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Employment Rights Act 1996

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Employment Rights Act 1996, Cross Heading: Exclusions is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 21 August 2018. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

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Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 8(2)(e) and word inserted by S.I. 2018/147 art. 2(b)
  • s. 43K(1)(ca) and word omitted by 2013 c. 24 s. 20(5) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 43K(1)(ba) by S.I. 2006/1056, Sch. para. 7 is to come into force on the day on which 2005 asp 13, s. 20 comes into force and that provision has never been brought into force)
  • s. 43K(2)(ba) omitted by 2013 c. 24 s. 20(6) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 43K(1)(ba) by S.I. 2006/1056, Sch. para. 7 is to come into force on the day on which 2005 asp 13, s. 20 comes into force and that provision has never been brought into force)
  • s. 47AA inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 37
  • s. 49C inserted by 2017 c. 16 s. 32(4)
  • s. 50(2)(i)-(k) inserted by S.I. 2018/665 art. 2(b)(ii)
  • s. 101B inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 38
  • s. 105(4B) inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 39(3)
  • s. 108(3)(de) inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 39(4)
  • s. 110(3A) inserted by 2002 c. 22 s. 44

ExclusionsE+W+S

140 Summary dismissal.E+W+S

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (3), an employee is not entitled to a redundancy payment by reason of dismissal where his employer, being entitled to terminate his contract of employment without notice by reason of the employee’s conduct, terminates it either—

(a)without notice,

(b)by giving shorter notice than that which, in the absence of conduct entitling the employer to terminate the contract without notice, the employer would be required to give to terminate the contract, or

(c)by giving notice which includes, or is accompanied by, a statement in writing that the employer would, by reason of the employee’s conduct, be entitled to terminate the contract without notice.

(2)Where an employee who—

(a)has been given notice by his employer to terminate his contract of employment, or

(b)has given notice to his employer under section 148(1) indicating his intention to claim a redundancy payment in respect of lay-off or short-time,

takes part in a strike at any relevant time in circumstances which entitle the employer to treat the contract of employment as terminable without notice, subsection (1) does not apply if the employer terminates the contract by reason of his taking part in the strike.

(3)Where the contract of employment of an employee who—

(a)has been given notice by his employer to terminate his contract of employment, or

(b)has given notice to his employer under section 148(1) indicating his intention to claim a redundancy payment in respect of lay-off or short-time,

is terminated as mentioned in subsection (1) at any relevant time otherwise than by reason of his taking part in a strike, an [F1employment tribunal] may determine that the employer is liable to make an appropriate payment to the employee if on a reference to the tribunal it appears to the tribunal, in the circumstances of the case, to be just and equitable that the employee should receive it.

(4)In subsection (3) “appropriate payment” means—

(a)the whole of the redundancy payment to which the employee would have been entitled apart from subsection (1), or

(b)such part of that redundancy payment as the tribunal thinks fit.

(5)In this section “relevant time”—

(a)in the case of an employee who has been given notice by his employer to terminate his contract of employment, means any time within the obligatory period of notice, and

(b)in the case of an employee who has given notice to his employer under section 148(1), means any time after the service of the notice.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 140(3) substituted (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

141 Renewal of contract or re-engagement.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where an offer (whether in writing or not) is made to an employee before the end of his employment—

(a)to renew his contract of employment, or

(b)to re-engage him under a new contract of employment,

with renewal or re-engagement to take effect either immediately on, or after an interval of not more than four weeks after, the end of his employment.

(2)Where subsection (3) is satisfied, the employee is not entitled to a redundancy payment if he unreasonably refuses the offer.

(3)This subsection is satisfied where—

(a)the provisions of the contract as renewed, or of the new contract, as to—

(i)the capacity and place in which the employee would be employed, and

(ii)the other terms and conditions of his employment,

would not differ from the corresponding provisions of the previous contract, or

(b)those provisions of the contract as renewed, or of the new contract, would differ from the corresponding provisions of the previous contract but the offer constitutes an offer of suitable employment in relation to the employee.

(4)The employee is not entitled to a redundancy payment if—

(a)his contract of employment is renewed, or he is re-engaged under a new contract of employment, in pursuance of the offer,

(b)the provisions of the contract as renewed or new contract as to the capacity or place in which he is employed or the other terms and conditions of his employment differ (wholly or in part) from the corresponding provisions of the previous contract,

(c)the employment is suitable in relation to him, and

(d)during the trial period he unreasonably terminates the contract, or unreasonably gives notice to terminate it and it is in consequence terminated.

142 Employee anticipating expiry of employer’s notice.E+W+S

(1)Subject to subsection (3), an employee is not entitled to a redundancy payment where—

(a)he is taken to be dismissed by virtue of section 136(3) by reason of giving to his employer notice terminating his contract of employment on a date earlier than the date on which notice by the employer terminating the contract is due to expire,

(b)before the employee’s notice is due to expire, the employer gives him a notice such as is specified in subsection (2), and

(c)the employee does not comply with the requirements of that notice.

(2)The employer’s notice referred to in subsection (1)(b) is a notice in writing—

(a)requiring the employee to withdraw his notice terminating the contract of employment and to continue in employment until the date on which the employer’s notice terminating the contract expires, and

(b)stating that, unless he does so, the employer will contest any liability to pay to him a redundancy payment in respect of the termination of his contract of employment.

(3)An [F2employment tribunal] may determine that the employer is liable to make an appropriate payment to the employee if on a reference to the tribunal it appears to the tribunal, having regard to—

(a)the reasons for which the employee seeks to leave the employment, and

(b)the reasons for which the employer requires him to continue in it,

to be just and equitable that the employee should receive the payment.

(4)In subsection (3) “appropriate payment” means—

(a)the whole of the redundancy payment to which the employee would have been entitled apart from subsection (1), or

(b)such part of that redundancy payment as the tribunal thinks fit.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F2Words in s. 142(3) substituted (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

143 Strike during currency of employer’s notice.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where—

(a)an employer has given notice to an employee to terminate his contract of employment (“notice of termination”),

(b)after the notice is given the employee begins to take part in a strike of employees of the employer, and

(c)the employer serves on the employee a notice of extension.

(2)A notice of extension is a notice in writing which—

(a)requests the employee to agree to extend the contract of employment beyond the time of expiry by a period comprising as many available days as the number of working days lost by striking (“the proposed period of extension”),

(b)indicates the reasons for which the employer makes that request, and

(c)states that the employer will contest any liability to pay the employee a redundancy payment in respect of the dismissal effected by the notice of termination unless either—

(i)the employee complies with the request, or

(ii)the employer is satisfied that, in consequence of sickness or injury or otherwise, the employee is unable to comply with it or that (even though he is able to comply with it) it is reasonable in the circumstances for him not to do so.

(3)Subject to subsections (4) and (5), if the employee does not comply with the request contained in the notice of extension, he is not entitled to a redundancy payment by reason of the dismissal effected by the notice of termination.

(4)Subsection (3) does not apply if the employer agrees to pay a redundancy payment to the employee in respect of the dismissal effected by the notice of termination even though he has not complied with the request contained in the notice of extension.

(5)An [F3employment tribunal] may determine that the employer is liable to make an appropriate payment to the employee if on a reference to the tribunal it appears to the tribunal that—

(a)the employee has not complied with the request contained in the notice of extension and the employer has not agreed to pay a redundancy payment in respect of the dismissal effected by the notice of termination, but

(b)either the employee was unable to comply with the request or it was reasonable in the circumstances for him not to comply with it.

(6)In subsection (5) “appropriate payment” means—

(a)the whole of the redundancy payment to which the employee would have been entitled apart from subsection (3), or

(b)such part of that redundancy payment as the tribunal thinks fit.

(7)If the employee—

(a)complies with the request contained in the notice of extension, or

(b)does not comply with it but attends at his proper or usual place of work and is ready and willing to work on one or more (but not all) of the available days within the proposed period of extension,

the notice of termination has effect, and shall be deemed at all material times to have had effect, as if the period specified in it had been appropriately extended; and sections 87 to 91 accordingly apply as if the period of notice required by section 86 were extended to a corresponding extent.

(8)In subsection (7) “appropriately extended” means—

(a)in a case within paragraph (a) of that subsection, extended beyond the time of expiry by an additional period equal to the proposed period of extension, and

(b)in a case within paragraph (b) of that subsection, extended beyond the time of expiry up to the end of the day (or last of the days) on which he attends at his proper or usual place of work and is ready and willing to work.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F3Words in s. 143(5) substituted (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

144 Provisions supplementary to section 143.E+W+S

(1)For the purposes of section 143 an employee complies with the request contained in a notice of extension if, but only if, on each available day within the proposed period of extension, he—

(a)attends at his proper or usual place of work, and

(b)is ready and willing to work,

whether or not he has signified his agreement to the request in any other way.

(2)The reference in section 143(2) to the number of working days lost by striking is a reference to the number of working days in the period—

(a)beginning with the date of service of the notice of termination, and

(b)ending with the time of expiry,

which are days on which the employee in question takes part in a strike of employees of his employer.

(3)In section 143 and this section—

  • available day”, in relation to an employee, means a working day beginning at or after the time of expiry which is a day on which he is not taking part in a strike of employees of the employer,

  • available day within the proposed period of extension” means an available day which begins before the end of the proposed period of extension,

  • time of expiry”, in relation to a notice of termination, means the time at which the notice would expire apart from section 143, and

  • working day”, in relation to an employee, means a day on which, in accordance with his contract of employment, he is normally required to work.

(4)Neither the service of a notice of extension nor any extension by virtue of section 143(7) of the period specified in a notice of termination affects—

(a)any right either of the employer or of the employee to terminate the contract of employment (whether before, at or after the time of expiry) by a further notice or without notice, or

(b)the operation of this Part in relation to any such termination of the contract of employment.

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