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Employment Rights Act 1996

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Employment Rights Act 1996, Section 49 is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 22 June 2018. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

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Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 8(2)(e) and word inserted by S.I. 2018/147 art. 2(b)
  • s. 43K(1)(ca) and word omitted by 2013 c. 24 s. 20(5) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 43K(1)(ba) by S.I. 2006/1056, Sch. para. 7 is to come into force on the day on which 2005 asp 13, s. 20 comes into force and that provision has never been brought into force)
  • s. 43K(2)(ba) omitted by 2013 c. 24 s. 20(6) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 43K(1)(ba) by S.I. 2006/1056, Sch. para. 7 is to come into force on the day on which 2005 asp 13, s. 20 comes into force and that provision has never been brought into force)
  • s. 47AA inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 37
  • s. 49C inserted by 2017 c. 16 s. 32(4)
  • s. 101B inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 38
  • s. 105(4B) inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 39(3)
  • s. 108(3)(de) inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 39(4)
  • s. 110(3A) inserted by 2002 c. 22 s. 44

49 Remedies.E+W+S

(1)Where an [F1employment tribunal] finds a complaint [F2under section 48(1), (1ZA), (1A) or (1B)] well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates.

[F3(1A)Where an employment tribunal finds a complaint under section 48(1AA) well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the temporary work agency or (as the case may be) the hirer to the complainant in respect of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates.]

(2)[F4Subject to [F5subsections (5A) and (6)]] the amount of the compensation awarded shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the infringement to which the complaint relates, and

(b)any loss which is attributable to the act, or failure to act, which infringed the complainant’s right.

(3)The loss shall be taken to include—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred by the complainant in consequence of the act, or failure to act, to which the complaint relates, and

(b)loss of any benefit which he might reasonably be expected to have had but for that act or failure to act.

(4)In ascertaining the loss the tribunal shall apply the same rule concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law of England and Wales or (as the case may be) Scotland.

(5)Where the tribunal finds that the act, or failure to act, to which the complaint relates was to any extent caused or contributed to by action of the complainant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensation by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

[F6(5A)Where—

(a)the complaint is made under section 48 (1ZA),

(b)the detriment to which the worker is subjected is the termination of his worker’s contract, and

(c)that contract is not a contract of employment,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter II of Part X if the worker had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in section 101A. ]

[F7(6)Where—

(a)the complaint is made under section 48(1A),

(b)the detriment to which the worker is subjected is the termination of his worker’s contract, and

(c)that contract is not a contract of employment,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter II of Part X if the worker had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in section 103A. ]

[F8(6A)Where—

(a)the complaint is made under section 48(1A), and

(b)it appears to the tribunal that the protected disclosure was not made in good faith,

the tribunal may, if it considers it just and equitable in all the circumstances to do so, reduce any award it makes to the worker by no more than 25%.]

[F9(7)Where—

(a)the complaint is made under section 48(1B) by a person who is not an employee, and

(b)the detriment to which he is subjected is the termination of his contract with the person who is his employer for the purposes of section 25 of the Tax Credits Act 2002,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter 2 of Part 10 if the complainant had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in section 104B.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 49(1) substituted (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F4Words in s. 49(2) inserted (2.7.1999) by 1998 c. 23, s. 4(2); S.I. 1999/1547, art. 2

F5Words in s. 49(2) substituted (1.10.1998) by S.I. 1998/1833, reg. 31(3)(a)

F6S. 49(5A) inserted (1.10.1998) by S.I. 1998/1833, reg. 31(3)(b)

F7S. 49(6) inserted (2.7.1999) by 1998 c. 23, s. 4(3); S.I. 1999/1547, art. 2

F9S. 49(7) inserted (1.9.2002 for certain purposes, otherwise prosp.) by Tax Credits Act 2002 (c. 21), s. 27, Sch. 1 para. 1(4); S.I. 2002/1727, art. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 49 applied (with modifications) (1.11.1998) by 1998 c. 39, s. 24(2)(a)(with s. 36); S.I. 1998/2574, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

S. 49 restricted (1.11.1998) by 1998 c. 39, s. 14(3)(with s. 36); S.I. 1998/2574, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

S. 49 applied (with modifications) (15.1.2000) by S.I. 1999/3323, reg. 32(2)(a)

S. 49 extended (with modifications) (5.10.1999) by 1999 c. 10, ss. 7, 20(2), Sch. 3 para. 2(2)(a)

C2S. 49 applied (with modifications) (prosp.) by Pensions Act 2008 (c. 30), ss. 56(2), 149(1) (with s. 56(3)-(6))

C3S. 49 applied (with modifications) (30.6.2012) by Pensions Act 2008 (c. 30), ss. 56(2), 149(1) (with s. 56(3)-(6)); S.I. 2012/1682, art. 2, Sch. 2

C4S. 49(1)-(5) applied (8.10.2004) by The European Public Limited-Liability Company Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/2326), regs. 1(2), 45(3)

C5S. 49(1)-(5) applied (with modifications) (6.4.2005) by The Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/3426), regs.1(1), 33(2) (with reg. 3)

C9S. 49(1)-(5) applied (1.10.2009) by The European Public Limited-Liability Company (Employee Involvement) (Great Britain) Regulations 2009 (S.I. 2009/2401), reg. 32(3) (with reg. 41)

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