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Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999

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  • Pt. 2 Ch. 1 applied (with modifications) by 1998 c. 37 s. 1I(2)(3) (as inserted) by 2005 c. 15 s. 143

Changes and effects yet to be applied to the whole Act associated Parts and Chapters:

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Chapter IE+W Special measures directions in case of vulnerable and intimidated witnesses

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

PreliminaryE+W

16 Witnesses eligible for assistance on grounds of age or incapacity.E+W

(1)For the purposes of this Chapter a witness in criminal proceedings (other than the accused) is eligible for assistance by virtue of this section—

(a)if under the age of 17 at the time of the hearing; or

(b)if the court considers that the quality of evidence given by the witness is likely to be diminished by reason of any circumstances falling within subsection (2).

(2)The circumstances falling within this subsection are—

(a)that the witness—

(i)suffers from mental disorder within the meaning of the M1Mental Health Act 1983, or

(ii)otherwise has a significant impairment of intelligence and social functioning;

(b)that the witness has a physical disability or is suffering from a physical disorder.

(3)In subsection (1)(a) “the time of the hearing”, in relation to a witness, means the time when it falls to the court to make a determination for the purposes of section 19(2) in relation to the witness.

(4)In determining whether a witness falls within subsection (1)(b) the court must consider any views expressed by the witness.

(5)In this Chapter references to the quality of a witness’s evidence are to its quality in terms of completeness, coherence and accuracy; and for this purpose “coherence” refers to a witness’s ability in giving evidence to give answers which address the questions put to the witness and can be understood both individually and collectively.

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Commencement Information

I1S. 16 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 16 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

Marginal Citations

17 Witnesses eligible for assistance on grounds of fear or distress about testifying.E+W

(1)For the purposes of this Chapter a witness in criminal proceedings (other than the accused) is eligible for assistance by virtue of this subsection if the court is satisfied that the quality of evidence given by the witness is likely to be diminished by reason of fear or distress on the part of the witness in connection with testifying in the proceedings.

(2)In determining whether a witness falls within subsection (1) the court must take into account, in particular—

(a)the nature and alleged circumstances of the offence to which the proceedings relate;

(b)the age of the witness;

(c)such of the following matters as appear to the court to be relevant, namely—

(i)the social and cultural background and ethnic origins of the witness,

(ii)the domestic and employment circumstances of the witness, and

(iii)any religious beliefs or political opinions of the witness;

(d)any behaviour towards the witness on the part of—

(i)the accused,

(ii)members of the family or associates of the accused, or

(iii)any other person who is likely to be an accused or a witness in the proceedings.

(3)In determining that question the court must in addition consider any views expressed by the witness.

(4)Where the complainant in respect of a sexual offence is a witness in proceedings relating to that offence (or to that offence and any other offences), the witness is eligible for assistance in relation to those proceedings by virtue of this subsection unless the witness has informed the court of the witness’ wish not to be so eligible by virtue of this subsection.

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Commencement Information

I2S. 17 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 17 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

18 Special measures available to eligible witnesses.E+W

(1)For the purposes of this Chapter—

(a)the provision which may be made by a special measures direction by virtue of each of sections 23 to 30 is a special measure available in relation to a witness eligible for assistance by virtue of section 16; and

(b)the provision which may be made by such a direction by virtue of each of sections 23 to 28 is a special measure available in relation to a witness eligible for assistance by virtue of section 17;

but this subsection has effect subject to subsection (2).

(2)Where (apart from this subsection) a special measure would, in accordance with subsection (1)(a) or (b), be available in relation to a witness in any proceedings, it shall not be taken by a court to be available in relation to the witness unless—

(a)the court has been notified by the Secretary of State that relevant arrangements may be made available in the area in which it appears to the court that the proceedings will take place, and

(b)the notice has not been withdrawn.

(3)In subsection (2) “relevant arrangements” means arrangements for implementing the measure in question which cover the witness and the proceedings in question.

(4)The withdrawal of a notice under that subsection relating to a special measure shall not affect the availability of that measure in relation to a witness if a special measures direction providing for that measure to apply to the witness’s evidence has been made by the court before the notice is withdrawn.

(5)The Secretary of State may by order make such amendments of this Chapter as he considers appropriate for altering the special measures which, in accordance with subsection (1)(a) or (b), are available in relation to a witness eligible for assistance by virtue of section 16 or (as the case may be) section 17, whether—

(a)by modifying the provisions relating to any measure for the time being available in relation to such a witness,

(b)by the addition—

(i)(with or without modifications) of any measure which is for the time being available in relation to a witness eligible for assistance by virtue of the other of those sections, or

(ii)of any new measure, or

(c)by the removal of any measure.

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Commencement Information

I3S. 18 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 18 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

Special measures directionsE+W

19 Special measures direction relating to eligible witness.E+W

(1)This section applies where in any criminal proceedings—

(a)a party to the proceedings makes an application for the court to give a direction under this section in relation to a witness in the proceedings other than the accused, or

(b)the court of its own motion raises the issue whether such a direction should be given.

(2)Where the court determines that the witness is eligible for assistance by virtue of section 16 or 17, the court must then—

(a)determine whether any of the special measures available in relation to the witness (or any combination of them) would, in its opinion, be likely to improve the quality of evidence given by the witness; and

(b)if so—

(i)determine which of those measures (or combination of them) would, in its opinion, be likely to maximise so far as practicable the quality of such evidence; and

(ii)give a direction under this section providing for the measure or measures so determined to apply to evidence given by the witness.

(3)In determining for the purposes of this Chapter whether any special measure or measures would or would not be likely to improve, or to maximise so far as practicable, the quality of evidence given by the witness, the court must consider all the circumstances of the case, including in particular—

(a)any views expressed by the witness; and

(b)whether the measure or measures might tend to inhibit such evidence being effectively tested by a party to the proceedings.

(4)A special measures direction must specify particulars of the provision made by the direction in respect of each special measure which is to apply to the witness’s evidence.

(5)In this Chapter “special measures direction” means a direction under this section.

(6)Nothing in this Chapter is to be regarded as affecting any power of a court to make an order or give leave of any description (in the exercise of its inherent jurisdiction or otherwise)—

(a)in relation to a witness who is not an eligible witness, or

(b)in relation to an eligible witness where (as, for example, in a case where a foreign language interpreter is to be provided) the order is made or the leave is given otherwise than by reason of the fact that the witness is an eligible witness.

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Commencement Information

I4S. 19 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 19 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

20 Further provisions about directions: general.E+W

(1)Subject to subsection (221.) and section 21(8), a special measures direction has binding effect from the time it is made until the proceedings for the purposes of which it is made are either—

(a)determined (by acquittal, conviction or otherwise), or

(b)abandoned,

in relation to the accused or (if there is more than one) in relation to each of the accused.

(2)The court may discharge or vary (or further vary) a special measures direction if it appears to the court to be in the interests of justice to do so, and may do so either—

(a)on an application made by a party to the proceedings, if there has been a material change of circumstances since the relevant time, or

(b)of its own motion.

(3)In subsection (2) “the relevant time” means—

(a)the time when the direction was given, or

(b)if a previous application has been made under that subsection, the time when the application (or last application) was made.

(4)Nothing in section 24(2) and (3), 27(4) to (7) or 28(4) to (6) is to be regarded as affecting the power of the court to vary or discharge a special measures direction under subsection (2).

(5)The court must state in open court its reasons for—

(a)giving or varying,

(b)refusing an application for, or for the variation or discharge of, or

(c)discharging,

a special measures direction and, if it is a magistrates’ court, must cause them to be entered in the register of its proceedings.

(6)Rules of court may make provision—

(a)for uncontested applications to be determined by the court without a hearing;

(b)for preventing the renewal of an unsuccessful application for a special measures direction except where there has been a material change of circumstances;

(c)for expert evidence to be given in connection with an application for, or for varying or discharging, such a direction;

(d)for the manner in which confidential or sensitive information is to be treated in connection with such an application and in particular as to its being disclosed to, or withheld from, a party to the proceedings.

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Commencement Information

I5S. 20 wholly in force at 24.7.2007; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4): s. 20 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

21 Special provisions relating to child witnesses.E+W

(1)For the purposes of this section—

(a)a witness in criminal proceedings is a “child witness” if he is an eligible witness by reason of section 16(1)(a) (whether or not he is an eligible witness by reason of any other provision of section 16 or 17);

(b)a child witness is “in need of special protection” if the offence (or any of the offences) to which the proceedings relate is—

(i)an offence falling within section 35(3)(a) (sexual offences etc.), or

(ii)an offence falling within section 35(3)(b), (c) or (d) (kidnapping, assaults etc.); and

(c)a “relevant recording”, in relation to a child witness, is a video recording of an interview of the witness made with a view to its admission as evidence in chief of the witness.

(2)Where the court, in making a determination for the purposes of section 19(2), determines that a witness in criminal proceedings is a child witness, the court must—

(a)first have regard to subsections (3) to (7) below; and

(b)then have regard to section 19(2);

and for the purposes of section 19(2), as it then applies to the witness, any special measures required to be applied in relation to him by virtue of this section shall be treated as if they were measures determined by the court, pursuant to section 19(2)(a) and (b)(i), to be ones that (whether on their own or with any other special measures) would be likely to maximise, so far as practicable, the quality of his evidence.

(3)The primary rule in the case of a child witness is that the court must give a special measures direction in relation to the witness which complies with the following requirements—

(a)it must provide for any relevant recording to be admitted under section 27 (video recorded evidence in chief); and

(b)it must provide for any evidence given by the witness in the proceedings which is not given by means of a video recording (whether in chief or otherwise) to be given by means of a live link in accordance with section 24.

(4)The primary rule is subject to the following limitations—

(a)the requirement contained in subsection (3)(a) or (b) has effect subject to the availability (within the meaning of section 18(2)) of the special measure in question in relation to the witness;

(b)the requirement contained in subsection (3)(a) also has effect subject to section 27(2); and

(c)the rule does not apply to the extent that the court is satisfied that compliance with it would not be likely to maximise the quality of the witness’s evidence so far as practicable (whether because the application to that evidence of one or more other special measures available in relation to the witness would have that result or for any other reason).

(5)However, subsection (4)(c) does not apply in relation to a child witness in need of special protection.

(6)Where a child witness is in need of special protection by virtue of subsection (1)(b)(i), any special measures direction given by the court which complies with the requirement contained in subsection (3)(a) must in addition provide for the special measure available under section 28 (video recorded cross-examination or re-examination) to apply in relation to—

(a)any cross-examination of the witness otherwise than by the accused in person, and

(b)any subsequent re-examination.

(7)The requirement contained in subsection (6) has effect subject to the following limitations—

(a)it has effect subject to the availability (within the meaning of section 18(2)) of that special measure in relation to the witness; and

(b)it does not apply if the witness has informed the court that he does not want that special measure to apply in relation to him.

(8)Where a special measures direction is given in relation to a child witness who is an eligible witness by reason only of section 16(1)(a), then—

(a)subject to subsection (9) below, and

(b)except where the witness has already begun to give evidence in the proceedings,

the direction shall cease to have effect at the time when the witness attains the age of 17.

(9)Where a special measures direction is given in relation to a child witness who is an eligible witness by reason only of section 16(1)(a) and—

(a)the direction provides—

(i)for any relevant recording to be admitted under section 27 as evidence in chief of the witness, or

(ii)for the special measure available under section 28 to apply in relation to the witness, and

(b)if it provides for that special measure to so apply, the witness is still under the age of 17 when the video recording is made for the purposes of section 28,

then, so far as it provides as mentioned in paragraph (a)(i) or (ii) above, the direction shall continue to have effect in accordance with section 20(1) even though the witness subsequently attains that age.

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Commencement Information

I6S. 21 wholly in force at 24.7.2007; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 20 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

22 Extension of provisions of section 21 to certain witnesses over 17.E+W

(1)For the purposes of this section—

(a)a witness in criminal proceedings (other than the accused) is a “qualifying witness” if he—

(i)is not an eligible witness at the time of the hearing (as defined by section 16(3)), but

(ii)was under the age of 17 when a relevant recording was made;

(b)a qualifying witness is “in need of special protection” if the offence (or any of the offences) to which the proceedings relate is—

(i)an offence falling within section 35(3)(a) (sexual offences etc.), or

(ii)an offence falling within section 35(3)(b), (c) or (d) (kidnapping, assaults etc.); and

(c)a “relevant recording”, in relation to a witness, is a video recording of an interview of the witness made with a view to its admission as evidence in chief of the witness.

(2)Subsections (2) to (7) of section 21 shall apply as follows in relation to a qualifying witness—

(a)subsections (2) to (4), so far as relating to the giving of a direction complying with the requirement contained in subsection (3)(a), shall apply to a qualifying witness in respect of the relevant recording as they apply to a child witness (within the meaning of that section);

(b)subsection (5), so far as relating to the giving of such a direction, shall apply to a qualifying witness in need of special protection as it applies to a child witness in need of special protection (within the meaning of that section); and

(c)subsections (6) and (7) shall apply to a qualifying witness in need of special protection by virtue of subsection (1)(b)(i) above as they apply to such a child witness as is mentioned in subsection (6).

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Commencement Information

I7S. 22 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 22 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

Special measuresE+W

23 Screening witness from accused.E+W

(1)A special measures direction may provide for the witness, while giving testimony or being sworn in court, to be prevented by means of a screen or other arrangement from seeing the accused.

(2)But the screen or other arrangement must not prevent the witness from being able to see, and to be seen by—

(a)the judge or justices (or both) and the jury (if there is one);

(b)legal representatives acting in the proceedings; and

(c)any interpreter or other person appointed (in pursuance of the direction or otherwise) to assist the witness.

(3)Where two or more legal representatives are acting for a party to the proceedings, subsection (2)(b) is to be regarded as satisfied in relation to those representatives if the witness is able at all material times to see and be seen by at least one of them.

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Commencement Information

I8S. 23 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 23 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

24 Evidence by live link.E+W

(1)A special measures direction may provide for the witness to give evidence by means of a live link.

(2)Where a direction provides for the witness to give evidence by means of a live link, the witness may not give evidence in any other way without the permission of the court.

(3)The court may give permission for the purposes of subsection (2) if it appears to the court to be in the interests of justice to do so, and may do so either—

(a)on an application by a party to the proceedings, if there has been a material change of circumstances since the relevant time, or

(b)of its own motion.

(4)In subsection (3) “the relevant time” means—

(a)the time when the direction was given, or

(b)if a previous application has been made under that subsection, the time when the application (or last application) was made.

(5)Where in proceedings before a magistrates’ court—

(a)evidence is to be given by means of a live link in accordance with a special measures direction, but

(b)suitable facilities for receiving such evidence are not available at any petty-sessional court-house in which that court can (apart from this subsection) lawfully sit,

the court may sit for the purposes of the whole or any part of those proceedings at a place where such facilities are available and which has been appointed for the purposes of this subsection by the justices acting for the petty sessions area for which the court acts.

(6)A place appointed under subsection (5) may be outside the petty sessions area for which it is appointed; but (if so) it is to be regarded as being in that area for the purpose of the jurisdiction of the justices acting for that area.

(7)In this section “petty-sessional court-house” has the same meaning as in the M2Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 and “petty sessions area” has the same meaning as in the M3Justices of the Peace Act 1997.

(8)In this Chapter “live link” means a live television link or other arrangement whereby a witness, while absent from the courtroom or other place where the proceedings are being held, is able to see and hear a person there and to be seen and heard by the persons specified in section 23(2)(a) to (c).

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Commencement Information

I9S. 24 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 24 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

Marginal Citations

25 Evidence given in private.E+W

(1)A special measures direction may provide for the exclusion from the court, during the giving of the witness’s evidence, of persons of any description specified in the direction.

(2)The persons who may be so excluded do not include—

(a)the accused,

(b)legal representatives acting in the proceedings, or

(c)any interpreter or other person appointed (in pursuance of the direction or otherwise) to assist the witness.

(3)A special measures direction providing for representatives of news gathering or reporting organisations to be so excluded shall be expressed not to apply to one named person who—

(a)is a representative of such an organisation, and

(b)has been nominated for the purpose by one or more such organisations,

unless it appears to the court that no such nomination has been made.

(4)A special measures direction may only provide for the exclusion of persons under this section where—

(a)the proceedings relate to a sexual offence; or

(b)it appears to the court that there are reasonable grounds for believing that any person other than the accused has sought, or will seek, to intimidate the witness in connection with testifying in the proceedings.

(5)Any proceedings from which persons are excluded under this section (whether or not those persons include representatives of news gathering or reporting organisations) shall nevertheless be taken to be held in public for the purposes of any privilege or exemption from liability available in respect of fair, accurate and contemporaneous reports of legal proceedings held in public.

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Commencement Information

I10S. 25 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 25 jn force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

26 Removal of wigs and gowns.E+W

A special measures direction may provide for the wearing of wigs or gowns to be dispensed with during the giving of the witness’s evidence.

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Commencement Information

I11S. 26 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 26 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

27 Video recorded evidence in chief.E+W

(1)A special measures direction may provide for a video recording of an interview of the witness to be admitted as evidence in chief of the witness.

(2)A special measures direction may, however, not provide for a video recording, or a part of such a recording, to be admitted under this section if the court is of the opinion, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, that in the interests of justice the recording, or that part of it, should not be so admitted.

(3)In considering for the purposes of subsection (2) whether any part of a recording should not be admitted under this section, the court must consider whether any prejudice to the accused which might result from that part being so admitted is outweighed by the desirability of showing the whole, or substantially the whole, of the recorded interview.

(4)Where a special measures direction provides for a recording to be admitted under this section, the court may nevertheless subsequently direct that it is not to be so admitted if—

(a)it appears to the court that—

(i)the witness will not be available for cross-examination (whether conducted in the ordinary way or in accordance with any such direction), and

(ii)the parties to the proceedings have not agreed that there is no need for the witness to be so available; or

(b)any rules of court requiring disclosure of the circumstances in which the recording was made have not been complied with to the satisfaction of the court.

(5)Where a recording is admitted under this section—

(a)the witness must be called by the party tendering it in evidence, unless—

(i)a special measures direction provides for the witness’s evidence on cross-examination to be given otherwise than by testimony in court, or

(ii)the parties to the proceedings have agreed as mentioned in subsection (4)(a)(ii); and

(b)the witness may not give evidence in chief otherwise than by means of the recording—

(i)as to any matter which, in the opinion of the court, has been dealt with adequately in the witness’s recorded testimony, or

(ii)without the permission of the court, as to any other matter which, in the opinion of the court, is dealt with in that testimony.

(6)Where in accordance with subsection (2) a special measures direction provides for part only of a recording to be admitted under this section, references in subsections (4) and (5) to the recording or to the witness’s recorded testimony are references to the part of the recording or testimony which is to be so admitted.

(7)The court may give permission for the purposes of subsection (5)(b)(ii) if it appears to the court to be in the interests of justice to do so, and may do so either—

(a)on an application by a party to the proceedings, if there has been a material change of circumstances since the relevant time, or

(b)of its own motion.

(8)In subsection (7) “the relevant time” means—

(a)the time when the direction was given, or

(b)if a previous application has been made under that subsection, the time when the application (or last application) was made.

(9)The court may, in giving permission for the purposes of subsection (5)(b)(ii), direct that the evidence in question is to be given by the witness by means of a live link; and, if the court so directs, subsections (5) to (7) of section 24 shall apply in relation to that evidence as they apply in relation to evidence which is to be given in accordance with a special measures direction.

(10)A magistrates’ court inquiring into an offence as examining justices under section 6 of the M4Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 may consider any video recording in relation to which it is proposed to apply for a special measures direction providing for it to be admitted at the trial in accordance with this section.

(11)Nothing in this section affects the admissibility of any video recording which would be admissible apart from this section.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I12S. 27 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 27 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

Marginal Citations

28 Video recorded cross-examination or re-examination.E+W

(1)Where a special measures direction provides for a video recording to be admitted under section 27 as evidence in chief of the witness, the direction may also provide—

(a)for any cross-examination of the witness, and any re-examination, to be recorded by means of a video recording; and

(b)for such a recording to be admitted, so far as it relates to any such cross-examination or re-examination, as evidence of the witness under cross-examination or on re-examination, as the case may be.

(2)Such a recording must be made in the presence of such persons as rules of court or the direction may provide and in the absence of the accused, but in circumstances in which—

(a)the judge or justices (or both) and legal representatives acting in the proceedings are able to see and hear the examination of the witness and to communicate with the persons in whose presence the recording is being made, and

(b)the accused is able to see and hear any such examination and to communicate with any legal representative acting for him.

(3)Where two or more legal representatives are acting for a party to the proceedings, subsection (2)(a) and (b) are to be regarded as satisfied in relation to those representatives if at all material times they are satisfied in relation to at least one of them.

(4)Where a special measures direction provides for a recording to be admitted under this section, the court may nevertheless subsequently direct that it is not to be so admitted if any requirement of subsection (2) or rules of court or the direction has not been complied with to the satisfaction of the court.

(5)Where in pursuance of subsection (1) a recording has been made of any examination of the witness, the witness may not be subsequently cross-examined or re-examined in respect of any evidence given by the witness in the proceedings (whether in any recording admissible under section 27 or this section or otherwise than in such a recording) unless the court gives a further special measures direction making such provision as is mentioned in subsection (1)(a) and (b) in relation to any subsequent cross-examination, and re-examination, of the witness.

(6)The court may only give such a further direction if it appears to the court—

(a)that the proposed cross-examination is sought by a party to the proceedings as a result of that party having become aware, since the time when the original recording was made in pursuance of subsection (1), of a matter which that party could not with reasonable diligence have ascertained by then, or

(b)that for any other reason it is in the interests of justice to give the further direction.

(7)Nothing in this section shall be read as applying in relation to any cross-examination of the witness by the accused in person (in a case where the accused is to be able to conduct any such cross-examination).

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I13S. 28 partly in force; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4)

29 Examination of witness through intermediary.E+W

(1)A special measures direction may provide for any examination of the witness (however and wherever conducted) to be conducted through an interpreter or other person approved by the court for the purposes of this section (“an intermediary”).

(2)The function of an intermediary is to communicate—

(a)to the witness, questions put to the witness, and

(b)to any person asking such questions, the answers given by the witness in reply to them,

and to explain such questions or answers so far as necessary to enable them to be understood by the witness or person in question.

(3)Any examination of the witness in pursuance of subsection (1) must take place in the presence of such persons as rules of court or the direction may provide, but in circumstances in which—

(a)the judge or justices (or both) and legal representatives acting in the proceedings are able to see and hear the examination of the witness and to communicate with the intermediary, and

(b)(except in the case of a video recorded examination) the jury (if there is one) are able to see and hear the examination of the witness.

(4)Where two or more legal representatives are acting for a party to the proceedings, subsection (3)(a) is to be regarded as satisfied in relation to those representatives if at all material times it is satisfied in relation to at least one of them.

(5)A person may not act as an intermediary in a particular case except after making a declaration, in such form as may be prescribed by rules of court, that he will faithfully perform his function as intermediary.

(6)Subsection (1) does not apply to an interview of the witness which is recorded by means of a video recording with a view to its admission as evidence in chief of the witness; but a special measures direction may provide for such a recording to be admitted under section 27 if the interview was conducted through an intermediary and—

(a)that person complied with subsection (5) before the interview began, and

(b)the court’s approval for the purposes of this section is given before the direction is given.

(7)Section 1 of the M5Perjury Act 1911 (perjury) shall apply in relation to a person acting as an intermediary as it applies in relation to a person lawfully sworn as an interpreter in a judicial proceeding; and for this purpose, where a person acts as an intermediary in any proceeding which is not a judicial proceeding for the purposes of that section, that proceeding shall be taken to be part of the judicial proceeding in which the witness’s evidence is given.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I14S. 29 partly in force; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4)

Marginal Citations

30 Aids to communication.E+W

A special measures direction may provide for the witness, while giving evidence (whether by testimony in court or otherwise), to be provided with such device as the court considers appropriate with a view to enabling questions or answers to be communicated to or by the witness despite any disability or disorder or other impairment which the witness has or suffers from.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I15S. 30 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 30 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(a)

SupplementaryE+W

31 Status of evidence given under Chapter I.E+W

(1)Subsections (2) to (4) apply to a statement made by a witness in criminal proceedings which, in accordance with a special measures direction, is not made by the witness in direct oral testimony in court but forms part of the witness’s evidence in those proceedings.

(2)The statement shall be treated as if made by the witness in direct oral testimony in court; and accordingly—

(a)it is admissible evidence of any fact of which such testimony from the witness would be admissible;

(b)it is not capable of corroborating any other evidence given by the witness.

(3)Subsection (2) applies to a statement admitted under section 27 or 28 which is not made by the witness on oath even though it would have been required to be made on oath if made by the witness in direct oral testimony in court.

(4)In estimating the weight (if any) to be attached to the statement, the court must have regard to all the circumstances from which an inference can reasonably be drawn (as to the accuracy of the statement or otherwise).

(5)Nothing in this Chapter (apart from subsection (3)) affects the operation of any rule of law relating to evidence in criminal proceedings.

(6)Where any statement made by a person on oath in any proceeding which is not a judicial proceeding for the purposes of section 1 of the M6Perjury Act 1911 (perjury) is received in evidence in pursuance of a special measures direction, that proceeding shall be taken for the purposes of that section to be part of the judicial proceeding in which the statement is so received in evidence.

(7)Where in any proceeding which is not a judicial proceeding for the purposes of that Act—

(a)a person wilfully makes a false statement otherwise than on oath which is subsequently received in evidence in pursuance of a special measures direction, and

(b)the statement is made in such circumstances that had it been given on oath in any such judicial proceeding that person would have been guilty of perjury,

he shall be guilty of an offence and liable to any punishment which might be imposed on conviction of an offence under section 57(2) (giving of false unsworn evidence in criminal proceedings).

(8)In this section “statement” includes any representation of fact, whether made in words or otherwise.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I16S. 31 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 31 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(b)

Marginal Citations

32 Warning to jury.E+W

Where on a trial on indictment evidence has been given in accordance with a special measures direction, the judge must give the jury such warning (if any) as the judge considers necessary to ensure that the fact that the direction was given in relation to the witness does not prejudice the accused.

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I17S. 32 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt. II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 32 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739, art. 2(b)

33 Interpretation etc. of Chapter I.E+W

(1)In this Chapter—

  • eligible witness” means a witness eligible for assistance by virtue of section 16 or 17;

  • live link” has the meaning given by section 24(8);

  • quality”, in relation to the evidence of a witness, shall be construed in accordance with section 16(5);

  • special measures direction” means (in accordance with section 19(5)) a direction under section 19.

(2)In this Chapter references to the special measures available in relation to a witness shall be construed in accordance with section 18.

(3)In this Chapter references to a person being able to see or hear, or be seen or heard by, another person are to be read as not applying to the extent that either of them is unable to see or hear by reason of any impairment of eyesight or hearing.

(4)In the case of any proceedings in which there is more than one accused—

(a)any reference to the accused in sections 23 to 28 may be taken by a court, in connection with the giving of a special measures direction, as a reference to all or any of the accused, as the court may determine, and

(b)any such direction may be given on the basis of any such determination.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Commencement Information

I18S. 33 wholly in force at 24.7.2002; Pt.II Chs. 1-4 (ss. 16-52) in force for certain purposes at Royal Assent, see s. 68(4); s. 33 in force in so far as not already in force at 24.7.2002 by S.I. 2002/1739 {art. 2(b)}

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