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Crime and Disorder Act 1998

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Commencement Orders bringing legislation that affects this Act into force:

[F1Racially or religiously aggravated] offences: England and WalesE+W

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in the cross-heading substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(2), 127(2) (with s. 42)

28 Meaning of “ [F2racially or religiously aggravated]”.E+W

(1)An offence is [F2racially or religiously aggravated] for the purposes of sections 29 to 32 below if—

(a)at the time of committing the offence, or immediately before or after doing so, the offender demonstrates towards the victim of the offence hostility based on the victim’s membership (or presumed membership) of a [F3racial or religious group]; or

(b)the offence is motivated (wholly or partly) by hostility towards members of a [F3racial or religious group] based on their membership of that group.

(2)In subsection (1)(a) above—

  • membership”, in relation to a [F3racial or religious group], includes association with members of that group;

  • presumed” means presumed by the offender.

(3)It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) above whether or not the offender’s hostility is also based, to any extent, [F4on any other factor not mentioned in that paragraph.]

(4)In this section “racial group” means a group of persons defined by reference to race, colour, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or national origins.

[F5(5)In this section “religious group” means a group of persons defined by reference to religious belief or lack of religious belief.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F2Words in s. 28(1) and the sidenote substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(3)(a), 127(2) (with s. 42)

F3Words in s. 28(1)(2) substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(3)(b), 127(2) (with s. 42)

F4Words in s. 28(3) substituted (14.12.2001) for s. 28(3)(a)(b) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(3)(c), 127(2) (with s. 42)

F5S. 28(5) inserted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(4), 127(2) (with s. 42)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 28 applied (25.8.2000) by 2000 c. 6, ss. 153(3), 168(1)

Commencement Information

I1S. 28 wholly in force; S. 28 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 121. In force at 30.9.1998 by S.I. 1998/2327, art. 2(1) (subject to savings in arts. 5-8)

29[F6Racially or religiously aggravated] assaults.E+W

(1)A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he commits—

(a)an offence under section 20 of the Offences Against the M1Person Act 1861 (malicious wounding or grievous bodily harm);

(b)an offence under section 47 of that Act (actual bodily harm); or

(c)common assault,

which is [F7racially or religiously aggravated] for the purposes of this section.

(2)A person guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) or (b) above shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or to a fine, or to both.

(3)A person guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(c) above shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine, or to both.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F6Words in the sidenote to s. 28 substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(a)(6)(a) (with s. 42)

F7Words in s. 29(1) substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(b)(6)(a) (with s. 42)

Commencement Information

I2S. 29 wholly in force; S. 29 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 121. In force at 30.9.1998 by S.I. 1998/2327, art. 2(1) (subject to savings in arts. 5-8)

Marginal Citations

30[F8Racially or religiously aggravated] criminal damage.E+W

(1)A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he commits an offence under section 1(1) of the M2Criminal Damage Act 1971 (destroying or damaging property belonging to another) which is [F9racially or religiously aggravated] for the purposes of this section.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years or to a fine, or to both.

(3)For the purposes of this section, section 28(1)(a) above shall have effect as if the person to whom the property belongs or is treated as belonging for the purposes of that Act were the victim of the offence.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F8Words in the sidenote to s. 30 substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(a)(6)(b) (with s. 42)

F9Words in s. 30(1) substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(b)(6)(b) (with s. 42)

Commencement Information

I3S. 30 wholly in force; S. 30 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 121. In force at 30.9.1998 by S.I. 1998/2327, art. 2(1) (subject to savings in arts. 5-8)

Marginal Citations

31[F10Racially or religiously aggravated] public order offences.E+W

(1)A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he commits—

(a)an offence under section 4 of the M3Public Order Act 1986 (fear or provocation of violence);

(b)an offence under section 4A of that Act (intentional harassment, alarm or distress); or

(c)an offence under section 5 of that Act (harassment, alarm or distress),

which is [F11racially or religiously aggravated] for the purposes of this section.

(2)A constable may arrest without warrant anyone whom he reasonably suspects to be committing an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) or (b) above.

(3)A constable may arrest a person without warrant if—

(a)he engages in conduct which a constable reasonably suspects to constitute an offence falling within subsection (1)(c) above;

(b)he is warned by that constable to stop; and

(c)he engages in further such conduct immediately or shortly after the warning.

The conduct mentioned in paragraph (a) above and the further conduct need not be of the same nature.

(4)A person guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) or (b) above shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine, or to both.

(5)A person guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(c) above shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 4 on the standard scale.

(6)If, on the trial on indictment of a person charged with an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) or (b) above, the jury find him not guilty of the offence charged, they may find him guilty of the basic offence mentioned in that provision.

(7)For the purposes of subsection (1)(c) above, section 28(1)(a) above shall have effect as if the person likely to be caused harassment, alarm or distress were the victim of the offence.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F10Words in the sidenote to s. 31 substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(a)(6)(c) (with s. 42)

F11Words in s. 31(1) substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(b)(6)(c) (with s. 42)

Commencement Information

I4S. 31 wholly in force; S. 31 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 121. In force at 30.9.1998 by S.I. 1998/2327, art. 2(1) (subject to savings in arts. 5-8)

Marginal Citations

32[F12Racially or religiously aggravated] harassment etc.E+W

(1)A person is guilty of an offence under this section if he commits—

(a)an offence under section 2 of the M4Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (offence of harassment); or

(b)an offence under section 4 of that Act (putting people in fear of violence),

which is [F13racially or religiously aggravated] for the purposes of this section.

(2)F14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)A person guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) above shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine, or to both.

(4)A person guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(b) above shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years or to a fine, or to both.

(5)If, on the trial on indictment of a person charged with an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) above, the jury find him not guilty of the offence charged, they may find him guilty of the basic offence mentioned in that provision.

(6)If, on the trial on indictment of a person charged with an offence falling within subsection (1)(b) above, the jury find him not guilty of the offence charged, they may find him guilty of an offence falling within subsection (1)(a) above.

(7)Section 5 of the M5Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (restraining orders) shall have effect in relation to a person convicted of an offence under this section as if the reference in subsection (1) of that section to an offence under section 2 or 4 included a reference to an offence under this section.

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F12Words in the sidenote to s. 32 substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(a)(6)(d), 127(2) (with s. 42)

F13Words in s. 32(1) substituted (14.12.2001) by 2001 c. 24, ss. 39(5)(b)(6)(d), 127(2) (with s. 42)

Commencement Information

I5S. 32 wholly in force; S. 32 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 121. In force at 30.9.1998 by S.I. 1998/2327, art. 2(1) (subject to savings in arts. 5-8)

Marginal Citations

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