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Finance (No. 2) Act 1915

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This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

FOURTH SCHEDULE

Part IComputation of Profits

1The profits shall be taken to be the actual profits arising in the accounting period ; and the principle of computing profits by reference to any other year or an average of years shall not be followed.

2The principle of the Income Tax Acts under which deductions are not allowed for interest on money borrowed for the purpose of the trade or business, or for rent, or royalties, or for other payments income tax on which is .collected at the source, (not being payments of dividends or payments for the distribution of profits), and under which profits or gains arising from lands, tenements, or hereditaments forming part of the assets of the trade or business are excluded shall not be followed.

3Deductions for wear and tear or for any expenditure of a capital nature for renewals, or for the development of the trade or business or otherwise in respect of the trade or business, shall not be allowed except such as may be allowed under the Income Tax Acts, and if allowed shall be only of such amount as appears to the Commissioners of Inland Revenue to be reasonably and properly attributable to the year or accounting period.

4Deductions shall not be allowed on account of the liability to pay, or the payment of, income tax or excess profits duty, but a deduction shall be allowed (if not otherwise allowed by means of the adoption of the principle of the Income Tax Acts) for any sum which has been paid in respect of the profits on account of any excess profits duty or similar duty imposed in any country outside the United Kingdom.

5Any deduction allowed for the remuneration of directors, managers, and persons concerned in the management of the trade or business shall not", unless the Commissioners of Inland Revenue, owing to any special circumstances or to the fact that the remuneration of any managers or managing directors depends on the profits of the trade or business, otherwise direct, exceed the sums allowed for those purposes in the last prewar trade year or a proportionate part thereof as the case requires, and no deduction shall be allowed in respect of any transaction or operation of any nature, where it appears, or to the extent to which it appears, that the transaction or operation has artificially reduced the amount to be taken as the amount of the profits of the trade or business for the purposes of this Act.

6Where any company,- either in its own name or that of a nominee, owns the whole of the ordinary capital of any other company carrying on the same trade or business or so much of that capital as under the general law a single shareholder can legally own, the provisions of Part III of this Act as to excess profits duty and the pre-war standard of profits shall apply as if that other company were a branch of the first-named company, and the profits of the two companies shall not be separately assessed.

7Where in the case of any trade or business—

(a).the percentage standard is adopted as the pre-war standard of profits ; and

(b)the net result of the trade or business during the three last pre-war trade years has shown a loss ; and

(c)any part of the profits has been applied in extinction of that loss ;

then in estimating the profits, a deduction shall be allowed equal to the amount of profits so applied.

8In estimating the profits no account shall be taken of income received from investments except in the case of life assurance businesses and businesses where the principal business consists of the making of investments. Where account is taken of any such income—

(a)any variation in the value of any of those investments which appears to the Commissioners of Inland Revenue hot to be due to a variation in profits shall also be taken into account; and

(b)where the income has been derived from profits in respect of ' which any payment or repayment of excess profits duty has been made under this Act, such deduction or addition shall be made in computing the profits as will make proper allowance for that payment or repayment of duty.

9In computing the total profits of a local authority from any trades or businesses carried on by that authority the total amount- which is required to be raised by them, out of the rates or otherwise, for sinking fund purposes in connection with those trades or businesses shall be allowed as a deduction.

10In the case of societies registered under the Industrial and Provident Societies Acts the excess profits duty shall be charged on the sum by which the profits per member for the accounting period (including any surplus arising from transactions with members) exceed the like profits per member in, the pre-war trade year or average of years taken as the basis' of computation for the purpose of the pre-war standard of profits, multiplied by the number of members in the accounting period.

11In the case of any contract extending beyond one accounting period from the date of its commencement to the completion thereof and only partially performed in any accounting period there shall (unless the Commissioners of Inland Revenue, owing to any special circumstances, otherwise direct) be attributed to each of the accounting periods in which such contract was partially performed, such proportion of the entire profits or loss or estimated profits or loss in respect of the complete performance of the contract as shall be properly attributable to such accounting periods respectively, having regard to the extent to which the contract was performed in such periods.

Part IIPre-War Standard

1The profits of any pre-war trade year shall be computed on the same principles and subject to the same provisions as the profits of the accounting period are computed.

2Where the accounting period for which the excess profits duty is to be assessed is less than a year, the amount of the pre-war standard of profits shall be proportionately reduced.

3Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioners of Inland Revenue in the case of any trade or business that the three last pre-war trade years have been years of abnormal depression, any four of the last six pre-war trade years may be substituted for the purposes of the pre-war standard of profits for any two of the three last; pre-war trade years. The three last pre-war trade years shall not be considered as years of abnormal depression unless the average profits of those years have been at least twenty-five per cent. lower than the average profits of the preceding three years.

4Where owing to the recent commencement of a trade or business there have not been three pre-war trade years, but there have been two pre-war trade years, the pre-war standard of profits shall be taken to be the amount of the profits arising from the trade or business on the average of those two years or, at the option of the taxpayer, the profits arising from the trade or business during the last of those two years, and where there have not been two pre-war trade years, but there has been one pre-war trade year, the pre-war standard of profits shall be taken to be the profits arising from the trade or business during that year ; and where there has not been one pre-war trade .year, the pre-war standard of profits shall be taken to be the statutory percentage on the average amount of capital employed in the trade or business during the accounting period. Where the trade or business is an agency or business of a nature involving capital of a comparatively small amount, the pre-war standard of profits shall be computed by reference to the profits arising from any trade, business, office, employment or profession of any sort, whether liable to excess profits duty or not, carried on by the agent or other person before his new trade or business commenced as if it was the same trade or business ; but only to the extent to which the income from the former trade, business, office, employment or profession has been diminished.

5Where since the commencement of the three last pre-war trade years a trade or business has changed ownership, the provisions of this Part of this Schedule shall apply as if a new trade or business had been commenced on the change of ownership, except in cases when the taxpayer makes an application that the provisions of Part III of this Act and this Schedule should apply as if the trade or business had not changed ownership, but in that case such modifications (if any) shall be made in the application of this Schedule as may be necessary to. make the basis on which the profits standard is computed the same as that on which the profits of the accounting period are computed.

6It is hereby declared that, where any business or trade is confined to the management of any particular assets, but power exists to substitute other assets for those particular assets or any of them, such a substitution shall not be deemed, for the purposes of Part III of this Act, to constitute a change of ownership of the business ; but, where any such substitution has been carried out- by the sale of assets and the purchase of other assets, the capital of the trade or business shall be taken to be increased or decreased, as the case may be, only by the amount of the difference between the price of the - assets purchased and the price obtained for the assets sold, and the capital representing the assets purchased shall be estimated on the same basis for all the purposes of Part III of this Act.

Part IIICapital

1The amount of the capital of a trade-or business shall, so far as it does not consist of money, be taken to be—

(a)so far as it consists of assets acquired by purchase, the price at which those assets were acquired, subject to any proper deductions for wear and tear or replacement, or for unpaid purchase money; and

(b)so far as it consists of assets being debts due to the trade or business, the nominal amount of those debts subject to any reduction which has been allowed in respect of those debts for income tax purposes; and

(c)so far as it consists of any other assets which have not been acquired by purchase, the value of the assets at the time when they became assets of the trade or business, subject to any - proper deductions for wear and tear or replacement. Nothing in this Part of this Schedule shall prevent accumulated profits employed in the business being treated as capital.

2Any capital the income on which is-not taken into account for the purposes of Part I. of this Schedule, and any borrowed money or debts, shall be deducted in computing the amount of capital for the purposes of Part III of this Act.

3Where any asset has been paid for otherwise than in cash, the cost price of that asset shall be taken to be the value of the consideration at the time the asset was acquired, but where a trade or business has been converted into a company and the shares in the company are wholly or mainly held by the person who was owner of the trade or business, no value shall be attached to those shares so far as they are represented by goodwill or otherwise than by material assets of the company unless the Commissioners of Inland Revenue in special circumstances -otherwise direct. Patents and secret processes shall be deemed to be material assets.

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