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Data Protection Act 1998 is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 19 October 2019. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

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U.K.

F1Data Protection Act 1998

1998 CHAPTER 29

An Act to make new provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information.

[16th July 1998]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Textual Amendments

F1Act repealed (except s. 62, Sch. 15 paras. 13, 15, 16, 18, 19) (25.5.2018) by Data Protection Act 2018 (c. 12), s. 212(1), Sch. 19 para. 44 (with ss. 117, 209, 210, Sch. 20 paras. 2-9, 17-25, 27-46, 53, 54, 58); S.I. 2018/625, reg. 2(1)(g)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C2Act: power to amend conferred (8.5.2008) by virtue of Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4), ss. 77(5), 153

Act: Crown status for the purposes of the Act extended (6.5.1999) by S.I. 1999/677, art. 7(3)

Act applied (1.4.2000) by 1999 c. 28, s. 19(2) (with s. 38); S.I. 2000/1066, art. 2

Act excluded (1.3.2000) by S.I. 2000/416, art. 2, Sch.

Act: functions of the Secretary of State transferred to the Lord Chancellor (26.11.2001) by S.I. 2001/3500, arts. 3, 4, Sch. 1 para. 11

Act applied by S.I. 1993/1813, art. 4(2) (as substituted by S.I. 2001/1544, art. 3(5)(6)) (the amendment coming into force in accordance with art. 1(2) of S.I. 2001/1544)

Act (except ss. 6(4)(a)(b), 28, Sch. 5 para. 12(2) for certain purposes and Sch. 6 paras. 2, 3): functions of the Lord Chancellor transferred to the Secretary of State, and all property, rights and liabilities to which the Lord Chancellor is entitled or subject to in connection with any such function transferred to the Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs (19.8.2003) by The Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs Order 2003 (S.I. 2003/1887), arts. 4, 5, Sch. 1 (with art. 6)

Act restricted by The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 (Juxtaposed Controls) Order 2003 (S.I. 2003/2818), art. 8(2) (the amendment coming into force in accordance with art. 1(2) of the amending S.I.)

Act modified by The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 (Juxtaposed Controls) Order 2003 (S.I. 2003/2818), art. 11(4) (the amendment coming into force in accordance with art. 1(2) of the amending S.I.)

Act modified by The National Assembly for Wales Commission (Crown Status) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/1118), art. 5 (the amendment coming into force in accordance with art. 1(2) of the amending S.I.)

Act excluded (3.12.2014) by The Criminal Justice and Data Protection (Protocol No. 36) Regulations 2014 (S.I. 2014/3141), regs. 1(b), 50(1)

Act applied (N.I.) (12.4.2016) by Health and Social Care (Control of Data Processing) Act (Northern Ireland) 2016 (c. 12), s. 1(8)

Act applied (S.) (1.4.2018) by The National Health Service (General Medical Services Contracts) (Scotland) Regulations 2018 (S.S.I. 2018/66), reg. 1, sch. 6 para. 64 (with reg. 2)

C3Act applied in part (with modifications) in so far as still in force by S.I. 2003/2426, Sch. 1 para. 8AA (as amended) (17.12.2018) by The Privacy and Electronic Communications (Amendment) Regulations 2018 (S.I. 2018/1189), regs. 1, 2(2)(3)

F1Part IU.K. Preliminary

1 Basic interpretative provisions.U.K.

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2 Sensitive personal data.U.K.

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3 The special purposes.U.K.

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4 The data protection principles.U.K.

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5 Application of Act.U.K.

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6 The Commissioner . . . .U.K.

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F1Part IIU.K. Rights of data subjects and others

7 Right of access to personal data.U.K.

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8 Provisions supplementary to section 7.U.K.

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9 Application of section 7 where data controller is credit reference agency.U.K.

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9A Unstructured personal data held by public authorities.U.K.

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10 Right to prevent processing likely to cause damage or distress.U.K.

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11 Right to prevent processing for purposes of direct marketing.U.K.

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12 Rights in relation to automated decision-taking.U.K.

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12A Rights of data subjects in relation to exempt manual data.U.K.

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13 Compensation for failure to comply with certain requirements.U.K.

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14 Rectification, blocking, erasure and destruction.U.K.

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15 Jurisdiction and procedure.U.K.

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F1Part IIIU.K. Notification by data controllers

16 Preliminary.U.K.

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17 Prohibition on processing without registration.U.K.

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18 Notification by data controllers.U.K.

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19 Register of notifications.U.K.

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20 Duty to notify changes.U.K.

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21 Offences.U.K.

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22 Preliminary assessment by Commissioner.U.K.

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23 Power to make provision for appointment of data protection supervisors.U.K.

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24 Duty of certain data controllers to make certain information available.U.K.

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25 Functions of Commissioner in relation to making of notification regulations.U.K.

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26 Fees regulations.U.K.

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F1Part IVU.K. Exemptions

27 Preliminary.U.K.

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28 National security.U.K.

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29 Crime and taxation.U.K.

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30 Health, education and social work.U.K.

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31 Regulatory activity.U.K.

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32 Journalism, literature and art.U.K.

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33 Research, history and statistics.U.K.

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33A Manual data held by public authorities.U.K.

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34 Information available to the public by or under enactment.U.K.

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35 Disclosures required by law or made in connection with legal proceedings etc.U.K.

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35A Parliamentary privilege.U.K.

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36 Domestic purposes.U.K.

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37 Miscellaneous exemptions.U.K.

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38 Powers to make further exemptions by order.U.K.

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39 Transitional relief.U.K.

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F1 Part VU.K. Enforcement

40 Enforcement notices.U.K.

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41 Cancellation of enforcement notice.U.K.

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41AAssessment noticesU.K.

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41BAssessment notices: limitationsU.K.

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41CCode of practice about assessment noticesU.K.

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42 Request for assessment.U.K.

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43 Information notices.U.K.

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44 Special information notices.U.K.

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45 Determination by Commissioner as to the special purposes.U.K.

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46 Restriction on enforcement in case of processing for the special purposes.U.K.

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47 Failure to comply with notice.U.K.

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48 Rights of appeal.U.K.

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49 Determination of appeals.U.K.

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50 Powers of entry and inspection.U.K.

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Part VIU.K. Miscellaneous and General

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

F1 Functions of CommissionerU.K.

51 General duties of Commissioner.U.K.

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52 Reports and codes of practice to be laid before Parliament.U.K.

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52AData-sharing codeU.K.

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52AADirect marketing codeU.K.

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52B data-sharing and direct marketing codes: procedureU.K.

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52CAlteration or replacement of data-sharing and direct marketing codes U.K.

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52DPublication of data-sharing and direct marketing codes U.K.

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52EEffect of data-sharing and direct marketing codes U.K.

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53 Assistance by Commissioner in cases involving processing for the special purposes.U.K.

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54 International co-operation.U.K.

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54AInspection of overseas information systemsU.K.

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F1 Unlawful obtaining et ceteralaetc. of personal dataU.K.

55 Unlawful obtaining etc. of personal data.U.K.

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F1Monetary penaltiesU.K.

55APower of Commissioner to impose monetary penaltyU.K.

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55BMonetary penalty notices: procedural rightsU.K.

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55CGuidance about monetary penalty noticesU.K.

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55DMonetary penalty notices: enforcementU.K.

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55ENotices under sections 55A and 55B: supplementalU.K.

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F1 Records obtained under data subject’s right of accessU.K.

56 Prohibition of requirement as to production of certain records.U.K.

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57 Avoidance of certain contractual terms relating to health records.U.K.

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F1 Information provided to Commissioner or TribunalU.K.

58 Disclosure of information.U.K.

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59 Confidentiality of information.U.K.

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F1 General provisions relating to offencesU.K.

60 Prosecutions and penalties.U.K.

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61 Liability of directors etc.U.K.

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Amendments of Consumer Credit Act 1974U.K.

62 Amendments of Consumer Credit Act 1974.U.K.

(1)In section 158 of the M1Consumer Credit Act 1974 (duty of agency to disclose filed information)—

(a)in subsection (1)—

(i)in paragraph (a) for “individual” there is substituted “ partnership or other unincorporated body of persons not consisting entirely of bodies corporate ”, and

(ii)for “him” there is substituted “ it ”,

(b)in subsection (2), for “his” there is substituted “ the consumer’s ”, and

(c)in subsection (3), for “him” there is substituted “ the consumer ”.

(2)In section 159 of that Act (correction of wrong information) for subsection (1) there is substituted—

(1)Any individual (the “objector”) given—

(a)information under section 7 of the Data Protection Act 1998 by a credit reference agency, or

(b)information under section 158,

who considers that an entry in his file is incorrect, and that if it is not corrected he is likely to be prejudiced, may give notice to the agency requiring it either to remove the entry from the file or amend it.

(3)In subsections (2) to (6) of that section—

(a)for “consumer”, wherever occurring, there is substituted “ objector ”, and

(b)for “Director”, wherever occurring, there is substituted “ the relevant authority ”.

(4)After subsection (6) of that section there is inserted—

(7)The Data Protection Commissioner may vary or revoke any order made by him under this section.

(8)In this section “the relevant authority” means—

(a)where the objector is a partnership or other unincorporated body of persons, the Director, and

(b)in any other case, the Data Protection Commissioner.

(5)In section 160 of that Act (alternative procedure for business consumers)—

(a)in subsection (4)—

(i)for “him” there is substituted “ to the consumer ”, and

(ii)in paragraphs (a) and (b) for “he” there is substituted “ the consumer ” and for “his” there is substituted “ the consumer’s ”, and

(b)after subsection (6) there is inserted—

(7)In this section “consumer” has the same meaning as in section 158.

Marginal Citations

F1 GeneralU.K.

63 Application to Crown.U.K.

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63A Application to Parliament.U.K.

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64 Transmission of notices etc. by electronic or other means.U.K.

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65 Service of notices by Commissioner.U.K.

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66 Exercise of rights in Scotland by children.U.K.

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67 Orders, regulations and rules.U.K.

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68 Meaning of “accessible record”.U.K.

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69 Meaning of “health professional”.U.K.

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70 Supplementary definitions.U.K.

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71 Index of defined expressions.U.K.

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72 Modifications of Act.U.K.

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73 Transitional provisions and savings.U.K.

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74 Minor and consequential amendments and repeals and revocations.U.K.

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75 Short title, commencement and extent.U.K.

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SCHEDULES

Section 4(1) and (2).

F1SCHEDULE 1U.K. The data protection principles

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Section 4(3).

F1SCHEDULE 2U.K. Conditions relevant for purposes of the first principle: processing of any personal data

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Section 4(3).

F1SCHEDULE 3U.K. Conditions relevant for purposes of the first principle: processing of sensitive personal data

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Section 4(3).

F1SCHEDULE 4U.K. Cases where the eighth principle does not apply

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Section 6(7).

F1SCHEDULE 5U.K. The Data Protection Commissioner . . .

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Sections 28(12), 48(5).

F1 SCHEDULE 6U.K. Appeal proceedings

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Section 37.

F1SCHEDULE 7U.K. Miscellaneous exemptions

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Section 39.

F1SCHEDULE 8U.K. Transitional relief

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Section 50.

F1 SCHEDULE 9U.K. Powers of entry and inspection

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Section 53(6).

F1SCHEDULE 10U.K. Further provisions relating to assistance under section 53

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Section 68(1)(6).

F1SCHEDULE 11U.K. Educational records

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Section 68(1)(c).

F1SCHEDULE 12U.K. Accessible public records

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Section 72.

F1SCHEDULE 13U.K. Modifications of Act having effect before 24th October 2007

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Section 73.

F1SCHEDULE 14U.K. Transitional provisions and savings

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Section 74(1).

SCHEDULE 15U.K. Minor and consequential amendments

F1Public Records Act 1958 (c. 51)U.K.

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Parliamentary Commissioner Act 1967 (c. 13)U.K.

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Superannuation Act 1972 (c. 11)U.K.

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 (c. 24)U.K.

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Northern Ireland Assembly Disqualification Act 1975 (c. 25)U.K.

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Representation of the People Act 1983 (c. 2)U.K.

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1 Access to Medical Reports Act 1988 (c. 28)U.K.

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Football Spectators Act 1989 (c. 37)U.K.

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Education (Student Loans) Act 1990 (c. 6)U.K.

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F1Access to Health Records Act 1990 (c. 23)U.K.

F111. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

F112. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13In section 5(3) of that Act (cases where right of access may be partially excluded) for the words from the beginning to “record” in the first place where it occurs there is substituted “ Access shall not be given under section 3(2) to any part of a health record ”.

F1Access to Personal Files and Medical Reports (Northern Ireland) Order 1991 (1991/1707 (N.I. 14))U.K.

F114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15In Article 6(1) of that Order (interpretation), in the definition of “health professional”, for “the Data Protection (Subject Access Modification) (Health) Order 1987” there is substituted “ the Data Protection Act 1998 ”.

Tribunals and Inquiries Act 1992 (c. 53)U.K.

16In Part 1 of Schedule 1 to the Tribunals and Inquiries Act 1992 (tribunals under direct supervision of Council on Tribunals), for paragraph 14 there is substituted—

Data protection

14.

(a) The Data Protection Commissioner appointed under section 6 of the Data Protection Act 1998;

(b) the Data Protection Tribunal constituted under that section, in respect of its jurisdiction under section 48 of that Act.

F1Access to Health Records (Northern Ireland) Order 1993 (1993/1250 (N.I. 4))U.K.

F117. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18In Article 5(4) of that Order (cases where fee may be required) in sub-paragraph (a), for “the maximum prescribed under section 21 of the Data Protection Act 1984” there is substituted “ such maximum as may be prescribed for the purposes of this Article by regulations under section 7 of the Data Protection Act 1998 ”.

19In Article 7 of that Order (cases where right of access may be partially excluded) for the words from the beginning to “record” in the first place where it occurs there is substituted “ Access shall not be given under Article 5(2) to any part of a health record ”.

Section 74(2).

F1SCHEDULE 16U.K. Repeals and revocations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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