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Corporation Tax Act 2009

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Chapter 11U.K.Tax avoidance

IntroductionU.K.

689Overview of ChapterU.K.

(1)This Chapter contains rules connected with tax avoidance.

(2)In particular—

(a)for rules about unallowable purposes, see sections 690 to 692,

(b)for rules relating to credits and debits where transactions are not at arm's length, see sections 693 to 695,

(c)for rules relating to credits and debits in the case of transactions with non-UK residents, see sections 696 and 697, F1...

(d)for rules relating to disposals for consideration not fully recognised by accounting practice, see section 698 [F2, and

(e)for rules about debits arising as a result of the derecognition of derivative contracts, see section 698A.]

Textual Amendments

F1Word in s. 689(2)(c) omitted (19.7.2011) (with effect in accordance with Sch. 4 para. 13 of the amending Act) by virtue of Finance Act 2011 (c. 11), Sch. 4 para. 10

F2S. 689(2)(e) and word inserted (19.7.2011) (with effect in accordance with Sch. 4 para. 13 of the amending Act) by Finance Act 2011 (c. 11), Sch. 4 para. 10

Unallowable purposesU.K.

690Derivative contracts for unallowable purposesU.K.

(1)This section applies if in any accounting period a derivative contract of a company has an unallowable purpose.

(2)The company may not bring into account for that period for the purposes of this Part so much of any exchange credit in respect of that contract as is referable to the unallowable purpose on a just and reasonable apportionment.

(3)The company may not bring into account for that period for the purposes of this Part so much of any debit in respect of that contract as is referable to the unallowable purpose on a just and reasonable apportionment.

(4)Subsections (2) and (3) are subject to section 692 (allowance of accumulated net losses).

(5)An amount which would be brought into account in accordance with this Part as respects any matter apart from this section and section 692—

(a)is treated for the purposes of section 699(1) (priority of this Part for corporation tax purposes) as if it were so brought into account, and

(b)accordingly may not be brought into account for any other corporation tax purposes as respects that matter.

(6)For the purposes of this section and section 692, a credit is an exchange credit, in the case of any company, so far as it is attributable to any exchange gains arising to the company which are included in the reference to profits of the company in section 595(3) (see section 606 (exchange gains and losses from derivative contracts)).

(7)For the meaning of “has an unallowable purpose” and “the unallowable purpose” in this section and section 692, see section 691.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 690 excluded by 2010 c. 4, s. 938N (as inserted (19.7.2011) by Finance Act 2011 (c. 11), Sch. 5 para. 2)

C2S. 690 excluded by 2010 c. 4, s. 938V(b) (as inserted (with effect in accordance with Sch. 20 para. 6 of the amending Act) by Finance Act 2013 (c. 29), Sch. 20 para. 3)

691Meaning of “unallowable purpose”U.K.

(1)For the purposes of sections 690 and 692, a derivative contract of a company has an unallowable purpose in an accounting period if the purposes for which, at times during that period, the company—

(a)is a party to the contract, or

(b)enters into transactions which are related transactions by reference to it,

include a purpose (“the unallowable purpose”) which is not amongst the business or other commercial purposes of the company.

(2)If a company is not within the charge to corporation tax in respect of a part of its activities, for the purposes of this section the business and other commercial purposes of the company do not include the purposes of that part.

(3)Subsection (4) applies if a tax avoidance purpose is one of the purposes for which a company—

(a)is a party to a derivative contract at any time, or

(b)enters into a transaction which is a related transaction by reference to a derivative contract of the company.

(4)For the purpose of subsection (1), the tax avoidance purpose is only regarded as a business or other commercial purpose of the company if it is not—

(a)the main purpose for which the company is a party to the derivative contract or, as the case may be, enters into the related transaction, or

(b)one of the main purposes for which it is or does so.

(5)The references in subsections (3) and (4) to a tax avoidance purpose are references to any purpose which consists of securing a tax advantage for the company or any other person.

(6)In this section “tax advantage” has the meaning given by [F3section 1139 of CTA 2010] (meaning of “tax advantage”).

Textual Amendments

F3Words in s. 691(6) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 1184(1) of the amending Act) by Corporation Tax Act 2010 (c. 4), s. 1184(1), Sch. 1 para. 642 (with Sch. 2)

692Allowance of accumulated net lossesU.K.

(1)This section applies if—

(a)in any accounting period a derivative contract of a company has an unallowable purpose, and

(b)there is a net loss in respect of that contract for that period.

(2)For the purposes of this section, there is such a net loss if—

(a)the sum of the debits in respect of that contract which are excluded from being brought into account for that period by section 690(3), exceeds

(b)the sum of the exchange credits in respect of that contract which are so excluded by section 690(2).

(3)The amount of that excess is the amount of the net loss in respect of the contract for the period.

(4)The amount of the excess accumulated net losses in respect of the contract for an accounting period is to be brought into account as a debit for that period.

(5)The amount of the excess accumulated net losses in respect of a contract for an accounting period is found as follows.

Step 1

Add together the amount of any net loss arising in respect of the contract for that accounting period and earlier accounting periods.

Step 2

Deduct from the result of Step 1 any amount which was brought into account in accordance with this section in any earlier accounting period.

Step 3

Add together the amount of any credits (other than exchange credits) arising in respect of the contract for that accounting period or any earlier accounting period.

Step 4

Deduct from the result of Step 3 (but not so as to reduce it below nil)—

(a)so much of any debits arising in respect of the contract for that accounting period or any earlier accounting period as is not excluded from being brought into account by section 690(3), and

(b)any amount which was brought into account in accordance with this section in any earlier accounting period.

Step 5

Compare the result of Step 2 and the result of Step 4.

The amount of the excess accumulated net losses for the period is the lower of those results.

Transactions not at arm's lengthU.K.

693Bringing into account adjustments under [F4Part 4 of TIOPA 2010]U.K.

(1)This section deals with the credits and debits which are to be brought into account in accordance with this Part as a result of [F5Part 4 of TIOPA 2010] (provision not at arm's length) applying in relation to a company's derivative contracts or related transactions.

(2)Subsection (3) applies if under [F6Part 4 of TIOPA 2010] an amount (“the imputed amount”) is treated as an amount of profits or losses arising to a company from any of its derivative contracts or related transactions.

(3)Credits or debits relating to the imputed amount are to be brought into account in accordance with this Part to the same extent as they would be in the case of an actual amount of such profits or losses.

(4)Subsection (5) applies if under [F7Part 4 of TIOPA 2010] an amount is treated as expenses incurred by a company under or for the purposes of any of its derivative contracts or related transactions.

(5)Debits relating to the amount are to be brought into account in accordance with this Part to the same extent as they would be in the case of an actual amount of such expenses.

Textual Amendments

F4Words in s. 693 title substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 142(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

F5Words in s. 693(1) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 142(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

F6Words in s. 693(2) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 142(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

F7Words in s. 693(4) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 142(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

694Exchange gains and lossesU.K.

(1)Subsections (2) to (7) apply if—

(a)a company is a party to a derivative contract in an accounting period, and

(b)an exchange gain or exchange loss arises to the company for the accounting period from the contract.

(2)Subsection (3) applies if as a result of [F8Part 4 of TIOPA 2010] (provision not at arm's length) the company's profits and losses are calculated for tax purposes as if it were not a party to the contract.

(3)Any exchange gains or losses which arise to the company from the contract for the accounting period are left out of account in determining the credits and debits to be brought into account in accordance with this Part.

(4)Subsection (5) applies if as a result of [F9Part 4 of TIOPA 2010] the company's profits and losses are calculated for tax purposes as if the terms of the contract were those which would have been agreed by the company and the other party to the contract had they been dealing at arm's length (“the arm's length terms”).

(5)The credits and debits which are to be brought into account in accordance with this Part in the case of the company are to be determined on the assumption that the amount of any exchange gain or loss arising to the company from the contract in the accounting period is the adjusted amount.

(6)In subsection (5), the “adjusted amount” means the amount of an exchange gain or loss which would have arisen from the contract if its terms were the arm's length terms.

(7)That amount may be nil.

(8)Nothing in [F10Part 4 of TIOPA 2010] requires the amounts brought into account in accordance with this Part in respect of exchange gains and losses from derivative contracts to be calculated on the assumption that the arm's length provision had been made instead of the actual provision.

(9)But subsection (8) does not affect the application of—

(a)subsection (3) under subsection (2), or

(b)subsection (5) under subsection (4).

(10)In subsection (8) “the actual provision” and “the arm's length provision” have the same meaning as in [F11Part 4 of TIOPA 2010 (see sections 149 and 151 of that Act)].

Textual Amendments

F8Words in s. 694(2) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 143(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

F9Words in s. 694(4) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 143(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

F10Words in s. 694(8) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 143(2) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

F11Words in s. 694(10) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 143(3) (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

695Transfers of value to connected companiesU.K.

(1)This section applies if—

(a)a company (“A”) paid an amount (“amount X”) to a company (“B”) for the grant of an option,

(b)there is a failure to exercise in full all the rights under the option,

(c)until the failure the option was a derivative contract of A,

(d)as a result of the failure there is a transfer of value by A to B,

(e)B is a connected company in relation to A, and

(f)B is not chargeable to corporation tax in accordance with this Part in respect of the derivative contract.

(2)A must bring into account a credit of the appropriate amount in respect of the derivative contract for the accounting period in which the option expired or would have expired if none of the rights under it had been exercised.

(3)If the option expired, “the appropriate amount” means amount X.

(4)If any rights under the option were exercised (in whole or in part), “the appropriate amount” means amount X less so much of it as is referable, on a just and reasonable basis, to the rights which have been so exercised.

(5)In determining for the purposes of subsection (1)(d) whether there is a transfer of value, the assumption in subsection (6) is made.

(6)That assumption is that if there had not been a connection between A and B—

(a)all the rights under the option would have been exercised in full, and

(b)all of those rights would have been exercised on the latest date on which they were exercisable.

(7)In this section “option” is to be construed as if section 580(2) and (3) (meaning of “option”) were omitted.

(8)For the purposes of this section, B is a connected company in relation to A in an accounting period if there is a time in the period when—

(a)A controls B,

(b)B controls A, or

(c)A and B are both controlled by the same person.

(9)But A and B are not taken to be controlled by the same person just because they have been under the control of—

[F12(za)the Crown,]

(a)a Minister of the Crown,

(b)a government department,

(c)a Northern Ireland department,

(d)a foreign sovereign power, or

(e)an international organisation.

(10)Section 472 (meaning of “control”) applies for the purposes of this section.

Textual Amendments

F12S. 695(9)(za) inserted (1.4.2009 retrospective) by Corporation Tax Act 2009 (Amendment) Order 2009 (S.I. 2009/2860), arts. 1(2), 6(6)

Transactions with non-UK residentsU.K.

696Derivative contracts with non-UK residentsU.K.

(1)This section applies in relation to a company (“A”) if, as a result of any transaction—

(a)A becomes a party to a derivative contract to which a non-UK resident (“NR”) is a party,

(b)NR becomes a party to a derivative contract to which A is a party, or

(c)A and NR both become a party to a derivative contract.

(2)For each accounting period for any part of which A and NR are both a party to a derivative contract which makes provision for notional interest payments, the credits and debits which fall to be brought into account in accordance with this Part in respect of the contract in the case of A do not include the amount of any excluded debit in relation to that contract.

(3)The amount of an excluded debit is calculated by determining for the accounting period the amount (if any) by which—

(a)the sum of any notional interest payments made by A to NR while A and NR are both a party to the contract,

exceeds

(b)the sum of any notional interest payments made by NR to A during that time.

(4)For the purposes of this section, a payment is a notional interest payment if—

(a)a derivative contract specifies—

(i)a notional principal amount,

(ii)a period, and

(iii)a rate of interest,

(b)the amount of the payment is determined (wholly or mainly) by applying a rate to the specified notional principal amount for the specified period, and

(c)the value of the rate is the same at all times as that of the specified rate of interest.

(5)This section is subject to section 697.

697Exceptions to section 696U.K.

(1)Section 696 does not apply if A—

(a)is a bank, building society, financial trader [F13, recognised clearing house, EEA central counterparty or third country central counterparty],

(b)is a party to the derivative contract solely for the purposes of a trade or part of a trade it carries on in the United Kingdom, and

(c)is a party to it otherwise than as agent or nominee of another person.

(2)Section 696 does not apply if NR—

(a)is a party to the derivative contract solely for the purposes of a trade or part of a trade which NR carries on in the United Kingdom through a relevant entity, and

(b)is a party to it otherwise than as agent or nominee of another person.

(3)Section 696 does not apply if arrangements made in relation to the territory in which NR is resident—

(a)have effect [F14under section 2(1) of TIOPA 2010] (double taxation relief), and

(b)make provision in relation to interest (as defined in the arrangements).

(4)It does not matter whether the provision mentioned in subsection (3)(b) is for relief or otherwise.

(5)If NR is a party to the contract as agent or nominee of another person, subsection (3) applies as if the reference to the territory in which NR is resident were a reference to the territory in which that other person is resident.

(6)In this section—

  • [F15“recognised clearing house”, “EEA central counterparty” and “third country central counterparty” have the meanings given by section 285 of FISMA 2000 (exemptions for recognised investment exchanges and clearing houses),]

  • relevant entity” means—

    (a)

    if NR is a company, a permanent establishment, and

    (b)

    if that is not the case, a branch or agency.

Disposals for consideration not fully recognised by accounting practiceU.K.

698Disposals for consideration not fully recognised by accounting practiceU.K.

(1)This section applies if in any accounting period (“the relevant accounting period”) a company with the relevant avoidance intention disposes of rights or liabilities under a derivative contract wholly or partly for consideration which—

(a)is not wholly in the form of money or a debt which falls to be settled by the payment of money, and

(b)is not fully recognised.

(2)The relevant avoidance intention is the intention of eliminating or reducing the credits to be brought into account in accordance with this Part.

(3)Consideration is not fully recognised if, as a result of the application of generally accepted accounting practice, the full amount or value of the consideration is not recognised in determining the company's profit or loss for the relevant accounting period or any other accounting period.

(4)In determining the credits which the company is to bring into account for the relevant accounting period in accordance with this Part, it is to be assumed that the whole of the consideration is recognised in determining the company's profit or loss for that period.

(5)But this section does not apply if [F16section 147(3) or (5) of TIOPA 2010] (provision not at arm's length) operates in relation to the disposal so as to increase the tax liability of the company.

Textual Amendments

F16Words in s. 698(5) substituted (with effect in accordance with s. 381(1) of the amending Act) by Taxation (International and Other Provisions) Act 2010 (c. 8), s. 381(1), Sch. 8 para. 144 (with Sch. 9 paras. 1-9, 22)

[F17DerecognitionU.K.

Textual Amendments

F17S. 698A and cross-heading inserted (19.7.2011) (with effect in accordance with Sch. 4 para. 13 of the amending Act) by Finance Act 2011 (c. 11), Sch. 4 para. 11

698ADebits arising from derecognition of derivative contractsU.K.

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a company is at any time a party to tax avoidance arrangements,

(b)as a result of those arrangements, a derivative contract to which the company is party, or any part of such a contract, is (in accordance with generally accepted accounting practice) derecognised by the company, and

(c)the company continues to be a party to the derivative contract immediately after the transaction or other event giving rise to the derecognition.

(2)No debit that would apart from this section be brought into account by the company for the purposes of this Part as a result of the derecognition is to be so brought into account.

(3)An amount that would be brought into account for the purposes of this Part as respects any matter apart from this section—

(a)is treated for the purposes of section 699(1) (priority of this Part for corporation tax purposes) as if it were so brought into account, and

(b)accordingly, may not be brought into account for any other corporation tax purposes as respects that matter.

(4)For the purposes of this section a company is to be treated as a party to a derivative contract even though it has disposed of its rights and liabilities under the contract to another person—

(a)under a repo or stock lending arrangement, or

(b)under a transaction which is treated as not involving any disposal as a result of section 26 of TCGA 1992 (mortgages and charges not to be treated as disposals).

(5)For the purposes of this section arrangements are “tax avoidance arrangements” if the main purpose, or one of the main purposes, of any party to the arrangements, in entering into them, is to obtain a tax advantage.

(6)In subsection (5)—

(a)arrangements” includes any arrangements, scheme or understanding of any kind, whether or not legally enforceable, involving a single transaction or two or more transactions, and

(b)tax advantage” has the meaning given by section 1139 of CTA 2010.]

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