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Immigration and Asylum Act 1999

Status:

This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

Part IICarriers' Liability

Clandestine entrants

32Penalty for carrying clandestine entrants

(1)A person is a clandestine entrant if—

(a)he arrives in the United Kingdom concealed in a vehicle, ship or aircraft,

(b)he passes, or attempts to pass, through immigration control concealed in a vehicle, or

(c)he arrives in the United Kingdom on a ship or aircraft, having embarked—

(i)concealed in a vehicle; and

(ii)at a time when the ship or aircraft was outside the United Kingdom,

and claims, or indicates that he intends to seek, asylum in the United Kingdom or evades, or attempts to evade, immigration control.

(2)The person (or persons) responsible for a clandestine entrant is (or are together) liable to—

(a)a penalty of the prescribed amount in respect of the clandestine entrant; and

(b)an additional penalty of that amount in respect of each person who was concealed with the clandestine entrant in the same transporter.

(3)A penalty imposed under this section must be paid to the Secretary of State before the end of the prescribed period.

(4)Payment of the full amount of a penalty by one or more of the persons responsible for the clandestine entrant discharges the liability of each of the persons responsible for that entrant.

(5)In the case of a clandestine entrant to whom subsection (1)(a) applies, each of the following is a responsible person—

(a)if the transporter is a ship or aircraft, the owner or captain;

(b)if it is a vehicle (but not a detached trailer), the owner, hirer or driver of the vehicle;

(c)if it is a detached trailer, the owner, hirer or operator of the trailer.

(6)In the case of a clandestine entrant to whom subsection (1)(b) or (c) applies, each of the following is a responsible person—

(a)if the transporter is a detached trailer, the owner, hirer or operator of the trailer;

(b)if it is not, the owner, hirer or driver of the vehicle.

(7)Subject to any defence provided by section 34, it is immaterial whether a responsible person knew or suspected—

(a)that the clandestine entrant was concealed in the transporter; or

(b)that there were one or more other persons concealed with the clandestine entrant in the same transporter.

(8)Subsection (9) applies if a transporter (“the carried transporter”) is itself being carried in or on another transporter.

(9)If a person is concealed in the carried transporter, the question whether any other person is concealed with that person in the same transporter is to be determined by reference to the carried transporter and not by reference to the transporter in or on which it is carried.

(10)“Immigration control” means United Kingdom immigration control and includes any United Kingdom immigration control operated in a prescribed control zone outside the United Kingdom.

33Code of practice

(1)The Secretary of State must issue a code of practice to be followed by any person operating a system for preventing the carriage of clandestine entrants.

(2)Before issuing the code, the Secretary of State must—

(a)consult such persons as he considers appropriate; and

(b)lay a draft before both Houses of Parliament.

(3)The requirement of subsection (2)(a) may be satisfied by consultation before the passing of this Act.

(4)After laying the draft code before Parliament, the Secretary of State may bring the code into operation by an order.

(5)The Secretary of State may from time to time revise the whole or any part of the code and issue the code as revised.

(6)Subsections (2) and (4) also apply to any revision, or proposed revision, of the code.

34Defences to claim that penalty is due under section 32

(1)This section applies if it is alleged that a person (“the carrier”) is liable to a penalty under section 32.

(2)It is a defence for the carrier to show that he, or an employee of his who was directly responsible for allowing the clandestine entrant to be concealed, was acting under duress.

(3)It is also a defence for the carrier to show that—

(a)he did not know, and had no reasonable grounds for suspecting, that a clandestine entrant was, or might be, concealed in the transporter;

(b)an effective system for preventing the carriage of clandestine entrants was in operation in relation to the transporter; and

(c)that on the occasion in question the person or persons responsible for operating that system did so properly.

(4)In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether a particular system is effective, regard is to be had to the code of practice issued by the Secretary of State under section 33.

(5)If there are two or more persons responsible for a clandestine entrant, the fact that one or more of them has a defence under subsection (3) does not affect the liability of the others.

(6)But if a person responsible for a clandestine entrant has a defence under subsection (2), the liability of any other person responsible for that entrant is discharged.

35Procedure

(1)If the Secretary of State decides that a person (“P”) is liable to one or more penalties under section 32, he must notify P of his decision.

(2)A notice under subsection (1) (a “penalty notice”) must—

(a)state the Secretary of State’s reasons for deciding that P is liable to the penalty (or penalties);

(b)state the amount of the penalty (or penalties) to which P is liable;

(c)specify the date before which, and the manner in which, the penalty (or penalties) must be paid; and

(d)include an explanation of the steps—

(i)that P must take if he objects to the penalty;

(ii)that the Secretary of State may take under this Part to recover any unpaid penalty.

(3)Subsection (4) applies if more than one person is responsible for a clandestine entrant.

(4)If a penalty notice is served on one of the responsible persons, the Secretary of State is to be taken to have served the required penalty notice on each of them.

(5)The Secretary of State must nevertheless take reasonable steps, while the penalty remains unpaid, to secure that the penalty notice is actually served on each of those responsible persons.

(6)If a person on whom a penalty notice is served, or who is treated as having had a penalty notice served on him, alleges that he is not liable for one or more, or all, of the penalties specified in the penalty notice, he may give written notice of his allegation to the Secretary of State.

(7)Notice under subsection (6) (“a notice of objection”) must—

(a)give reasons for the allegation; and

(b)be given before the end of such period as may be prescribed.

(8)If a notice of objection is given before the end of the prescribed period, the Secretary of State must consider it and determine whether or not any penalty to which it relates is payable.

(9)The Secretary of State may by regulations provide, in relation to detached trailers, for a penalty notice which is served in such manner as may be prescribed to have effect as a penalty notice properly served on the responsible person or persons concerned under this section.

(10)Any sum payable to the Secretary of State as a penalty under section 32 may be recovered by the Secretary of State as a debt due to him.

36Power to detain vehicles etc. in connection with penalties under section 32

(1)If a penalty notice has been given under section 35, a senior officer may detain any relevant—

(a)vehicle,

(b)small ship, or

(c)small aircraft,

until all penalties to which the notice relates, and any expenses reasonably incurred by the Secretary of State in connection with the detention, have been paid.

(2)That power—

(a)may be exercised only if, in the opinion of the senior officer concerned, there is a significant risk that the penalty (or one or more of the penalties) will not be paid before the end of the prescribed period if the transporter is not detained; and

(b)may not be exercised if alternative security which the Secretary of State considers is satisfactory, has been given.

(3)If a transporter is detained under this section, the owner, consignor or any other person who has an interest in any freight or other thing carried in or on the transporter may remove it, or arrange for it to be removed, at such time and in such way as is reasonable.

(4)The detention of a transporter under this section is lawful even though it is subsequently established that the penalty notice on which the detention was based was ill-founded in respect of all or any of the penalties to which it related.

(5)But subsection (4) does not apply if the Secretary of State was acting unreasonably in issuing the penalty notice.

37Effect of detention

(1)This section applies if a transporter is detained under section 36.

(2)The person to whom the penalty notice was addressed, or the owner or any other person claiming an interest in the transporter, may apply to the court for the transporter to be released.

(3)The court may release the transporter if it considers that—

(a)satisfactory security has been tendered in place of the transporter for the payment of the penalty alleged to be due and connected expenses;

(b)there is no significant risk that the penalty (or one or more of the penalties) and any connected expenses will not be paid; or

(c)there is a significant doubt as to whether the penalty is payable and the applicant has a compelling need to have the transporter released.

(4)If the court has not ordered the release of the transporter, the Secretary of State may sell it if the penalty in question and connected expenses are not paid before the end of the period of 84 days beginning with the date on which the detention began.

(5)“Connected expenses” means expenses reasonably incurred by the Secretary of State in connection with the detention.

(6)Schedule 1 applies to the sale of transporters under this section.

38Assisting illegal entry and harbouring

(1)In section 25 of the 1971 Act (assisting illegal entry and harbouring), at the end of paragraph (c) of subsection (6), insert—

or

(d)the driver of any such vehicle;.

(2)After section 25, insert—

25ADetention of ships, aircraft and vehicles in connection with offences under section 25(1)

(1)If a person has been arrested for an offence under section 25(1)(a) or (b), a senior officer or a constable may detain a relevant ship, aircraft or vehicle—

(a)until a decision is taken as to whether or not to charge the arrested person with that offence; or

(b)if the arrested person has been charged—

(i)until he is acquitted, the charge against him is dismissed or the proceedings are discontinued; or

(ii)if he has been convicted, until the court decides whether or not to order forfeiture of the ship, aircraft or vehicle.

(2)A ship, aircraft or vehicle is a relevant ship, aircraft or vehicle, in relation to an arrested person, if it is one which the officer or constable concerned has reasonable grounds for believing could, on conviction of the arrested person for the offence for which he was arrested, be the subject of an order for forfeiture made under section 25(6).

(3)A person (other than the arrested person) who claims to be the owner of a ship, aircraft or vehicle which has been detained under this section may apply to the court for its release.

(4)The court to which an application is made under subsection (3) may, on such security or surety being tendered as it considers satisfactory, release the ship, aircraft or vehicle on condition that it is made available to the court if—

(a)the arrested person is convicted; and

(b)an order for its forfeiture is made under section 25(6).

(5)In the application to Scotland of subsection (1), for paragraphs (a) and (b) substitute—

(a)until a decision is taken as to whether or not to institute criminal proceedings against the arrested person for that offence; or

(b)if criminal proceedings have been instituted against the arrested person—

(i)until he is acquitted or, under section 65 or 147 of the [1995 c. 46.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, discharged or liberated or the trial diet is deserted simpliciter;

(ii)if he has been convicted, until the court decides whether or not to order forfeiture of the ship, aircraft or vehicle,

and for the purposes of this subsection, criminal proceedings are instituted against a person at whichever is the earliest of his first appearance before the sheriff on petition, or the service on him of an indictment or complaint.

(6)“Court” means—

(a)in England and Wales—

(i)if the arrested person has not been charged, the magistrates' court for the petty sessions area in which he was arrested;

(ii)if he has been charged but proceedings for the offence have not begun to be heard, the magistrates' court for the petty sessions area in which he was charged;

(iii)if he has been charged and proceedings for the offence are being heard, the court hearing the proceedings;

(b)in Scotland, the sheriff; and

(c)in Northern Ireland—

(i)if the arrested person has not been charged, the magistrates' court for the county court division in which he was arrested;

(ii)if he has been charged but proceedings for the offence have not begun to be heard, the magistrates' court for the county court division in which he was charged;

(iii)if he has been charged and proceedings for the offence are being heard, the court hearing the proceedings.

(7)“Owner” has the same meaning as it has in section 25(6).

(8)“Senior officer” means an immigration officer not below the rank of chief immigration officer.

(3)Subsection (1) has effect in relation to offences committed after the coming into force of that subsection.

(4)Subsection (2) has effect in relation to persons arrested for offences alleged to have been committed after the coming into force of that subsection.

39Rail freight

(1)The Secretary of State may make regulations applying (with or without modification) any provision of this Part for the purpose of enabling penalties to be imposed in respect of a person (“a clandestine entrant”) who—

(a)arrives in the United Kingdom concealed in a rail freight wagon; and

(b)claims, or indicates that he intends to seek, asylum in the United Kingdom or evades, or attempts to evade, immigration control.

(2)The regulations may, in particular, make provision—

(a)enabling additional penalties to be imposed in respect of persons concealed with the clandestine entrant;

(b)as to which person is (or which persons are together) liable to penalties in respect of the clandestine entrant;

(c)for conferring on a senior officer a power to detain any relevant rail freight wagon in prescribed circumstances;

(d)for conferring on the Secretary of State a power to sell in prescribed circumstances a rail freight wagon which has been detained.

(3)Before making any regulations under this section, the Secretary of State must consult, in the way he considers appropriate, persons appearing to him to be likely to be affected by the imposition of penalties under the regulations.

Passengers without proper documents

40Charges in respect of passengers without proper documents

(1)This section applies if a person requiring leave to enter the United Kingdom arrives in the United Kingdom by ship, aircraft, road passenger vehicle or train and, on being required to do so by an immigration officer, fails to produce—

(a)a valid passport with photograph or some other document satisfactorily establishing his identity and nationality or citizenship; and

(b)if he requires a visa, a valid visa of the required kind.

(2)The Secretary of State may charge the owner of the ship, aircraft or vehicle or the train operator, in respect of that person, the sum of £2,000 or such other sum as may be prescribed.

(3)The charge is payable to the Secretary of State on demand.

(4)No charge is payable in respect of any person who is shown by the owner or train operator to have produced the required document or documents to him or his representative when embarking—

(a)on the ship or aircraft for the voyage or flight to the United Kingdom; or

(b)on the vehicle or train for the journey to the United Kingdom.

(5)No charge is payable by a train operator, or by the owner of a road passenger vehicle, in respect of a person (“A”), if he shows that—

(a)neither he nor his representative was permitted, under the law applicable to the place where A embarked on the journey to the United Kingdom, to require A to produce to him when embarking the required document or documents;

(b)he had in place satisfactory arrangements (including, where appropriate, arrangements with other persons) designed to ensure that he did not carry passengers who did not, or might not, have documents of the required kind;

(c)all such steps as were practicable were taken in accordance with the arrangements to establish whether A had the required document or documents; and

(d)all such steps as were practicable were taken in accordance with the arrangements to prevent A’s arrival in the United Kingdom where—

(i)A refused to produce the required document or documents to a person acting in accordance with the arrangements; or

(ii)for other reasons it appeared to that person that A did not, or might not, have the required document or documents.

(6)For the purposes of subsections (4) and (5), a document—

(a)is to be regarded as being what it purports to be unless its falsity is reasonably apparent; and

(b)is to be regarded as relating to the person producing it unless it is reasonably apparent that it relates to another person.

(7)Subsection (8) applies if—

(a)a person arrives in the United Kingdom in circumstances in which the Secretary of State is entitled to impose on the owner of a road passenger vehicle a charge under this section in respect of that person; and

(b)the vehicle arrived in the United Kingdom in a ship or aircraft.

(8)The Secretary of State may impose a charge in respect of the arrival of the vehicle, or a charge in respect of the arrival of the ship or aircraft, but not in respect of both.

(9)The Secretary of State may by order provide that this section is not to apply in relation to passengers arriving in the United Kingdom on a train who embarked on the journey to the United Kingdom—

(a)in a country specified in the order; or

(b)at places so specified within a country so specified.

(10)The Secretary of State may make an order under subsection (9) only if he is satisfied that there is in force between the United Kingdom and the country concerned an agreement providing for the operation of United Kingdom immigration control in that country or for the checking of passports and visas there.

(11)“Road passenger vehicle” means a vehicle—

(a)which is adapted to carry more than eight passengers and is being used for carrying passengers for hire or reward; or

(b)which is not so adapted but is being used for carrying passengers for hire or reward at separate fares in the course of a business of carrying passengers.

(12)For the purposes of this section a person requires a visa if—

(a)under the immigration rules he requires a visa for entry into the United Kingdom; or

(b)as a result of section 41 he requires a visa for passing through the United Kingdom.

(13)“Representative”, in relation to a person, means an employee or agent of his.

41Visas for transit passengers

(1)The Secretary of State may by order require transit passengers to hold a transit visa.

(2)“Transit passengers” means persons of any description specified in the order who on arrival in the United Kingdom pass through to another country without entering the United Kingdom; and “transit visa” means a visa for that purpose.

(3)The order—

(a)may specify a description of persons by reference to nationality, citizenship, origin or other connection with any particular country but not by reference to race, colour or religion;

(b)may not provide for the requirement imposed by the order to apply to any person who under the 1971 Act has the right of abode in the United Kingdom;

(c)may provide for any category of persons of a description specified in the order to be exempt from the requirement imposed by the order;

(d)may make provision about the method of application for visas required by the order.

42Power to detain vehicles etc. in connection with charges under section 40

(1)A senior officer may, pending payment of any charge imposed under section 40, detain—

(a)the transporter in which the person in respect of whom the charge was imposed was carried; or

(b)any other transporter used (on any route) in the course of providing a service of carriage of passengers by sea, air or land by the person on whom the charge was imposed.

(2)If a transporter is detained under subsection (1) it may continue to be detained pending payment of any connected expenses.

(3)The court may release the transporter if it considers that—

(a)satisfactory security has been tendered in place of the transporter for the payment of the charge alleged to be due and connected expenses;

(b)there is no significant risk that the charge and any connected expenses will not be paid; or

(c)there is a significant doubt as to whether the charge is payable and the applicant has a compelling need to have the transporter released.

(4)If the court has not ordered the release of the transporter, the Secretary of State may sell it if the charge in question and connected expenses are not paid before the end of the period of 84 days beginning with the date on which the detention began.

(5)The detention of a transporter under this section is lawful even though it is subsequently established that the imposition of the charge on which the detention was based was ill-founded.

(6)But subsection (5) does not apply if the Secretary of State was acting unreasonably in imposing the charge.

(7)“Connected expenses” means expenses reasonably incurred by the Secretary of State in connection with the detention.

(8)Schedule 1 applies to the sale of transporters under this section.

Interpretation

43Interpretation of Part II

In this Part—

  • “aircraft” includes hovercraft;

  • “captain” means the master of a ship or commander of an aircraft;

  • “concealed” includes being concealed in any freight, stores or other thing carried in or on the vehicle, ship or aircraft concerned;

  • “court” means—

    (a)

    in England and Wales, the county court or the High Court;

    (b)

    in Scotland, the sheriff or the Court of Session;

    (c)

    in Northern Ireland, the county court or the High Court;

  • “detached trailer” means a trailer, semi-trailer, caravan or any other thing which is designed or adapted for towing by a vehicle but which has been detached for transport—

    (a)

    in or on the vehicle concerned; or

    (b)

    in the ship or aircraft concerned (whether separately or in or on a vehicle);

  • “equipment”, in relation to an aircraft, includes—

    (a)

    any certificate of registration, maintenance or airworthiness of the aircraft;

    (b)

    any log book relating to the use of the aircraft; and

    (c)

    any similar document;

  • “hirer”, in relation to a vehicle, means any person who has hired the vehicle from another person;

  • “operating weight”, in relation to an aircraft, means the maximum total weight of the aircraft and its contents at which the aircraft may take off anywhere in the world, in the most favourable circumstances, in accordance with the certificate of airworthiness in force in respect of the aircraft;

  • “owner” includes—

    (a)

    in relation to a ship or aircraft, the agent or operator of the ship or aircraft; and

    (b)

    in relation to a road passenger vehicle, the operator of the vehicle; and

    in relation to a transporter which is the subject of a hire-purchase agreement, includes the person in possession of it under that agreement;

  • “penalty notice” has the meaning given in section 35(2);

  • “rail freight wagon” has such meaning as may be prescribed;

  • “senior officer” means an immigration officer not below the rank of chief immigration officer;

  • “ship” includes every description of vessel used in navigation;

  • “small aircraft” means an aircraft which has an operating weight of less than 5,700 kilogrammes;

  • “small ship” means a ship which has a gross tonnage of less than 500 tonnes;

  • “train” means a train which—

    (a)

    is engaged on an international service as defined by section 13(6) of the [1987 c. 53.] Channel Tunnel Act 1987; but

    (b)

    is not a shuttle train as defined by section 1(9) of that Act;

  • “train operator”, in relation to a person arriving in the United Kingdom on a train, means the operator of trains who embarked that person on that train for the journey to the United Kingdom;

  • “transporter” means a vehicle, ship or aircraft together with—

    (a)

    its equipment; and

    (b)

    any stores for use in connection with its operation;

  • “vehicle” includes a trailer, semi-trailer, caravan or other thing which is designed or adapted to be towed by another vehicle.

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