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Part 2E+W+S+N.I.Double taxation relief

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Pt. 2 modified by 1988 c. 1, Sch. 19ABA paras. 26-28 (as inserted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 34(3) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22))

C2Pt. 2 applied by 2010 c. 4, s. 269DL(6) (as inserted (with effect in accordance with Sch. 3 Pt. 3 of the amending Act) by Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (c. 33), Sch. 3 para. 1)

CHAPTER 2E+W+S+N.I.Double taxation relief by way of credit

Limit on credit against corporation taxE+W+S+N.I.

42Amount of limitE+W+S+N.I.

(1)Subsection (2) is about the amount of credit allowed under section 18(2) against corporation tax to which a company is liable in respect of any income or chargeable gain.

(2)The credit must not exceed—

where—

R is the rate of corporation tax payable by the company, before any credit under this Part, on the company's income or chargeable gains for the accounting period in which the income arises or the gain accrues, and

IG is the amount of the income or gain (but see subsection (3)).

(3)For the purposes of applying subsection (2), IG is reduced (or extinguished) by any amount allocated to it under—

(4)Subsection (2) is to be read with—

[F2(5)See also section 49A which contains an additional limit on credit allowed in certain cases involving CFCs.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 42(4) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 292(9)(10) of the amending Act) by Finance Act 2014 (c. 26), s. 292(6)

F2S. 42(5) inserted (retrospective to 1.1.2013) by Finance Act 2013 (c. 29), Sch. 47 paras. 12, 21

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C3S. 42 excluded by 2010 c. 4, s. 269DL(8)(a) (as inserted (with effect in accordance with Sch. 3 Pt. 3 of the amending Act) by Finance (No. 2) Act 2015 (c. 33), Sch. 3 para. 1)

[F343Profits attributable to permanent establishments for purposes of section 42(2)E+W+S+N.I.

(1)This section applies in determining for the purposes of section 42(2) the amount of the profits of a UK resident company on which corporation tax is or would be chargeable that is attributable to a permanent establishment of the company in a territory outside the United Kingdom.

(2)The amount of the profits of the company that is attributable to the permanent establishment is the amount that the permanent establishment would have made if it were a distinct and separate enterprise which—

(a)engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions, and

(b)dealt wholly independently with the company.

(3)In applying subsection (2) assume that—

(a)the permanent establishment has the same credit rating as the company, and

(b)(subject to subsection (5)) the permanent establishment has such equity and loan capital as it could reasonably be expected to have if the equity and loan capital of the company were allocated in accordance with subsection (4).

(4)The allocation is one made on a just and equitable basis between the permanent establishments in territories outside the United Kingdom through which the company carries on business and the entity that the company would consist of if each such permanent establishment were an entity distinct and separate from the company.

(5)If the permanent establishment is in a full treaty territory (within the meaning of Chapter 3A of Part 2 of CTA 2009) subsection (3)(b) has effect subject to the double taxation arrangements having effect in relation to the territory.

(6)Subsections (3)(b) to (5) prevail over any allotment of equity or loan capital to the permanent establishment made by the company.

(7)If the company is an insurance company F4... , in applying subsection (2) assume that the permanent establishment has such free assets as it would have in the circumstances described in that subsection.

(8)The Commissioners for Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs may by regulations make provision as to the meaning of “free assets” in subsection (7).]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F3S. 43 substituted (19.7.2011) by Finance Act 2011 (c. 11), Sch. 13 paras. 27, 31, 37

F4Words in s. 43(7) omitted (17.7.2012) by virtue of Finance Act 2012 (c. 14), Sch. 16 para. 233

44Credit against tax on trade incomeE+W+S+N.I.

(1)Apply section 42(2) in accordance with subsections (2) and (3) if the tax against which the credit is to be allowed is corporation tax on income that is trade income.

(2)The amount of the credit must not exceed the corporation tax attributable to the income arising out of the transaction, arrangement or asset in connection with which the credit arises.

(3)In calculating the amount of corporation tax attributable to any income, take into account—

(a)deductions which would be allowed in calculating the company's liability, and

(b)expenses of a company connected with the company, so far as reasonably attributable to the income,

but see section 49 (restriction if company is a bank or is connected with a bank).

(4)In subsection (3)(a) “deductions” includes a just and reasonable apportionment of deductions that relate—

(a)partly to the transaction, arrangement or asset from which the income arises, and

(b)partly to other matters.

(5)Section 1122 of CTA 2010 (meaning of “connected”) applies for the purposes of subsection (3)(b).

(6)In this section “trade income” means—

(a)income chargeable to tax under Chapter 2 or 15 of Part 3 of CTA 2009 (trade profits and post-cessation receipts),

(b)income chargeable to tax under Chapter 3 or 9 of Part 4 of CTA 2009 (profits of property businesses and post-cessation receipts),

(c)income which arises from a source outside the United Kingdom and is chargeable to tax under section 979 of CTA 2009 (charge to tax on income not otherwise charged), and

(d)any other income or profits which by a provision of ICTA is or are—

(i)chargeable to tax under Chapter 2 of Part 3 of CTA 2009, or

(ii)calculated in the same way as the profits of a trade,

but does not include income to which section 99 of this Act (insurance companies) applies.

(7)In subsection (6) the references—

(a)to income chargeable under Chapter 15 of Part 3 of CTA 2009, and

(b)to income chargeable under Chapter 9 of Part 4 of CTA 2009,

do not include income that would, but for the repeal by CTA 2009 of section 103 of ICTA (post-cessation receipts where pre-cessation profits calculated on an earnings basis and other post-cessation receipts that become due or are ascertained after cessation), have been chargeable to corporation tax under that section.

45Credit against tax on trade income: anti-avoidance rulesE+W+S+N.I.

(1)If a company (“A”) carrying on a trade giving rise to trade income enters into a scheme or arrangement with another person (“B”) a main purpose of which is to alter the effect of section 44(2) and (3) in relation to A, income received in pursuance of the scheme or arrangement is to be treated for the purposes of section 44(2) and (3) as trade income of B (and not as income of A).

(2)Income of a person (“D”) is to be treated for the purposes of section 44 as trade income (if it is not otherwise trade income) of D if—

(a)the income is received by D as part of a scheme or arrangement entered into by D and a connected person (“C”),

(b)had C received the income, it would be reasonable to assume that it would be trade income of C, and

(c)a main purpose of the scheme or arrangement is to produce the result that section 44(2) and (3) will not have effect in relation to the income because it is received by D.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2)(b) it is to be assumed that, in the case of any relevant transaction to which a relevant person is a party, C were that party to the transaction.

(4)In subsection (3)—

(5)In subsections (2) to (4) “connected person” means a person with whom D is connected.

(6)Section 1122 of CTA 2010 (meaning of “connected”) applies for the purposes of subsection (5).

(7)In this section “trade income” has the same meaning as in section 44.

46Applying section 44(2): asset in hedging relationship with derivative contractE+W+S+N.I.

(1)If an asset is in a hedging relationship with a derivative contract, section 44(2) applies in relation to the asset as if the income arising from the asset is the income arising from the asset and the contract taken together, subject to subsection (2).

(2)Take account of the income or loss from the derivative contract only so far as reasonably attributable to the hedging relationship.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (1), an asset is in a hedging relationship with a derivative contract if—

(a)the asset is acquired as a hedge of risk in connection with the contract, or

(b)the contract is entered into as a hedge of risk in connection with the asset.

(4)If an asset or a contract is wholly or partly designated as a hedge for the purposes of a person's accounts, that is conclusive for the purposes of subsection (3).

47Applying section 44(2): royalty incomeE+W+S+N.I.

(1)Subsection (2) applies if—

(a)the arrangements are double taxation arrangements, and

(b)royalties, as defined in the arrangements, are paid in respect of an asset in more than one foreign jurisdiction.

(2)For the purposes of section 44(2)—

(a)royalty income arising in more than one foreign jurisdiction in an accounting period in respect of the asset is to be treated as income arising from a single asset, and

(b)credits available for foreign tax in respect of the royalty income are to be aggregated accordingly.

(3)In this section “foreign jurisdiction” means a jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom.

48Applying section 44(2): “portfolio” of transactions, arrangements or assetsE+W+S+N.I.

(1)Subsection (5) applies if each of conditions A to C is met.

(2)Condition A is that transactions, arrangements or assets are treated by a taxpayer as a series or group (“the portfolio”).

(3)Condition B is that credits for foreign tax arise in respect of the portfolio.

(4)Condition C is that—

(a)it is not reasonably practicable to prepare a separate calculation of income for the purposes of section 44(2) in respect of each transaction, arrangement or asset, or

(b)a separate calculation of income in respect of each transaction, arrangement or asset for the purposes of section 44(2) would not, compared with an aggregated calculation, make a material difference to the amount of credit for foreign tax which is allowable.

(5)The income arising from the portfolio, or part of the portfolio, may be aggregated and apportioned for the purposes of section 44(2) in a just and reasonable manner.

49Restricting section 44(3) if company is a bank or connected with a bankE+W+S+N.I.

(1)Section 44(3) is subject to subsection (2) of this section if—

(a)the company is a bank or is connected with a bank, and

(b)the amount of the included funding costs is significantly less than the amount of the notional funding costs.

(2)The amount of the notional funding costs is to be included in the amount to be taken into account under section 44(3), but only so far as it exceeds the amount of the included funding costs.

(3)In this section—

(4)The following provisions apply for the purposes of this section—

[F549ALimit on credit in cases involving qualifying loan relationships of CFCsE+W+S+N.I.

(1)This section applies if—

(a)a claim is made under Chapter 9 of Part 9A (controlled foreign companies: exemptions for profits from qualifying loan relationships) in relation to an accounting period (“the relevant period”) of a CFC (“the creditor CFC”),

(b)in the relevant period, the creditor CFC has a qualifying loan relationship in relation to which another CFC is the ultimate debtor by virtue of section 371IG(4) or (5), and

(c)a UK resident company (“the relevant UK company”) has loan relationship credits which arise in the relevant period from—

(i)loan B (see section 371IG(3)(b)), or

(ii)loans out of which loan B is wholly or partly funded (directly or indirectly).

(2)So far as any credit allowed under section 18(2) to the relevant UK company is referable to loan relationship credits falling within subsection (1)(c) which arise in an accounting period of the relevant UK company, the credit must not exceed—

where—

R has the same meaning as in section 42(2), and

S is—

(a)

the relevant UK company's share of the relevant profit amount (see subsection (4)), or

(b)

if only X% of the total amount of the loan relationship credits falling within subsection (1)(c) arises in the accounting period, X% of the relevant UK company's share of the relevant profit amount.

(If the amount given by the formula above is nil, no credit is allowed.)

(3)The limit on credit contained in subsection (2) is in addition to the limit given by section 42(2).

(4)Take the following steps to determine the relevant profit amount and the relevant UK company's share of that amount.

(5)The following persons (apart from the creditor CFC) fall within this subsection—

(a)the person who made loan B, and

(b)any person who has made or received a loan out of which loan B is wholly or partly funded (directly or indirectly).

(6)In this section—

(a)references to loan B do not include any part of loan B—

(i)which loan A (see section 371IG(3)(a)) is not made and used to fund, or

(ii)in relation to which the requirement of section 371IG(3)(c) is not met,

(b)loan relationship credit” means, in relation to a person, a credit which the person has under Part 5 of CTA 2009 or would have were the person a UK resident company within the charge to corporation tax, and

(c)loan” has the same meaning as it has in Chapter 9 of Part 9A.]

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F5S. 49A inserted (retrospective to 1.1.2013) by Finance Act 2013 (c. 29), Sch. 47 paras. 13, 21

[F649BApplying section 42(2) to non-trading credits from loan relationships etcE+W+S+N.I.

(1)Subsection (2) applies for the purposes of section 42(2) if—

(a)the company has a non-trading credit relating to an item, and

(b)there is in respect of that item an amount of foreign tax for which, under the arrangements, credit is allowable against United Kingdom tax.

(2)Credit for the foreign tax in respect of that item must not exceed—

where—

R has the same meaning as in section 42(2),

NTC is the amount of the non-trading credit, and

D is the amount given by subsection (3).

(3)D in the formula in subsection (2) is calculated as follows—

(4)In this section—

Annotations:

Amendments (Textual)

F6S. 49B inserted (with effect in accordance with s. 292(9)(10) of the amending Act) by Finance Act 2014 (c. 26), s. 292(7)