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Commencement Orders bringing legislation that affects this Act into force:

Part 1 E+WHousing conditions

Chapter 1E+WEnforcement of housing standards: general

New system for assessing housing conditionsE+W

1New system for assessing housing conditions and enforcing housing standardsE+W

(1)This Part provides—

(a)for a new system of assessing the condition of residential premises, and

(b)for that system to be used in the enforcement of housing standards in relation to such premises.

(2)The new system—

(a)operates by reference to the existence of category 1 or category 2 hazards on residential premises (see section 2), and

(b)replaces the existing system based on the test of fitness for human habitation contained in section 604 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68).

(3)The kinds of enforcement action which are to involve the use of the new system are—

(a)the new kinds of enforcement action contained in Chapter 2 (improvement notices, prohibition orders and hazard awareness notices),

(b)the new emergency measures contained in Chapter 3 (emergency remedial action and emergency prohibition orders), and

(c)the existing kinds of enforcement action dealt with in Chapter 4 (demolition orders and slum clearance declarations).

(4)In this Part “residential premises” means—

(a)a dwelling;

(b)an HMO;

(c)unoccupied HMO accommodation;

(d)any common parts of a building containing one or more flats.

(5)In this Part—

  • building containing one or more flats” does not include an HMO;

  • common parts”, in relation to a building containing one or more flats, includes—

    (a)

    the structure and exterior of the building, and

    (b)

    common facilities provided (whether or not in the building) for persons who include the occupiers of one or more of the flats;

  • dwelling” means a building or part of a building occupied or intended to be occupied as a separate dwelling;

  • external common parts”, in relation to a building containing one or more flats, means common parts of the building which are outside it;

  • flat” means a separate set of premises (whether or not on the same floor)—

    (a)

    which forms part of a building,

    (b)

    which is constructed or adapted for use for the purposes of a dwelling, and

    (c)

    either the whole or a material part of which lies above or below some other part of the building;

  • HMO” means a house in multiple occupation as defined by sections 254 to 259, as they have effect for the purposes of this Part (that is, without the exclusions contained in Schedule 14);

  • unoccupied HMO accommodation” means a building or part of a building constructed or adapted for use as a house in multiple occupation but for the time being either unoccupied or only occupied by persons who form a single household.

(6)In this Part any reference to a dwelling, an HMO or a building containing one or more flats includes (where the context permits) any yard, garden, outhouses and appurtenances belonging to, or usually enjoyed with, the dwelling, HMO or building (or any part of it).

(7)The following indicates how this Part applies to flats—

(a)references to a dwelling or an HMO include a dwelling or HMO which is a flat (as defined by subsection (5)); and

(b)subsection (6) applies in relation to such a dwelling or HMO as it applies in relation to other dwellings or HMOs (but it is not to be taken as referring to any common parts of the building containing the flat).

(8)This Part applies to unoccupied HMO accommodation as it applies to an HMO, and references to an HMO in subsections (6) and (7) and in the following provisions of this Part are to be read accordingly.

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Commencement Information

I1S. 1 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 1 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 1 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 1 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

2Meaning of “category 1 hazard” and “category 2 hazard”E+W

(1)In this Act—

  • category 1 hazard” means a hazard of a prescribed description which falls within a prescribed band as a result of achieving, under a prescribed method for calculating the seriousness of hazards of that description, a numerical score of or above a prescribed amount;

  • category 2 hazard” means a hazard of a prescribed description which falls within a prescribed band as a result of achieving, under a prescribed method for calculating the seriousness of hazards of that description, a numerical score below the minimum amount prescribed for a category 1 hazard of that description; and

  • hazard” means any risk of harm to the health or safety of an actual or potential occupier of a dwelling or HMO which arises from a deficiency in the dwelling or HMO or in any building or land in the vicinity (whether the deficiency arises as a result of the construction of any building, an absence of maintenance or repair, or otherwise).

(2)In subsection (1)—

  • prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority (see section 261(1)); and

  • prescribed band” means a band so prescribed for a category 1 hazard or a category 2 hazard, as the case may be.

(3)Regulations under this section may, in particular, prescribe a method for calculating the seriousness of hazards which takes into account both the likelihood of the harm occurring and the severity of the harm if it were to occur.

(4)In this section—

  • building” includes part of a building;

  • harm” includes temporary harm.

(5)In this Act “health” includes mental health.

Procedure for assessing housing conditionsE+W

3Local housing authorities to review housing conditions in their districtsE+W

(1)A local housing authority must keep the housing conditions in their area under review with a view to identifying any action that may need to be taken by them under any of the provisions mentioned in subsection (2).

(2)The provisions are—

(a)the following provisions of this Act—

(i)this Part,

(ii)Part 2 (licensing of HMOs),

(iii)Part 3 (selective licensing of other houses), and

(iv)Chapters 1 and 2 of Part 4 (management orders);

(b)Part 9 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (demolition orders and slum clearance);

(c)Part 7 of the Local Government and Housing Act 1989 (c. 42) (renewal areas); and

(d)article 3 of the Regulatory Reform (Housing Assistance) (England and Wales) Order 2002 (S.I. 2002/1860).

(3)For the purpose of carrying out their duty under subsection (1) a local housing authority and their officers must—

(a)comply with any directions that may be given by the appropriate national authority, and

(b)keep such records, and supply the appropriate national authority with such information, as that authority may specify.

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Commencement Information

I2S. 3 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 3 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 3 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 3 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

4Inspections by local housing authorities to see whether category 1 or 2 hazards existE+W

(1)If a local housing authority consider—

(a)as a result of any matters of which they have become aware in carrying out their duty under section 3, or

(b)for any other reason,

that it would be appropriate for any residential premises in their district to be inspected with a view to determining whether any category 1 or 2 hazard exists on those premises, the authority must arrange for such an inspection to be carried out.

(2)If an official complaint about the condition of any residential premises in the district of a local housing authority is made to the proper officer of the authority, and the circumstances complained of indicate—

(a)that any category 1 or category 2 hazard may exist on those premises, or

(b)that an area in the district should be dealt with as a clearance area,

the proper officer must inspect the premises or area.

(3)In this section “an official complaint” means a complaint in writing made by—

(a)a justice of the peace having jurisdiction in any part of the district, or

(b)the parish or community council for a parish or community within the district.

(4)An inspection of any premises under subsection (1) or (2)—

(a)is to be carried out in accordance with regulations made by the appropriate national authority; and

(b)is to extend to so much of the premises as the local housing authority or proper officer (as the case may be) consider appropriate in the circumstances having regard to any applicable provisions of the regulations.

(5)Regulations under subsection (4) may in particular make provision about—

(a)the manner in which, and the extent to which, premises are to be inspected under subsection (1) or (2), and

(b)the manner in which the assessment of hazards is to be carried out.

(6)Where an inspection under subsection (2) has been carried out and the proper officer of a local housing authority is of the opinion—

(a)that a category 1 or 2 hazard exists on any residential premises in the authority’s district, or

(b)that an area in their district should be dealt with as a clearance area,

the officer must, without delay, make a report in writing to the authority which sets out his opinion together with the facts of the case.

(7)The authority must consider any report made to them under subsection (6) as soon as possible.

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Commencement Information

I3S. 4 wholly in force at 6.4.2006; s. 4 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 4 in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(a); s. 4 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.)

Enforcement of housing standardsE+W

5Category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement actionE+W

(1)If a local housing authority consider that a category 1 hazard exists on any residential premises, they must take the appropriate enforcement action in relation to the hazard.

(2)In subsection (1) “the appropriate enforcement action” means whichever of the following courses of action is indicated by subsection (3) or (4)—

(a)serving an improvement notice under section 11;

(b)making a prohibition order under section 20;

(c)serving a hazard awareness notice under section 28;

(d)taking emergency remedial action under section 40;

(e)making an emergency prohibition order under section 43;

(f)making a demolition order under subsection (1) or (2) of section 265 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68);

(g)declaring the area in which the premises concerned are situated to be a clearance area by virtue of section 289(2) of that Act.

(3)If only one course of action within subsection (2) is available to the authority in relation to the hazard, they must take that course of action.

(4)If two or more courses of action within subsection (2) are available to the authority in relation to the hazard, they must take the course of action which they consider to be the most appropriate of those available to them.

(5)The taking by the authority of a course of action within subsection (2) does not prevent subsection (1) from requiring them to take in relation to the same hazard—

(a)either the same course of action again or another such course of action, if they consider that the action taken by them so far has not proved satisfactory, or

(b)another such course of action, where the first course of action is that mentioned in subsection (2)(g) and their eventual decision under section 289(2F) of the Housing Act 1985 means that the premises concerned are not to be included in a clearance area.

(6)To determine whether a course of action mentioned in any of paragraphs (a) to (g) of subsection (2) is “available” to the authority in relation to the hazard, see the provision mentioned in that paragraph.

(7)Section 6 applies for the purposes of this section.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 5 modified by Housing Act 1985 (c. 68), s. 265(1)(2) (as substituted (6.4.2006 (E.) and 16.6.2006 (W.)) by Housing Act 2004 (c. 34), ss. 46, 270(4)(5)(a)); S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

C2S. 5 modified by Housing Act 1985 (c. 68), s. 289(2) (as substituted (6.4.2006 (E.) and 16.6.2006 (W.)) by Housing Act 2004 (c. 34), ss. 47, 270(4)(5)(a)); S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Commencement Information

I4S. 5 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 5 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 5 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 5 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

6Category 1 hazards: how duty under section 5 operates in certain casesE+W

(1)This section explains the effect of provisions contained in subsection (2) of section 5.

(2)In the case of paragraph (b) or (f) of that subsection, the reference to making an order such as is mentioned in that paragraph is to be read as a reference to making instead a determination under section 300(1) or (2) of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (power to purchase for temporary housing use) in a case where the authority consider the latter course of action to be the better alternative in the circumstances.

(3)In the case of paragraph (d) of that subsection, the authority may regard the taking of emergency remedial action under section 40 followed by the service of an improvement notice under section 11 as a single course of action.

(4)In the case of paragraph (e) of that subsection, the authority may regard the making of an emergency prohibition order under section 43 followed by the service of a prohibition order under section 20 as a single course of action.

(5)In the case of paragraph (g) of that subsection—

(a)any duty to take the course of action mentioned in that paragraph is subject to the operation of subsections (2B) to (4) and (5B) of section 289 of the Housing Act 1985 (procedural and other restrictions relating to slum clearance declarations); and

(b)that paragraph does not apply in a case where the authority have already declared the area in which the premises concerned are situated to be a clearance area in accordance with section 289, but the premises have been excluded by virtue of section 289(2F)(b).

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Commencement Information

I5S. 6 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 6 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 6 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 6 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

7Category 2 hazards: powers to take enforcement actionE+W

(1)The provisions mentioned in subsection (2) confer power on a local housing authority to take particular kinds of enforcement action in cases where they consider that a category 2 hazard exists on residential premises.

(2)The provisions are—

(a)section 12 (power to serve an improvement notice),

(b)section 21 (power to make a prohibition order),

(c)section 29 (power to serve a hazard awareness notice),

(d)section 265(3) and (4) of the Housing Act 1985 (power to make a demolition order), and

(e)section 289(2ZB) of that Act (power to make a slum clearance declaration).

(3)The taking by the authority of one of those kinds of enforcement action in relation to a particular category 2 hazard does not prevent them from taking either—

(a)the same kind of action again, or

(b)a different kind of enforcement action,

in relation to the hazard, where they consider that the action taken by them so far has not proved satisfactory.

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Commencement Information

I6S. 7 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 7 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 7 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 7 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

8Reasons for decision to take enforcement actionE+W

(1)This section applies where a local housing authority decide to take one of the kinds of enforcement action mentioned in section 5(2) or 7(2) (“the relevant action”).

(2)The authority must prepare a statement of the reasons for their decision to take the relevant action.

(3)Those reasons must include the reasons why the authority decided to take the relevant action rather than any other kind (or kinds) of enforcement action available to them under the provisions mentioned in section 5(2) or 7(2).

(4)A copy of the statement prepared under subsection (2) must accompany every notice, copy of a notice, or copy of an order which is served in accordance with—

(a)Part 1 of Schedule 1 to this Act (service of improvement notices etc.),

(b)Part 1 of Schedule 2 to this Act (service of copies of prohibition orders etc.), or

(c)section 268 of the Housing Act 1985 (service of copies of demolition orders),

in or in connection with the taking of the relevant action.

(5)In subsection (4)—

(a)the reference to Part 1 of Schedule 1 to this Act includes a reference to that Part as applied by section 28(7) or 29(7) (hazard awareness notices) or to section 40(7) (emergency remedial action); and

(b)the reference to Part 1 of Schedule 2 to this Act includes a reference to that Part as applied by section 43(4) (emergency prohibition orders).

(6)If the relevant action consists of declaring an area to be a clearance area, the statement prepared under subsection (2) must be published—

(a)as soon as possible after the relevant resolution is passed under section 289 of the Housing Act 1985, and

(b)in such manner as the authority consider appropriate.

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Commencement Information

I7S. 8 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 8 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 8 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 8 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

9Guidance about inspections and enforcement actionE+W

(1)The appropriate national authority may give guidance to local housing authorities about exercising—

(a)their functions under this Chapter in relation to the inspection of premises and the assessment of hazards,

(b)their functions under Chapter 2 of this Part in relation to improvement notices, prohibition orders or hazard awareness notices,

(c)their functions under Chapter 3 in relation to emergency remedial action and emergency prohibition orders, or

(d)their functions under Part 9 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) in relation to demolition orders and slum clearance.

(2)A local housing authority must have regard to any guidance for the time being given under this section.

(3)The appropriate national authority may give different guidance for different cases or descriptions of case or different purposes (including different guidance to different descriptions of local housing authority or to local housing authorities in different areas).

(4)Before giving guidance under this section, or revising guidance already given, the Secretary of State must lay a draft of the proposed guidance or alterations before each House of Parliament.

(5)The Secretary of State must not give or revise the guidance before the end of the period of 40 days beginning with the day on which the draft is laid before each House of Parliament (or, if copies are laid before each House of Parliament on different days, the later of those days).

(6)The Secretary of State must not proceed with the proposed guidance or alterations if, within the period of 40 days mentioned in subsection (5), either House resolves that the guidance or alterations be withdrawn.

(7)Subsection (6) is without prejudice to the possibility of laying a further draft of the guidance or alterations before each House of Parliament.

(8)In calculating the period of 40 days mentioned in subsection (5), no account is to be taken of any time during which Parliament is dissolved or prorogued or during which both Houses are adjourned for more than four days.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

10Consultation with fire and rescue authorities in certain casesE+W

(1)This section applies where a local housing authority—

(a)are satisfied that a prescribed fire hazard exists in an HMO or in any common parts of a building containing one or more flats, and

(b)intend to take in relation to the hazard one of the kinds of enforcement action mentioned in section 5(2) or section 7(2).

(2)Before taking the enforcement action in question, the authority must consult the fire and rescue authority for the area in which the HMO or building is situated.

(3)In the case of any proposed emergency measures, the authority’s duty under subsection (2) is a duty to consult that fire and rescue authority so far as it is practicable to do so before taking those measures.

(4)In this section—

  • emergency measures” means emergency remedial action under section 40 or an emergency prohibition order under section 43;

  • fire and rescue authority” means a fire and rescue authority under the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 (c. 21);

  • prescribed fire hazard” means a category 1 or 2 hazard which is prescribed as a fire hazard for the purposes of this section by regulations under section 2.

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Commencement Information

I8S. 10 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 10 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 10 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 10 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Chapter 2E+WImprovement notices, prohibition orders and hazard awareness notices

Improvement noticesE+W

11Improvement notices relating to category 1 hazards: duty of authority to serve noticeE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)no management order is in force in relation to the premises under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4,

serving an improvement notice under this section in respect of the hazard is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2)An improvement notice under this section is a notice requiring the person on whom it is served to take such remedial action in respect of the hazard concerned as is specified in the notice in accordance with subsections (3) to (5) and section 13.

(3)The notice may require remedial action to be taken in relation to the following premises—

(a)if the residential premises on which the hazard exists are a dwelling or HMO which is not a flat, it may require such action to be taken in relation to the dwelling or HMO;

(b)if those premises are one or more flats, it may require such action to be taken in relation to the building containing the flat or flats (or any part of the building) or any external common parts;

(c)if those premises are the common parts of a building containing one or more flats, it may require such action to be taken in relation to the building (or any part of the building) or any external common parts.

Paragraphs (b) and (c) are subject to subsection (4).

(4)The notice may not, by virtue of subsection (3)(b) or (c), require any remedial action to be taken in relation to any part of the building or its external common parts that is not included in any residential premises on which the hazard exists, unless the authority are satisfied—

(a)that the deficiency from which the hazard arises is situated there, and

(b)that it is necessary for the action to be so taken in order to protect the health or safety of any actual or potential occupiers of one or more of the flats.

(5)The remedial action required to be taken by the notice —

(a)must, as a minimum, be such as to ensure that the hazard ceases to be a category 1 hazard; but

(b)may extend beyond such action.

(6)An improvement notice under this section may relate to more than one category 1 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(7)The operation of an improvement notice under this section may be suspended in accordance with section 14.

(8)In this Part “remedial action”, in relation to a hazard, means action (whether in the form of carrying out works or otherwise) which, in the opinion of the local housing authority, will remove or reduce the hazard.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I9S. 11 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 11 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 11 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 11 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

12Improvement notices relating to category 2 hazards: power of authority to serve noticeE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 2 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)no management order is in force in relation to the premises under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4,

the authority may serve an improvement notice under this section in respect of the hazard.

(2)An improvement notice under this section is a notice requiring the person on whom it is served to take such remedial action in respect of the hazard concerned as is specified in the notice in accordance with subsection (3) and section 13.

(3)Subsections (3) and (4) of section 11 apply to an improvement notice under this section as they apply to one under that section.

(4)An improvement notice under this section may relate to more than one category 2 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(5)An improvement notice under this section may be combined in one document with a notice under section 11 where they require remedial action to be taken in relation to the same premises.

(6)The operation of an improvement notice under this section may be suspended in accordance with section 14.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I10S. 12 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 12 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 12 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 12 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

13Contents of improvement noticesE+W

(1)An improvement notice under section 11 or 12 must comply with the following provisions of this section.

(2)The notice must specify, in relation to the hazard (or each of the hazards) to which it relates—

(a)whether the notice is served under section 11 or 12,

(b)the nature of the hazard and the residential premises on which it exists,

(c)the deficiency giving rise to the hazard,

(d)the premises in relation to which remedial action is to be taken in respect of the hazard and the nature of that remedial action,

(e)the date when the remedial action is to be started (see subsection (3)), and

(f)the period within which the remedial action is to be completed or the periods within which each part of it is to be completed.

(3)The notice may not require any remedial action to be started earlier than the 28th day after that on which the notice is served.

(4)The notice must contain information about—

(a)the right of appeal against the decision under Part 3 of Schedule 1, and

(b)the period within which an appeal may be made.

(5)In this Part of this Act “specified premises”, in relation to an improvement notice, means premises specified in the notice, in accordance with subsection (2)(d), as premises in relation to which remedial action is to be taken in respect of the hazard.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I11S. 13 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 13 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 13 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 13 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

14Suspension of improvement noticesE+W

(1)An improvement notice may provide for the operation of the notice to be suspended until a time, or the occurrence of an event, specified in the notice.

(2)The time so specified may, in particular, be the time when a person of a particular description begins, or ceases, to occupy any premises.

(3)The event so specified may, in particular, be a notified breach of an undertaking accepted by the local housing authority for the purposes of this section from the person on whom the notice is served.

(4)In subsection (3) a “notified breach”, in relation to such an undertaking, means an act or omission by the person on whom the notice is served—

(a)which the local housing authority consider to be a breach of the undertaking, and

(b)which is notified to that person in accordance with the terms of the undertaking.

(5)If an improvement notice does provide for the operation of the notice to be suspended under this section—

(a)any periods specified in the notice under section 13 are to be fixed by reference to the day when the suspension ends, and

(b)in subsection (3) of that section the reference to the 28th day after that on which the notice is served is to be read as referring to the 21st day after that on which the suspension ends.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I12S. 14 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 14 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 14 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 14 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

15Operation of improvement noticesE+W

(1)This section deals with the time when an improvement notice becomes operative.

(2)The general rule is that an improvement notice becomes operative at the end of the period of 21 days beginning with the day on which it is served under Part 1 of Schedule 1 (which is the period for appealing against the notice under Part 3 of that Schedule).

(3)The general rule is subject to subsection (4) (suspended notices) and subsection (5) (appeals).

(4)If the notice is suspended under section 14, the notice becomes operative at the time when the suspension ends.

This is subject to subsection (5).

(5)If an appeal against the notice is made under Part 3 of Schedule 1, the notice does not become operative until such time (if any) as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 19 of that Schedule (time when notice is confirmed on appeal, period for further appeal expires or suspension ends).

(6)If no appeal against an improvement notice is made under that Part of that Schedule within the period for appealing against it, the notice is final and conclusive as to matters which could have been raised on an appeal.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I13S. 15 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 15 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 15 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 15 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

16Revocation and variation of improvement noticesE+W

(1)The local housing authority must revoke an improvement notice if they are satisfied that the requirements of the notice have been complied with.

(2)The local housing authority may revoke an improvement notice if—

(a)in the case of a notice served under section 11, they consider that there are any special circumstances making it appropriate to revoke the notice; or

(b)in the case of a notice served under section 12, they consider that it is appropriate to revoke the notice.

(3)Where an improvement notice relates to a number of hazards—

(a)subsection (1) is to be read as applying separately in relation to each of those hazards, and

(b)if, as a result, the authority are required to revoke only part of the notice, they may vary the remainder as they consider appropriate.

(4)The local housing authority may vary an improvement notice—

(a)with the agreement of the person on whom the notice was served, or

(b)in the case of a notice whose operation is suspended, so as to alter the time or events by reference to which the suspension is to come to an end.

(5)A revocation under this section comes into force at the time when it is made.

(6)If it is made with the agreement of the person on whom the improvement notice was served, a variation under this section comes into force at the time when it is made.

(7)Otherwise a variation under this section does not come into force until such time (if any) as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 20 of Schedule 1 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to vary is confirmed on appeal).

(8)The power to revoke or vary an improvement notice under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by the person on whom the improvement notice was served, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I14S. 16 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 16 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 16 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 16 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

17Review of suspended improvement noticesE+W

(1)The local housing authority may at any time review an improvement notice whose operation is suspended.

(2)The local housing authority must review an improvement notice whose operation is suspended not later than one year after the date of service of the notice and at subsequent intervals of not more than one year.

(3)Copies of the authority’s decision on a review under this section must be served—

(a)on the person on whom the improvement notice was served, and

(b)on every other person on whom a copy of the notice was required to be served.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I15S. 17 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 17 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 17 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 17 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

18Service of improvement notices etc. and related appealsE+W

Schedule 1 (which deals with the service of improvement notices, and notices relating to their revocation or variation, and with related appeals) has effect.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I16S. 18 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 18 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 18 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 18 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

19Change in person liable to comply with improvement noticeE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)an improvement notice has been served on any person (“the original recipient”) in respect of any premises, and

(b)at a later date (“the changeover date”) that person ceases to be a person of the relevant category in respect of the premises.

(2)In subsection (1) the reference to a person ceasing to be a “person of the relevant category” is a reference to his ceasing to fall within the description of person (such as, for example, the holder of a licence under Part 2 or 3 or the person managing a dwelling) by reference to which the improvement notice was served on him.

(3)As from the changeover date, the liable person in respect of the premises is to be in the same position as if—

(a)the improvement notice had originally been served on him, and

(b)he had taken all steps relevant for the purposes of this Part which the original recipient had taken.

(4)The effect of subsection (3) is that, in particular, any period for compliance with the notice or for bringing any appeal is unaffected.

(5)But where the original recipient has become subject to any liability arising by virtue of this Part before the changeover date, subsection (3) does not have the effect of—

(a)relieving him of the liability, or

(b)making the new liable person subject to it.

(6)Subsection (3) applies with any necessary modifications where a person to whom it applies (by virtue of any provision of this section) ceases to be the liable person in respect of the premises.

(7)Unless subsection (8) or (9) applies, the person who is at any time the “liable person” in respect of any premises is the person having control of the premises.

(8)If—

(a)the original recipient was served as the person managing the premises, and

(b)there is a new person managing the premises as from the changeover date,

that new person is the “liable person”.

(9)If the original recipient was served as an owner of the premises, the “liable person” is the owner’s successor in title on the changeover date.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I17S. 19 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 19 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 19 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 19 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Prohibition ordersE+W

20Prohibition orders relating to category 1 hazards: duty of authority to make orderE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)no management order is in force in relation to the premises under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4,

making a prohibition order under this section in respect of the hazard is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2)A prohibition order under this section is an order imposing such prohibition or prohibitions on the use of any premises as is or are specified in the order in accordance with subsections (3) and (4) and section 22.

(3)The order may prohibit use of the following premises—

(a)if the residential premises on which the hazard exists are a dwelling or HMO which is not a flat, it may prohibit use of the dwelling or HMO;

(b)if those premises are one or more flats, it may prohibit use of the building containing the flat or flats (or any part of the building) or any external common parts;

(c)if those premises are the common parts of a building containing one or more flats, it may prohibit use of the building (or any part of the building) or any external common parts.

Paragraphs (b) and (c) are subject to subsection (4).

(4)The notice may not, by virtue of subsection (3)(b) or (c), prohibit use of any part of the building or its external common parts that is not included in any residential premises on which the hazard exists, unless the authority are satisfied—

(a)that the deficiency from which the hazard arises is situated there, and

(b)that it is necessary for such use to be prohibited in order to protect the health or safety of any actual or potential occupiers of one or more of the flats.

(5)A prohibition order under this section may relate to more than one category 1 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(6)The operation of a prohibition order under this section may be suspended in accordance with section 23.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I18S. 20 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 20 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 20 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 20 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

21Prohibition orders relating to category 2 hazards: power of authority to make orderE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 2 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)no management order is in force in relation to the premises under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4,

the authority may make a prohibition order under this section in respect of the hazard.

(2)A prohibition order under this section is an order imposing such prohibition or prohibitions on the use of any premises as is or are specified in the order in accordance with subsection (3) and section 22.

(3)Subsections (3) and (4) of section 20 apply to a prohibition order under this section as they apply to one under that section.

(4)A prohibition order under this section may relate to more than one category 2 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(5)A prohibition order under this section may be combined in one document with an order under section 20 where they impose prohibitions on the use of the same premises or on the use of premises in the same building containing one or more flats.

(6)The operation of a prohibition order under this section may be suspended in accordance with section 23.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I19S. 21 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 21 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 21 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 21 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

22Contents of prohibition ordersE+W

(1)A prohibition order under section 20 or 21 must comply with the following provisions of this section.

(2)The order must specify, in relation to the hazard (or each of the hazards) to which it relates—

(a)whether the order is made under section 20 or 21,

(b)the nature of the hazard concerned and the residential premises on which it exists,

(c)the deficiency giving rise to the hazard,

(d)the premises in relation to which prohibitions are imposed by the order (see subsections (3) and (4)), and

(e)any remedial action which the authority consider would, if taken in relation to the hazard, result in their revoking the order under section 25.

(3)The order may impose such prohibition or prohibitions on the use of any premises as—

(a)comply with section 20(3) and (4), and

(b)the local housing authority consider appropriate in view of the hazard or hazards in respect of which the order is made.

(4)Any such prohibition may prohibit use of any specified premises, or of any part of those premises, either—

(a)for all purposes, or

(b)for any particular purpose,

except (in either case) to the extent to which any use of the premises or part is approved by the authority.

(5)A prohibition imposed by virtue of subsection (4)(b) may, in particular, relate to—

(a)occupation of the premises or part by more than a particular number of households or persons; or

(b)occupation of the premises or part by particular descriptions of persons.

(6)The order must also contain information about—

(a)the right under Part 3 of Schedule 2 to appeal against the order, and

(b)the period within which an appeal may be made,

and specify the date on which the order is made.

(7)Any approval of the authority for the purposes of subsection (4) must not be unreasonably withheld.

(8)If the authority do refuse to give any such approval, they must notify the person applying for the approval of—

(a)their decision,

(b)the reasons for it and the date on which it was made,

(c)the right to appeal against the decision under subsection (9), and

(d)the period within which an appeal may be made,

within the period of seven days beginning with the day on which the decision was made.

(9)The person applying for the approval may appeal to a residential property tribunal against the decision within the period of 28 days beginning with the date specified in the notice as the date on which it was made.

(10)In this Part of this Act “specified premises”, in relation to a prohibition order, means premises specified in the order, in accordance with subsection (2)(d), as premises in relation to which prohibitions are imposed by the order.

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Commencement Information

I20S. 22 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 22 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 22 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 22 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

23Suspension of prohibition ordersE+W

(1)A prohibition order may provide for the operation of the order to be suspended until a time, or the occurrence of an event, specified in the order.

(2)The time so specified may, in particular, be the time when a person of a particular description begins, or ceases, to occupy any premises.

(3)The event so specified may, in particular, be a notified breach of an undertaking accepted by the local housing authority for the purposes of this section from a person on whom a copy of the order is served.

(4)In subsection (3) a “notified breach”, in relation to such an undertaking, means an act or omission by such a person—

(a)which the local housing authority consider to be a breach of the undertaking, and

(b)which is notified to that person in accordance with the terms of the undertaking.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I21S. 23 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 23 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 23 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 23 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

24Operation of prohibition ordersE+W

(1)This section deals with the time when a prohibition order becomes operative.

(2)The general rule is that a prohibition order becomes operative at the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the date specified in the notice as the date on which it is made.

(3)The general rule is subject to subsection (4) (suspended orders) and subsection (5) (appeals).

(4)If the order is suspended under section 23, the order becomes operative at the time when the suspension ends.

This is subject to subsection (5).

(5)If an appeal is brought against the order under Part 3 of Schedule 2, the order does not become operative until such time (if any) as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 14 of that Schedule (time when order is confirmed on appeal, period for further appeal expires or suspension ends).

(6)If no appeal against a prohibition order is made under that Part of that Schedule within the period for appealing against it, the order is final and conclusive as to matters which could have been raised on an appeal.

(7)Sections 584A and 584B of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) provide for the payment of compensation where certain prohibition orders become operative, and for the repayment of such compensation in certain circumstances.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Commencement Information

I22S. 24 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 24 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 24 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 24 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

25Revocation and variation of prohibition ordersE+W

(1)The local housing authority must revoke a prohibition order if at any time they are satisfied that the hazard in respect of which the order was made does not then exist on the residential premises specified in the order in accordance with section 22(2)(b).

(2)The local housing authority may revoke a prohibition order if—

(a)in the case of an order made under section 20, they consider that there are any special circumstances making it appropriate to revoke the order; or

(b)in the case of an order made under section 21, they consider that it is appropriate to do so.

(3)Where a prohibition order relates to a number of hazards—

(a)subsection (1) is to be read as applying separately in relation to each of those hazards, and

(b)if, as a result, the authority are required to revoke only part of the order, they may vary the remainder as they consider appropriate.

(4)The local housing authority may vary a prohibition order—

(a)with the agreement of every person on whom copies of the notice were required to be served under Part 1 of Schedule 2, or

(b)in the case of an order whose operation is suspended, so as to alter the time or events by reference to which the suspension is to come to an end.

(5)A revocation under this section comes into force at the time when it is made.

(6)If it is made with the agreement of every person within subsection (4)(a), a variation under this section comes into force at the time when it is made.

(7)Otherwise a variation under this section does not come into force until such time (if any) as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 15 of Schedule 2 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to revoke or vary is confirmed on appeal).

(8)The power to revoke or vary a prohibition order under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by a person on whom a copy of the order was required to be served under Part 1 of Schedule 2, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

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Commencement Information

I23S. 25 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 25 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 25 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 25 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

26Review of suspended prohibition ordersE+W

(1)The local housing authority may at any time review a prohibition order whose operation is suspended.

(2)The local housing authority must review a prohibition order whose operation is suspended not later than one year after the date on which the order was made and at subsequent intervals of not more than one year.

(3)Copies of the authority’s decision on a review under this section must be served on every person on whom a copy of the order was required to be served under Part 1 of Schedule 2.

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Commencement Information

I24S. 26 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 26 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 26 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 26 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

27Service of copies of prohibition orders etc. and related appealsE+W

Schedule 2 (which deals with the service of copies of prohibition orders, and notices relating to their revocation or variation, and with related appeals) has effect.

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Commencement Information

I25S. 27 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 27 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 27 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 27 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Hazard awareness noticesE+W

28Hazard awareness notices relating to category 1 hazards: duty of authority to serve noticeE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)no management order is in force in relation to the premises under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4,

serving a hazard awareness notice under this section in respect of the hazard is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2)A hazard awareness notice under this section is a notice advising the person on whom it is served of the existence of a category 1 hazard on the residential premises concerned which arises as a result of a deficiency on the premises in respect of which the notice is served.

(3)The notice may be served in respect of the following premises—

(a)if the residential premises on which the hazard exists are a dwelling or HMO which is not a flat, it may be served in respect of the dwelling or HMO;

(b)if those premises are one or more flats, it may be served in respect of the building containing the flat or flats (or any part of the building) or any external common parts;

(c)if those premises are the common parts of a building containing one or more flats, it may be served in respect of the building (or any part of the building) or any external common parts.

Paragraphs (b) and (c) are subject to subsection (4).

(4)The notice may not, by virtue of subsection (3)(b) or (c), be served in respect of any part of the building or its external common parts that is not included in any residential premises on which the hazard exists, unless the authority are satisfied—

(a)that the deficiency from which the hazard arises is situated there, and

(b)that it is desirable for the notice to be so served in the interests of the health or safety of any actual or potential occupiers of one or more of the flats.

(5)A notice under this section may relate to more than one category 1 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(6)A notice under this section must specify, in relation to the hazard (or each of the hazards) to which it relates—

(a)the nature of the hazard and the residential premises on which it exists,

(b)the deficiency giving rise to the hazard,

(c)the premises on which the deficiency exists,

(d)the authority’s reasons for deciding to serve the notice, including their reasons for deciding that serving the notice is the most appropriate course of action, and

(e)details of the remedial action (if any) which the authority consider that it would be practicable and appropriate to take in relation to the hazard.

(7)Part 1 of Schedule 1 (which relates to the service of improvement notices and copies of such notices) applies to a notice under this section as if it were an improvement notice.

(8)For that purpose, any reference in that Part of that Schedule to “the specified premises” is, in relation to a hazard awareness notice under this section, a reference to the premises specified under subsection (6)(c).

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Commencement Information

I26S. 28 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 28 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 28 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 28 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

29Hazard awareness notices relating to category 2 hazards: power of authority to serve noticeE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 2 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)no management order is in force in relation to the premises under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4,

the authority may serve a hazard awareness notice under this section in respect of the hazard.

(2)A hazard awareness notice under this section is a notice advising the person on whom it is served of the existence of a category 2 hazard on the residential premises concerned which arises as a result of a deficiency on the premises in respect of which the notice is served.

(3)Subsections (3) and (4) of section 28 apply to a hazard awareness notice under this section as they apply to one under that section.

(4)A notice under this section may relate to more than one category 2 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(5)A notice under this section must specify, in relation to the hazard (or each of the hazards) to which it relates—

(a)the nature of the hazard and the residential premises on which it exists,

(b)the deficiency giving rise to the hazard,

(c)the premises on which the deficiency exists,

(d)the authority’s reasons for deciding to serve the notice, including their reasons for deciding that serving the notice is the most appropriate course of action, and

(e)details of the remedial action (if any) which the authority consider that it would be practicable and appropriate to take in relation to the hazard.

(6)A notice under this section may be combined in one document with a notice under section 28 where they are served in respect of the same premises.

(7)Part 1 of Schedule 1 (which relates to the service of improvement notices and copies of such notices) applies to a notice under this section as if it were an improvement notice.

(8)For that purpose, any reference in that Part of that Schedule to “the specified premises” is, in relation to a hazard awareness notice under this section, a reference to the premises specified under subsection (5)(c).

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Commencement Information

I27S. 29 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 29 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 29 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 29 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Enforcement: improvement noticesE+W

30Offence of failing to comply with improvement noticeE+W

(1)Where an improvement notice has become operative, the person on whom the notice was served commits an offence if he fails to comply with it.

(2)For the purposes of this Chapter compliance with an improvement notice means, in relation to each hazard, beginning and completing any remedial action specified in the notice—

(a)(if no appeal is brought against the notice) not later than the date specified under section 13(2)(e) and within the period specified under section 13(2)(f);

(b)(if an appeal is brought against the notice and is not withdrawn) not later than such date and within such period as may be fixed by the tribunal determining the appeal; and

(c)(if an appeal brought against the notice is withdrawn) not later than the 21st day after the date on which the notice becomes operative and within the period (beginning on that 21st day) specified in the notice under section 13(2)(f).

(3)A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

(4)In proceedings against a person for an offence under subsection (1) it is a defence that he had a reasonable excuse for failing to comply with the notice.

(5)The obligation to take any remedial action specified in the notice in relation to a hazard continues despite the fact that the period for completion of the action has expired.

(6)In this section any reference to any remedial action specified in a notice includes a reference to any part of any remedial action which is required to be completed within a particular period specified in the notice.

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Commencement Information

I28S. 30 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 30 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 30 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 30 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

31Enforcement action by local housing authoritiesE+W

Schedule 3 (which enables enforcement action in respect of an improvement notice to be taken by local housing authorities either with or without agreement and which provides for the recovery of related expenses) has effect.

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Commencement Information

I29S. 31 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 31 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 31 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 31 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Enforcement: prohibition ordersE+W

32Offence of failing to comply with prohibition order etc.E+W

(1)A person commits an offence if, knowing that a prohibition order has become operative in relation to any specified premises, he—

(a)uses the premises in contravention of the order, or

(b)permits the premises to be so used.

(2)A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction—

(a)to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale, and

(b)to a further fine not exceeding £20 for every day or part of a day on which he so uses the premises, or permits them to be so used, after conviction.

(3)In proceedings against a person for an offence under subsection (1) it is a defence that he had a reasonable excuse for using the premises, or (as the case may be) permitting them to be used, in contravention of the order.

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Commencement Information

I30S. 32 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 32 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 32 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 32 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

33Recovery of possession of premises in order to comply with orderE+W

Nothing in—

(a)the Rent Act 1977 (c. 42) or the Rent (Agriculture) Act 1976 (c. 80), or

(b)Part 1 of the Housing Act 1988 (c. 50),

prevents possession being obtained by the owner of any specified premises in relation to which a prohibition order is operative if possession of the premises is necessary for the purpose of complying with the order.

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Commencement Information

I31S. 33 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 33 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 33 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 33 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

34Power of tribunal to determine or vary leaseE+W

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a prohibition order has become operative, and

(b)the whole or part of any specified premises form the whole or part of the subject matter of a lease.

(2)The lessor or the lessee may apply to a residential property tribunal for an order determining or varying the lease.

(3)On such an application the tribunal may make an order determining or varying the lease, if it considers it appropriate to do so.

(4)Before making such an order, the tribunal must give any sub-lessee an opportunity of being heard.

(5)An order under this section may be unconditional or subject to such terms and conditions as the tribunal considers appropriate.

(6)The conditions may, in particular, include conditions about the payment of money by one party to the proceedings to another by way of compensation, damages or otherwise.

(7)In deciding what is appropriate for the purposes of this section, the tribunal must have regard to the respective rights, obligations and liabilities of the parties under the lease and to all the other circumstances of the case.

(8)In this section “lessor” and “lessee” include a person deriving title under a lessor or lessee.

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Commencement Information

I32S. 34 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 34 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 34 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 34 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Enforcement: improvement notices and prohibition ordersE+W

35Power of court to order occupier or owner to allow action to be taken on premisesE+W

(1)This section applies where an improvement notice or prohibition order has become operative.

(2)If the occupier of any specified premises—

(a)has received reasonable notice of any intended action in relation to the premises, but

(b)is preventing a relevant person, or any representative of a relevant person or of the local housing authority, from taking that action in relation to the premises,

a magistrates' court may order the occupier to permit to be done on the premises anything which the court considers is necessary or expedient for the purpose of enabling the intended action to be taken.

(3)If a relevant person—

(a)has received reasonable notice of any intended action in relation to any specified premises, but

(b)is preventing a representative of the local housing authority from taking that action in relation to the premises,

a magistrates' court may order the relevant person to permit to be done on the premises anything which the court considers is necessary or expedient for the purpose of enabling the intended action to be taken.

(4)A person who fails to comply with an order of the court under this section commits an offence.

(5)In proceedings for an offence under subsection (4) it is a defence that the person had a reasonable excuse for failing to comply with the order.

(6)A person who commits an offence under subsection (4) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding £20 in respect of each day or part of a day during which the failure continues.

(7)In this section “intended action”, in relation to any specified premises, means—

(a)where an improvement notice has become operative, any action which the person on whom that notice has been served is required by the notice to take in relation to the premises and which—

(a)(in the context of subsection (2)) is proposed to be taken by or on behalf of that person or on behalf of the local housing authority in pursuance of Schedule 3, or

(b)(in the context of subsection (3)) is proposed to be taken on behalf of the local housing authority in pursuance of Schedule 3;

(b)where a prohibition order has become operative, any action which is proposed to be taken and which either is necessary for the purpose of giving effect to the order or is remedial action specified in the order in accordance with section 22(2)(e).

(8)In this section—

  • relevant person”, in relation to any premises, means a person who is an owner of the premises, a person having control of or managing the premises, or the holder of any licence under Part 2 or 3 in respect of the premises;

  • representative” in relation to a relevant person or a local housing authority, means any officer, employee, agent or contractor of that person or authority.

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Commencement Information

I33S. 35 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 35 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 35 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 35 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

36Power of court to authorise action by one owner on behalf of anotherE+W

(1)Where an improvement notice or prohibition order has become operative, an owner of any specified premises may apply to a magistrates' court for an order under subsection (2).

(2)A magistrates' court may, on an application under subsection (1), make an order enabling the applicant—

(a)immediately to enter on the premises, and

(b)to take any required action within a period fixed by the order.

(3)In this section “required action” means—

(a)in the case of an improvement notice, any remedial action which is required to be taken by the notice;

(b)in the case of a prohibition order, any action necessary for the purpose of complying with the order or any remedial action specified in the order in accordance with section 22(2)(e).

(4)No order may be made under subsection (2) unless the court is satisfied that the interests of the applicant will be prejudiced as a result of a failure by another person to take any required action.

(5)No order may be made under subsection (2) unless notice of the application has been given to the local housing authority.

(6)If it considers that it is appropriate to do so, the court may make an order in favour of any other owner of the premises which is similar to the order that it is making in relation to the premises under subsection (2).

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Commencement Information

I34S. 36 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 36 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 36 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 36 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Supplementary provisionsE+W

37Effect of improvement notices and prohibition orders as local land chargesE+W

(1)An improvement notice or a prohibition order under this Chapter is a local land charge if subsection (2), (3) or (4) applies.

(2)This subsection applies if the notice or order has become operative.

(3)This subsection applies if—

(a)the notice or order is suspended under section 14 or 23, and

(b)the period for appealing against it under Part 3 of Schedule 1 or 2 has expired without an appeal having been brought.

(4)This subsection applies if—

(a)the notice or order is suspended under section 14 or 23,

(b)an appeal has been brought against it under Part 3 of Schedule 1 or 2, and

(c)were it not suspended—

(i)the notice would have become operative under section 15(5) by virtue of paragraph 19(2) of Schedule 1 (improvement notices: confirmation on appeal or expiry of period for further appeal), or

(ii)the order would have become operative under section 24(5) by virtue of paragraph 14(2) of Schedule 2 (prohibition orders: confirmation on appeal or expiry of period for further appeal).

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Commencement Information

I35S. 37 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 37 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 37 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 37 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

38Savings for rights arising from breach of covenant etc.E+W

(1)Nothing in this Chapter affects any remedy of an owner for breach of any covenant or contract entered into by a tenant in connection with any premises which are specified premises in relation to an improvement notice or prohibition order.

(2)If an owner is obliged to take possession of any premises in order to comply with an improvement notice or prohibition order, the taking of possession does not affect his right to take advantage of any such breach which occurred before he took possession.

(3)No action taken under this Chapter affects any remedy available to the tenant of any premises against his landlord (whether at common law or otherwise).

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Commencement Information

I36S. 38 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 38 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 38 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 38 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

39Effect of Part 4 enforcement action and redevelopment proposalsE+W

(1)Subsection (2) applies if—

(a)an improvement notice or prohibition order has been served or made under this Chapter, and

(b)a management order under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4 comes into force in relation to the specified premises.

(2)The improvement notice or prohibition order—

(a)if operative at the time when the management order comes into force, ceases to have effect at that time, and

(b)otherwise is to be treated as from that time as if it had not been served or made.

(3)Subsection (2)(a) does not affect any right acquired or liability (civil or criminal) incurred before the improvement notice or prohibition order ceases to have effect.

(4)Subsection (5) applies where, under section 308 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (owner’s re-development proposals), the local housing authority have approved proposals for the re-development of land.

(5)No action is to be taken under this Chapter in relation to the land if, and so long as, the re-development is being proceeded with (subject to any variation or extension approved by the authority)—

(a)in accordance with the proposals; and

(b)within the time limits specified by the local housing authority.

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Commencement Information

I37S. 39 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 39 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 39 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 39 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Chapter 3E+WEmergency measures

Emergency remedial actionE+W

40Emergency remedial actionE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)they are further satisfied that the hazard involves an imminent risk of serious harm to the health or safety of any of the occupiers of those or any other residential premises, and

(c)no management order is in force under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4 in relation to the premises mentioned in paragraph (a),

the taking by the authority of emergency remedial action under this section in respect of the hazard is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2)Emergency remedial action” means such remedial action in respect of the hazard concerned as the authority consider immediately necessary in order to remove the imminent risk of serious harm within subsection (1)(b).

(3)Emergency remedial action under this section may be taken by the authority in relation to any premises in relation to which remedial action could be required to be taken by an improvement notice under section 11 (see subsections (3) and (4) of that section).

(4)Emergency remedial action under this section may be taken by the authority in respect of more than one category 1 hazard on the same premises or in the same building containing one or more flats.

(5)Paragraphs 3 to 5 of Schedule 3 (improvement notices: enforcement action by local authorities) apply in connection with the taking of emergency remedial action under this section as they apply in connection with the taking of the remedial action required by an improvement notice which has become operative but has not been complied with.

But those paragraphs so apply with the modifications set out in subsection (6).

(6)The modifications are as follows—

(a)the right of entry conferred by paragraph 3(4) may be exercised at any time; and

(b)the notice required by paragraph 4 (notice before entering premises) must (instead of being served in accordance with that paragraph) be served on every person, who to the authority’s knowledge—

(i)is an occupier of the premises in relation to which the authority propose to take emergency remedial action, or

(ii)if those premises are common parts of a building containing one or more flats, is an occupier of any part of the building; but

(c)that notice is to be regarded as so served if a copy of it is fixed to some conspicuous part of the premises or building.

(7)Within the period of seven days beginning with the date when the authority start taking emergency remedial action, the authority must serve—

(a)a notice under section 41, and

(b)copies of such a notice,

on the persons on whom the authority would be required under Part 1 of Schedule 1 to serve an improvement notice and copies of it.

(8)Section 240 (warrant to authorise entry) applies for the purpose of enabling a local housing authority to enter any premises to take emergency remedial action under this section in relation to the premises, as if—

(a)that purpose were mentioned in subsection (2) of that section, and

(b)the circumstances as to which the justice of the peace must be satisfied under subsection (4) were that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the authority will not be able to gain admission to the premises without a warrant.

(9)For the purposes of the operation of any provision relating to improvement notices as it applies by virtue of this section in connection with emergency remedial action or a notice under section 41, any reference in that provision to the specified premises is to be read as a reference to the premises specified, in accordance with section 41(2)(c), as those in relation to which emergency remedial action has been (or is to be) taken.

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Commencement Information

I38S. 40 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 40 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 40 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 40 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

41Notice of emergency remedial actionE+W

(1)The notice required by section 40(7) is a notice which complies with the following requirements of this section.

(2)The notice must specify, in relation to the hazard (or each of the hazards) to which it relates—

(a)the nature of the hazard and the residential premises on which it exists,

(b)the deficiency giving rise to the hazard,

(c)the premises in relation to which emergency remedial action has been (or is to be) taken by the authority under section 40 and the nature of that remedial action,

(d)the power under which that remedial action has been (or is to be) taken by the authority, and

(e)the date when that remedial action was (or is to be) started.

(3)The notice must contain information about—

(a)the right to appeal under section 45 against the decision of the authority to make the order, and

(b)the period within which an appeal may be made.

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Commencement Information

I39S. 41 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 41 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 41 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 41 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

42Recovery of expenses of taking emergency remedial actionE+W

(1)This section relates to the recovery by a local housing authority of expenses reasonably incurred in taking emergency remedial action under section 40 (“emergency expenses”).

(2)Paragraphs 6 to 14 of Schedule 3 (improvement notices: enforcement action by local authorities) apply for the purpose of enabling alocal housing authority to recover emergency expenses as they apply for the purpose of enabling such an authority to recover expenses incurred in taking remedial action under paragraph 3 of that Schedule.

But those paragraphs so apply with the modifications set out in subsection (3).

(3)The modifications are as follows—

(a)any reference to the improvement notice is to be read as a reference to the notice under section 41; and

(b)no amount is recoverable in respect of any emergency expenses until such time (if any) as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection (see subsection (4)).

(4)This subsection gives the meaning of “the operative time” for the purposes of subsection (3)—

(a)if no appeal against the authority’s decision to take the emergency remedial action is made under section 45 before the end of the period of 28 days mentioned in subsection (3)(a) of that section, “the operative time” is the end of that period;

(b)if an appeal is made under that section within that period and a decision is given on the appeal which confirms the authority’s decision, “the operative time” is as follows—

(i)if the period within which an appeal to the [F1Upper Tribunal] may be brought expires without such an appeal having been brought, “the operative time” is the end of that period;

(ii)if an appeal to the [F1Upper Tribunal] is brought, “the operative time” is the time when a decision is given on the appeal which confirms the authority’s decision.

(5)For the purposes of subsection (4)—

(a)the withdrawal of an appeal has the same effect as a decision which confirms the authority’s decision, and

(b)references to a decision which confirms the authority’s decision are to a decision which confirms it with or without variation.

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Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I40S. 42 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 42 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 42 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 42 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Emergency prohibition ordersE+W

43Emergency prohibition ordersE+W

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists on any residential premises, and

(b)they are further satisfied that the hazard involves an imminent risk of serious harm to the health or safety of any of the occupiers of those or any other residential premises, and

(c)no management order is in force under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4 in relation to the premises mentioned in paragraph (a),

making an emergency prohibition order under this section in respect of the hazard is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2)An emergency prohibition order under this section is an order imposing, with immediate effect, such prohibition or prohibitions on the use of any premises as are specified in the order in accordance with subsection (3) and section 44.

(3)As regards the imposition of any such prohibition or prohibitions, the following provisions apply to an emergency prohibition order as they apply to a prohibition order under section 20—

(a)subsections (3) to (5) of that section, and

(b)subsections (3) to (5) and (7) to (9) of section 22.

(4)Part 1 of Schedule 2 (service of copies of prohibition orders) applies in relation to an emergency prohibition order as it applies to a prohibition order, but any requirement to serve copies within a specified period of seven days is to be read as a reference to serve them on the day on which the emergency prohibition order is made (or, if that is not possible, as soon after that day as is possible).

(5)The following provisions also apply to an emergency prohibition order as they apply to a prohibition order (or to a prohibition order which has become operative, as the case may be)—

(a)section 25 (revocation and variation);

(b)sections 32 to 36 (enforcement);

(c)sections 37 to 39 (supplementary provisions); and

(d)Part 2 of Schedule 2 (notices relating to revocation or variation);

(e)Part 3 of that Schedule (appeals) so far as it relates to any decision to vary, or to refuse to revoke or vary, a prohibition order; and

(f)sections 584A and 584B of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (payment, and repayment, of compensation).

(6)For the purposes of the operation of any provision relating to prohibition orders as it applies in connection with emergency prohibition orders by virtue of this section or section 45, any reference in that provision to the specified premises is to be read as a reference to the premises specified, in accordance with section 44(2)(c), as the premises in relation to which prohibitions are imposed by the order.

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Commencement Information

I41S. 43 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 43 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 43 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 43 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

44Contents of emergency prohibition ordersE+W

(1)An emergency prohibition order under section 43 must comply with the following requirements of this section.

(2)The order must specify, in relation to the hazard (or each of the hazards) to which it relates—

(a)the nature of the hazard concerned and the residential premises on which it exists,

(b)the deficiency giving rise to the hazard,

(c)the premises in relation to which prohibitions are imposed by the order (see subsections (3) and (4) of section 22 as applied by section 43(3)), and

(d)any remedial action which the authority consider would, if taken in relation to the hazard, result in their revoking the order under section 25 (as applied by section 43(5)).

(3)The order must contain information about—

(a)the right to appeal under section 45 against the order, and

(b)the period within which an appeal may be made,

and specify the date on which the order is made.

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Commencement Information

I42S. 44 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 44 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 44 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 44 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

AppealsE+W

45Appeals relating to emergency measuresE+W

(1)A person on whom a notice under section 41 has been served in connection with the taking of emergency remedial action under section 40 may appeal to a residential property tribunal against the decision of the local housing authority to take that action.

(2)A relevant person may appeal to a residential property tribunal against an emergency prohibition order.

(3)An appeal under subsection (1) or (2) must be made within the period of 28 days beginning with—

(a)the date specified in the notice under section 41 as the date when the emergency remedial action was (or was to be) started, or

(b)the date specified in the emergency prohibition order as the date on which the order was made,

as the case may be.

(4)A residential property tribunal may allow an appeal to be made to it after the end of that period if it is satisfied that there is a good reason for the failure to appeal before the end of that period (and for any delay since then in applying for permission to appeal out of time).

(5)An appeal under subsection (1) or (2)—

(a)is to be by way of a re-hearing, but

(b)may be determined having regard to matters of which the authority were unaware.

(6)The tribunal may—

(a)in the case of an appeal under subsection (1), confirm, reverse or vary the decision of the authority;

(b)in the case of an appeal under subsection (2), confirm or vary the emergency prohibition order or make an order revoking it as from a date specified in that order.

(7)Paragraph 16 of Schedule 2 applies for the purpose of identifying who is a relevant person for the purposes of subsection (2) in relation to an emergency prohibition order as it applies for the purpose of identifying who is a relevant person for the purposes of Part 3 of that Schedule in relation to a prohibition order.

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Commencement Information

I43S. 45 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 45 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 45 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 45 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Chapter 4E+WDemolition orders and slum clearance declarations

Demolition ordersE+W

46Demolition ordersE+W

For section 265 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) substitute—

265Demolition orders

(1)If—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists in a dwelling or HMO which is not a flat, and

(b)this subsection is not disapplied by subsection (5),

making a demolition order in respect of the dwelling or HMO is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 of the Housing Act 2004 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2)If, in the case of any building containing one or more flats—

(a)the local housing authority are satisfied that a category 1 hazard exists in one or more of the flats contained in the building or in any common parts of the building, and

(b)this subsection is not disapplied by subsection (5),

making a demolition order in respect of the building is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard for the purposes of section 5 of the Housing Act 2004.

(3)The local housing authority may make a demolition order in respect of a dwelling or HMO which is not a flat if—

(a)they are satisfied that a category 2 hazard exists in the dwelling or HMO,

(b)this subsection is not disapplied by subsection (5), and

(c)the circumstances of the case are circumstances specified or described in an order made by the Secretary of State.

(4)The local housing authority may make a demolition order in respect of any building containing one or more flats if—

(a)they are satisfied that a category 2 hazard exists in one or more of the flats contained in the building or in any common parts of the building,

(b)this subsection is not disapplied by subsection (5), and

(c)the circumstances of the case are circumstances specified or described in an order made by the Secretary of State.

(5)None of subsections (1) to (4) applies if a management order under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4 is in force in relation to the premises concerned.

(6)This section also has effect subject to section 304(1) (no demolition order to be made in respect of listed building).

(7)In this section “HMO” means house in multiple occupation.

(8)An order made under subsection (3) or (4)—

(a)may make different provision for different cases or descriptions of case (including different provision for different areas);

(b)may contain such incidental, supplementary, consequential, transitory, transitional or saving provision as the Secretary of State considers appropriate; and

(c)shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(9)Sections 584A and 584B provide for the payment of compensation where demolition orders are made under this section, and for the repayment of such compensation in certain circumstances.

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Commencement Information

I44S. 46 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 46 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 46 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 46 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Slum clearance declarationsE+W

47Clearance areasE+W

In section 289 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (declaration of clearance area) for subsections (2) and (2A) substitute—

(2)If the local housing authority are satisfied, in relation to any area—

(a)that each of the residential buildings in the area contains a category 1 hazard, and

(b)that the other buildings (if any) in the area are dangerous or harmful to the health or safety of the inhabitants of the area,

declaring the area to be a clearance area is a course of action available to the authority in relation to the hazard or hazards for the purposes of section 5 of the Housing Act 2004 (category 1 hazards: general duty to take enforcement action).

(2ZA)The local housing authority may declare an area to be a clearance area if they are satisfied that—

(a)the residential buildings in the area are dangerous or harmful to the health or safety of the inhabitants of the area as a result of their bad arrangement or the narrowness or bad arrangement of the streets; and

(b)that the other buildings (if any) in the area are dangerous or harmful to the health or safety of the inhabitants of the area.

(2ZB)The local housing authority may declare an area to be a clearance area if they are satisfied that—

(a)that each of the residential buildings in the area contains a category 2 hazard,

(b)that the other buildings (if any) in the area are dangerous or harmful to the health or safety of the inhabitants of the area, and

(c)the circumstances of the case are circumstances specified or described in an order made by the Secretary of State.

Subsection (8) of section 265 applies in relation to an order under this subsection as it applies in relation to an order under subsection (3) or (4) of that section.

(2ZC)In this section “residential buildings” means buildings which are dwellings or houses in multiple occupation or contain one or more flats.

This is subject to subsection (2ZD).

(2ZD)For the purposes of subsection (2) or (2ZB)—

(a)subsection (2ZC) applies as if “two or more flats” were substituted for “one or more flats”; and

(b)a residential building containing two or more flats is only to be treated as containing a category 1 or 2 hazard if two or more of the flats within it contain such a hazard.

(2ZE)Subsections (2) to (2ZB) are subject to subsections (2B) to (4) and (5B).

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Commencement Information

I45S. 47 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 47 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 47 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 47 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

AppealsE+W

48Transfer of jurisdiction in respect of appeals relating to demolition orders etc.E+W

(1)Part 9 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (slum clearance) is further amended as follows.

(2)In section 269 (right of appeal against demolition order etc.)—

(a)in subsection (1), for “the county court” substitute “ a residential property tribunal ”;

(b)in subsection (3), for “court” substitute “ tribunal ”; and

(c)in subsection (6)(a) and (b), for “Court of Appeal” substitute “ Lands Tribunal ”.

(3)In section 272 (demolition orders)—

(a)in subsection (2), for “the court” in the first place it appears substitute “ a residential property tribunal ”, and in the second place it appears substitute “ such a tribunal ”;

(b)in subsection (5), for the words from the beginning to “and has” substitute “ A residential property tribunal has jurisdiction to hear and determine proceedings under subsection (1) (as well as those under subsection (2)), and a county court has ”; and

(c)in subsection (6), for “the court” substitute “ a tribunal or court ”.

(4)In section 317 (power of court to determine lease where premises demolished etc.)—

(a)in subsection (1), for “the county court” substitute “ a residential property tribunal ”; and

(b)in subsections (2) and (3), for “court” substitute “ tribunal ”.

(5)In section 318 (power of court to authorise execution of works on unfit premises or for improvement)—

(a)in the sidenote, for “court” substitute “ tribunal ”;

(b)in subsection (1), for “the court” in the first place it appears substitute “ a residential property tribunal ”, and in the second place it appears substitute “ the tribunal ”;

(c)in subsections (2) and (3), for “court” substitute “ tribunal ”; and

(d)omit subsection (4).

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Commencement Information

I46S. 48 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 48 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 48 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 48 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Chapter 5E+WGeneral and miscellaneous provisions relating to enforcement action

Recovery of expenses relating to enforcement actionE+W

49Power to charge for certain enforcement actionE+W

(1)A local housing authority may make such reasonable charge as they consider appropriate as a means of recovering certain administrative and other expenses incurred by them in—

(a)serving an improvement notice under section 11 or 12;

(b)making a prohibition order under section 20 or 21;

(c)serving a hazard awareness notice under section 28 or 29;

(d)taking emergency remedial action under section 40;

(e)making an emergency prohibition order under section 43; or

(f)making a demolition order under section 265 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68).

(2)The expenses are, in the case of the service of an improvement notice or a hazard awareness notice, the expenses incurred in—

(a)determining whether to serve the notice,

(b)identifying any action to be specified in the notice, and

(c)serving the notice.

(3)The expenses are, in the case of emergency remedial action under section 40, the expenses incurred in—

(a)determining whether to take such action, and

(b)serving the notice required by subsection (7) of that section.

(4)The expenses are, in the case of a prohibition order under section 20 or 21 of this Act, an emergency prohibition order under section 43 or a demolition order under section 265 of the Housing Act 1985, the expenses incurred in—

(a)determining whether to make the order, and

(b)serving copies of the order on persons as owners of premises.

(5)A local housing authority may make such reasonable charge as they consider appropriate as a means of recovering expenses incurred by them in—

(a)carrying out any review under section 17 or 26, or

(b)serving copies of the authority’s decision on such a review.

(6)The amount of the charge may not exceed such amount as is specified by order of the appropriate national authority.

(7)Where a tribunal allows an appeal against the underlying notice or order mentioned in subsection (1), it may make such order as it considers appropriate reducing, quashing, or requiring the repayment of, any charge under this section made in respect of the notice or order.

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Commencement Information

I47S. 49 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 49 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 49 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 49 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

50Recovery of charge under section 49E+W

(1)This section relates to the recovery by a local housing authority of a charge made by them under section 49.

(2)In the case of—

(a)an improvement notice under section 11 or 12, or

(b)a hazard awareness notice under section 28 or 29,

the charge may be recovered from the person on whom the notice is served.

(3)In the case of emergency remedial action under section 40, the charge may be recovered from the person served with the notice required by subsection (7) of that section.

(4)In the case of—

(a)a prohibition order under section 20 or 21,

(b)an emergency prohibition order under section 43, or

(c)a demolition order under section 265 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68),

the charge may be recovered from any person on whom a copy of the order is served as an owner of the premises.

(5)A demand for payment of the charge must be served on the person from whom the authority seek to recover it.

(6)The demand becomes operative, if no appeal is brought against the underlying notice or order, at the end of the period of 21 days beginning with the date of service of the demand.

(7)If such an appeal is brought and a decision is given on the appeal which confirms the underlying notice or order, the demand becomes operative at the time when—

(a)the period within which an appeal to the [F2Upper Tribunal] may be brought expires without such an appeal having been brought, or

(b)a decision is given on such an appeal which confirms the notice or order.

(8)For the purposes of subsection (7)—

(a)the withdrawal of an appeal has the same effect as a decision which confirms the notice or order, and

(b)references to a decision which confirms the notice or order are to a decision which confirms it with or without variation.

(9)As from the time when the demand becomes operative, the sum recoverable by the authority is, until recovered, a charge on the premises concerned.

(10)The charge takes effect at that time as a legal charge which is a local land charge.

(11)For the purpose of enforcing the charge the authority have the same powers and remedies under the Law of Property Act 1925 (c. 20) and otherwise as if they were mortgagees by deed having powers of sale and lease, of accepting surrenders of leases and of appointing a receiver.

(12)The power of appointing a receiver is exercisable at any time after the end of the period of one month beginning with the date on which the charge takes effect.

(13)The appropriate national authority may by regulations prescribe the form of, and the particulars to be contained in, a demand for payment of any charge under section 49.

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Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I48S. 50 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 50 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 50 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 50 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

RepealsE+W

51Repeal of power to improve existing enforcement proceduresE+W

Omit section 86 of the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 (c. 53) (power to improve existing enforcement procedures in relation to unfitness for human habitation etc.).

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Commencement Information

I49S. 51 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 51 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 51 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 51 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

52Repeal of provisions relating to demolition of obstructive buildingsE+W

Omit sections 283 to 288 of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) (demolition of obstructive buildings).

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Commencement Information

I50S. 52 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 52 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 52 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 52 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

53Miscellaneous repeals etc. in relation to fire hazardsE+W

(1)In the London Building Acts (Amendment) Act 1939 (c. xcvii)—

(a)omit section 35(1)(c)(i) (protection against fire in certain old buildings let in flats or tenements);

(b)in section 36(1) (projecting shops in which persons are employed or sleep) omit “or sleep”; and

(c)in section 37(1) (means of access to roofs), in paragraph (b) for the words from “except” onwards substitute “ except to the extent that it is occupied for residential purposes; ”.

(2)In the County of Merseyside Act 1980 (c. x) omit section 48 (means of escape from fire) and section 49(1) and (2) (maintenance of means of escape from fire).

(3)In the Building Act 1984 (c. 55) omit section 72(6)(a) (means of escape from fire in case of certain buildings let in flats or tenements).

(4)In the Leicestershire Act 1985 (c. xvii) omit section 54(6)(a) (means of escape from fire in case of certain buildings used as flats or tenements).

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Commencement Information

I51S. 53 partly in force; s. 53 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 53 in force for E. at 6.4.2007 by S.I. 2007/1068, art. 2(a)

IndexE+W

54Index of defined expressions: Part 1E+W

The following table shows where expressions used in this Part are defined or otherwise explained.

ExpressionProvision of this Act
Appropriate national authoritySection 261(1)
Building containing one or more flatsSection 1(5)
Category 1 hazardSection 2(1)
Category 2 hazardSection 2(1)
Common partsSection 1(5)
Compliance with improvement noticeSection 30(2)
District of local housing authoritySection 261(6)
DwellingSection 1(5), (6)
External common partsSection 1(5)
FlatSection 1(5) to (7)
HazardSection 2(1)
Hazard awareness noticeSection 28(2) or 29(2)
HealthSection 2(5)
HMOSection 1(5), (6) (and see also section 1(8))
Improvement noticeSection 11(2) or 12(2)
Lease, lessee etc.Section 262(1) to (4)
Local housing authoritySection 261(2) to (5)
Occupier (and related expressions)Section 262(6)
OwnerSection 262(7)
Person having controlSection 263(1) and (2)
Person managingSection 263(3) and (4)
Prohibition orderSection 20(2) or 21(2)
Remedial actionSection 11(8)
Residential premisesSection 1(4)
Residential property tribunalSection 229
Specified premises, in relation to an improvement noticeSection 13(5)
Specified premises, in relation to a prohibition orderSection 22(10)
Tenancy, tenantSection 262(1) to (5)
Unoccupied HMO accommodationSection 1(5) (and see also section 1(8)).
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Commencement Information

I52S. 54 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 54 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 54 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 54 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Part 2 E+WLicensing of houses in multiple occupation

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

IntroductoryE+W

55Licensing of HMOs to which this Part appliesE+W

(1)This Part provides for HMOs to be licensed by local housing authorities where—

(a)they are HMOs to which this Part applies (see subsection (2)), and

(b)they are required to be licensed under this Part (see section 61(1)).

(2)This Part applies to the following HMOs in the case of each local housing authority—

(a)any HMO in the authority’s district which falls within any prescribed description of HMO, and

(b)if an area is for the time being designated by the authority under section 56 as subject to additional licensing, any HMO in that area which falls within any description of HMO specified in the designation.

(3)The appropriate national authority may by order prescribe descriptions of HMOs for the purposes of subsection (2)(a).

(4)The power conferred by subsection (3) may be exercised in such a way that this Part applies to all HMOs in the district of a local housing authority.

(5)Every local housing authority have the following general duties—

(a)to make such arrangements as are necessary to secure the effective implementation in their district of the licensing regime provided for by this Part;

(b)to ensure that all applications for licences and other issues falling to be determined by them under this Part are determined within a reasonable time; and

(c)to satisfy themselves, as soon as is reasonably practicable, that there are no Part 1 functions that ought to be exercised by them in relation to the premises in respect of which such applications are made.

(6)For the purposes of subsection (5)(c)—

(a)Part 1 function” means any duty under section 5 to take any course of action to which that section applies or any power to take any course of action to which section 7 applies; and

(b)the authority may take such steps as they consider appropriate (whether or not involving an inspection) to comply with their duty under subsection (5)(c) in relation to each of the premises in question, but they must in any event comply with it within the period of 5 years beginning with the date of the application for a licence.

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Commencement Information

I53S. 55 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 55 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 55(1)(2)(5)(a)(b) in force for E. at 15.6.2005 by S.I. 2005/1451, art. 3(a); s. 55(1)(2)(5)(a)(b) in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(b); s. 55 in force for E. in so far as not already in force at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a); s. 55 in force for W. in so far as not already in force at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a)

Designation of additional licensing areasE+W

56Designation of areas subject to additional licensingE+W

(1)A local housing authority may designate either—

(a)the area of their district, or

(b)an area in their district,

as subject to additional licensing in relation to a description of HMOs specified in the designation, if the requirements of this section are met.

(2)The authority must consider that a significant proportion of the HMOs of that description in the area are being managed sufficiently ineffectively as to give rise, or to be likely to give rise, to one or more particular problems either for those occupying the HMOs or for members of the public.

(3)Before making a designation the authority must—

(a)take reasonable steps to consult persons who are likely to be affected by the designation; and

(b)consider any representations made in accordance with the consultation and not withdrawn.

(4)The power to make a designation under this section may be exercised in such a way that this Part applies to all HMOs in the area in question.

(5)In forming an opinion as to the matter mentioned in subsection (2), the authority must have regard to any information regarding the extent to which any codes of practice approved under section 233 have been complied with by persons managing HMOs in the area in question.

(6)Section 57 applies for the purposes of this section.

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Commencement Information

I54S. 56 wholly in force at 25.11.2005; s. 56 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 56 in force for E. at 15.6.2005 by S.I. 2005/1451, art. 3(b); s. 56 in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(c)

57Designations under section 56: further considerationsE+W

(1)This section applies to the power of a local housing authority to make designations under section 56.

(2)The authority must ensure that any exercise of the power is consistent with the authority’s overall housing strategy.

(3)The authority must also seek to adopt a co-ordinated approach in connection with dealing with homelessness, empty properties and anti-social behaviour affecting the private rented sector, both—

(a)as regards combining licensing under this Part with other courses of action available to them, and

(b)as regards combining such licensing with measures taken by other persons.

(4)The authority must not make a particular designation under section 56 unless—

(a)they have considered whether there are any other courses of action available to them (of whatever nature) that might provide an effective method of dealing with the problem or problems in question, and

(b)they consider that making the designation will significantly assist them to deal with the problem or problems (whether or not they take any other course of action as well).

(5)In this Act “anti-social behaviour” means conduct on the part of occupiers of, or visitors to, residential premises—

(a)which causes or is likely to cause a nuisance or annoyance to persons residing, visiting or otherwise engaged in lawful activities in the vicinity of such premises, or

(b)which involves or is likely to involve the use of such premises for illegal purposes.

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Commencement Information

I55S. 57 wholly in force at 25.11.2005; s. 57 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 57 in force for E. at 15.6.2005 by S.I. 2005/1451, art. 3(b); s. 57 in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(c)

58Designation needs confirmation or general approval to be effectiveE+W

(1)A designation of an area as subject to additional licensing cannot come into force unless—

(a)it has been confirmed by the appropriate national authority; or

(b)it falls within a description of designations in relation to which that authority has given a general approval in accordance with subsection (6).

(2)The appropriate national authority may either confirm, or refuse to confirm, a designation as it considers appropriate.

(3)If the appropriate national authority confirms a designation, the designation comes into force on the date specified for this purpose by that authority.

(4)That date must be no earlier than three months after the date on which the designation is confirmed.

(5)A general approval may be given in relation to a description of designations framed by reference to any matters or circumstances.

(6)Accordingly a general approval may (in particular) be given in relation to—

(a)designations made by a specified local housing authority;

(b)designations made by a local housing authority falling within a specified description of such authorities;

(c)designations relating to HMOs of a specified description.

  • Specified” means specified by the appropriate national authority in the approval.

(7)If, by virtue of a general approval, a designation does not need to be confirmed before it comes into force, the designation comes into force on the date specified for this purpose in the designation.

(8)That date must be no earlier than three months after the date on which the designation is made.

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Commencement Information

I56S. 58 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 58 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 58 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 58 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

59Notification requirements relating to designationsE+W

(1)This section applies to a designation—

(a)when it is confirmed under section 58, or

(b)(if it is not required to be so confirmed) when it is made by the local housing authority.

(2)As soon as the designation is confirmed or made, the authority must publish in the prescribed manner a notice stating—

(a)that the designation has been made,

(b)whether or not the designation was required to be confirmed and either that it has been confirmed or that a general approval under section 58 applied to it (giving details of the approval in question),

(c)the date on which the designation is to come into force, and

(d)any other information which may be prescribed.

(3)After publication of a notice under subsection (2), and for as long as the designation is in force, the local housing authority must make available to the public in accordance with any prescribed requirements—

(a)copies of the designation, and

(b)such information relating to the designation as is prescribed.

(4)In this section “prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

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Commencement Information

I57S. 59 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 59 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 59 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 59 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

60Duration, review and revocation of designationsE+W

(1)Unless previously revoked under subsection (4), a designation ceases to have effect at the time that is specified for this purpose in the designation.

(2)That time must be no later than five years after the date on which the designation comes into force.

(3)A local housing authority must from time to time review the operation of any designation made by them.

(4)If following a review they consider it appropriate to do so, the authority may revoke the designation.

(5)If they do revoke the designation, the designation ceases to have effect at the time that is specified by the authority for this purpose.

(6)On revoking a designation the authority must publish notice of the revocation in such manner as is prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

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Commencement Information

I58S. 60 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 60 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 60 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 60 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

HMOs required to be licensedE+W

61Requirement for HMOs to be licensedE+W

(1)Every HMO to which this Part applies must be licensed under this Part unless—

(a)a temporary exemption notice is in force in relation to it under section 62, or

(b)an interim or final management order is in force in relation to it under Chapter 1 of Part 4.

(2)A licence under this Part is a licence authorising occupation of the house concerned by not more than a maximum number of households or persons specified in the licence.

(3)Sections63 to 67 deal with applications for licences, the granting or refusal of licences and the imposition of licence conditions.

(4)The local housing authority must take all reasonable steps to secure that applications for licences are made to them in respect of HMOs in their area which are required to be licensed under this Part but are not.

(5)The appropriate national authority may by regulations provide for—

(a)any provision of this Part, or

(b)section 263 (in its operation for the purposes of any such provision),

  • to have effect in relation to a section 257 HMO with such modifications as are prescribed by the regulations.

  • A “section 257 HMO” is an HMO which is a converted block of flats to which section 257 applies.

(6)In this Part (unless the context otherwise requires)—

(a)references to a licence are to a licence under this Part,

(b)references to a licence holder are to be read accordingly, and

(c)references to an HMO being (or not being) licensed under this Part are to its being (or not being) an HMO in respect of which a licence is in force under this Part.

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Commencement Information

I59S. 61 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 61 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 61 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 61 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

62Temporary exemption from licensing requirementE+W

(1)This section applies where a person having control of or managing an HMO which is required to be licensed under this Part (see section 61(1)) but is not so licensed, notifies the local housing authority of his intention to take particular steps with a view to securing that the house is no longer required to be licensed.

(2)The authority may, if they think fit, serve on that person a notice under this section (“a temporary exemption notice”) in respect of the house.

(3)If a temporary exemption notice is served under this section, the house is (in accordance with sections 61(1) and 85(1)) not required to be licensed either under this Part or under Part 3 during the period for which the notice is in force.

(4)A temporary exemption notice under this section is in force—

(a)for the period of 3 months beginning with the date on which it is served, or

(b)(in the case of a notice served by virtue of subsection (5)) for the period of 3 months after the date when the first notice ceases to be in force.

(5)If the authority—

(a)receive a further notification under subsection (1), and

(b)consider that there are exceptional circumstances that justify the service of a second temporary exemption notice in respect of the house that would take effect from the end of the period of 3 months applying to the first notice,

the authority may serve a second such notice on the person having control of or managing the house (but no further notice may be served by virtue of this subsection).

(6)If the authority decide not to serve a temporary exemption notice in response to a notification under subsection (1), they must without delay serve on the person concerned a notice informing him of—

(a)the decision,

(b)the reasons for it and the date on which it was made,

(c)the right to appeal against the decision under subsection (7), and

(d)the period within which an appeal may be made under that subsection.

(7)The person concerned may appeal to a residential property tribunal against the decision within the period of 28 days beginning with the date specified under subsection (6) as the date on which it was made.

(8)Such an appeal—

(a)is to be by way of a re-hearing, but

(b)may be determined having regard to matters of which the authority were unaware.

(9)The tribunal—

(a)may confirm or reverse the decision of the authority, and

(b)if it reverses the decision, must direct the authority to serve a temporary exemption notice that comes into force on such date as the tribunal directs.

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Commencement Information

I60S. 62 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 62 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 62 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 62 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Grant or refusal of licencesE+W

63Applications for licencesE+W

(1)An application for a licence must be made to the local housing authority.

(2)The application must be made in accordance with such requirements as the authority may specify.

(3)The authority may, in particular, require the application to be accompanied by a fee fixed by the authority.

(4)The power of the authority to specify requirements under this section is subject to any regulations made under subsection (5).

(5)The appropriate national authority may by regulations make provision about the making of applications under this section.

(6)Such regulations may, in particular—

(a)specify the manner and form in which applications are to be made;

(b)require the applicant to give copies of the application, or information about it, to particular persons;

(c)specify the information which is to be supplied in connection with applications;

(d)specify the maximum fees which are to be charged (whether by specifying amounts or methods for calculating amounts);

(e)specify cases in which no fees are to be charged or fees are to be refunded.

(7)When fixing fees under this section, the local housing authority may (subject to any regulations made under subsection (5)) take into account—

(a)all costs incurred by the authority in carrying out their functions under this Part, and

(b)all costs incurred by them in carrying out their functions under Chapter 1 of Part 4 in relation to HMOs (so far as they are not recoverable under or by virtue of any provision of that Chapter).

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Commencement Information

I61S. 63 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 63 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 63 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 63 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

64Grant or refusal of licenceE+W

(1)Where an application in respect of an HMO is made to the local housing authority under section 63, the authority must either—

(a)grant a licence in accordance with subsection (2), or

(b)refuse to grant a licence.

(2)If the authority are satisfied as to the matters mentioned in subsection (3), they may grant a licence either—

(a)to the applicant, or

(b)to some other person, if both he and the applicant agree.

(3)The matters are—

(a)that the house is reasonably suitable for occupation by not more than the maximum number of households or persons mentioned in subsection (4) or that it can be made so suitable by the imposition of conditions under section 67;

(b)that the proposed licence holder—

(i)is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder, and

(ii)is, out of all the persons reasonably available to be the licence holder in respect of the house, the most appropriate person to be the licence holder;

(c)that the proposed manager of the house is either—

(i)the person having control of the house, or

(ii)a person who is an agent or employee of the person having control of the house;

(d)that the proposed manager of the house is a fit and proper person to be the manager of the house; and

(e)that the proposed management arrangements for the house are otherwise satisfactory.

(4)The maximum number of households or persons referred to in subsection (3)(a) is—

(a)the maximum number specified in the application, or

(b)some other maximum number decided by the authority.

(5)Sections 65 and 66 apply for the purposes of this section.

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Commencement Information

I62S. 64 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 64 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 64 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 64 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

65Tests as to suitability for multiple occupationE+W

(1)The local housing authority cannot be satisfied for the purposes of section 64(3)(a) that the house is reasonably suitable for occupation by a particular maximum number of households or persons if they consider that it fails to meet prescribed standards for occupation by that number of households or persons.

(2)But the authority may decide that the house is not reasonably suitable for occupation by a particular maximum number of households or persons even if it does meet prescribed standards for occupation by that number of households or persons.

(3)In this section “prescribed standards” means standards prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

(4)The standards that may be so prescribed include—

(a)standards as to the number, type and quality of—

(i)bathrooms, toilets, washbasins and showers,

(ii)areas for food storage, preparation and cooking, and

(iii)laundry facilities,

which should be available in particular circumstances; and

(b)standards as to the number, type and quality of other facilities or equipment which should be available in particular circumstances.

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Commencement Information

I63S. 65 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 65 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 65 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 65 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

66Tests for fitness etc. and satisfactory management arrangementsE+W

(1)In deciding for the purposes of section 64(3)(b) or (d) whether a person (“P”) is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder or (as the case may be) the manager of the house, the local housing authority must have regard (among other things) to any evidence within subsection (2) or (3).

(2)Evidence is within this subsection if it shows that P has—

(a)committed any offence involving fraud or other dishonesty, or violence or drugs, or any offence listed in Schedule 3 to the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (c. 42) (offences attracting notification requirements);

(b)practised unlawful discrimination on grounds of sex, colour, race, ethnic or national origins or disability in, or in connection with, the carrying on of any business;

(c)contravened any provision of the law relating to housing or of landlord and tenant law; or

(d)acted otherwise than in accordance with any applicable code of practice approved under section 233.

(3)Evidence is within this subsection if—

(a)it shows that any person associated or formerly associated with P (whether on a personal, work or other basis) has done any of the things set out in subsection (2)(a) to (d), and

(b)it appears to the authority that the evidence is relevant to the question whether P is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder or (as the case may be) the manager of the house.

(4)For the purposes of section 64(3)(b) the local housing authority must assume, unless the contrary is shown, that the person having control of the house is a more appropriate person to be the licence holder than a person not having control of it.

(5)In deciding for the purposes of section 64(3)(e) whether the proposed management arrangements for the house are otherwise satisfactory, the local housing authority must have regard (among other things) to the considerations mentioned in subsection (6).

(6)The considerations are—

(a)whether any person proposed to be involved in the management of the house has a sufficient level of competence to be so involved;

(b)whether any person proposed to be involved in the management of the house (other than the manager) is a fit and proper person to be so involved; and

(c)whether any proposed management structures and funding arrangements are suitable.

(7)Any reference in section 64(3)(c)(i) or (ii) or subsection (4) above to a person having control of the house, or to being a person of any other description, includes a reference to a person who is proposing to have control of the house, or (as the case may be) to be a person of that description, at the time when the licence would come into force.

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Commencement Information

I64S. 66 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 66 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 66 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 66 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

67Licence conditionsE+W

(1)A licence may include such conditions as the local housing authority consider appropriate for regulating all or any of the following—

(a)the management, use and occupation of the house concerned, and

(b)its condition and contents.

(2)Those conditions may, in particular, include (so far as appropriate in the circumstances)—

(a)conditions imposing restrictions or prohibitions on the use or occupation of particular parts of the house by persons occupying it;

(b)conditions requiring the taking of reasonable and practicable steps to prevent or reduce anti-social behaviour by persons occupying or visiting the house;

(c)conditions requiring facilities and equipment to be made available in the house for the purpose of meeting standards prescribed under section 65;

(d)conditions requiring such facilities and equipment to be kept in repair and proper working order;

(e)conditions requiring, in the case of any works needed in order for any such facilities or equipment to be made available or to meet any such standards, that the works are carried out within such period or periods as may be specified in, or determined under, the licence;

(f)conditions requiring the licence holder or the manager of the house to attend training courses in relation to any applicable code of practice approved under section 233.

(3)A licence must include the conditions required by Schedule 4.

(4)As regards the relationship between the authority’s power to impose conditions under this section and functions exercisable by them under or for the purposes of Part 1 (“Part 1 functions”)—

(a)the authority must proceed on the basis that, in general, they should seek to identify, remove or reduce category 1 or category 2 hazards in the house by the exercise of Part 1 functions and not by means of licence conditions;

(b)this does not, however, prevent the authority from imposing licence conditions relating to the installation or maintenance of facilities or equipment within subsection (2)(c) above, even if the same result could be achieved by the exercise of Part 1 functions;

(c)the fact that licence conditions are imposed for a particular purpose that could be achieved by the exercise of Part 1 functions does not affect the way in which Part 1 functions can be subsequently exercised by the authority.

(5)A licence may not include conditions imposing restrictions or obligations on a particular person other than the licence holder unless that person has consented to the imposition of the restrictions or obligations.

(6)A licence may not include conditions requiring (or intended to secure) any alteration in the terms of any tenancy or licence under which any person occupies the house.

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Commencement Information

I65S. 67 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 67 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 67 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 67 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

68Licences: general requirements and durationE+W

(1)A licence may not relate to more than one HMO.

(2)A licence may be granted before the time when it is required by virtue of this Part but, if so, the licence cannot come into force until that time.

(3)A licence—

(a)comes into force at the time that is specified in or determined under the licence for this purpose, and

(b)unless previously terminated by subsection (7) or revoked under section 70, continues in force for the period that is so specified or determined.

(4)That period must not end more than 5 years after—

(a)the date on which the licence was granted, or

(b)if the licence was granted as mentioned in subsection (2), the date when the licence comes into force.

(5)Subsection (3)(b) applies even if, at any time during that period, the HMO concerned subsequently ceases to be one to which this Part applies.

(6)A licence may not be transferred to another person.

(7)If the holder of the licence dies while the licence is in force, the licence ceases to be in force on his death.

(8)However, during the period of 3 months beginning with the date of the licence holder’s death, the house is to be treated for the purposes of this Part and Part 3 as if on that date a temporary exemption notice had been served in respect of the house under section 62.

(9)If, at any time during that period (“the initial period”), the personal representatives of the licence holder request the local housing authority to do so, the authority may serve on them a notice which, during the period of 3 months after the date on which the initial period ends, has the same effect as a temporary exemption notice under section 62.

(10)Subsections (6) to (8) of section 62 apply (with any necessary modifications) in relation to a decision by the authority not to serve such a notice as they apply in relation to a decision not to serve a temporary exemption notice.

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Commencement Information

I66S. 68 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 68 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 68 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 68 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Variation and revocation of licencesE+W

69Variation of licencesE+W

(1)The local housing authority may vary a licence—

(a)if they do so with the agreement of the licence holder, or

(b)if they consider that there has been a change of circumstances since the time when the licence was granted.

For this purpose “change of circumstances” includes any discovery of new information.

(2)Subsection (3) applies where the authority—

(a)are considering whether to vary a licence under subsection (1)(b); and

(b)are considering—

(i)what number of households or persons is appropriate as the maximum number authorised to occupy the HMO to which the licence relates, or

(ii)the standards applicable to occupation by a particular number of households or persons.

(3)The authority must apply the same standards in relation to the circumstances existing at the time when they are considering whether to vary the licence as were applicable at the time when it was granted.

This is subject to subsection (4).

(4)If the standards—

(a)prescribed under section 65, and

(b)applicable at the time when the licence was granted,

have subsequently been revised or superseded by provisions of regulations under that section, the authority may apply the new standards.

(5)A variation made with the agreement of the licence holder takes effect at the time when it is made.

(6)Otherwise, a variation does not come into force until such time, if any, as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 35 of Schedule 5 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to vary is confirmed on appeal).

(7)The power to vary a licence under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by the licence holder or a relevant person, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

(8)In subsection (7) “relevant person” means any person (other than the licence holder)—

(a)who has an estate or interest in the HMO concerned (but is not a tenant under a lease with an unexpired term of 3 years or less), or

(b)who is a person managing or having control of the house (and does not fall within paragraph (a)), or

(c)on whom any restriction or obligation is imposed by the licence in accordance with section 67(5).

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Commencement Information

I67S. 69 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 69 in force at Royal Assent for certain purposes see s. 270(2)(b); s. 69 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 69 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

70Revocation of licencesE+W

(1)The local housing authority may revoke a licence—

(a)if they do so with the agreement of the licence holder;

(b)in any of the cases mentioned in subsection (2) (circumstances relating to licence holder or other person);

(c)in any of the cases mentioned in subsection (3) (circumstances relating to HMO concerned); or

(d)in any other circumstances prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

(2)The cases referred to in subsection (1)(b) are as follows—

(a)where the authority consider that the licence holder or any other person has committed a serious breach of a condition of the licence or repeated breaches of such a condition;

(b)where the authority no longer consider that the licence holder is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder; and

(c)where the authority no longer consider that the management of the house is being carried on by persons who are in each case fit and proper persons to be involved in its management.

Section 66(1) applies in relation to paragraph (b) or (c) above as it applies in relation to section 64(3)(b) or (d).

(3)The cases referred to in subsection (1)(c) are as follows—

(a)where the HMO to which the licence relates ceases to be an HMO to which this Part applies; and

(b)where the authority consider at any time that, were the licence to expire at that time, they would, for a particular reason relating to the structure of the HMO, refuse to grant a new licence to the licence holder on similar terms in respect of it.

(4)Subsection (5) applies where the authority are considering whether to revoke a licence by virtue of subsection (3)(b) on the grounds that the HMO is not reasonably suitable for the number of households or persons specified in the licence as the maximum number authorised to occupy the house.

(5)The authority must apply the same standards in relation to the circumstances existing at the time when they are considering whether to revoke the licence as were applicable at the time when it was granted.

This is subject to subsection (6).

(6)If the standards—

(a)prescribed under section 65, and

(b)applicable at the time when the licence was granted,

have subsequently been revised or superseded by provisions of regulations under that section, the authority may apply the new standards.

(7)A revocation made with the agreement of the licence holder takes effect at the time when it is made.

(8)Otherwise, a revocation does not come into force until such time, if any, as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 35 of Schedule 5 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to vary is confirmed on appeal).

(9)The power to revoke a licence under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by the licence holder or a relevant person, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

(10)In subsection (9) “relevant person” means any person (other than the licence holder)—

(a)who has an estate or interest in the HMO concerned (but is not a tenant under a lease with an unexpired term of 3 years or less), or

(b)who is a person managing or having control of that house (and does not fall within paragraph (a)), or

(c)on whom any restriction or obligation is imposed by the licence in accordance with section 67(5).

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Commencement Information

I68S. 70 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 70 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 70 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 70 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Procedure and appealsE+W

71Procedural requirements and appeals against licence decisionsE+W

Schedule 5 (which deals with procedural requirements relating to the grant, refusal, variation or revocation of licences and with appeals against licence decisions) has effect for the purposes of this Part.

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Commencement Information

I69S. 71 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 71 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 71 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 71 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

EnforcementE+W

72Offences in relation to licensing of HMOsE+W

(1)A person commits an offence if he is a person having control of or managing an HMO which is required to be licensed under this Part (see section 61(1)) but is not so licensed.

(2)A person commits an offence if—

(a)he is a person having control of or managing an HMO which is licensed under this Part,

(b)he knowingly permits another person to occupy the house, and

(c)the other person’s occupation results in the house being occupied by more households or persons than is authorised by the licence.

(3)A person commits an offence if—

(a)he is a licence holder or a person on whom restrictions or obligations under a licence are imposed in accordance with section 67(5), and

(b)he fails to comply with any condition of the licence.

(4)In proceedings against a person for an offence under subsection (1) it is a defence that, at the material time—

(a)a notification had been duly given in respect of the house under section 62(1), or

(b)an application for a licence had been duly made in respect of the house under section 63,

and that notification or application was still effective (see subsection (8)).

(5)In proceedings against a person for an offence under subsection (1), (2) or (3) it is a defence that he had a reasonable excuse—

(a)for having control of or managing the house in the circumstances mentioned in subsection (1), or

(b)for permitting the person to occupy the house, or

(c)for failing to comply with the condition,

as the case may be.

(6)A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) or (2) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding £20,000.

(7)A person who commits an offence under subsection (3) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

(8)For the purposes of subsection (4) a notification or application is “effective” at a particular time if at that time it has not been withdrawn, and either—

(a)the authority have not decided whether to serve a temporary exemption notice, or (as the case may be) grant a licence, in pursuance of the notification or application, or

(b)if they have decided not to do so, one of the conditions set out in subsection (9) is met.

(9)The conditions are—

(a)that the period for appealing against the decision of the authority not to serve or grant such a notice or licence (or against any relevant decision of a residential property tribunal) has not expired, or

(b)that an appeal has been brought against the authority’s decision (or against any relevant decision of such a tribunal) and the appeal has not been determined or withdrawn.

(10)In subsection (9) “relevant decision” means a decision which is given on an appeal to the tribunal and confirms the authority’s decision (with or without variation).

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Commencement Information

I70S. 72 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 72 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 72(2)(3)(5)(6)(7) in force for E. at 6.4.2006 and s. 72 in force for E. in so far as not already in force at 6.7.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(b)(2)(b) (with Sch.); s. 72 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

73Other consequences of operating unlicensed HMOs: rent repayment ordersE+W

(1)For the purposes of this section an HMO is an “unlicensed HMO” if—

(a)it is required to be licensed under this Part but is not so licensed, and

(b)neither of the conditions in subsection (2) is satisfied.

(2)The conditions are—

(a)that a notification has been duly given in respect of the HMO under section 62(1) and that notification is still effective (as defined by section 72(8));

(b)that an application for a licence has been duly made in respect of the HMO under section 63 and that application is still effective (as so defined).

(3)No rule of law relating to the validity or enforceability of contracts in circumstances involving illegality is to affect the validity or enforceability of—

(a)any provision requiring the payment of rent or the making of any other periodical payment in connection with any tenancy or licence of a part of an unlicensed HMO, or

(b)any other provision of such a tenancy or licence.

(4)But amounts paid in respect of rent or other periodical payments payable in connection with such a tenancy or licence may be recovered in accordance with subsection (5) and section 74.

(5)If—

(a)an application in respect of an HMO is made to a residential property tribunal by the local housing authority or an occupier of a part of the HMO, and

(b)the tribunal is satisfied as to the matters mentioned in subsection (6) or (8),

the tribunal may make an order (a “rent repayment order”) requiring the appropriate person to pay to the applicant such amount in respect of the housing benefit paid as mentioned in subsection (6)(b), or (as the case may be) the periodical payments paid as mentioned in subsection (8)(b), as is specified in the order (see section 74(2) to (8)).

(6)If the application is made by the local housing authority, the tribunal must be satisfied as to the following matters—

(a)that, at any time within the period of 12 months ending with the date of the notice of intended proceedings required by subsection (7), the appropriate person has committed an offence under section 72(1) in relation to the HMO (whether or not he has been charged or convicted),

(b)that housing benefit has been paid (to any person) in respect of periodical payments payable in connection with the occupation of a part or parts of the HMO during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that such an offence was being committed, and

(c)that the requirements of subsection (7) have been complied with in relation to the application.

(7)Those requirements are as follows—

(a)the authority must have served on the appropriate person a notice (a “notice of intended proceedings”)—

(i)informing him that the authority are proposing to make an application under subsection (5),

(ii)setting out the reasons why they propose to do so,

(iii)stating the amount that they will seek to recover under that subsection and how that amount is calculated, and

(iv)inviting him to make representations to them within a period specified in the notice of not less than 28 days;

(b)that period must have expired; and

(c)the authority must have considered any representations made to them within that period by the appropriate person.

(8)If the application is made by an occupier of a part of the HMO, the tribunal must be satisfied as to the following matters—

(a)that the appropriate person has been convicted of an offence under section 72(1) in relation to the HMO, or has been required by a rent repayment order to make a payment in respect of housing benefit paid in connection with occupation of a part or parts of the HMO,

(b)that the occupier paid, to a person having control of or managing the HMO, periodical payments in respect of occupation of part of the HMO during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that such an offence was being committed in relation to the HMO, and

(c)that the application is made within the period of 12 months beginning with—

(i)the date of the conviction or order, or

(ii)if such a conviction was followed by such an order (or vice versa), the date of the later of them.

(9)Where a local housing authority serve a notice of intended proceedings on any person under this section, they must ensure—

(a)that a copy of the notice is received by the department of the authority responsible for administering the housing benefit to which the proceedings would relate; and

(b)that that department is subsequently kept informed of any matters relating to the proceedings that are likely to be of interest to it in connection with the administration of housing benefit.

(10)In this section—

  • the appropriate person”, in relation to any payment of housing benefit or periodical payment payable in connection with occupation of a part of an HMO, means the person who at the time of the payment was entitled to receive on his own account periodical payments payable in connection with such occupation;

  • housing benefit” means housing benefit provided by virtue of a scheme under section 123 of the Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1992 (c. 4);

  • occupier”, in relation to any periodical payment, means a person who was an occupier at the time of the payment, whether under a tenancy or licence or otherwise (and “occupation” has a corresponding meaning);

  • periodical payments” means periodical payments in respect of which housing benefit may be paid by virtue of regulation 10 of the Housing Benefit (General) Regulations 1987 (S.I. 1987/1971) or any corresponding provision replacing that regulation.

(11)For the purposes of this section an amount which—

(a)is not actually paid by an occupier but is used by him to discharge the whole or part of his liability in respect of a periodical payment (for example, by offsetting the amount against any such liability), and

(b)is not an amount of housing benefit,

is to be regarded as an amount paid by the occupier in respect of that periodical payment.

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Commencement Information

I71S. 73 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 73 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 73 in force for E. at 6.7.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(2)(a) (with Sch.); s. 73 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

74Further provisions about rent repayment ordersE+W

(1)This section applies in relation to rent repayment orders made by residential property tribunals under section 73(5).

(2)Where, on an application by the local housing authority, the tribunal is satisfied—

(a)that a person has been convicted of an offence under section 72(1) in relation to the HMO, and

(b)that housing benefit was paid (whether or not to the appropriate person) in respect of periodical payments payable in connection with occupation of a part or parts of the HMO during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that such an offence was being committed in relation to the HMO,

the tribunal must make a rent repayment order requiring the appropriate person to pay to the authority an amount equal to the total amount of housing benefit paid as mentioned in paragraph (b).

This is subject to subsections (3), (4) and (8).

(3)If the total of the amounts received by the appropriate person in respect of periodical payments payable as mentioned in paragraph (b) of subsection (2) (“the rent total”) is less than the total amount of housing benefit paid as mentioned in that paragraph, the amount required to be paid by virtue of a rent repayment order made in accordance with that subsection is limited to the rent total.

(4)A rent repayment order made in accordance with subsection (2) may not require the payment of any amount which the tribunal is satisfied that, by reason of any exceptional circumstances, it would be unreasonable for that person to be required to pay.

(5)In a case where subsection (2) does not apply, the amount required to be paid by virtue of a rent repayment order under section 73(5) is to be such amount as the tribunal considers reasonable in the circumstances.

This is subject to subsections (6) to (8).

(6)In such a case the tribunal must, in particular, take into account the following matters—

(a)the total amount of relevant payments paid in connection with occupation of the HMO during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that an offence was being committed by the appropriate person in relation to the HMO under section 72(1);

(b)the extent to which that total amount—

(i)consisted of, or derived from, payments of housing benefit, and

(ii)was actually received by the appropriate person;

(c)whether the appropriate person has at any time been convicted of an offence under section 72(1) in relation to the HMO;

(d)the conduct and financial circumstances of the appropriate person; and

(e)where the application is made by an occupier, the conduct of the occupier.

(7)In subsection (6) “relevant payments” means—

(a)in relation to an application by a local housing authority, payments of housing benefit or periodical payments payable by occupiers;

(b)in relation to an application by an occupier, periodical payments payable by the occupier, less any amount of housing benefit payable in respect of occupation of the part of the HMO occupied by him during the period in question.

(8)A rent repayment order may not require the payment of any amount which—

(a)(where the application is made by a local housing authority) is in respect of any time falling outside the period of 12 months mentioned in section 73(6)(a); or

(b)(where the application is made by an occupier) is in respect of any time falling outside the period of 12 months ending with the date of the occupier’s application under section 73(5);

and the period to be taken into account under subsection (6)(a) above is restricted accordingly.

(9)Any amount payable to a local housing authority under a rent repayment order—

(a)does not, when recovered by the authority, constitute an amount of housing benefit recovered by them, and

(b)until recovered by them, is a legal charge on the HMO which is a local land charge.

(10)For the purpose of enforcing that charge the authority have the same powers and remedies under the Law of Property Act 1925 (c. 20) and otherwise as if they were mortgagees by deed having powers of sale and lease, and of accepting surrenders of leases and of appointing a receiver.

(11)The power of appointing a receiver is exercisable at any time after the end of the period of one month beginning with the date on which the charge takes effect.

(12)If the authority subsequently grant a licence under this Part or Part 3 in respect of the HMO to the appropriate person or any person acting on his behalf, the conditions contained in the licence may include a condition requiring the licence holder—

(a)to pay to the authority any amount payable to them under the rent repayment order and not so far recovered by them; and

(b)to do so in such instalments as are specified in the licence.

(13)If the authority subsequently make a management order under Chapter 1 of Part 4 in respect of the HMO, the order may contain such provisions as the authority consider appropriate for the recovery of any amount payable to them under the rent repayment order and not so far recovered by them.

(14)Any amount payable to an occupier by virtue of a rent repayment order is recoverable by the occupier as a debt due to him from the appropriate person.

(15)The appropriate national authority may by regulations make such provision as it considers appropriate for supplementing the provisions of this section and section 73, and in particular—

(a)for securing that persons are not unfairly prejudiced by rent repayment orders (whether in cases where there have been over-payments of housing benefit or otherwise);

(b)for requiring or authorising amounts received by local housing authorities by virtue of rent repayment orders to be dealt with in such manner as is specified in the regulations.

(16)Section 73(10) and (11) apply for the purposes of this section as they apply for the purposes of section 73.

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Commencement Information

I72S. 74 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 74 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 74 in force for E. at 6.7.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(2)(b) (with Sch.); s. 74 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

75Other consequences of operating unlicensed HMOs: restriction on terminating tenanciesE+W

(1)No section 21 notice may be given in relation to a shorthold tenancy of a part of an unlicensed HMO so long as it remains such an HMO.

(2)In this section—

  • a “section 21 notice” means a notice under section 21(1)(b) or (4)(a) of the Housing Act 1988 (c. 50) (recovery of possession on termination of shorthold tenancy);

  • a “shorthold tenancy” means an assured shorthold tenancy within the meaning of Chapter 2 of Part 1 of that Act;

  • unlicensed HMO” has the same meaning as in section 73 of this Act.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I73S. 75 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 75 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 75 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 75 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Supplementary provisionsE+W

76Transitional arrangements relating to introduction and termination of licensingE+W

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)an order under section 55(3) which prescribes a particular description of HMOs comes into force; or

(b)a designation under section 56 comes into force in relation to HMOs of a particular description.

(2)This Part applies in relation to the occupation by persons or households of such HMOs on or after the coming into force of the order or designation even if their occupation began before, or in pursuance of a contract made before, it came into force.

This is subject to subsections (3) to (5).

(3)Subsection (4) applies where—

(a)an HMO which is licensed under this Part, or a part of such an HMO, is occupied by more households or persons than the number permitted by the licence; and

(b)the occupation of all or any of those households or persons began before, or in pursuance of a contract made before, the licence came into force.

(4)In proceedings against a person for an offence under section 72(2) it is a defence that at the material time he was taking all reasonable steps to try to reduce the number of households or persons occupying the house to the number permitted by the licence.

(5)Subsection (4) does not apply if the licence came into force immediately after a previous licence in respect of the same HMO unless the occupation in question began before, or in pursuance of a contract made before, the coming into force of the original licence.

(6)An order under section 270 may make provision as regards the licensing under this Part of HMOs—

(a)which are registered immediately before the appointed day under a scheme to which section 347 (schemes containing control provisions) or 348B (schemes containing special control provisions) of the Housing Act 1985 (c. 68) applies, or

(b)in respect of which applications for registration under such a scheme are then pending.

(7)In subsection (6) “the appointed day” means the day appointed for the coming into force of section 61.

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Commencement Information

I74S. 76 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 76 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 76 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 76 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

77Meaning of “HMO”E+W

In this Part—

(a)HMO” means a house in multiple occupation as defined by sections 254 to 259, and

(b)references to an HMO include (where the context permits) any yard, garden, outhouses and appurtenances belonging to, or usually enjoyed with, it (or any part of it).

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I75S. 77 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 77 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 77 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 77 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

78Index of defined expressions: Part 2E+W

The following table shows where expressions used in this Part are defined or otherwise explained.

ExpressionProvision of this Act
Anti-social behaviourSection 57(5)
Appropriate national authoritySection 261(1)
Category 1 hazardSection 2(1)
Category 2 hazardSection 2(1)
District of local housing authoritySection 261(6)
HMOSection 77
HMO to which this Part appliesSection 55(2)
Licence and licence holderSection 61(6)
Licence (to occupy premises)Section 262(9)
Local housing authoritySection 261(2) to (5)
ModificationsSection 250(7)
Occupier (and related expressions)Section 262(6)
Person having controlSection 263(1) and (2) (and see also section 66(7))
Person having estate or interestSection 262(8)
Person managingSection 263(3)
Person involved in managementSection 263(5)
Residential property tribunalSection 229
TenantSection 262(1) to (5).
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I76S. 78 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 78 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 78 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 78 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Part 3 E+WSelective licensing of other residential accommodation

IntroductoryE+W

79Licensing of houses to which this Part appliesE+W

(1)This Part provides for houses to be licensed by local housing authorities where—

(a)they are houses to which this Part applies (see subsection (2)), and

(b)they are required to be licensed under this Part (see section 85(1)).

(2)This Part applies to a house if—

(a)it is in an area that is for the time being designated under section 80 as subject to selective licensing, and

(b)the whole of it is occupied either—

(i)under a single tenancy or licence that is not an exempt tenancy or licence under subsection (3) or (4), or

(ii)under two or more tenancies or licences in respect of different dwellings contained in it, none of which is an exempt tenancy or licence under subsection (3) or (4).

(3)A tenancy or licence is an exempt tenancy or licence if it is granted by a body which is registered as a social landlord under Part 1 of the Housing Act 1996 (c. 52).

(4)In addition, the appropriate national authority may by order provide for a tenancy or licence to be an exempt tenancy or licence—

(a)if it falls within any description of tenancy or licence specified in the order; or

(b)in any other circumstances so specified.

(5)Every local housing authority have the following general duties—

(a)to make such arrangements as are necessary to secure the effective implementation in their district of the licensing regime provided for by this Part; and

(b)to ensure that all applications for licences and other issues falling to be determined by them under this Part are determined within a reasonable time.

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Commencement Information

I77S. 79 wholly in force at 25.11.2005; s. 79 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 79 in force for E. at 15.6.2005 by S.I. 2005/1451, art. 3(c); s. 79 in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(d)

Designation of selective licensing areasE+W

80Designation of selective licensing areasE+W

(1)A local housing authority may designate either—

(a)the area of their district, or

(b)an area in their district,

as subject to selective licensing, if the requirements of subsections (2) and (9) are met.

(2)The authority must consider that—

(a)the first or second set of general conditions mentioned in subsection (3) or (6), or

(b)any conditions specified in an order under subsection (7) as an additional set of conditions,

are satisfied in relation to the area.

(3)The first set of general conditions are—

(a)that the area is, or is likely to become, an area of low housing demand; and

(b)that making a designation will, when combined with other measures taken in the area by the local housing authority, or by other persons together with the local housing authority, contribute to the improvement of the social or economic conditions in the area.

(4)In deciding whether an area is, or is likely to become, an area of low housing demand a local housing authority must take into account (among other matters)—

(a)the value of residential premises in the area, in comparison to the value of similar premises in other areas which the authority consider to be comparable (whether in terms of types of housing, local amenities, availability of transport or otherwise);

(b)the turnover of occupiers of residential premises;

(c)the number of residential premises which are available to buy or rent and the length of time for which they remain unoccupied.

(5)The appropriate national authority may by order amend subsection (4) by adding new matters to those for the time being mentioned in that subsection.

(6)The second set of general conditions are—

(a)that the area is experiencing a significant and persistent problem caused by anti-social behaviour;

(b)that some or all of the private sector landlords who have let premises in the area (whether under leases or licences) are failing to take action to combat the problem that it would be appropriate for them to take; and

(c)that making a designation will, when combined with other measures taken in the area by the local housing authority, or by other persons together with the local housing authority, lead to a reduction in, or the elimination of, the problem.

Private sector landlord” does not include a registered social landlord within the meaning of Part 1 of the Housing Act 1996 (c. 52).

(7)The appropriate national authority may by order provide for any conditions specified in the order to apply as an additional set of conditions for the purposes of subsection (2).

(8)The conditions that may be specified include, in particular, conditions intended to permit a local housing authority to make a designation for the purpose of dealing with one or more specified problems affecting persons occupying Part 3 houses in the area.

  • Specified” means specified in an order under subsection (7).

(9)Before making a designation the local housing authority must—

(a)take reasonable steps to consult persons who are likely to be affected by the designation; and

(b)consider any representations made in accordance with the consultation and not withdrawn.

(10)Section 81 applies for the purposes of this section.

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Commencement Information

I78S. 80 wholly in force at 25.11.2005; s. 80 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 80 in force for E. at 15.6.2005 by S.I. 2005/1451, art. 3(c); s. 80 in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(d)

81Designations under section 80: further considerationsE+W

(1)This section applies to the power of a local housing authority to make designations under section 80.

(2)The authority must ensure that any exercise of the power is consistent with the authority’s overall housing strategy.

(3)The authority must also seek to adopt a co-ordinated approach in connection with dealing with homelessness, empty properties and anti-social behaviour, both—

(a)as regards combining licensing under this Part with other courses of action available to them, and

(b)as regards combining such licensing with measures taken by other persons.

(4)The authority must not make a particular designation under section 80 unless—

(a)they have considered whether there are any other courses of action available to them (of whatever nature) that might provide an effective method of achieving the objective or objectives that the designation would be intended to achieve, and

(b)they consider that making the designation will significantly assist them to achieve the objective or objectives (whether or not they take any other course of action as well).

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I79S. 81 wholly in force at 25.11.2005; s. 81 not force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 81 in force for E. at 15.6.2005 by S.I. 2005/1451, art. 3(d); s. 81 in force for W. at 25.11.2005 by S.I. 2005/3237, art. 2(e)

82Designation needs confirmation or general approval to be effectiveE+W

(1)A designation of an area as subject to selective licensing cannot come into force unless—

(a)it has been confirmed by the appropriate national authority; or

(b)it falls within a description of designations in relation to which that authority has given a general approval in accordance with subsection (6).

(2)The appropriate national authority may either confirm, or refuse to confirm, a designation as it considers appropriate.

(3)If the appropriate national authority confirms a designation, the designation comes into force on a date specified for this purpose by that authority.

(4)That date must be no earlier than three months after the date on which the designation is confirmed.

(5)A general approval may be given in relation to a description of designations framed by reference to any matters or circumstances.

(6)Accordingly a general approval may (in particular) be given in relation to—

(a)designations made by a specified local housing authority;

(b)designations made by a local housing authority falling within a specified description of such authorities;

(c)designations relating to Part 3 houses of a specified description.

  • Specified” means specified by the appropriate national authority in the approval.

(7)If, by virtue of a general approval, a designation does not need to be confirmed before it comes into force, the designation comes into force on the date specified for this purpose in the designation.

(8)That date must be no earlier than three months after the date on which the designation is made.

(9)Where a designation comes into force, this Part applies in relation to the occupation by persons of houses in the area on or after the coming into force of the designation even if their occupation began before, or in pursuance of a contract made before, it came into force.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I80S. 82 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 82 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 82 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 82 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

83Notification requirements relating to designationsE+W

(1)This section applies to a designation—

(a)when it is confirmed under section 82, or

(b)(if it is not required to be so confirmed) when it is made by the local housing authority.

(2)As soon as the designation is confirmed or made, the authority must publish in the prescribed manner a notice stating—

(a)that the designation has been made,

(b)whether or not the designation was required to be confirmed and either that it has been confirmed or that a general approval under section 82 applied to it (giving details of the approval in question),

(c)the date on which the designation is to come into force, and

(d)any other information which may be prescribed.

(3)After publication of a notice under subsection (2), and for as long as the designation is in force, the local housing authority must make available to the public in accordance with any prescribed requirements—

(a)copies of the designation, and

(b)such information relating to the designation as is prescribed.

(4)In this section “prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I81S. 83 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 83 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 83 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 83 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

84Duration, review and revocation of designationsE+W

(1)Unless previously revoked under subsection (4), a designation ceases to have effect at the time that is specified for this purpose in the designation.

(2)That time must be no later than five years after the date on which the designation comes into force.

(3)A local housing authority must from time to time review the operation of any designation made by them.

(4)If following a review they consider it appropriate to do so, the authority may revoke the designation.

(5)If they do revoke the designation, the designation ceases to have effect on the date that is specified by the authority for this purpose.

(6)On revoking a designation, the authority must publish notice of the revocation in such manner as is prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I82S. 84 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 84 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 84 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 84 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Houses required to be licensedE+W

85Requirement for Part 3 houses to be licensedE+W

(1)Every Part 3 house must be licensed under this Part unless—

(a)it is an HMO to which Part 2 applies (see section 55(2)), or

(b)a temporary exemption notice is in force in relation to it under section 86, or

(c)a management order is in force in relation to it under Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4.

(2)A licence under this Part is a licence authorising occupation of the house concerned under one or more tenancies or licences within section 79(2)(b).

(3)Sections 87 to 90 deal with applications for licences, the granting or refusal of licences and the imposition of licence conditions.

(4)The local housing authority must take all reasonable steps to secure that applications for licences are made to them in respect of houses in their area which are required to be licensed under this Part but are not so licensed.

(5)In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires—

(a)references to a Part 3 house are to a house to which this Part applies (see section 79(2)),

(b)references to a licence are to a licence under this Part,

(c)references to a licence holder are to be read accordingly, and

(d)references to a house being (or not being) licensed under this Part are to its being (or not being) a house in respect of which a licence is in force under this Part.

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Commencement Information

I83S. 85 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 85 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 85 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 85 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

86Temporary exemption from licensing requirementE+W

(1)This section applies where a person having control of or managing a Part 3 house which is required to be licensed under this Part (see section 85(1)) but is not so licensed, notifies the local housing authority of his intention to take particular steps with a view to securing that the house is no longer required to be licensed.

(2)The authority may, if they think fit, serve on that person a notice under this section (“a temporary exemption notice”) in respect of the house.

(3)If a temporary exemption notice is served under this section, the house is (in accordance with section 85(1)) not required to be licensed under this Part during the period for which the notice is in force.

(4)A temporary exemption notice under this section is in force—

(a)for the period of 3 months beginning with the date on which it is served, or

(b)(in the case of a notice served by virtue of subsection (5)) for the period of 3 months after the date when the first notice ceases to be in force.

(5)If the authority—

(a)receive a further notification under subsection (1), and

(b)consider that there are exceptional circumstances that justify the service of a second temporary exemption notice in respect of the house that would take effect from the end of the period of 3 months applying to the first notice,

the authority may serve a second such notice on the person having control of or managing the house (but no further notice may be served by virtue of this subsection).

(6)If the authority decide not to serve a temporary exemption notice in response to a notification under subsection (1), they must without delay serve on the person concerned a notice informing him of—

(a)the decision,

(b)the reasons for it and the date on which it was made,

(c)the right to appeal against the decision under subsection (7), and

(d)the period within which an appeal may be made under that subsection.

(7)The person concerned may appeal to a residential property tribunal against the decision within the period of 28 days beginning with the date specified under subsection (6) as the date on which it was made.

(8)Such an appeal—

(a)is to be by way of a re-hearing, but

(b)may be determined having regard to matters of which the authority were unaware.

(9)The tribunal—

(a)may confirm or reverse the decision of the authority, and

(b)if it reverses the decision, must direct the authority to issue a temporary exemption notice with effect from such date as the tribunal directs.

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Commencement Information

I84S. 86 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 86 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 86 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 86 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Grant or refusal of licencesE+W

87Applications for licencesE+W

(1)An application for a licence must be made to the local housing authority.

(2)The application must be made in accordance with such requirements as the authority may specify.

(3)The authority may, in particular, require the application to be accompanied by a fee fixed by the authority.

(4)The power of the authority to specify requirements under this section is subject to any regulations made under subsection (5).

(5)The appropriate national authority may by regulations make provision about the making of applications under this section.

(6)Such regulations may, in particular—

(a)specify the manner and form in which applications are to be made;

(b)require the applicant to give copies of the application, or information about it, to particular persons;

(c)specify the information which is to be supplied in connection with applications;

(d)specify the maximum fees which may be charged (whether by specifying amounts or methods for calculating amounts);

(e)specify cases in which no fees are to be charged or fees are to be refunded.

(7)When fixing fees under this section, the local housing authority may (subject to any regulations made under subsection (5)) take into account—

(a)all costs incurred by the authority in carrying out their functions under this Part, and

(b)all costs incurred by them in carrying out their functions under Chapter 1 of Part 4 in relation to Part 3 houses (so far as they are not recoverable under or by virtue of any provision of that Chapter).

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Commencement Information

I85S. 87 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 87 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 87 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 87 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

88Grant or refusal of licenceE+W

(1)Where an application in respect of a house is made to the local housing authority under section 87, the authority must either—

(a)grant a licence in accordance with subsection (2), or

(b)refuse to grant a licence.

(2)If the authority are satisfied as to the matters mentioned in subsection (3), they may grant a licence either—

(a)to the applicant, or

(b)to some other person, if both he and the applicant agree.

(3)The matters are—

(a)that the proposed licence holder—

(i)is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder, and

(ii)is, out of all the persons reasonably available to be the licence holder in respect of the house, the most appropriate person to be the licence holder;

(b)that the proposed manager of the house is either—

(i)the person having control of the house, or

(ii)a person who is an agent or employee of the person having control of the house;

(c)that the proposed manager of the house is a fit and proper person to be the manager of the house; and

(d)that the proposed management arrangements for the house are otherwise satisfactory.

(4)Section 89 applies for the purposes of this section.

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Commencement Information

I86S. 88 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 88 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 88 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 88 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

89Tests for fitness etc. and satisfactory management arrangementsE+W

(1)In deciding for the purposes of section 88(3)(a) or (c) whether a person (“P”) is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder or (as the case may be) the manager of the house, the local housing authority must have regard (among other things) to any evidence within subsection (2) or (3).

(2)Evidence is within this subsection if it shows that P has—

(a)committed any offence involving fraud or other dishonesty, or violence or drugs, or any offence listed in Schedule 3 to the Sexual Offences Act 2003 (c. 42) (offences attracting notification requirements);

(b)practised unlawful discrimination on grounds of sex, colour, race, ethnic or national origins or disability in, or in connection with, the carrying on of any business; or

(c)contravened any provision of the law relating to housing or of landlord and tenant law.

(3)Evidence is within this subsection if—

(a)it shows that any person associated or formerly associated with P (whether on a personal, work or other basis) has done any of the things set out in subsection (2)(a) to (c), and

(b)it appears to the authority that the evidence is relevant to the question whether P is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder or (as the case may be) the manager of the house.

(4)For the purposes of section 88(3)(a) the local housing authority must assume, unless the contrary is shown, that the person having control of the house is a more appropriate person to be the licence holder than a person not having control of it.

(5)In deciding for the purposes of section 88(3)(d) whether the proposed management arrangements for the house are otherwise satisfactory, the local housing authority must have regard (among other things) to the considerations mentioned in subsection (6).

(6)The considerations are—

(a)whether any person proposed to be involved in the management of the house has a sufficient level of competence to be so involved;

(b)whether any person proposed to be involved in the management of the house (other than the manager) is a fit and proper person to be so involved; and

(c)whether any proposed management structures and funding arrangements are suitable.

(7)Any reference in section 88(3)(b)(i) or (ii) or subsection (4) above to a person having control of the house, or to being a person of any other description, includes a reference to a person who is proposing to have control of the house, or (as the case may be) to be a person of that description, at the time when the licence would come into force.

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Commencement Information

I87S. 89 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 89 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 89 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 89 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

90Licence conditionsE+W

(1)A licence may include such conditions as the local housing authority consider appropriate for regulating the management, use or occupation of the house concerned.

(2)Those conditions may, in particular, include (so far as appropriate in the circumstances)—

(a)conditions imposing restrictions or prohibitions on the use or occupation of particular parts of the house by persons occupying it;

(b)conditions requiring the taking of reasonable and practicable steps to prevent or reduce anti-social behaviour by persons occupying or visiting the house.

(3)A licence may also include—

(a)conditions requiring facilities and equipment to be made available in the house for the purpose of meeting standards prescribed for the purposes of this section by regulations made by the appropriate national authority;

(b)conditions requiring such facilities and equipment to be kept in repair and proper working order;

(c)conditions requiring, in the case of any works needed in order for any such facilities or equipment to be made available or to meet any such standards, that the works are carried out within such period or periods as may be specified in, or determined under, the licence.

(4)A licence must include the conditions required by Schedule 4.

(5)As regards the relationship between the authority’s power to impose conditions under this section and functions exercisable by them under or for the purposes of Part 1 (“Part 1 functions”)—

(a)the authority must proceed on the basis that, in general, they should seek to identify, remove or reduce category 1 or category 2 hazards in the house by the exercise of Part 1 functions and not by means of licence conditions;

(b)this does not, however, prevent the authority from imposing (in accordance with subsection (3)) licence conditions relating to the installation or maintenance of facilities or equipment within subsection (3)(a) above, even if the same result could be achieved by the exercise of Part 1 functions;

(c)the fact that licence conditions are imposed for a particular purpose that could be achieved by the exercise of Part 1 functions does not affect the way in which Part 1 functions can be subsequently exercised by the authority.

(6)A licence may not include conditions imposing restrictions or obligations on a particular person other than the licence holder unless that person has consented to the imposition of the restrictions or obligations.

(7)A licence may not include conditions requiring (or intended to secure) any alteration in the terms of any tenancy or licence under which any person occupies the house.

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Commencement Information

I88S. 90 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 90 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 90 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 90 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

91Licences: general requirements and durationE+W

(1)A licence may not relate to more than one Part 3 house.

(2)A licence may be granted before the time when it is required by virtue of this Part but, if so, the licence cannot come into force until that time.

(3)A licence—

(a)comes into force at the time that is specified in or determined under the licence for this purpose, and

(b)unless previously terminated by subsection (7) or revoked under section 93, continues in force for the period that is so specified or determined.

(4)That period must not end more than 5 years after—

(a)the date on which the licence was granted, or

(b)if the licence was granted as mentioned in subsection (2), the date when the licence comes into force.

(5)Subsection (3)(b) applies even if, at any time during that period, the house concerned subsequently ceases to be a Part 3 house or becomes an HMO to which Part 2 applies (see section 55(2)).

(6)A licence may not be transferred to another person.

(7)If the holder of the licence dies while the licence is in force, the licence ceases to be in force on his death.

(8)However, during the period of 3 months beginning with the date of the licence holder’s death, the house is to be treated for the purposes of this Part as if on that date a temporary exemption notice had been served in respect of the house under section 86.

(9)If, at any time during that period (“the initial period”), the personal representatives of the licence holder request the local housing authority to do so, the authority may serve on them a notice which, during the period of 3 months after the date on which the initial period ends, has the same effect as a temporary exemption notice under section 86.

(10)Subsections (6) to (8) of section 86 apply (with any necessary modifications) in relation to a decision by the authority not to serve such a notice as they apply in relation to a decision not to serve a temporary exemption notice.

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Commencement Information

I89S. 91 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 91 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 91 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 91 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Variation and revocation of licencesE+W

92Variation of licencesE+W

(1)The local housing authority may vary a licence—

(a)if they do so with the agreement of the licence holder, or

(b)if they consider that there has been a change of circumstances since the time when the licence was granted.

For this purpose “change of circumstances” includes any discovery of new information.

(2)A variation made with the agreement of the licence holder takes effect at the time when it is made.

(3)Otherwise, a variation does not come into force until such time, if any, as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 35 of Schedule 5 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to vary is confirmed on appeal).

(4)The power to vary a licence under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by the licence holder or a relevant person, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

(5)In subsection (4) “relevant person” means any person (other than the licence holder)—

(a)who has an estate or interest in the house concerned (but is not a tenant under a lease with an unexpired term of 3 years or less), or

(b)who is a person managing or having control of the house (and does not fall within paragraph (a)), or

(c)on whom any restriction or obligation is imposed by the licence in accordance with section 90(6).

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Commencement Information

I90S. 92 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 92 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 92 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 92 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

93Revocation of licencesE+W

(1)The local housing authority may revoke a licence—

(a)if they do so with the agreement of the licence holder,

(b)in any of the cases mentioned in subsection (2) (circumstances relating to licence holder or other person),

(c)in any of the cases mentioned in subsection (3) (circumstances relating to house concerned), or

(d)in any other circumstances prescribed by regulations made by the appropriate national authority.

(2)The cases referred to in subsection (1)(b) are as follows—

(a)where the authority consider that the licence holder or any other person has committed a serious breach of a condition of the licence or repeated breaches of such a condition;

(b)where the authority no longer consider that the licence holder is a fit and proper person to be the licence holder; and

(c)where the authority no longer consider that the management of the house is being carried on by persons who are in each case fit and proper persons to be involved in its management.

Section 89(1) applies in relation to paragraph (b) or (c) above as it applies in relation to section 88(3)(a) or (c).

(3)The cases referred to in subsection (1)(c) are as follows—

(a)where the house to which the licence relates ceases to be a Part 3 house;

(b)where a licence has been granted under Part 2 in respect of the house;

(c)where the authority consider at any time that, were the licence to expire at that time, they would, for a particular reason relating to the structure of the house, refuse to grant a new licence to the licence holder on similar terms in respect of it.

(4)A revocation made with the agreement of the licence holder takes effect at the time when it is made.

(5)Otherwise, a revocation does not come into force until such time, if any, as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 35 of Schedule 5 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to vary is confirmed on appeal).

This is subject to subsection (6).

(6)A revocation made in a case within subsection (3)(b) cannot come into force before such time as would be the operative time for the purposes of subsection (5) under paragraph 35 of Schedule 5 on the assumption that paragraph 35 applied—

(a)to an appeal against the Part 2 licence under paragraph 31 of the Schedule as it applies to an appeal under paragraph 32 of the Schedule, and

(b)to the period for appealing against the Part 2 licence mentioned in paragraph 33(1) of the Schedule as it applies to the period mentioned in paragraph 33(2) of the Schedule.

(7)The power to revoke a licence under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by the licence holder or a relevant person, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

(8)In subsection (7) “relevant person” means any person (other than the licence holder)—

(a)who has an estate or interest in the house concerned (but is not a tenant under a lease with an unexpired term of 3 years or less), or

(b)who is a person managing or having control of the house (and does not fall within paragraph (a)), or

(c)on whom any restriction or obligation is imposed by the licence in accordance with section 90(6).

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Commencement Information

I91S. 93 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 93 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 93 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 93 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Procedure and appealsE+W

94Procedural requirements and appeals against licence decisionsE+W

Schedule 5 (which deals with procedural requirements relating to the grant, refusal, variation or revocation of licences and with appeals against licence decisions) has effect for the purposes of this Part.

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Commencement Information

I92S. 94 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 94 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 94 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 94 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

EnforcementE+W

95Offences in relation to licensing of houses under this PartE+W

(1)A person commits an offence if he is a person having control of or managing a house which is required to be licensed under this Part (see section 85(1)) but is not so licensed.

(2)A person commits an offence if—

(a)he is a licence holder or a person on whom restrictions or obligations under a licence are imposed in accordance with section 90(6), and

(b)he fails to comply with any condition of the licence.

(3)In proceedings against a person for an offence under subsection (1) it is a defence that, at the material time—

(a)a notification had been duly given in respect of the house under section 62(1) or 86(1), or

(b)an application for a licence had been duly made in respect of the house under section 87,

and that notification or application was still effective (see subsection (7)).

(4)In proceedings against a person for an offence under subsection (1) or (2) it is a defence that he had a reasonable excuse—

(a)for having control of or managing the house in the circumstances mentioned in subsection (1), or

(b)for failing to comply with the condition,

as the case may be.

(5)A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding £20,000.

(6)A person who commits an offence under subsection (2) is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

(7)For the purposes of subsection (3) a notification or application is “effective” at a particular time if at that time it has not been withdrawn, and either—

(a)the authority have not decided whether to serve a temporary exemption notice, or (as the case may be) grant a licence, in pursuance of the notification or application, or

(b)if they have decided not to do so, one of the conditions set out in subsection (8) is met.

(8)The conditions are—

(a)that the period for appealing against the decision of the authority not to serve or grant such a notice or licence (or against any relevant decision of a residential property tribunal) has not expired, or

(b)that an appeal has been brought against the authority’s decision (or against any relevant decision of such a tribunal) and the appeal has not been determined or withdrawn.

(9)In subsection (8) “relevant decision” means a decision which is given on an appeal to the tribunal and confirms the authority’s decision (with or without variation).

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Commencement Information

I93S. 95 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 95 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 95(2)(4)(6) in force for E. at 6.4.2006 and s. 95 in force for E. in so far as not already in force at 6.7.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(c)(2)(b) (with Sch.); s. 95 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

96Other consequences of operating unlicensed houses: rent repayment ordersE+W

(1)For the purposes of this section a house is an “unlicensed house” if—

(a)it is required to be licensed under this Part but is not so licensed, and

(b)neither of the conditions in subsection (2) is satisfied.

(2)The conditions are—

(a)that a notification has been duly given in respect of the house under section 62(1) or 86(1) and that notification is still effective (as defined by section 95(7));

(b)that an application for a licence has been duly made in respect of the house under section 87 and that application is still effective (as so defined).

(3)No rule of law relating to the validity or enforceability of contracts in circumstances involving illegality is to affect the validity or enforceability of—

(a)any provision requiring the payment of rent or the making of any other periodical payment in connection with any tenancy or licence of the whole or a part of an unlicensed house, or

(b)any other provision of such a tenancy or licence.

(4)But amounts paid in respect of rent or other periodical payments payable in connection with such a tenancy or licence may be recovered in accordance with subsection (5) and section 97.

(5)If—

(a)an application in respect of a house is made to a residential property tribunal by the local housing authority or an occupier of the whole or part of the house, and

(b)the tribunal is satisfied as to the matters mentioned in subsection (6) or (8),

the tribunal may make an order (a “rent repayment order”) requiring the appropriate person to pay to the applicant such amount in respect of the housing benefit paid as mentioned in subsection (6)(b), or (as the case may be) the periodical payments paid as mentioned in subsection (8)(b), as is specified in the order (see section 97(2) to (8)).

(6)If the application is made by the local housing authority, the tribunal must be satisfied as to the following matters—

(a)that, at any time within the period of 12 months ending with the date of the notice of intended proceedings required by subsection (7), the appropriate person has committed an offence under section 95(1) in relation to the house (whether or not he has been charged or convicted),

(b)that housing benefit has been paid (to any person) in respect of periodical payments payable in connection with the occupation of the whole or any part or parts of the house during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that such an offence was being committed, and

(c)that the requirements of subsection (7) have been complied with in relation to the application.

(7)Those requirements are as follows—

(a)the authority must have served on the appropriate person a notice (a “notice of intended proceedings”)—

(i)informing him that the authority are proposing to make an application under subsection (5),

(ii)setting out the reasons why they propose to do so,

(iii)stating the amount that they will seek to recover under that subsection and how that amount is calculated, and

(iv)inviting him to make representations to them within a period specified in the notice of not less than 28 days;

(b)that period must have expired; and

(c)the authority must have considered any representations made to them within that period by the appropriate person.

(8)If the application is made by an occupier of the whole or part of the house, the tribunal must be satisfied as to the following matters—

(a)that the appropriate person has been convicted of an offence under section 95(1) in relation to the house, or has been required by a rent repayment order to make a payment in respect of housing benefit paid in connection with occupation of the whole or any part or parts of the house,

(b)that the occupier paid, to a person having control of or managing the house, periodical payments in respect of occupation of the whole or part of the house during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that such an offence was being committed in relation to the house, and

(c)that the application is made within the period of 12 months beginning with—

(i)the date of the conviction or order, or

(ii)if such a conviction was followed by such an order (or vice versa), the date of the later of them.

(9)Where a local housing authority serve a notice of intended proceedings on any person under this section, they must ensure—

(a)that a copy of the notice is received by the department of the authority responsible for administering the housing benefit to which the proceedings would relate; and

(b)that that department is subsequently kept informed of any matters relating to the proceedings that are likely to be of interest to it in connection with the administration of housing benefit.

(10)In this section—

  • the appropriate person”, in relation to any payment of housing benefit or periodical payment payable in connection with occupation of the whole or a part of a house, means the person who at the time of the payment was entitled to receive on his own account periodical payments payable in connection with such occupation;

  • housing benefit” means housing benefit provided by virtue of a scheme under section 123 of the Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1992 (c. 4);

  • occupier”, in relation to any periodical payment, means a person who was an occupier at the time of the payment, whether under a tenancy or licence (and “occupation” has a corresponding meaning);

  • periodical payments” means periodical payments in respect of which housing benefit may be paid by virtue of regulation 10 of the Housing Benefit (General) Regulations 1987 (S.I. 1987/1971) or any corresponding provision replacing that regulation.

(11)For the purposes of this section an amount which—

(a)is not actually paid by an occupier but is used by him to discharge the whole or part of his liability in respect of a periodical payment (for example, by offsetting the amount against any such liability), and

(b)is not an amount of housing benefit,

is to be regarded as an amount paid by the occupier in respect of that periodical payment.

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Commencement Information

I94S. 96 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 96 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 96 in force for E. at 6.7.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(2)(a) (with Sch.); s. 96 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

97Further provisions about rent repayment ordersE+W

(1)This section applies in relation to orders made by residential property tribunals under section 96(5).

(2)Where, on an application by the local housing authority, the tribunal is satisfied—

(a)that a person has been convicted of an offence under section 95(1) in relation to the house, and

(b)that housing benefit was paid (whether or not to the appropriate person) in respect of periodical payments payable in connection with occupation of the whole or any part or parts of the house during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that such an offence was being committed in relation to the house,

the tribunal must make a rent repayment order requiring the appropriate person to pay to the authority an amount equal to the total amount of housing benefit paid as mentioned in paragraph (b).

This is subject to subsections (3), (4) and (8).

(3)If the total of the amounts received by the appropriate person in respect of periodical payments payable as mentioned in paragraph (b) of subsection (2) (“the rent total”) is less than the total amount of housing benefit paid as mentioned in that paragraph, the amount required to be paid by virtue of a rent repayment order made in accordance with that subsection is limited to the rent total.

(4)A rent repayment order made in accordance with subsection (2) may not require the payment of any amount which the tribunal is satisfied that, by reason of any exceptional circumstances, it would be unreasonable for that person to be required to pay.

(5)In a case where subsection (2) does not apply, the amount required to be paid by virtue of a rent repayment order under section 96(5) is to be such amount as the tribunal considers reasonable in the circumstances.

This is subject to subsections (6) to (8).

(6)In such a case the tribunal must, in particular, take into account the following matters—

(a)the total amount of relevant payments paid in connection with occupation of the house during any period during which it appears to the tribunal that an offence was being committed by the appropriate person in relation to the house under section 95(1);

(b)the extent to which that total amount—

(i)consisted of, or derived from, payments of housing benefit, and

(ii)was actually received by the appropriate person;

(c)whether the appropriate person has at any time been convicted of an offence under section 95(1) in relation to the house;

(d)the conduct and financial circumstances of the appropriate person; and

(e)where the application is made by an occupier, the conduct of the occupier.

(7)In subsection (6) “relevant payments” means—

(a)in relation to an application by a local housing authority, payments of housing benefit or periodical payments payable by occupiers;

(b)in relation to an application by an occupier, periodical payments payable by the occupier, less any amount of housing benefit payable in respect of occupation of the house, or (as the case may be) the part of it occupied by him, during the period in question.

(8)A rent repayment order may not require the payment of an amount which—

(a)(where the application is made by a local housing authority) is in respect of any time falling outside the period of 12 months mentioned in section 96(6)(a); or

(b)(where the application is made by an occupier) is in respect of any time falling outside the period of 12 months ending with the date of the occupier’s application under section 96(5);

and the period to be taken into account under subsection (6)(a) above is restricted accordingly.

(9)Any amount payable to a local housing authority under a rent repayment order—

(a)does not, when recovered by the authority, constitute an amount of housing benefit recovered by them, and

(b)is, until recovered by them, a legal charge on the house which is a local land charge.

(10)For the purpose of enforcing that charge the authority have the same powers and remedies under the Law of Property Act 1925 (c. 20) and otherwise as if they were mortgagees by deed having powers of sale and lease, and of accepting surrenders of leases and of appointing a receiver.

(11)The power of appointing a receiver is exercisable at any time after the end of the period of one month beginning with the date on which the charge takes effect.

(12)If the authority subsequently grant a licence under Part 2 or this Part in respect of the house to the appropriate person or any person acting on his behalf, the conditions contained in the licence may include a condition requiring the licence holder—

(a)to pay to the authority any amount payable to them under the rent repayment order and not so far recovered by them; and

(b)to do so in such instalments as are specified in the licence.

(13)If the authority subsequently make a management order under Chapter 1 of Part 4 in respect of the house, the order may contain such provisions as the authority consider appropriate for the recovery of any amount payable to them under the rent repayment order and not so far recovered by them.

(14)Any amount payable to an occupier by virtue of a rent repayment order is recoverable by the occupier as a debt due to him from the appropriate person.

(15)The appropriate national authority may by regulations make such provision as it considers appropriate for supplementing the provisions of this section and section 96, and in particular—

(a)for securing that persons are not unfairly prejudiced by rent repayment orders (whether in cases where there have been over-payments of housing benefit or otherwise);

(b)for requiring or authorising amounts received by local housing authorities by virtue of rent repayment orders to be dealt with in such manner as is specified in the regulations.

(16)Section 96(10) and (11) apply for the purposes of this section as they apply for the purposes of section 96.

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Commencement Information

I95S. 97 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 97 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 97 in force for E. at 6.7.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(2)(b) (with Sch.); s. 97 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

98Other consequences of operating unlicensed houses: restriction on terminating tenanciesE+W

(1)No section 21 notice may be given in relation to a shorthold tenancy of the whole or part of an unlicensed house so long as it remains such a house.

(2)In this section—

  • a “section 21 notice” means a notice under section 21(1)(b) or (4)(a) of the Housing Act 1988 (c. 50) (recovery of possession on termination of shorthold tenancy);

  • a “shorthold tenancy” means an assured shorthold tenancy within the meaning of Chapter 2 of Part 1 of that Act;

  • unlicensed house” has the same meaning as in section 96 of this Act.

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Commencement Information

I96S. 98 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 98 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 98 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 98 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Supplementary provisionsE+W

99Meaning of “house” etc.E+W

In this Part—

  • dwelling” means a building or part of a building occupied or intended to be occupied as a separate dwelling;

  • house” means a building or part of a building consisting of one or more dwellings;

and references to a house include (where the context permits) any yard, garden, outhouses and appurtenances belonging to, or usually enjoyed with, it (or any part of it).

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Commencement Information

I97S. 99 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 99 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 99 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 99 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

100Index of defined expressions: Part 3E+W

The following table shows where expressions used in this Part are defined or otherwise explained.

ExpressionProvision of this Act
Anti-social behaviourSection 57(5)
Appropriate national authoritySection 261(1)
Category 1 hazardSection 2(1)
Category 2 hazardSection 2(1)
District of local housing authoritySection 261(6)
DwellingSection 99
HouseSection 99
Licence and licence holderSection 85(5)
Licence (to occupy premises)Section 262(9)
Local housing authoritySection 261(2) to (5)
Occupier (and related expressions)Section 262(6)
Part 3 houseSection 85(5), together with section 79(2)
Person having controlSection 263(1) and (2) (and see also section 89(7))
Person having estate or interestSection 262(8)
Person managingSection 263(3)
Person involved in managementSection 263(5)
Residential property tribunalSection 229
TenantSection 262(1) to (5).
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I98S. 100 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 100 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 100 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S. I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 100 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Part 4 E+WAdditional control provisions in relation to residential accommodation

Chapter 1E+WInterim and final management orders

IntroductoryE+W

101Interim and final management orders: introductoryE+W

(1)This Chapter deals with the making by a local housing authority of—

(a)an interim management order (see section 102), or

(b)a final management order (see section 113),

in respect of an HMO or a Part 3 house.

(2)Section 103 deals with the making of an interim management order in respect of a house to which that section applies.

(3)An interim management order is an order (expiring not more than 12 months after it is made) which is made for the purpose of securing that the following steps are taken in relation to the house—

(a)any immediate steps which the authority consider necessary to protect the health, safety or welfare of persons occupying the house, or persons occupying or having an estate or interest in any premises in the vicinity, and

(b)any other steps which the authority think appropriate with a view to the proper management of the house pending the grant of a licence under Part 2 or 3 in respect of the house or the making of a final management order in respect of it (or, if appropriate, the revocation of the interim management order).

(4)A final management order is an order (expiring not more than 5 years after it is made) which is made for the purpose of securing the proper management of the house on a long-term basis in accordance with a management scheme contained in the order.

(5)In this Chapter any reference to “the house”, in relation to an interim or final management order (other than an order under section 102(7)), is a reference to the HMO or Part 3 house to which the order relates.

(6)Subsection (5) has effect subject to sections 102(8) and 113(7) (exclusion of part occupied by resident landlord).

(7)In this Chapter “third party”, in relation to a house, means any person who has an estate or interest in the house (other than an immediate landlord and any person who is a tenant under a lease granted under section 107(3)(c) or 116(3)(c)).

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Commencement Information

I99S. 101 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 101 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 101 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 101 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Interim management orders: making and operation of ordersE+W

102Making of interim management ordersE+W

(1)A local housing authority—

(a)are under a duty to make an interim management order in respect of a house in a case within subsection (2) or (3), and

(b)have power to make an interim management order in respect of a house in a case within subsection (4) or (7).

(2)The authority must make an interim management order in respect of a house if—

(a)it is an HMO or a Part 3 house which is required to be licensed under Part 2 or Part 3 (see section 61(1) or 85(1)) but is not so licensed, and

(b)they consider either—

(i)that there is no reasonable prospect of its being so licensed in the near future, or

(ii)that the health and safety condition is satisfied (see section 104).

(3)The authority must make an interim management order in respect of a house if—

(a)it is an HMO or a Part 3 house which is required to be licensed under Part 2 or Part 3 and is so licensed,

(b)they have revoked the licence concerned but the revocation is not yet in force, and

(c)they consider either—

(i)that, on the revocation coming into force, there will be no reasonable prospect of the house being so licensed in the near future, or

(ii)that, on the revocation coming into force, the health and safety condition will be satisfied (see section 104).

(4)The authority may make an interim management order in respect of a house if—

(a)it is an HMO other than one that is required to be licensed under Part 2, and

(b)on an application by the authority to a residential property tribunal, the tribunal by order authorises them to make such an order, either in the terms of a draft order submitted by them or in those terms as varied by the tribunal;

and the authority may make such an order despite any pending appeal against the order of the tribunal (but this is without prejudice to any order that may be made on the disposal of any such appeal).

(5)The tribunal may only authorise the authority to make an interim management order under subsection (4) if it considers that the health and safety condition is satisfied (see section 104).

(6)In determining whether to authorise the authority to make an interim management order in respect of an HMO under subsection (4), the tribunal must have regard to the extent to which any applicable code of practice approved under section 233 has been complied with in respect of the HMO in the past.

(7)The authority may make an interim management order in respect of a house if—

(a)it is a house to which section 103 (special interim management orders) applies, and

(b)on an application by the authority to a residential property tribunal, the tribunal by order authorises them to make such an order, either in the terms of a draft order submitted by them or in those terms as varied by the tribunal;

and the authority may make such an order despite any pending appeal against the order of the tribunal (but this is without prejudice to any order that may be made on the disposal of any such appeal).

Subsections (2) to (6) of section 103 apply in relation to the power of a residential property tribunal to authorise the making of an interim management order under this subsection.

(8)The authority may make an interim management order which is expressed not to apply to a part of the house that is occupied by a person who has an estate or interest in the whole of the house.

In relation to such an order, a reference in this Chapter to “the house” does not include the part so excluded (unless the context requires otherwise, such as where the reference is to the house as an HMO or a Part 3 house).

(9)Nothing in this section requires or authorises the making of an interim management order in respect of a house if—

(a)an interim management order has been previously made in respect of it, and

(b)the authority have not exercised any relevant function in respect of the house at any time after the making of the interim management order.

(10)In subsection (9) “relevant function” means the function of—

(a)granting a licence under Part 2 or 3,

(b)serving a temporary exemption notice under section 62 or section 86, or

(c)making a final management order under section 113.

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Commencement Information

I100S. 102 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 102 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 102 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 102 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

103Special interim management ordersE+W

(1)This section applies to a house if the whole of it is occupied either—

(a)under a single tenancy or licence that is not an exempt tenancy or licence under section 79(3) or (4), or

(b)under two or more tenancies or licences in respect of different dwellings contained in it, none of which is an exempt tenancy or licence under section 79(3) or (4).

(2)A residential property tribunal may only authorise the authority to make an interim management order in respect of such a house under section 102(7) if it considers that both of the following conditions are satisfied.

(3)The first condition is that the circumstances relating to the house fall within any category of circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection by an order under subsection (5).

(4)The second condition is that the making of the order is necessary for the purpose of protecting the health, safety or welfare of persons occupying, visiting or otherwise engaging in lawful activities in the vicinity of the house.

(5)The appropriate national authority may by order—

(a)prescribe categories of circumstances for the purposes of subsection (3),

(b)provide for any of the provisions of this Act to apply in relation to houses to which this section applies, or interim or final management orders made in respect of them, with any modifications specified in the order.

(6)The categories prescribed by an order under subsection (5) are to reflect one or more of the following—

(a)the first or second set of general conditions mentioned in subsection (3) or (6) of section 80, or

(b)any additional set of conditions specified under subsection (7) of that section,

but (in each case) with such modifications as the appropriate national authority considers appropriate to adapt them to the circumstances of a single house.

(7)In this section “house” has the same meaning as in Part 3 (see section 99).

(8)In this Chapter—

(a)any reference to “the house”, in relation to an interim management order under section 102(7), is a reference to the house to which the order relates, and

(b)any such reference includes (where the context permits) a reference to any yard, garden, outhouses and appurtenances belonging to, or usually enjoyed with, it (or any part of it).

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Commencement Information

I101S. 103 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 103 in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent see s. 270(2)(b); s. 103 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 103 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

104The health and safety conditionE+W

(1)This section explains what “the health and safety condition” is for the purposes of section 102.

(2)The health and safety condition is that the making of an interim management order is necessary for the purpose of protecting the health, safety or welfare of persons occupying the house, or persons occupying or having an estate or interest in any premises in the vicinity.

(3)A threat to evict persons occupying a house in order to avoid the house being required to be licensed under Part 2 may constitute a threat to the welfare of those persons for the purposes of subsection (2).

This does not affect the generality of that subsection.

(4)The health and safety condition is not to be regarded as satisfied for the purposes of section 102(2)(b)(ii) or (3)(c)(ii) where both of the conditions in subsections (5) and (6) are satisfied.

(5)The first condition is that the local housing authority either—

(a)(in a case within section 102(2)(b)(ii)) are required by section 5 (general duty to take enforcement action in respect of category 1 hazards) to take a course of action within subsection (2) of that section in relation to the house, or

(b)(in a case within section 102(3)(c)(ii)) consider that on the revocation coming into force they will be required to take such a course of action.

(6)The second condition is that the local housing authority consider that the health, safety or welfare of the persons in question would be adequately protected by taking that course of action.

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Commencement Information

I102S. 104 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 104 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 104 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 104 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S. I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

105Operation of interim management ordersE+W

(1)This section deals with the time when an interim management order comes into force or ceases to have effect.

(2)The order comes into force when it is made, unless it is made under section 102(3).

(3)If the order is made under section 102(3), it comes into force when the revocation of the licence comes into force.

(4)The order ceases to have effect at the end of the period of 12 months beginning with the date on which it is made, unless it ceases to have effect at some other time as mentioned below.

(5)If the order provides that it is to cease to have effect on a date falling before the end of that period, it accordingly ceases to have effect on that date.

(6)If the order is made under section 102(3)—

(a)it must include a provision for determining the date on which it will cease to have effect, and

(b)it accordingly ceases to have effect on the date so determined.

(7)That date must be no later than 12 months after the date on which the order comes into force.

(8)Subsections (9) and (10) apply where—

(a)a final management order (“the FMO”) has been made under section 113 so as to replace the order (“the IMO”), but

(b)the FMO has not come into force because of an appeal to a residential property tribunal under paragraph 24 of Schedule 6 against the making of the FMO.

(9)If—

(a)the house would (but for the IMO being in force) be required to be licensed under Part 2 or 3 of this Act (see section 61(1) or 85(1)), and

(b)the date on which—

(i)the FMO,

(ii)any licence under Part 2 or 3, or

(iii)another interim management order,

comes into force in relation to the house (or part of it) following the disposal of the appeal is later than the date on which the IMO would cease to have effect apart from this subsection,

the IMO continues in force until that later date.

(10)If, on the application of the authority, the tribunal makes an order providing for the IMO to continue in force, pending the disposal of the appeal, until a date later than that on which the IMO would cease to have effect apart from this subsection, the IMO accordingly continues in force until that later date.

(11)This section has effect subject to sections 111 and 112 (variation or revocation of orders by authority) and to the power of revocation exercisable by a residential property tribunal on an appeal made under paragraph 24 or 28 of Schedule 6.

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Commencement Information

I103S. 105 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 105 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 105 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 105 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

106Local housing authority’s duties once interim management order in forceE+W

(1)A local housing authority who have made an interim management order in respect of a house must comply with the following provisions as soon as practicable after the order has come into force.

(2)The authority must first take any immediate steps which they consider to be necessary for the purpose of protecting the health, safety or welfare of persons occupying the house, or persons occupying or having an estate or interest in any premises in the vicinity.

(3)The authority must also take such other steps as they consider appropriate with a view to the proper management of the house pending—

(a)the grant of a licence or the making of a final management order in respect of the house as mentioned in subsection (4) or (5), or

(b)the revocation of the interim management order as mentioned in subsection (5).

(4)If the house would (but for the order being in force) be required to be licensed under Part 2 or 3 of this Act (see section 61(1) or 85(1)), the authority must, after considering all the circumstances of the case, decide to take one of the following courses of action—

(a)to grant a licence under that Part in respect of the house, or

(b)to make a final management order in respect of it under section 113(1).

(5)If subsection (4) does not apply to the house, the authority must, after considering all the circumstances of the case, decide to take one of the following courses of action—

(a)to make a final management order in respect of the house under section 113(3), or

(b)to revoke the order under section 112 without taking any further action.

(6)In the following provisions, namely—

(a)subsections (3) and (4), and

(b)section 101(3)(b),

the reference to the grant of a licence under Part 2 or 3 in respect of the house includes a reference to serving a temporary exemption notice under section 62 or section 86 in respect of it (whether or not a notification is given under subsection (1) of that section).

(7)For the avoidance of doubt, the authority’s duty under subsection (3) includes taking such steps as are necessary to ensure that, while the order is in force, reasonable provision is made for insurance of the house against destruction or damage by fire or other causes.

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Commencement Information

I104S. 106 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 106 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 106 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 106 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

107General effect of interim management ordersE+W

(1)This section applies while an interim management order is in force in relation to a house.

(2)The rights and powers conferred by subsection (3) are exercisable by the authority in performing their duties under section 106(1) to (3) in respect of the house.

(3)The authority—

(a)have the right to possession of the house (subject to the rights of existing occupiers preserved by section 124(3));

(b)have the right to do (and authorise a manager or other person to do) in relation to the house anything which a person having an estate or interest in the house would (but for the order) be entitled to do;

(c)may create one or more of the following—

(i)an interest in the house which, as far as possible, has all the incidents of a leasehold, or

(ii)a right in the nature of a licence to occupy part of the house.

(4)But the authority may not under subsection (3)(c) create any interest or right in the nature of a lease or licence unless consent in writing has been given by the person who (but for the order) would have power to create the lease or licence in question.

(5)The authority—

(a)do not under this section acquire any estate or interest in the house, and

(b)accordingly are not entitled by virtue of this section to sell, lease, charge or make any other disposition of any such estate or interest;

but, where the immediate landlord of the house or part of it (within the meaning of section 109) is a lessee under a lease of the house or part, the authority is to be treated (subject to paragraph (a)) as if they were the lessee instead.

(6)Any enactment or rule of law relating to landlords and tenants or leases applies in relation to—

(a)a lease in relation to which the authority are to be treated as the lessee under subsection (5), or

(b)a lease to which the authority become a party under section 124(4),

as if the authority were the legal owner of the premises (but this is subject to section 124(7) to (9)).

(7)None of the following, namely—

(a)the authority, or

(b)any person authorised under subsection (3)(b),

is liable to any person having an estate or interest in the house for anything done or omitted to be done in the performance (or intended performance) of the authority’s duties under section 106(1) to (3) unless the act or omission is due to the negligence of the authority or any such person.

(8)References in any enactment to housing accommodation provided or managed by a local housing authority do not include a house in relation to which an interim management order is in force.

(9)An interim management order which has come into force is a local land charge.

(10)The authority may apply to the Chief Land Registrar for the entry of an appropriate restriction in the register of title in respect of such an order.

(11)In this section “enactment” includes an enactment comprised in subordinate legislation (within the meaning of the Interpretation Act 1978 (c. 30)).

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Commencement Information

I105S. 107 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 107 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 107 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 107 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

108General effect of interim management orders: leases and licences granted by authorityE+W

(1)This section applies in relation to any interest or right created by the authority under section 107(3)(c).

(2)For the purposes of any enactment or rule of law—

(a)any interest created by the authority under section 107(3)(c)(i) is to be treated as if it were a legal lease, and

(b)any right created by the authority under section 107(3)(c)(ii) is to be treated as if it were a licence to occupy granted by the legal owner of the premises,

despite the fact that the authority have no legal estate in the premises (see section 107(5)(a)).

(3)Any enactment or rule of law relating to landlords and tenants or leases accordingly applies in relation to any interest created by the authority under section 107(3)(c)(i) as if the authority were the legal owner of the premises.

(4)References to leases and licences—

(a)in this Chapter, and

(b)in any other enactment,

accordingly include (where the context permits) interests and rights created by the authority under section 107(3)(c).

(5)The preceding provisions of this section have effect subject to—

(a)section 124(7) to (9), and

(b)any provision to the contrary contained in an order made by the appropriate national authority.

(6)In section 107(5)(b) the reference to leasing does not include the creation of interests under section 107(3)(c)(i).

(7)In this section—

  • enactment” has the meaning given by section 107(11);

  • legal lease” means a term of years absolute (within section 1(1)(b) of the Law of Property Act 1925 (c. 20)).

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Commencement Information

I106S. 108 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 108 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 108 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 108 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

109General effect of interim management orders: immediate landlords, mortgagees etc.E+W

(1)This section applies in relation to—

(a)immediate landlords, and

(b)other persons with an estate or interest in the house,

while an interim management order is in force in relation to a house.

(2)A person who is an immediate landlord of the house or a part of it—

(a)is not entitled to receive—

(i)any rents or other payments from persons occupying the house or part which are payable to the local housing authority by virtue of section 124(4), or

(ii)any rents or other payments from persons occupying the house or part which are payable to the authority by virtue of any leases or licences granted by them under section 107(3)(c);

(b)may not exercise any rights or powers with respect to the management of the house or part; and

(c)may not create any of the following—

(i)any leasehold interest in the house or part (other than a lease of a reversion), or

(ii)any licence or other right to occupy it.

(3)However (subject to subsection (2)(c)) nothing in section 107 or this section affects the ability of a person having an estate or interest in the house to make any disposition of that estate or interest.

(4)Nothing in section 107 or this section affects—

(a)the validity of any mortgage relating to the house or any rights or remedies available to the mortgagee under such a mortgage, or

(b)the validity of any lease of the house or part of it under which the immediate landlord is a lessee, or any superior lease, or (subject to section 107(5)) any rights or remedies available to the lessor under such a lease,

except to the extent that any of those rights or remedies would prevent the local housing authority from exercising their power under section 107(3)(c).

(5)In proceedings for the enforcement of any such rights or remedies the court may make such order as it thinks fit as regards the operation of the interim management order (including an order quashing it).

(6)For the purposes of this Chapter, as it applies in relation to an interim management order, a person is an “immediate landlord” of the house or a part of it if—

(a)he is an owner or lessee of the house or part, and

(b)(but for the order) he would be entitled to receive the rents or other payments from persons occupying the house or part which are payable to the local housing authority by virtue of section 124(4).

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Commencement Information

I107S. 109 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 109 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 109 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 109 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

110Financial arrangements while order is in forceE+W

(1)This section applies to relevant expenditure of a local housing authority who have made an interim management order.

(2)Relevant expenditure” means expenditure reasonably incurred by the authority in connection with performing their duties under section 106(1) to (3) in respect of the house (including any premiums paid for insurance of the premises).

(3)Rent or other payments which the authority have collected or recovered, by virtue of this Chapter, from persons occupying the house may be used by the authority to meet—

(a)relevant expenditure, and

(b)any amounts of compensation payable to a third party by virtue of a decision of the authority under section 128.

(4)The authority must pay to such relevant landlord, or to such relevant landlords in such proportions, as they consider appropriate—

(a)any amount of rent or other payments collected or recovered as mentioned in subsection (3) that remains after deductions to meet relevant expenditure and any amounts of compensation payable as mentioned in that subsection, and

(b)(where appropriate) interest on that amount at a reasonable rate fixed by the authority,

and such payments are to be made at such intervals as the authority consider appropriate.

(5)The interim management order may provide for—

(a)the rate of interest which is to apply for the purposes of paragraph (b) of subsection (4); and

(b)the intervals at which payments are to be made under that subsection.

Paragraph 24(3) of Schedule 6 enables an appeal to be brought where the order does not provide for both of those matters.

(6)The authority must—

(a)keep full accounts of their income and expenditure in respect of the house; and

(b)afford to each relevant landlord, and to any other person who has an estate or interest in the house, all reasonable facilities for inspecting, taking copies of and verifying those accounts.

(7)A relevant landlord may apply to a residential property tribunal for an order—

(a)declaring that an amount shown in the accounts as expenditure of the authority does not constitute expenditure reasonably incurred by the authority as mentioned in subsection (2);

(b)requiring the authority to make such financial adjustments (in the accounts and otherwise) as are necessary to reflect the tribunal’s declaration.

(8)In this section—

  • expenditure” includes administrative costs;

  • relevant landlord” means any person who is an immediate landlord of the house or part of it;

  • rent or other payments” means rents or other payments payable under leases or licences or in respect of furniture within section 126(1).

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Commencement Information

I108S. 110 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 110 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 110 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 110 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Interim management orders: variation and revocationE+W

111Variation of interim management ordersE+W

(1)The local housing authority may vary an interim management order if they consider it appropriate to do so.

(2)A variation does not come into force until such time, if any, as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 31 of Schedule 6 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to vary is confirmed on appeal).

(3)The power to vary an order under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by a relevant person, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

(4)In this section “relevant person” means—

(a)any person who has an estate or interest in the house or part of it (but is not a tenant under a lease with an unexpired term of 3 years or less), or

(b)any other person who (but for the order) would be a person managing or having control of the house or part of it.

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Commencement Information

I109S. 111 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 111 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 111 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 111 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

112Revocation of interim management ordersE+W

(1)The local housing authority may revoke an interim management order in the following cases—

(a)if the order was made under section 102(2) or (3) and the house has ceased to be an HMO to which Part 2 applies or a Part 3 house (as the case may be);

(b)if the order was made under section 102(2) or (3) and a licence granted by them in respect of the house is due to come into force under Part 2 or Part 3 on the revocation of the order;

(c)if a final management order has been made by them in respect of the house so as to replace the order;

(d)if in any other circumstances the authority consider it appropriate to revoke the order.

(2)A revocation does not come into force until such time, if any, as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 31 of Schedule 6 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when decision to revoke is confirmed on appeal).

(3)The power to revoke an order under this section is exercisable by the authority either—

(a)on an application made by a relevant person, or

(b)on the authority’s own initiative.

(4)In this section “relevant person” means—

(a)any person who has an estate or interest in the house or part of it (but is not a tenant under a lease with an unexpired term of 3 years or less), or

(b)any other person who (but for the order) would be a person managing or having control of the house or part of it.

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Commencement Information

I110S. 112 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 112 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 112 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 112 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

Final management orders: making and operation of ordersE+W

113Making of final management ordersE+W

(1)A local housing authority who have made an interim management order in respect of a house under section 102 (“the IMO”)—

(a)have a duty to make a final management order in respect of the house in a case within subsection (2), and

(b)have power to make such an order in a case within subsection (3).

(2)The authority must make a final management order so as to replace the IMO as from its expiry date if—

(a)on that date the house would be required to be licensed under Part 2 or 3 of this Act (see section 61(1) or 85(1)), and

(b)the authority consider that they are unable to grant a licence under Part 2 or 3 in respect of the house that would replace the IMO as from that date.

(3)The authority may make a final management order so as to replace the IMO as from its expiry date if—

(a)on that date the house will not be one that would be required to be licensed as mentioned in subsection (2)(a), and

(b)the authority consider that making the final management order is necessary for the purpose of protecting, on a long-term basis, the health, safety or welfare of persons occupying the house, or persons occupying or having an estate or interest in any premises in the vicinity.

(4)A local housing authority who have made a final management order in respect of a house under this section (“the existing order”)—

(a)have a duty to make a final management order in respect of the house in a case within subsection (5), and

(b)have power to make such an order in a case within subsection (6).

(5)The authority must make a new final management order so as to replace the existing order as from its expiry date if—

(a)on that date the condition in subsection (2)(a) will be satisfied in relation to the house, and

(b)the authority consider that they are unable to grant a licence under Part 2 or 3 in respect of the house that would replace the existing order as from that date.

(6)The authority may make a new final management order so as to replace the existing order as from its expiry date if—

(a)on that date the condition in subsection (3)(a) will be satisfied in relation to the house, and

(b)the authority consider that making the new order is necessary for the purpose of protecting, on a long-term basis, the health, safety or welfare of persons within subsection (3)(b).

(7)The authority may make a final management order which is expressed not to apply to a part of the house that is occupied by a person who has an estate or interest in the whole of the house.

In relation to such an order, a reference in this Chapter to “the house” does not include the part so excluded (unless the context requires otherwise, such as where the reference is to the house as an HMO or a Part 3 house).

(8)In this section “expiry date”, in relation to an interim or final management order, means—

(a)where the order is revoked, the date as from which it is revoked, and

(b)otherwise the date on which the order ceases to have effect under section 105 or 114;

and nothing in this section applies in relation to an interim or final management order which has been revoked on an appeal under Part 3 of Schedule 6.

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Commencement Information

I111S. 113 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 113 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 113 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 113 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

114Operation of final management ordersE+W

(1)This section deals with the time when a final management order comes into force or ceases to have effect.

(2)The order does not come into force until such time (if any) as is the operative time for the purposes of this subsection under paragraph 27 of Schedule 6 (time when period for appealing expires without an appeal being made or when order is confirmed on appeal).

(3)The order ceases to have effect at the end of the period of 5 years beginning with the date on which it comes into force, unless it ceases to have effect at some other time as mentioned below.

(4)If the order provides that it is to cease to have effect on a date falling before the end of that period, it accordingly ceases to have effect on that date.

(5)Subsections (6) and (7) apply where—

(a)a new final management order (“the new order”) has been made so as to replace the order (“the existing order”), but

(b)the new order has not come into force because of an appeal to a residential property tribunal under paragraph 24 of Schedule 6 against the making of that order.

(6)If—

(a)the house would (but for the existing order being in force) be required to be licensed under Part 2 or 3 of this Act (see section 61(1) or 85(1)), and

(b)the date on which—

(i)the new order, or

(ii)any licence under Part 2 or 3, or

(iii)a temporary exemption notice under section 62 or 86,

comes into force in relation to the house (or part of it) following the disposal of the appeal is later than the date on which the existing order would cease to have effect apart from this subsection,

the existing order continues in force until that later date.

(7)If, on the application of the authority, the tribunal makes an order providing for the existing order to continue in force, pending the disposal of the appeal, until a date later than that on which it would cease to have effect apart from this subsection, the existing order accordingly continues in force until that later date.

(8)This section has effect subject to sections 121 and 122 (variation or revocation of orders) and to the power of revocation exercisable by a residential property tribunal on an appeal made under paragraph 24 or 28 of Schedule 6.

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Commencement Information

I112S. 114 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 114 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 114 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 114 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

115Local housing authority’s duties once final management order in forceE+W

(1)A local housing authority who have made a final management order in respect of a house must comply with the following provisions once the order has come into force.

(2)The local housing authority must take such steps as they consider appropriate with a view to the proper management of the house in accordance with the management scheme contained in the order (see section 119).

(3)The local housing authority must from time to time review—

(a)the operation of the order and in particular the management scheme contained in it, and

(b)whether keeping the order in force in relation to the house (with or without making any variations under section 121) is the best alternative available to them.

(4)If on a review the authority consider that any variations should be made under section 121, they must proceed to make those variations.

(5)If on a review the authority consider that either—

(a)granting a licence under Part 2 or 3 in respect of the house, or

(b)revoking the order under section 122 and taking no further action,

is the best alternative available to them, the authority must grant such a licence or revoke the order (as the case may be).

(6)For the avoidance of doubt, the authority’s duty under subsection (2) includes taking such steps as are necessary to ensure that, while the order is in force, reasonable provision is made for insurance of the house against destruction or damage by fire or other causes.

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Commencement Information

I113S. 115 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 115 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 115 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 115 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

116General effect of final management ordersE+W

(1)This section applies while a final management order is in force in relation to a house.

(2)The rights and powers conferred by subsection (3) are exercisable by the authority in performing their duty under section 115(2) in respect of the house.

(3)The authority—

(a)have the right to possession of the house (subject to the rights of existing and other occupiers preserved by section 124(3) and (6));

(b)have the right to do (and authorise a manager or other person to do) in relation to the house anything which a person having an estate or interest in the house would (but for the order) be entitled to do;

(c)may create one or more of the following—

(i)an interest in the house which, as far as possible, has all the incidents of a leasehold, or

(ii)a right in the nature of a licence to occupy part of the house.

(4)The powers of the authority under subsection (3)(c) are restricted as follows—

(a)they may not create any interest or right in the nature of a lease or licence—

(i)which is for a fixed term expiring after the date on which the order is due to expire, or

(ii)(subject to paragraph (b)) which is terminable by notice to quit, or an equivalent notice, of more than 4 weeks,

unless consent in writing has been given by the person who would (but for the order) have power to create the lease or licence in question;

(b)they may create an interest in the nature of an assured shorthold tenancy without any such consent so long as it is created before the beginning of the period of 6 months that ends with the date on which the order is due to expire.

(5)The authority—

(a)do not under this section acquire any estate or interest in the house, and

(b)accordingly are not entitled by virtue of this section to sell, lease, charge or make any other disposition of any such estate or interest;

but, where the immediate landlord of the house or part of it (within the meaning of section 118) is a lessee under a lease of the house or part, the authority is to be treated (subject to paragraph (a)) as if they were the lessee instead.

(6)Any enactment or rule of law relating to landlords and tenants or leases applies in relation to—

(a)a lease in relation to which the authority are to be treated as the lessee under subsection (5), or

(b)a lease to which the authority become a party under section 124(4),

as if the authority were the legal owner of the premises (but this is subject to section 124(7) to (9)).

(7)None of the following, namely—

(a)the authority, or

(b)any person authorised under subsection (3)(b),

is liable to any person having an estate or interest in the house for anything done or omitted to be done in the performance (or intended performance) of the authority’s duty under section 115(2) unless the act or omission is due to the negligence of the authority or any such person.

(8)References in any enactment to housing accommodation provided or managed by a local housing authority do not include a house in relation to which a final management order is in force.

(9)A final management order which has come into force is a local land charge.

(10)The authority may apply to the Chief Land Registrar for the entry of an appropriate restriction in the register in respect of such an order.

(11)In this section “enactment” includes an enactment comprised in subordinate legislation (within the meaning of the Interpretation Act 1978 (c. 30)).

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I114S. 116 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 116 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 116 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 116 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

117General effect of final management orders: leases and licences granted by authorityE+W

(1)This section applies in relation to any interest or right created by the authority under section 116(3)(c).

(2)For the purposes of any enactment or rule of law—

(a)any interest created by the authority under section 116(3)(c)(i) is to be treated as if it were a legal lease, and

(b)any right created by the authority under section 116(3)(c)(ii) is to be treated as if it were a licence to occupy granted by the legal owner of the premises,

despite the fact that the authority have no legal estate in the premises (see section 116(5)(a)).

(3)Any enactment or rule of law relating to landlords and tenants or leases accordingly applies in relation to any interest created by the authority under section 116(3)(c)(i) as if the authority were the legal owner of the premises.

(4)References to leases and licences—

(a)in this Chapter, and

(b)in any other enactment,

accordingly include (where the context permits) interests and rights created by the authority under section 116(3)(c).

(5)The preceding provisions of this section have effect subject to—

(a)section 124(7) to (9), and

(b)any provision to the contrary contained in an order made by the appropriate national authority.

(6)In section 116(5)(b) the reference to leasing does not include the creation of interests under section 116(3)(c)(i).

(7)In this section—

  • enactment” has the meaning given by section 116(11);

  • legal lease” means a term of years absolute (within section 1(1)(b) of the Law of Property Act 1925 (c. 20)).

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I115S. 117 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 117 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5); s. 117 in force for E. at 6.4.2006 by S.I. 2006/1060, art. 2(1)(a) (with Sch.); s. 117 in force for W. at 16.6.2006 by S.I. 2006/1535, art. 2(a) (with Sch.)

118General effect of final management orders: immediate landlords, mortgagees etc.E+W

(1)This section applies in relation to—

(a)immediate landlords, and

(b)other persons with an estate or interest in the house,

while a final management order is in force in relation to a house.

(2)A person who is an immediate landlord of the house or a part of it—

(a)is not entitled to receive—

(i)any rents or other payments from persons occupying the house or part which are payable to the local housing authority by virtue of section 124(4), or

(ii)any rents or other payments from persons occupying the house or part which are payable to the authority by virtue of any leases or licences granted by them under section 107(3)(c) or 116(3)(c);

(b)may not exercise any rights or powers with respect to the management of the house or part; and

(c)may not create any of the following—

(i)any leasehold interest in the house or part (other than a lease of a reversion), or

(ii)any licence or other right to occupy it.

(3)However (subject to subsection (2)(c)) nothing in section 116 or this section affects the ability of a person having an estate or interest in the house to make any disposition of that estate or interest.

(4)Nothing in section 116 or this section affects—

(a)the validity of any mortgage relating to the house or any rights or remedies available to the mortgagee under such a mortgage, or

(b)the validity of any lease of the house or part of it under which the immediate landlord is a lessee, or any superior lease, or (subject to section 116(5)) any rights or remedies available to the lessor under such a lease,

except to the extent that any of those rights or remedies would prevent the local housing authority from exercising their power under section 116(3)(c).

(5)In proceedings for the enforcement of any such rights or remedies the court may make such order as it thinks fit as regards the operation of the final management order (including an order quashing it).

(6)For the purposes of this Chapter, as it applies in relation to a final management order, a person is an “immediate landlord” of the house or a part of it if—

(a)he is an owner or lessee of the house or part, and

(b)(but for the order) he would be entitled to receive the rents or other payments from persons occupying the house or part which are payable to the authority by virtue of section 124(4).

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I116S. 118 wholly in force at 16.6.2006; s. 118 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 270(4)(5);