways within any highway area in their county, and when made alter or repeal, byelaws for all or any of the purposes following; that is to say,

(1)For prohibiting or regulating the use of any waggon wain cart or carriage drawn by animal power and having wheels of which the fellies or tires are not of such width in proportion to the weight carried by, or to the size of, or to the number of wheels of such waggon wain cart or carriage, as may be specified in such byelaws; and

(2)For prohibiting or regulating the use of any waggon wain cart or other carriage drawn by animal power not having the nails on its wheels countersunk in such manner as may be specified in such byelaws, or having on its wheels bars or other projections forbidden by such byelaws; and

(3)For prohibiting or regulating the locking of the wheel of any waggon wain cart or carriage drawn by animal power when descending a hill, unless there is placed at the bottom of such wheel during the whole time of its being locked a skidpan slipper or shoe in such manner as to prevent the road from being destroyed or injured by the locking of such wheel; and

(4)For prohibiting or regulating the erection of gates across highways, and prohibiting gates opening outwards on highways; and

(5)For regulating the use of bicycles. Fines to be recovered summarily may be imposed by any such byelaws on persons breaking any byelaw made under this section, provided that no fine exceeds for any one offence the sum of two pounds, and that the byelaws are so framed as to allow of the recovery of any sum less than the full amount of the fine.

Saving for Minerals

27To whom minerals under disturnpiked roads to belong

Notwithstanding anything contained in section sixty-eight of the Public Health Act, 1848, or in section one hundred and forty-nine of the Public Health Act, 1875, all mines and minerals of any description whatsoever under any disturnpiked road or highway which has or shall become vested in an urban sanitary authority by virtue of the said sections, or either of them, shall belong to the person who would be entitled thereto in case such road or highway had not become so vested, and the person entitled to any such mine or minerals shall have the same powers of working and of getting the same or other minerals as if the road or highway had not beeome vested in the urban sanitary authority, but so nevertheless that in such working and getting no damage shall he done to the road or highway. This section shall extend to the Isle of Wight and to South Wales, as defined by the said Act of the twenty-third and twenty-fourth years of the reign of Her present Majesty, chapter sixty-eight, intituled " An Act for the better management and control of the " highways in South Wales."

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