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Consumer Rights Act 2015

Status:

This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

CHAPTER 2Goods

What goods contracts are covered?

3Contracts covered by this Chapter

(1)This Chapter applies to a contract for a trader to supply goods to a consumer.

(2)It applies only if the contract is one of these (defined for the purposes of this Part in sections 5 to 8)—

(a)a sales contract;

(b)a contract for the hire of goods;

(c)a hire-purchase agreement;

(d)a contract for transfer of goods.

(3)It does not apply—

(a)to a contract for a trader to supply coins or notes to a consumer for use as currency;

(b)to a contract for goods to be sold by way of execution or otherwise by authority of law;

(c)to a contract intended to operate as a mortgage, pledge, charge or other security;

(d)in relation to England and Wales or Northern Ireland, to a contract made by deed and for which the only consideration is the presumed consideration imported by the deed;

(e)in relation to Scotland, to a gratuitous contract.

(4)A contract to which this Chapter applies is referred to in this Part as a “contract to supply goods”.

(5)Contracts to supply goods include—

(a)contracts entered into between one part owner and another;

(b)contracts for the transfer of an undivided share in goods;

(c)contracts that are absolute and contracts that are conditional.

(6)Subsection (1) is subject to any provision of this Chapter that applies a section or part of a section to only some of the kinds of contracts listed in subsection (2).

(7)A mixed contract (see section 1(4)) may be a contract of any of those kinds.

4Ownership of goods

(1)In this Chapter ownership of goods means the general property in goods, not merely a special property.

(2)For the time when ownership of goods is transferred, see in particular the following provisions of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (which relate to contracts of sale)—

section 16:goods must be ascertained
section 17:property passes when intended to pass
section 18:rules for ascertaining intention
section 19:reservation of right of disposal
section 20A:undivided shares in goods forming part of a bulk
section 20B:deemed consent by co-owner to dealings in bulk goods
5Sales contracts

(1)A contract is a sales contract if under it—

(a)the trader transfers or agrees to transfer ownership of goods to the consumer, and

(b)the consumer pays or agrees to pay the price.

(2)A contract is a sales contract (whether or not it would be one under subsection (1)) if under the contract—

(a)goods are to be manufactured or produced and the trader agrees to supply them to the consumer,

(b)on being supplied, the goods will be owned by the consumer, and

(c)the consumer pays or agrees to pay the price.

(3)A sales contract may be conditional (see section 3(5)), but in this Part “conditional sales contract” means a sales contract under which—

(a)the price for the goods or part of it is payable by instalments, and

(b)the trader retains ownership of the goods until the conditions specified in the contract (for the payment of instalments or otherwise) are met;

and it makes no difference whether or not the consumer possesses the goods.

6Contracts for the hire of goods

(1)A contract is for the hire of goods if under it the trader gives or agrees to give the consumer possession of the goods with the right to use them, subject to the terms of the contract, for a period determined in accordance with the contract.

(2)But a contract is not for the hire of goods if it is a hire-purchase agreement.

7Hire-purchase agreements

(1)A contract is a hire-purchase agreement if it meets the two conditions set out below.

(2)The first condition is that under the contract goods are hired by the trader in return for periodical payments by the consumer (and “hired” is to be read in accordance with section 6(1)).

(3)The second condition is that under the contract ownership of the goods will transfer to the consumer if the terms of the contract are complied with and—

(a)the consumer exercises an option to buy the goods,

(b)any party to the contract does an act specified in it, or

(c)an event specified in the contract occurs.

(4)But a contract is not a hire-purchase agreement if it is a conditional sales contract.

8Contracts for transfer of goods

A contract to supply goods is a contract for transfer of goods if under it the trader transfers or agrees to transfer ownership of the goods to the consumer and—

(a)the consumer provides or agrees to provide consideration otherwise than by paying a price, or

(b)the contract is, for any other reason, not a sales contract or a hire-purchase agreement.

What statutory rights are there under a goods contract?

9Goods to be of satisfactory quality

(1)Every contract to supply goods is to be treated as including a term that the quality of the goods is satisfactory.

(2)The quality of goods is satisfactory if they meet the standard that a reasonable person would consider satisfactory, taking account of—

(a)any description of the goods,

(b)the price or other consideration for the goods (if relevant), and

(c)all the other relevant circumstances (see subsection (5)).

(3)The quality of goods includes their state and condition; and the following aspects (among others) are in appropriate cases aspects of the quality of goods—

(a)fitness for all the purposes for which goods of that kind are usually supplied;

(b)appearance and finish;

(c)freedom from minor defects;

(d)safety;

(e)durability.

(4)The term mentioned in subsection (1) does not cover anything which makes the quality of the goods unsatisfactory—

(a)which is specifically drawn to the consumer’s attention before the contract is made,

(b)where the consumer examines the goods before the contract is made, which that examination ought to reveal, or

(c)in the case of a contract to supply goods by sample, which would have been apparent on a reasonable examination of the sample.

(5)The relevant circumstances mentioned in subsection (2)(c) include any public statement about the specific characteristics of the goods made by the trader, the producer or any representative of the trader or the producer.

(6)That includes, in particular, any public statement made in advertising or labelling.

(7)But a public statement is not a relevant circumstance for the purposes of subsection (2)(c) if the trader shows that—

(a)when the contract was made, the trader was not, and could not reasonably have been, aware of the statement,

(b)before the contract was made, the statement had been publicly withdrawn or, to the extent that it contained anything which was incorrect or misleading, it had been publicly corrected, or

(c)the consumer’s decision to contract for the goods could not have been influenced by the statement.

(8)In a contract to supply goods a term about the quality of the goods may be treated as included as a matter of custom.

(9)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in a contract.

10Goods to be fit for particular purpose

(1)Subsection (3) applies to a contract to supply goods if before the contract is made the consumer makes known to the trader (expressly or by implication) any particular purpose for which the consumer is contracting for the goods.

(2)Subsection (3) also applies to a contract to supply goods if—

(a)the goods were previously sold by a credit-broker to the trader,

(b)in the case of a sales contract or contract for transfer of goods, the consideration or part of it is a sum payable by instalments, and

(c)before the contract is made, the consumer makes known to the credit-broker (expressly or by implication) any particular purpose for which the consumer is contracting for the goods.

(3)The contract is to be treated as including a term that the goods are reasonably fit for that purpose, whether or not that is a purpose for which goods of that kind are usually supplied.

(4)Subsection (3) does not apply if the circumstances show that the consumer does not rely, or it is unreasonable for the consumer to rely, on the skill or judgment of the trader or credit-broker.

(5)In a contract to supply goods a term about the fitness of the goods for a particular purpose may be treated as included as a matter of custom.

(6)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in a contract.

11Goods to be as described

(1)Every contract to supply goods by description is to be treated as including a term that the goods will match the description.

(2)If the supply is by sample as well as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk of the goods matches the sample if the goods do not also match the description.

(3)A supply of goods is not prevented from being a supply by description just because—

(a)the goods are exposed for supply, and

(b)they are selected by the consumer.

(4)Any information that is provided by the trader about the goods and is information mentioned in paragraph (a) of Schedule 1 or 2 to the Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 (SI 2013/3134) (main characteristics of goods) is to be treated as included as a term of the contract.

(5)A change to any of that information, made before entering into the contract or later, is not effective unless expressly agreed between the consumer and the trader.

(6)See section 2(5) and (6) for the application of subsections (4) and (5) where goods are sold at public auction.

(7)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in a contract.

12Other pre-contract information included in contract

(1)This section applies to any contract to supply goods.

(2)Where regulation 9, 10 or 13 of the Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 (SI 2013/3134) required the trader to provide information to the consumer before the contract became binding, any of that information that was provided by the trader other than information about the goods and mentioned in paragraph (a) of Schedule 1 or 2 to the Regulations (main characteristics of goods) is to be treated as included as a term of the contract.

(3)A change to any of that information, made before entering into the contract or later, is not effective unless expressly agreed between the consumer and the trader.

(4)See section 2(5) and (6) for the application of this section where goods are sold at public auction.

(5)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in the contract.

13Goods to match a sample

(1)This section applies to a contract to supply goods by reference to a sample of the goods that is seen or examined by the consumer before the contract is made.

(2)Every contract to which this section applies is to be treated as including a term that—

(a)the goods will match the sample except to the extent that any differences between the sample and the goods are brought to the consumer’s attention before the contract is made, and

(b)the goods will be free from any defect that makes their quality unsatisfactory and that would not be apparent on a reasonable examination of the sample.

(3)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in a contract.

14Goods to match a model seen or examined

(1)This section applies to a contract to supply goods by reference to a model of the goods that is seen or examined by the consumer before entering into the contract.

(2)Every contract to which this section applies is to be treated as including a term that the goods will match the model except to the extent that any differences between the model and the goods are brought to the consumer’s attention before the consumer enters into the contract.

(3)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in a contract.

15Installation as part of conformity of the goods with the contract

(1)Goods do not conform to a contract to supply goods if—

(a)installation of the goods forms part of the contract,

(b)the goods are installed by the trader or under the trader’s responsibility, and

(c)the goods are installed incorrectly.

(2)See section 19 for the effect of goods not conforming to the contract.

16Goods not conforming to contract if digital content does not conform

(1)Goods (whether or not they conform otherwise to a contract to supply goods) do not conform to it if—

(a)the goods are an item that includes digital content, and

(b)the digital content does not conform to the contract to supply that content (for which see section 42(1)).

(2)See section 19 for the effect of goods not conforming to the contract.

17Trader to have right to supply the goods etc

(1)Every contract to supply goods, except one within subsection (4), is to be treated as including a term—

(a)in the case of a contract for the hire of goods, that at the beginning of the period of hire the trader must have the right to transfer possession of the goods by way of hire for that period,

(b)in any other case, that the trader must have the right to sell or transfer the goods at the time when ownership of the goods is to be transferred.

(2)Every contract to supply goods, except a contract for the hire of goods or a contract within subsection (4), is to be treated as including a term that—

(a)the goods are free from any charge or encumbrance not disclosed or known to the consumer before entering into the contract,

(b)the goods will remain free from any such charge or encumbrance until ownership of them is to be transferred, and

(c)the consumer will enjoy quiet possession of the goods except so far as it may be disturbed by the owner or other person entitled to the benefit of any charge or encumbrance so disclosed or known.

(3)Every contract for the hire of goods is to be treated as including a term that the consumer will enjoy quiet possession of the goods for the period of the hire except so far as the possession may be disturbed by the owner or other person entitled to the benefit of any charge or encumbrance disclosed or known to the consumer before entering into the contract.

(4)This subsection applies to a contract if the contract shows, or the circumstances when they enter into the contract imply, that the trader and the consumer intend the trader to transfer only—

(a)whatever title the trader has, even if it is limited, or

(b)whatever title a third person has, even if it is limited.

(5)Every contract within subsection (4) is to be treated as including a term that all charges or encumbrances known to the trader and not known to the consumer were disclosed to the consumer before entering into the contract.

(6)Every contract within subsection (4) is to be treated as including a term that the consumer’s quiet possession of the goods—

(a)will not be disturbed by the trader, and

(b)will not be disturbed by a person claiming through or under the trader, unless that person is claiming under a charge or encumbrance that was disclosed or known to the consumer before entering into the contract.

(7)If subsection (4)(b) applies (transfer of title that a third person has), the contract is also to be treated as including a term that the consumer’s quiet possession of the goods—

(a)will not be disturbed by the third person, and

(b)will not be disturbed by a person claiming through or under the third person, unless the claim is under a charge or encumbrance that was disclosed or known to the consumer before entering into the contract.

(8)In the case of a contract for the hire of goods, this section does not affect the right of the trader to repossess the goods where the contract provides or is to be treated as providing for this.

(9)See section 19 for a consumer’s rights if the trader is in breach of a term that this section requires to be treated as included in a contract.

18No other requirement to treat term about quality or fitness as included

(1)Except as provided by sections 9, 10, 13 and 16, a contract to supply goods is not to be treated as including any term about the quality of the goods or their fitness for any particular purpose, unless the term is expressly included in the contract.

(2)Subsection (1) is subject to provision made by any other enactment (whenever passed or made).

What remedies are there if statutory rights under a goods contract are not met?

19Consumer’s rights to enforce terms about goods

(1)In this section and sections 22 to 24 references to goods conforming to a contract are references to—

(a)the goods conforming to the terms described in sections 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14,

(b)the goods not failing to conform to the contract under section 15 or 16, and

(c)the goods conforming to requirements that are stated in the contract.

(2)But, for the purposes of this section and sections 22 to 24, a failure to conform as mentioned in subsection (1)(a) to (c) is not a failure to conform to the contract if it has its origin in materials supplied by the consumer.

(3)If the goods do not conform to the contract because of a breach of any of the terms described in sections 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14, or if they do not conform to the contract under section 16, the consumer’s rights (and the provisions about them and when they are available) are—

(a)the short-term right to reject (sections 20 and 22);

(b)the right to repair or replacement (section 23); and

(c)the right to a price reduction or the final right to reject (sections 20 and 24).

(4)If the goods do not conform to the contract under section 15 or because of a breach of requirements that are stated in the contract, the consumer’s rights (and the provisions about them and when they are available) are—

(a)the right to repair or replacement (section 23); and

(b)the right to a price reduction or the final right to reject (sections 20 and 24).

(5)If the trader is in breach of a term that section 12 requires to be treated as included in the contract, the consumer has the right to recover from the trader the amount of any costs incurred by the consumer as a result of the breach, up to the amount of the price paid or the value of other consideration given for the goods.

(6)If the trader is in breach of the term that section 17(1) (right to supply etc) requires to be treated as included in the contract, the consumer has a right to reject (see section 20 for provisions about that right and when it is available).

(7)Subsections (3) to (6) are subject to section 25 and subsections (3)(a) and (6) are subject to section 26.

(8)Section 28 makes provision about remedies for breach of a term about the time for delivery of goods.

(9)This Chapter does not prevent the consumer seeking other remedies—

(a)for a breach of a term that this Chapter requires to be treated as included in the contract,

(b)on the grounds that, under section 15 or 16, goods do not conform to the contract, or

(c)for a breach of a requirement stated in the contract.

(10)Those other remedies may be ones—

(a)in addition to a remedy referred to in subsections (3) to (6) (but not so as to recover twice for the same loss), or

(b)instead of such a remedy, or

(c)where no such remedy is provided for.

(11)Those other remedies include any of the following that is open to the consumer in the circumstances—

(a)claiming damages;

(b)seeking specific performance;

(c)seeking an order for specific implement;

(d)relying on the breach against a claim by the trader for the price;

(e)for breach of an express term, exercising a right to treat the contract as at an end.

(12)It is not open to the consumer to treat the contract as at an end for breach of a term that this Chapter requires to be treated as included in the contract, or on the grounds that, under section 15 or 16, goods do not conform to the contract, except as provided by subsections (3), (4) and (6).

(13)In this Part, treating a contract as at an end means treating it as repudiated.

(14)For the purposes of subsections (3)(b) and (c) and (4), goods which do not conform to the contract at any time within the period of six months beginning with the day on which the goods were delivered to the consumer must be taken not to have conformed to it on that day.

(15)Subsection (14) does not apply if—

(a)it is established that the goods did conform to the contract on that day, or

(b)its application is incompatible with the nature of the goods or with how they fail to conform to the contract.

20Right to reject

(1)The short-term right to reject is subject to section 22.

(2)The final right to reject is subject to section 24.

(3)The right to reject under section 19(6) is not limited by those sections.

(4)Each of these rights entitles the consumer to reject the goods and treat the contract as at an end, subject to subsections (20) and (21).

(5)The right is exercised if the consumer indicates to the trader that the consumer is rejecting the goods and treating the contract as at an end.

(6)The indication may be something the consumer says or does, but it must be clear enough to be understood by the trader.

(7)From the time when the right is exercised—

(a)the trader has a duty to give the consumer a refund, subject to subsection (18), and

(b)the consumer has a duty to make the goods available for collection by the trader or (if there is an agreement for the consumer to return rejected goods) to return them as agreed.

(8)Whether or not the consumer has a duty to return the rejected goods, the trader must bear any reasonable costs of returning them, other than any costs incurred by the consumer in returning the goods in person to the place where the consumer took physical possession of them.

(9)The consumer’s entitlement to receive a refund works as follows.

(10)To the extent that the consumer paid money under the contract, the consumer is entitled to receive back the same amount of money.

(11)To the extent that the consumer transferred anything else under the contract, the consumer is entitled to receive back the same amount of what the consumer transferred, unless subsection (12) applies.

(12)To the extent that the consumer transferred under the contract something for which the same amount of the same thing cannot be substituted, the consumer is entitled to receive back in its original state whatever the consumer transferred.

(13)If the contract is for the hire of goods, the entitlement to a refund extends only to anything paid or otherwise transferred for a period of hire that the consumer does not get because the contract is treated as at an end.

(14)If the contract is a hire-purchase agreement or a conditional sales contract and the contract is treated as at an end before the whole of the price has been paid, the entitlement to a refund extends only to the part of the price paid.

(15)A refund under this section must be given without undue delay, and in any event within 14 days beginning with the day on which the trader agrees that the consumer is entitled to a refund.

(16)If the consumer paid money under the contract, the trader must give the refund using the same means of payment as the consumer used, unless the consumer expressly agrees otherwise.

(17)The trader must not impose any fee on the consumer in respect of the refund.

(18)There is no entitlement to receive a refund—

(a)if none of subsections (10) to (12) applies,

(b)to the extent that anything to which subsection (12) applies cannot be given back in its original state, or

(c)where subsection (13) applies, to the extent that anything the consumer transferred under the contract cannot be divided so as to give back only the amount, or part of the amount, to which the consumer is entitled.

(19)It may be open to a consumer to claim damages where there is no entitlement to receive a refund, or because of the limits of the entitlement, or instead of a refund.

(20)Subsection (21) qualifies the application in relation to England and Wales and Northern Ireland of the rights mentioned in subsections (1) to (3) where—

(a)the contract is a severable contract,

(b)in relation to the final right to reject, the contract is a contract for the hire of goods, a hire-purchase agreement or a contract for transfer of goods, and

(c)section 26(3) does not apply.

(21)The consumer is entitled, depending on the terms of the contract and the circumstances of the case—

(a)to reject the goods to which a severable obligation relates and treat that obligation as at an end (so that the entitlement to a refund relates only to what the consumer paid or transferred in relation to that obligation), or

(b)to exercise any of the rights mentioned in subsections (1) to (3) in respect of the whole contract.

21Partial rejection of goods

(1)If the consumer has any of the rights mentioned in section 20(1) to (3), but does not reject all of the goods and treat the contract as at an end, the consumer—

(a)may reject some or all of the goods that do not conform to the contract, but

(b)may not reject any goods that do conform to the contract.

(2)If the consumer is entitled to reject the goods in an instalment, but does not reject all of those goods, the consumer—

(a)may reject some or all of the goods in the instalment that do not conform to the contract, but

(b)may not reject any goods in the instalment that do conform to the contract.

(3)If any of the goods form a commercial unit, the consumer cannot reject some of those goods without also rejecting the rest of them.

(4)A unit is a “commercial unit” if division of the unit would materially impair the value of the goods or the character of the unit.

(5)The consumer rejects goods under this section by indicating to the trader that the consumer is rejecting the goods.

(6)The indication may be something the consumer says or does, but it must be clear enough to be understood by the trader.

(7)From the time when a consumer rejects goods under this section—

(a)the trader has a duty to give the consumer a refund in respect of those goods (subject to subsection (10)), and

(b)the consumer has a duty to make those goods available for collection by the trader or (if there is an agreement for the consumer to return rejected goods) to return them as agreed.

(8)Whether or not the consumer has a duty to return the rejected goods, the trader must bear any reasonable costs of returning them, other than any costs incurred by the consumer in returning those goods in person to the place where the consumer took physical possession of them.

(9)Section 20(10) to (17) apply to a consumer’s right to receive a refund under this section (and in section 20(13) and (14) references to the contract being treated as at an end are to be read as references to goods being rejected).

(10)That right does not apply—

(a)if none of section 20(10) to (12) applies,

(b)to the extent that anything to which section 20(12) applies cannot be given back in its original state, or

(c)to the extent that anything the consumer transferred under the contract cannot be divided so as to give back only the amount, or part of the amount, to which the consumer is entitled.

(11)It may be open to a consumer to claim damages where there is no right to receive a refund, or because of the limits of the right, or instead of a refund.

(12)References in this section to goods conforming to a contract are to be read in accordance with section 19(1) and (2), but they also include the goods conforming to the terms described in section 17.

(13)Where section 20(21)(a) applies the reference in subsection (1) to the consumer treating the contract as at an end is to be read as a reference to the consumer treating the severable obligation as at an end.

22Time limit for short-term right to reject

(1)A consumer who has the short-term right to reject loses it if the time limit for exercising it passes without the consumer exercising it, unless the trader and the consumer agree that it may be exercised later.

(2)An agreement under which the short-term right to reject would be lost before the time limit passes is not binding on the consumer.

(3)The time limit for exercising the short-term right to reject (unless subsection (4) applies) is the end of 30 days beginning with the first day after these have all happened—

(a)ownership or (in the case of a contract for the hire of goods, a hire-purchase agreement or a conditional sales contract) possession of the goods has been transferred to the consumer,

(b)the goods have been delivered, and

(c)where the contract requires the trader to install the goods or take other action to enable the consumer to use them, the trader has notified the consumer that the action has been taken.

(4)If any of the goods are of a kind that can reasonably be expected to perish after a shorter period, the time limit for exercising the short-term right to reject in relation to those goods is the end of that shorter period (but without affecting the time limit in relation to goods that are not of that kind).

(5)Subsections (3) and (4) do not prevent the consumer exercising the short-term right to reject before something mentioned in subsection (3)(a), (b) or (c) has happened.

(6)If the consumer requests or agrees to the repair or replacement of goods, the period mentioned in subsection (3) or (4) stops running for the length of the waiting period.

(7)If goods supplied by the trader in response to that request or agreement do not conform to the contract, the time limit for exercising the short-term right to reject is then either—

(a)7 days after the waiting period ends, or

(b)if later, the original time limit for exercising that right, extended by the waiting period.

(8)The waiting period—

(a)begins with the day the consumer requests or agrees to the repair or replacement of the goods, and

(b)ends with the day on which the consumer receives goods supplied by the trader in response to the request or agreement.

23Right to repair or replacement

(1)This section applies if the consumer has the right to repair or replacement (see section 19(3) and (4)).

(2)If the consumer requires the trader to repair or replace the goods, the trader must—

(a)do so within a reasonable time and without significant inconvenience to the consumer, and

(b)bear any necessary costs incurred in doing so (including in particular the cost of any labour, materials or postage).

(3)The consumer cannot require the trader to repair or replace the goods if that remedy (the repair or the replacement)—

(a)is impossible, or

(b)is disproportionate compared to the other of those remedies.

(4)Either of those remedies is disproportionate compared to the other if it imposes costs on the trader which, compared to those imposed by the other, are unreasonable, taking into account—

(a)the value which the goods would have if they conformed to the contract,

(b)the significance of the lack of conformity, and

(c)whether the other remedy could be effected without significant inconvenience to the consumer.

(5)Any question as to what is a reasonable time or significant inconvenience is to be determined taking account of—

(a)the nature of the goods, and

(b)the purpose for which the goods were acquired.

(6)A consumer who requires or agrees to the repair of goods cannot require the trader to replace them, or exercise the short-term right to reject, without giving the trader a reasonable time to repair them (unless giving the trader that time would cause significant inconvenience to the consumer).

(7)A consumer who requires or agrees to the replacement of goods cannot require the trader to repair them, or exercise the short-term right to reject, without giving the trader a reasonable time to replace them (unless giving the trader that time would cause significant inconvenience to the consumer).

(8)In this Chapter, “repair” in relation to goods that do not conform to a contract, means making them conform.

24Right to price reduction or final right to reject

(1)The right to a price reduction is the right—

(a)to require the trader to reduce by an appropriate amount the price the consumer is required to pay under the contract, or anything else the consumer is required to transfer under the contract, and

(b)to receive a refund from the trader for anything already paid or otherwise transferred by the consumer above the reduced amount.

(2)The amount of the reduction may, where appropriate, be the full amount of the price or whatever the consumer is required to transfer.

(3)Section 20(10) to (17) applies to a consumer’s right to receive a refund under subsection (1)(b).

(4)The right to a price reduction does not apply—

(a)if what the consumer is (before the reduction) required to transfer under the contract, whether or not already transferred, cannot be divided up so as to enable the trader to receive or retain only the reduced amount, or

(b)if anything to which section 20(12) applies cannot be given back in its original state.

(5)A consumer who has the right to a price reduction and the final right to reject may only exercise one (not both), and may only do so in one of these situations—

(a)after one repair or one replacement, the goods do not conform to the contract;

(b)because of section 23(3) the consumer can require neither repair nor replacement of the goods; or

(c)the consumer has required the trader to repair or replace the goods, but the trader is in breach of the requirement of section 23(2)(a) to do so within a reasonable time and without significant inconvenience to the consumer.

(6)There has been a repair or replacement for the purposes of subsection (5)(a) if—

(a)the consumer has requested or agreed to repair or replacement of the goods (whether in relation to one fault or more than one), and

(b)the trader has delivered goods to the consumer, or made goods available to the consumer, in response to the request or agreement.

(7)For the purposes of subsection (6) goods that the trader arranges to repair at the consumer’s premises are made available when the trader indicates that the repairs are finished.

(8)If the consumer exercises the final right to reject, any refund to the consumer may be reduced by a deduction for use, to take account of the use the consumer has had of the goods in the period since they were delivered, but this is subject to subsections (9) and (10).

(9)No deduction may be made to take account of use in any period when the consumer had the goods only because the trader failed to collect them at an agreed time.

(10)No deduction may be made if the final right to reject is exercised in the first 6 months (see subsection (11)), unless—

(a)the goods consist of a motor vehicle, or

(b)the goods are of a description specified by order made by the Secretary of State by statutory instrument.

(11)In subsection (10) the first 6 months means 6 months beginning with the first day after these have all happened—

(a)ownership or (in the case of a contract for the hire of goods, a hire-purchase agreement or a conditional sales contract) possession of the goods has been transferred to the consumer,

(b)the goods have been delivered, and

(c)where the contract requires the trader to install the goods or take other action to enable the consumer to use them, the trader has notified the consumer that the action has been taken.

(12)In subsection (10)(a) “motor vehicle”—

(a)in relation to Great Britain, has the same meaning as in the Road Traffic Act 1988 (see sections 185 to 194 of that Act);

(b)in relation to Northern Ireland, has the same meaning as in the Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 (SI 1995/2994 (NI 18)) (see Parts I and V of that Order).

(13)But a vehicle is not a motor vehicle for the purposes of subsection (10)(a) if it is constructed or adapted—

(a)for the use of a person suffering from some physical defect or disability, and

(b)so that it may only be used by one such person at any one time.

(14)An order under subsection (10)(b)

(a)may be made only if the Secretary of State is satisfied that it is appropriate to do so because of significant detriment caused to traders as a result of the application of subsection (10) in relation to goods of the description specified by the order;

(b)may contain transitional or transitory provision or savings.

(15)No order may be made under subsection (10)(b) unless a draft of the statutory instrument containing it has been laid before, and approved by a resolution of, each House of Parliament.

Other rules about remedies under goods contracts

25Delivery of wrong quantity

(1)Where the trader delivers to the consumer a quantity of goods less than the trader contracted to supply, the consumer may reject them, but if the consumer accepts them the consumer must pay for them at the contract rate.

(2)Where the trader delivers to the consumer a quantity of goods larger than the trader contracted to supply, the consumer may accept the goods included in the contract and reject the rest, or may reject all of the goods.

(3)Where the trader delivers to the consumer a quantity of goods larger than the trader contracted to supply and the consumer accepts all of the goods delivered, the consumer must pay for them at the contract rate.

(4)Where the consumer is entitled to reject goods under this section, any entitlement for the consumer to treat the contract as at an end depends on the terms of the contract and the circumstances of the case.

(5)The consumer rejects goods under this section by indicating to the trader that the consumer is rejecting the goods.

(6)The indication may be something the consumer says or does, but it must be clear enough to be understood by the trader.

(7)Subsections (1) to (3) do not prevent the consumer claiming damages, where it is open to the consumer to do so.

(8)This section is subject to any usage of trade, special agreement, or course of dealing between the parties.

26Instalment deliveries

(1)Under a contract to supply goods, the consumer is not bound to accept delivery of the goods by instalments, unless that has been agreed between the consumer and the trader.

(2)The following provisions apply if the contract provides for the goods to be delivered by stated instalments, which are to be separately paid for.

(3)If the trader makes defective deliveries in respect of one or more instalments, the consumer, apart from any entitlement to claim damages, may be (but is not necessarily) entitled—

(a)to exercise the short-term right to reject or the right to reject under section 19(6) (as applicable) in respect of the whole contract, or

(b)to reject the goods in an instalment.

(4)Whether paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (3) (or neither) applies to a consumer depends on the terms of the contract and the circumstances of the case.

(5)In subsection (3), making defective deliveries does not include failing to make a delivery in accordance with section 28.

(6)If the consumer neglects or refuses to take delivery of or pay for one or more instalments, the trader may—

(a)be entitled to treat the whole contract as at an end, or

(b)if it is a severable breach, have a claim for damages but not a right to treat the whole contract as at an end.

(7)Whether paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (6) (or neither) applies to a trader depends on the terms of the contract and the circumstances of the case.

27Consignation, or payment into court, in Scotland

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a consumer has not rejected goods which the consumer could have rejected for breach of a term mentioned in section 19(3) or (6),

(b)the consumer has chosen to treat the breach as giving rise only to a claim for damages or to a right to rely on the breach against a claim by the trader for the price of the goods, and

(c)the trader has begun proceedings in court to recover the price or has brought a counter-claim for the price.

(2)The court may require the consumer—

(a)to consign, or pay into court, the price of the goods, or part of the price, or

(b)to provide some other reasonable security for payment of the price.

Other rules about goods contracts

28Delivery of goods

(1)This section applies to any sales contract.

(2)Unless the trader and the consumer have agreed otherwise, the contract is to be treated as including a term that the trader must deliver the goods to the consumer.

(3)Unless there is an agreed time or period, the contract is to be treated as including a term that the trader must deliver the goods—

(a)without undue delay, and

(b)in any event, not more than 30 days after the day on which the contract is entered into.

(4)In this section—

(a)an “agreed” time or period means a time or period agreed by the trader and the consumer for delivery of the goods;

(b)if there is an obligation to deliver the goods at the time the contract is entered into, that time counts as the “agreed” time.

(5)Subsections (6) and (7) apply if the trader does not deliver the goods in accordance with subsection (3) or at the agreed time or within the agreed period.

(6)If the circumstances are that—

(a)the trader has refused to deliver the goods,

(b)delivery of the goods at the agreed time or within the agreed period is essential taking into account all the relevant circumstances at the time the contract was entered into, or

(c)the consumer told the trader before the contract was entered into that delivery in accordance with subsection (3), or at the agreed time or within the agreed period, was essential,

then the consumer may treat the contract as at an end.

(7)In any other circumstances, the consumer may specify a period that is appropriate in the circumstances and require the trader to deliver the goods before the end of that period.

(8)If the consumer specifies a period under subsection (7) but the goods are not delivered within that period, then the consumer may treat the contract as at an end.

(9)If the consumer treats the contract as at an end under subsection (6) or (8), the trader must without undue delay reimburse all payments made under the contract.

(10)If subsection (6) or (8) applies but the consumer does not treat the contract as at an end—

(a)that does not prevent the consumer from cancelling the order for any of the goods or rejecting goods that have been delivered, and

(b)the trader must without undue delay reimburse all payments made under the contract in respect of any goods for which the consumer cancels the order or which the consumer rejects.

(11)If any of the goods form a commercial unit, the consumer cannot reject or cancel the order for some of those goods without also rejecting or cancelling the order for the rest of them.

(12)A unit is a “commercial unit” if division of the unit would materially impair the value of the goods or the character of the unit.

(13)This section does not prevent the consumer seeking other remedies where it is open to the consumer to do so.

(14)See section 2(5) and (6) for the application of this section where goods are sold at public auction.

29Passing of risk

(1)A sales contract is to be treated as including the following provisions as terms.

(2)The goods remain at the trader’s risk until they come into the physical possession of—

(a)the consumer, or

(b)a person identified by the consumer to take possession of the goods.

(3)Subsection (2) does not apply if the goods are delivered to a carrier who—

(a)is commissioned by the consumer to deliver the goods, and

(b)is not a carrier the trader named as an option for the consumer.

(4)In that case the goods are at the consumer’s risk on and after delivery to the carrier.

(5)Subsection (4) does not affect any liability of the carrier to the consumer in respect of the goods.

(6)See section 2(5) and (6) for the application of this section where goods are sold at public auction.

30Goods under guarantee

(1)This section applies where—

(a)there is a contract to supply goods, and

(b)there is a guarantee in relation to the goods.

(2)“Guarantee” here means an undertaking to the consumer given without extra charge by a person acting in the course of the person’s business (the “guarantor”) that, if the goods do not meet the specifications set out in the guarantee statement or in any associated advertising—

(a)the consumer will be reimbursed for the price paid for the goods, or

(b)the goods will be repaired, replaced or handled in any way.

(3)The guarantee takes effect, at the time the goods are delivered, as a contractual obligation owed by the guarantor under the conditions set out in the guarantee statement and in any associated advertising.

(4)The guarantor must ensure that—

(a)the guarantee sets out in plain and intelligible language the contents of the guarantee and the essential particulars for making claims under the guarantee,

(b)the guarantee states that the consumer has statutory rights in relation to the goods and that those rights are not affected by the guarantee, and

(c)where the goods are offered within the territory of the United Kingdom, the guarantee is written in English.

(5)The contents of the guarantee to be set out in it include, in particular—

(a)the name and address of the guarantor, and

(b)the duration and territorial scope of the guarantee.

(6)The guarantor and any other person who offers to supply to consumers the goods which are the subject of the guarantee must, on request by the consumer, make the guarantee available to the consumer within a reasonable time, in writing and in a form accessible to the consumer.

(7)What is a reasonable time is a question of fact.

(8)If a person fails to comply with a requirement of this section, the enforcement authority may apply to the court for an injunction or (in Scotland) an order of specific implement against that person requiring that person to comply.

(9)On an application the court may grant an injunction or (in Scotland) an order of specific implement on such terms as it thinks appropriate.

(10)In this section—

  • “court” means—

    (a)

    in relation to England and Wales, the High Court or the county court,

    (b)

    in relation to Northern Ireland, the High Court or a county court, and

    (c)

    in relation to Scotland, the Court of Session or the sheriff;

  • “enforcement authority” means—

    (a)

    the Competition and Markets Authority,

    (b)

    a local weights and measures authority in Great Britain, and

    (c)

    the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment in Northern Ireland.

Can a trader contract out of statutory rights and remedies under a goods contract?

31Liability that cannot be excluded or restricted

(1)A term of a contract to supply goods is not binding on the consumer to the extent that it would exclude or restrict the trader’s liability arising under any of these provisions—

(a)section 9 (goods to be of satisfactory quality);

(b)section 10 (goods to be fit for particular purpose);

(c)section 11 (goods to be as described);

(d)section 12 (other pre-contract information included in contract);

(e)section 13 (goods to match a sample);

(f)section 14 (goods to match a model seen or examined);

(g)section 15 (installation as part of conformity of the goods with the contract);

(h)section 16 (goods not conforming to contract if digital content does not conform);

(i)section 17 (trader to have right to supply the goods etc);

(j)section 28 (delivery of goods);

(k)section 29 (passing of risk).

(2)That also means that a term of a contract to supply goods is not binding on the consumer to the extent that it would—

(a)exclude or restrict a right or remedy in respect of a liability under a provision listed in subsection (1),

(b)make such a right or remedy or its enforcement subject to a restrictive or onerous condition,

(c)allow a trader to put a person at a disadvantage as a result of pursuing such a right or remedy, or

(d)exclude or restrict rules of evidence or procedure.

(3)The reference in subsection (1) to excluding or restricting a liability also includes preventing an obligation or duty arising or limiting its extent.

(4)An agreement in writing to submit present or future differences to arbitration is not to be regarded as excluding or restricting any liability for the purposes of this section.

(5)Subsection (1)(i), and subsection (2) so far as it relates to liability under section 17, do not apply to a term of a contract for the hire of goods.

(6)But an express term of a contract for the hire of goods is not binding on the consumer to the extent that it would exclude or restrict a term that section 17 requires to be treated as included in the contract, unless it is inconsistent with that term (and see also section 62 (requirement for terms to be fair)).

(7)See Schedule 3 for provision about the enforcement of this section.

32Contracts applying law of non-EEA State

(1)If—

(a)the law of a country or territory other than an EEA State is chosen by the parties to be applicable to a sales contract, but

(b)the sales contract has a close connection with the United Kingdom,

this Chapter, except the provisions in subsection (2), applies despite that choice.

(2)The exceptions are—

(a)sections 11(4) and (5) and 12;

(b)sections 28 and 29;

(c)section 31(1)(d), (j) and (k).

(3)For cases where those provisions apply, or where the law applicable has not been chosen or the law of an EEA State is chosen, see Regulation (EC) No. 593/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations.

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