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Employment Rights Act 1996

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Part XE+W+S Unfair dismissal

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Ss. 66-68, 70-71, 92-93, Pt. X (ss. 94-134) modified (E.W.) (2.3.1998) by S.I. 1998/218, art. 3, Sch.

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) applied (with modifications) (E.W.) by S.I. 1998/218, art. 4(b)

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) modified (1.1.1999) by 1998 Measure No. 1, s. 6(1), Sch. 3 para. 3(1)(2); Instrument dated 14.10.1998 made by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) modified (6.6.2000) by 1992 c. 52, s. 70A, Sch. A1 para. 161(1), 162 (as inserted (6.6.2000) by 1999 c. 26, s. 1, Sch. 1; S.I. 2000/1338, art. 2(a))

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) modified (4.9.2000) by 1999 c. 26, ss. 12(3)(6), (with ss. 14, 15); S.I. 2000/2242, art. 2(1)

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) modified (24.4.2000) by 1992 c. 52, s. 238A(2) (as inserted (24.4.2000) by 1999 c. 26, ss. 16, Sch. 5 para. 3; S.I. 2000/875, art. 2 (with transitional provision in art. 3))

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) modified (E.W.) (1.9.1999) by S.I. 1999/2256, arts. 3, 4(b), Sch.

C2Pt. X (ss. 94-134) applied for certain purposes (14.8.2000) by S.I. 2000/1828, art. 2

Pt. X (ss. 94-134) applied (E.W.) (21.5.2001) by S.I. 2001/1185, arts. 2, 3. Sch. para. 95

C5Pt. 10 modified (6.4.2006 with application in accordance with reg. 21(1) of the amending S.I.) by The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (S.I. 2006/246), regs. 1(2), 7

Chapter IE+W+S Right not to be unfairly dismissed

The rightE+W+S

94 The right.E+W+S

(1)An employee has the right not to be unfairly dismissed by his employer.

(2)Subsection (1) has effect subject to the following provisions of this Part (in particular sections 108 to 110) and to the provisions of the M1Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (in particular sections 237 to 239).

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Marginal Citations

DismissalE+W+S

95 Circumstances in which an employee is dismissed.E+W+S

(1)For the purposes of this Part an employee is dismissed by his employer if (and, subject to subsection (2) and section 96, only if)—

(a)the contract under which he is employed is terminated by the employer (whether with or without notice),

(b)he is employed under a contract for a fixed term and that term expires without being renewed under the same contract, or

(c)the employee terminates the contract under which he is employed (with or without notice) in circumstances in which he is entitled to terminate it without notice by reason of the employer’s conduct.

(2)An employee shall be taken to be dismissed by his employer for the purposes of this Part if—

(a)the employer gives notice to the employee to terminate his contract of employment, and

(b)at a time within the period of that notice the employee gives notice to the employer to terminate the contract of employment on a date earlier than the date on which the employer’s notice is due to expire;

and the reason for the dismissal is to be taken to be the reason for which the employer’s notice is given.

96 Failure to permit return after childbirth treated as dismissal.E+W+S

(1)Where an employee who—

(a)has the right conferred by section 79, and

(b)has exercised it in accordance with section 82,

is not permitted to return to work, she shall (subject to the following provisions of this section) be taken for the purposes of this Part to be dismissed for the reason for which she was not permitted to return with effect from the notified day of return (being deemed to have been continuously employed until that day).

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an employee if—

(a)immediately before the end of her maternity leave period (or, if it ends by reason of dismissal, immediately before the dismissal) the number of employees employed by her employer, added to the number employed by any associated employer of his, did not exceed five, and

(b)it is not reasonably practicable for the employer (who may be the same employer or a successor of his) to permit her to return to work under section 79 or for him or an associated employer to offer her employment under a contract of employment satisfying the conditions specified in subsection (4).

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an employee if—

(a)it is not reasonably practicable for a reason other than redundancy for the employer (who may be the same employer or a successor of his) to permit her to return to work under section 79,

(b)he or an associated employer offers her employment under a contract of employment satisfying the conditions specified in subsection (4), and

(c)she accepts or unreasonably refuses that offer.

(4)The conditions referred to in subsections (2) and (3) are—

(a)that the work to be done under the contract is of a kind which is both suitable in relation to the employee and appropriate for her to do in the circumstances, and

(b)that the provisions of the contract as to the capacity and place in which she is to be employed, and as to the other terms and conditions of her employment, are not substantially less favourable to her than if she had returned to work under section 79.

(5)Where on a complaint of unfair dismissal any question arises as to whether the operation of subsection (1) is excluded by the provisions of subsection (2) or (3), it is for the employer to show that the provisions in question were satisfied in relation to the complainant.

(6)Where subsection (1) applies to an employee who was employed as a shop worker, or a betting worker, under her contract of employment on the last day of her maternity leave period, she shall be treated for the purposes of this Act as if she had been employed as a shop worker, or a betting worker, on the day with effect from which she is treated as dismissed.

97 Effective date of termination.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, in this Part “the effective date of termination”—

(a)in relation to an employee whose contract of employment is terminated by notice, whether given by his employer or by the employee, means the date on which the notice expires,

(b)in relation to an employee whose contract of employment is terminated without notice, means the date on which the termination takes effect, and

(c)in relation to an employee who is employed under a contract for a fixed term which expires without being renewed under the same contract, means the date on which the term expires.

(2)Where—

(a)the contract of employment is terminated by the employer, and

(b)the notice required by section 86 to be given by an employer would, if duly given on the material date, expire on a date later than the effective date of termination (as defined by subsection (1)),

for the purposes of sections 108(1), 119(1) and 227(3) the later date is the effective date of termination.

(3)In subsection (2)(b) “the material date” means—

(a)the date when notice of termination was given by the employer, or

(b)where no notice was given, the date when the contract of employment was terminated by the employer.

(4)Where—

(a)the contract of employment is terminated by the employee,

(b)the material date does not fall during a period of notice given by the employer to terminate that contract, and

(c)had the contract been terminated not by the employee but by notice given on the material date by the employer, that notice would have been required by section 86 to expire on a date later than the effective date of termination (as defined by subsection (1)),

for the purposes of sections 108(1), 119(1) and 227(3) the later date is the effective date of termination.

(5)In subsection (4) “the material date” means—

(a)the date when notice of termination was given by the employee, or

(b)where no notice was given, the date when the contract of employment was terminated by the employee.

(6)Where an employee is taken to be dismissed for the purposes of this Part by virtue of section 96, references in this Part to the effective date of termination are to the notified date of return.

FairnessE+W+S

98 General.E+W+S

(1)In determining for the purposes of this Part whether the dismissal of an employee is fair or unfair, it is for the employer to show—

(a)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal, and

(b)that it is either a reason falling within subsection (2) or some other substantial reason of a kind such as to justify the dismissal of an employee holding the position which the employee held.

(2)A reason falls within this subsection if it—

(a)relates to the capability or qualifications of the employee for performing work of the kind which he was employed by the employer to do,

(b)relates to the conduct of the employee,

(c)is that the employee was redundant, or

(d)is that the employee could not continue to work in the position which he held without contravention (either on his part or on that of his employer) of a duty or restriction imposed by or under an enactment.

(3)In subsection (2)(a)—

(a)capability”, in relation to an employee, means his capability assessed by reference to skill, aptitude, health or any other physical or mental quality, and

(b)qualifications”, in relation to an employee, means any degree, diploma or other academic, technical or professional qualification relevant to the position which he held.

(4)Where the employer has fulfilled the requirements of subsection (1), the determination of the question whether the dismissal is fair or unfair (having regard to the reason shown by the employer)—

(a)depends on whether in the circumstances (including the size and administrative resources of the employer’s undertaking) the employer acted reasonably or unreasonably in treating it as a sufficient reason for dismissing the employee, and

(b)shall be determined in accordance with equity and the substantial merits of the case.

(5)Where the employee is taken to be dismissed for the purposes of this Part by virtue of section 96, subsection (4)(a) applies as if for the words “acted reasonably” onwards there were substituted the words “would have been acting reasonably or unreasonably in treating it as a sufficient reason for dismissing the employee if she had not been absent from work, and”.

(6)Subsections (4) and (5) are subject to—

(a)sections 99 to 107 of this Act, and

(b)sections 152, 153 and 238 of the M2Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (dismissal on ground of trade union membership or activities or in connection with industrial action).

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Marginal Citations

99 Pregnancy and childbirth.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if—

(a)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that she is pregnant or any other reason connected with her pregnancy,

(b)her maternity leave period is ended by the dismissal and the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that she has given birth to a child or any other reason connected with her having given birth to a child,

(c)her contract of employment is terminated after the end of her maternity leave period and the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that she took, or availed herself of the benefits of, maternity leave,

(d)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is a relevant requirement, or a relevant recommendation, as defined by section 66(2), or

(e)her maternity leave period is ended by the dismissal, the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that she is redundant and section 77 has not been complied with.

(2)For the purposes of subsection (1)(c)—

(a)a woman takes maternity leave if she is absent from work during her maternity leave period, and

(b)a woman avails herself of the benefits of maternity leave if, during her maternity leave period, she avails herself of the benefit of any of the terms and conditions of her employment preserved by section 71 during that period.

(3)An employee who is dismissed shall also be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if—

(a)before the end of her maternity leave period she gave to her employer a certificate from a registered medical practitioner stating that by reason of disease or bodily or mental disablement she would be incapable of work after the end of that period,

(b)her contract of employment was terminated within the period of four weeks beginning immediately after the end of her maternity leave period in circumstances in which she continued to be incapable of work and the certificate remained current, and

(c)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that she has given birth to a child or any other reason connected with her having given birth to a child.

(4)Where—

(a)an employee has the right conferred by section 79,

(b)it is not practicable by reason of redundancy for the employer to permit her to return in accordance with that right, and

(c)no offer is made of such alternative employment as is referred to in section 81,

the dismissal of the employee which is treated as taking place by virtue of section 96 is to be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfair.

100X1 Health and safety cases.E+W+S
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Editorial Information

X1The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that—

(a)having been designated by the employer to carry out activities in connection with preventing or reducing risks to health and safety at work, the employee carried out (or proposed to carry out) any such activities,

(b)being a representative of workers on matters of health and safety at work or member of a safety committee—

(i)in accordance with arrangements established under or by virtue of any enactment, or

(ii)by reason of being acknowledged as such by the employer,

the employee performed (or proposed to perform) any functions as such a representative or a member of such a committee,

(c)being an employee at a place where—

(i)there was no such representative or safety committee, or

(ii)there was such a representative or safety committee but it was not reasonably practicable for the employee to raise the matter by those means,

he brought to his employer’s attention, by reasonable means, circumstances connected with his work which he reasonably believed were harmful or potentially harmful to health or safety,

(d)in circumstances of danger which the employee reasonably believed to be serious and imminent and which he could not reasonably have been expected to avert, he left (or proposed to leave) or (while the danger persisted) refused to return to his place of work or any dangerous part of his place of work, or

(e)in circumstances of danger which the employee reasonably believed to be serious and imminent, he took (or proposed to take) appropriate steps to protect himself or other persons from the danger.

(2)For the purposes of subsection (1)(e) whether steps which an employee took (or proposed to take) were appropriate is to be judged by reference to all the circumstances including, in particular, his knowledge and the facilities and advice available to him at the time.

(3)Where the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal of an employee is that specified in subsection (1)(e), he shall not be regarded as unfairly dismissed if the employer shows that it was (or would have been) so negligent for the employee to take the steps which he took (or proposed to take) that a reasonable employer might have dismissed him for taking (or proposing to take) them.

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Editorial Information

X1The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

101X2 Shop workers and betting workers who refuse Sunday work.E+W
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Editorial Information

X2The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

(1)Where an employee who is—

(a)a protected shop worker or an opted-out shop worker, or

(b)a protected betting worker or an opted-out betting worker,

is dismissed, he shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that he refused (or proposed to refuse) to do shop work, or betting work, on Sunday or on a particular Sunday.

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an opted-out shop worker or an opted-out betting worker where the reason (or principal reason) for the dismissal is that he refused (or proposed to refuse) to do shop work, or betting work, on any Sunday or Sundays falling before the end of the notice period.

(3)A shop worker or betting worker who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the shop worker or betting worker gave (or proposed to give) an opting-out notice to the employer.

(4)For the purposes of section 36(2)(b) or 41(1)(b), the appropriate date in relation to this section is the effective date of termination.

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Editorial Information

X2The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

over 01/10/1998

[F1101A Working time cases.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

F1S. 101A inserted (1.10.1998) by S.I. 1998/1833, reg. 32(1)

An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee—

(a)refused (or proposed to refuse) to comply with a requirement which the employer imposed (or proposed to impose) in contravention of the M3Working Time Regulations 1998,

(b)refused (or proposed to refuse) to forgo a right conferred on him by those Regulations,

(c)failed to sign a workforce agreement for the purposes of those Regulations, or to enter into, or agree to vary or extend, any other agreement with his employer which is provided for in those Regulations, or

(d)being—

(i)a representative of members of the workforce for the purposes of Schedule 1 to those Regulations, or

(ii)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such a representative,

performed (or proposed to perform) any functions or activities as such a representative or candidate.]

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Marginal Citations

over 06/10/1996

102 Trustees of occupational pension schemes.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that, being a trustee of a relevant occupational pension scheme which relates to his employment, the employee performed (or proposed to perform) any functions as such a trustee.

(2)In this section “relevant occupational pension scheme” means an occupational pension scheme (as defined in section 1 of the M4Pension Schemes Act 1993) established under a trust.

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Commencement Information

I1S. 102 wholly in force at 6.10.1996, see Sch. 2 para. 15(1) and S.I. 1996/2514, art. 2

Marginal Citations

103 Employee representatives.E+W+S

An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee, being—

(a)an employee representative for the purposes of Chapter II of Part IV of the M5Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (redundancies) or Regulations 10 and 11 of the M6Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 1981, or

(b)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such an employee representative,

performed (or proposed to perform) any functions or activities as such an employee representative or candidate.

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Marginal Citations

over 02/07/1999

[F2103AX3 Protected disclosure.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

F2S. 103A inserted (2.7.1999) by 1998 c. 23, s. 5; S.I. 1999/1547, art. 2

An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee made a protected disclosure.]

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Editorial Information

X3The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

104 Assertion of statutory right.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee—

(a)brought proceedings against the employer to enforce a right of his which is a relevant statutory right, or

(b)alleged that the employer had infringed a right of his which is a relevant statutory right.

(2)It is immaterial for the purposes of subsection (1)—

(a)whether or not the employee has the right, or

(b)whether or not the right has been infringed;

but, for that subsection to apply, the claim to the right and that it has been infringed must be made in good faith.

(3)It is sufficient for subsection (1) to apply that the employee, without specifying the right, made it reasonably clear to the employer what the right claimed to have been infringed was.

(4)The following are relevant statutory rights for the purposes of this section—

(a)any right conferred by this Act for which the remedy for its infringement is by way of a complaint or reference to an industrial tribunal,

(b)the right conferred by section 86 of this Act, and

(c)the rights conferred by sections 68, 86, 146, 168, 169 and 170 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (deductions from pay, union activities and time off).

over 01/11/1998

[F3104AX4 The national minimum wage.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that—

(a)any action was taken, or was proposed to be taken, by or on behalf of the employee with a view to enforcing, or otherwise securing the benefit of, a right of the employee’s to which this section applies; or

(b)the employer was prosecuted for an offence under section 31 of the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 as a result of action taken by or on behalf of the employee for the purpose of enforcing, or otherwise securing the benefit of, a right of the employee’s to which this section applies; or

(c)the employee qualifies, or will or might qualify, for the national minimum wage or for a particular rate of national minimum wage.

(2)It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) above—

(a)whether or not the employee has the right, or

(b)whether or not the right has been infringed,

but, for that subsection to apply, the claim to the right and, if applicable, the claim that it has been infringed must be made in good faith.

(3)The following are the rights to which this section applies—

(a)any right conferred by, or by virtue of, any provision of the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 for which the remedy for its infringement is by way of a complaint to an employment tribunal; and

(b)any right conferred by section 17 of the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 (worker receiving less than national minimum wage entitled to additional remuneration).]

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Editorial Information

X4The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C16S. 104A modified (1.4.1999) by 1948 c. 47, s. 3A(5) (as inserted (1.4.1999) by 1998 c. 39, s. 47, Sch. 2 Pt. I para. 3; S.I. 1999/685, art. 2 Sch.)

S. 104A extended (1.4.1999) by 1949 c. 30, s. 3A(4) (as inserted (1.4.1999) by 1998 c. 39, s. 47, Sch. 2 Pt. II para. 13; S.I. 1999/685, art.2, Sch.)

over 05/10/1999

[F4104B Tax credit.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

F4S. 104B inserted (5.10.1999) by 1999 c. 10, ss. 7, 20(2), Sch. 3 para. 3(1)

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that—

(a)any action was taken, or was proposed to be taken, by or on behalf of the employee with a view to enforcing, or otherwise securing the benefit of, a right conferred on the employee by regulations under section 6(2)(a) or (c) of the Tax Credits Act 1999;

(b)a penalty was imposed on the employer, or proceedings for a penalty were brought against him, under section 9 of that Act, as a result of action taken by or on behalf of the employee for the purpose of enforcing, or otherwise securing the benefit of, such a right; or

(c)the employee is entitled, or will or may be entitled, to working families’ tax credit or disabled person’s tax credit.

(2)It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) above—

(a)whether or not the employee has the right, or

(b)whether or not the right has been infringed,

but, for that subsection to apply, the claim to the right and, if applicable, the claim that it has been infringed must be made in good faith.]

105 Redundancy.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if—

(a)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee was redundant,

(b)it is shown that the circumstances constituting the redundancy applied equally to one or more other employees in the same undertaking who held positions similar to that held by the employee and who have not been dismissed by the employer, and

(c)it is shown that any of subsections (2) to (7) applies.

(2)This subsection applies if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was that specified in any of paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (1) of section 99 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section (and any requirements of the paragraph, or subsection, not relating to the reason are satisfied).

(3)This subsection applies if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was one of those specified in subsection (1) of section 100 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section).

(4)This subsection applies if either—

(a)the employee was a protected shop worker or an opted-out shop worker, or a protected betting worker or an opted-out betting worker, and the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was that specified in subsection (1) of section 101 (read with subsection (2) of that section), or

(b)the employee was a shop worker or a betting worker and the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was that specified in subsection (3) of that section.

(5)This subsection applies if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was that specified in section 102(1).

(6)This subsection applies if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was that specified in section 103.

(7)This subsection applies if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for which the employee was selected for dismissal was one of those specified in subsection (1) of section 104 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section).

(8)For the purposes of section 36(2)(b) or 41(1)(b), the appropriate date in relation to this section is the effective date of termination.

(9)In this Part “redundancy case” means a case where paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (1) of this section are satisfied.

106 Replacements.E+W+S

(1)Where this section applies to an employee he shall be regarded for the purposes of section 98(1)(b) as having been dismissed for a substantial reason of a kind such as to justify the dismissal of an employee holding the position which the employee held.

(2)This section applies to an employee where—

(a)on engaging him the employer informs him in writing that his employment will be terminated on the resumption of work by another employee who is, or will be, absent wholly or partly because of pregnancy or childbirth, and

(b)the employer dismisses him in order to make it possible to give work to the other employee.

(3)This section also applies to an employee where—

(a)on engaging him the employer informs him in writing that his employment will be terminated on the end of a suspension of another employee from work on medical grounds or maternity grounds (within the meaning of Part VII), and

(b)the employer dismisses him in order to make it possible to allow the resumption of work by the other employee.

(4)Subsection (1) does not affect the operation of section 98(4) in a case to which this section applies.

107X5 Pressure on employer to dismiss unfairly.E+W+S
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Editorial Information

X5The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

(1)This section applies where there falls to be determined for the purposes of this Part a question—

(a)as to the reason, or principal reason, for which an employee was dismissed,

(b)whether the reason or principal reason for which an employee was dismissed was a reason fulfilling the requirement of section 98(1)(b), or

(c)whether an employer acted reasonably in treating the reason or principal reason for which an employee was dismissed as a sufficient reason for dismissing him.

(2)In determining the question no account shall be taken of any pressure which by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or threatening to do so, was exercised on the employer to dismiss the employee; and the question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

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Editorial Information

X5The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

over 01/10/2006

[F5RetirementE+W+S

98ZANo normal retirement age: dismissal before 65E+W+S

(1)This section applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has no normal retirement age, and

(b)the operative date of termination falls before the date when the employee reaches the age of 65.

(2)Retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for the dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZBNo normal retirement age: dismissal at or after 65E+W+S

(1)This section applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has no normal retirement age, and

(b)the operative date of termination falls on or after the date when the employee reaches the age of 65.

(2)In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)the contract of employment terminates on the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall be taken to be the only reason for the dismissal by the employer and any other reason shall be disregarded.

(3)In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, but

(b)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(4)In a case where—

(a)the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)there is an intended date of retirement in relation to the dismissal, but

(c)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(5)In all other cases where the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, particular regard shall be had to the matters in section 98ZF when determining the reason (or principal reason) for dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZCNormal retirement age: dismissal before retirement ageE+W+S

(1)This section applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has a normal retirement age, and

(b)the operative date of termination falls before the date when the employee reaches the normal retirement age.

(2)Retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for the dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZDNormal retirement age 65 or higher: dismissal at or after retirement ageE+W+S

(1)This section applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has a normal retirement age,

(b)the normal retirement age is 65 or higher, and

(c)the operative date of termination falls on or after the date when the employee reaches the normal retirement age.

(2)In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)the contract of employment terminates on the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall be taken to be the only reason for the dismissal by the employer and any other reason shall be disregarded.

(3)In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, but

(b)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(4)In a case where—

(a)the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)there is an intended date of retirement in relation to the dismissal, but

(c)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(5)In all other cases where the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, particular regard shall be had to the matters in section 98ZF when determining the reason (or principal reason) for dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZENormal retirement age below 65: dismissal at or after retirement ageE+W+S

(1)This section applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has a normal retirement age,

(b)the normal retirement age is below 65, and

(c)the operative date of termination falls on or after the date when the employee reaches the normal retirement age.

(2)If it is unlawful discrimination under the 2006 Regulations for the employee to have that normal retirement age, retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(3)Subsections (4) to (7) apply if it is not unlawful discrimination under the 2006 Regulations for the employee to have that normal retirement age.

(4)In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)the contract of employment terminates on the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall be taken to be the only reason for dismissal by the employer and any other reason shall be disregarded.

(5)In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, but

(b)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(6)In a case where—

(a)the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)there is an intended date of retirement in relation to the dismissal, but

(c)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(7)In all other cases where the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, particular regard shall be had to the matters in section 98ZF when determining the reason (or principal reason) for dismissal

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZFReason for dismissal: particular mattersE+W+S

(1)These are the matters to which particular regard is to be had in accordance with section 98ZB(5), 98ZD(5) or 98ZE(7)—

(a)whether or not the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 4 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations;

(b)if the employer has notified the employee in accordance with that paragraph, how long before the notified retirement date the notification was given;

(c)whether or not the employer has followed, or sought to follow, the procedures in paragraph 7 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations.

(2)In subsection (1)(b) “notified retirement date” means the date notified to the employee in accordance with paragraph 4 of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations as the date on which the employer intends to retire the employee.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZGRetirement dismissals: fairnessE+W+S

(1)This section applies if the reason (or principal reason) for a dismissal is retirement of the employee.

(2)The employee shall be regarded as unfairly dismissed if, and only if, there has been a failure on the part of the employer to comply with an obligation imposed on him by any of the following provisions of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations—

(a)paragraph 4 (notification of retirement, if not already given under paragraph 2),

(b)paragraphs 6 and 7 (duty to consider employee's request not to be retired),

(c)paragraph 8 (duty to consider appeal against decision to refuse request not to be retired).

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

98ZHInterpretationE+W+S

In sections 98ZA to 98ZG—

  • 2006 Regulations” means the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006;

  • intended date of retirement” means the date which, by virtue of paragraph 1(2) of Schedule 6 to the 2006 Regulations, is the intended date of retirement in relation to a particular dismissal;

  • normal retirement age”, in relation to an employee, means the age at which employees in the employer's undertaking who hold, or have held, the same kind of position as the employee are normally required to retire;

  • operative date of termination” means—

    (a)

    where the employer terminates the employee's contract of employment by notice, the date on which the notice expires, or

    (b)

    where the employer terminates the contract of employment without notice, the date on which the termination takes effect.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

over 01/10/2006

Other dismissalsE+W+S

X698A Procedural fairnessE+W+S

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if—

(a)one of the procedures set out in Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Employment Act 2002 (dismissal and disciplinary procedures) applies in relation to the dismissal,

(b)the procedure has not been completed, and

(c)the non-completion of the procedure is wholly or mainly attributable to failure by the employer to comply with its requirements.

(2)Subject to subsection (1), failure by an employer to follow a procedure in relation to the dismissal of an employee shall not be regarded for the purposes of section 98(4)(a) as by itself making the employer’s action unreasonable if he shows that he would have decided to dismiss the employee if he had followed the procedure.

(3)For the purposes of this section, any question as to the application of a procedure set out in Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Employment Act 2002, completion of such a procedure or failure to comply with the requirements of such a procedure shall be determined by reference to regulations under section 31 of that Act.

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Editorial Information

X6The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

X798BJury serviceE+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee—

(a)has been summoned under the Juries Act 1974, the Coroners Act 1988, the Court of Session Act 1988 or the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 to attend for service as a juror, or

(b)has been absent from work because he attended at any place in pursuance of being so summoned.

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an employee who is dismissed if the employer shows—

(a)that the circumstances were such that the employee’s absence in pursuance of being so summoned was likely to cause substantial injury to the employer’s undertaking,

(b)that the employer brought those circumstances to the attention of the employee,

(c)that the employee refused or failed to apply to the appropriate officer for excusal from or a deferral of the obligation to attend in pursuance of being so summoned, and

(d)that the refusal or failure was not reasonable.

(3)In paragraph (c) of subsection (2) “the appropriate officer” means—

(a)in the case of a person who has been summoned under the Juries Act 1974, the officer designated for the purposes of section 8, 9 or, as the case may be, 9A of that Act;

(b)in the case of a person who has been summoned under the Coroners Act 1988, a person who is the appropriate officer for the purposes of any rules made under subsection (1) of section 32 of that Act by virtue of subsection (2) of that section;

(c)in the case of a person who has been summoned under the Court of Session Act 1988, either—

(i)the clerk of court issuing the citation to attend for jury service; or

(ii)the clerk of the court before which the person is cited to attend for jury service;

(d)in the case of a person who has been summoned under the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, either—

(i)the clerk of court issuing the citation to attend for jury service; or

(ii)the clerk of the court before which the person has been cited to attend for jury service;

and references in that paragraph to a refusal or failure to apply include references to a refusal or failure to give a notice under section 1(2)(b) of the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Scotland) Act 1980.]

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Editorial Information

X7The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

Prospective

[F7101BParticipation in education or trainingE+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that, being a person entitled to be permitted to participate in education or training by section 27 or 28 of the Education and Skills Act 2008, the employee exercised, or proposed to exercise, that right.]

X8104C Flexible workingE+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee—

(a)made (or proposed to make) an application under section 80F,

(b)exercised (or proposed to exercise) a right conferred on him under section 80G,

(c)brought proceedings against the employer under section 80H, or

(d)alleged the existence of any circumstance which would constitute a ground for bringing such proceedings.]

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Editorial Information

X8The insertion of the new heading "Other dismissals" in Pt. X Ch. I on 1.10.2006 gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on SLD which breaks the continuity of historical versions of the existing provisions which are now brought under that new heading.

Prospective

[F9104DPension enrolmentE+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that—

(a)any action was taken, or was proposed to be taken, with a view to enforcing in favour of the employee a requirement to which this section applies;

(b)the employer was prosecuted for an offence under section 45 of the Pensions Act 2008 as a result of action taken for the purpose of enforcing in favour of the employee a requirement to which this section applies; or

(c)any provision of Chapter 1 of that Part of that Act applies to the employee, or will or might apply.

(2)It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) above—

(a)whether or not the requirement applies in favour of the employee, or

(b)whether or not the requirement has been contravened,

but, for that subsection to apply, the claim that the requirement applies and, if applicable, the claim that it has been contravened must be made in good faith.

(3)This section applies to any requirement imposed on the employer by or under any provision of Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Pensions Act 2008.

(4)In this section references to enforcing a requirement include references to securing its benefit in any way.]

over 06/04/2010

104EStudy and trainingE+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

F10S. 104E inserted (6.4.2010 for certain purposes and otherwise prosp.) by Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act 2009 (c. 22), ss. 40(4), 269(4); S.I. 2010/303, art. 4, Sch. 3 (with arts. 8-14) (as amended by S.I. 2010/1151, art. 22)

An employee who is dismissed is to be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is that the employee—

(a)made (or proposed to make) a section 63D application,

(b)exercised (or proposed to exercise) a right conferred on the employee under section 63F,

(c)brought proceedings against the employer under section 63I, or

(d)alleged the existence of any circumstance which would constitute a ground for bringing such proceedings.]

over 02/03/2010

104FBlacklistsE+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

(1)An employee who is dismissed shall be regarded for the purposes of this Part as unfairly dismissed if the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal relates to a prohibited list, and either—

(a)the employer contravenes regulation 3 of the 2010 Regulations in relation to that prohibited list, or

(b)the employer—

(i)relies on information supplied by a person who contravenes that regulation in relation to that list, and

(ii)knows or ought reasonably to know that the information relied on is supplied in contravention of that regulation.

(2)If there are facts from which the tribunal could conclude, in the absence of any other explanation, that the employer—

(a)contravened regulation 3 of the 2010 Regulations, or

(b)relied on information supplied in contravention of that regulation,

the tribunal must find that such a contravention or reliance on information occurred, unless the employer shows that it did not.

(3)In this section—

  • the 2010 Regulations” means the Employment Relations Act 1999 (Blacklists) Regulations 2010, and

  • prohibited list” has the meaning given in those Regulations (see regulation 3(2)).]]

Exclusion of rightE+W+S

108 Qualifying period of employment.E+W+S

(1)Section 94 does not apply to the dismissal of an employee unless he has been continuously employed for a period of not less than two years ending with the effective date of termination.

(2)If an employee is dismissed by reason of any such requirement or recommendation as is referred to in section 64(2), subsection (1) has effect in relation to that dismissal as if for the words “two years” there were substituted the words “ one month ”.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply if—

(a)section 84 or 96(1) applies,

(b)subsection (1) of section 99 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section applies,

(c)subsection (1) of section 100 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section) applies,

(d)subsection (1) of section 101 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section applies,

(e)section 102 applies,

(f)section 103 applies,

(g)subsection (1) of section 104 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section) applies, or

(h)section 105 applies.

109 Upper age limit.E+W+S

(1)Section 94 does not apply to the dismissal of an employee if on or before the effective date of termination he has attained—

(a)in a case where—

(i)in the undertaking in which the employee was employed there was a normal retiring age for an employee holding the position held by the employee, and

(ii)the age was the same whether the employee holding that position was a man or a woman,

that normal retiring age, and

(b)in any other case, the age of sixty-five.

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply if—

(a)section 84 or 96(1) applies,

(b)subsection (1) of section 99 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section applies,

(c)subsection (1) of section 100 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section) applies,

(d)subsection (1) of section 101 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section applies,

(e)section 102 applies,

(f)section 103 applies,

(g)subsection (1) of section 104 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section) applies, or

(h)section 105 applies.

110 Dismissal procedures agreements.E+W+S

(1)Where a dismissal procedures agreement is designated by an order under subsection (3) which is for the time being in force—

(a)the provisions of that agreement relating to dismissal shall have effect in substitution for any rights under section 94, and

(b)accordingly, section 94 does not apply to the dismissal of an employee from any employment if it is employment to which, and he is an employee to whom, those provisions of the agreement apply.

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply if—

(a)section 84 or 96(1) applies,

(b)subsection (1) of section 99 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section applies,

(c)subsection (1) of section 101 (read with subsection (2) of that section) or subsection (3) of that section applies,

(d)subsection (1) of section 104 (read with subsections (2) and (3) of that section) applies, or

(e)section 105(1) and (4) applies.

(3)An order designating a dismissal procedures agreement may be made by the Secretary of State, on an application being made to him jointly by all the parties to the agreement, if he is satisfied that—

(a)every trade union which is a party to the agreement is an independent trade union,

(b)the agreement provides for procedures to be followed in cases where an employee claims that he has been, or is in the course of being, unfairly dismissed,

(c)those procedures are available without discrimination to all employees falling within any description to which the agreement applies,

(d)the remedies provided by the agreement in respect of unfair dismissal are on the whole as beneficial as (but not necessarily identical with) those provided in respect of unfair dismissal by this Part,

(e)the procedures provided by the agreement include a right to arbitration or adjudication by an independent referee, or by a tribunal or other independent body, in cases where (by reason of an equality of votes or for any other reason) a decision cannot otherwise be reached, and

(f)the provisions of the agreement are such that it can be determined with reasonable certainty whether or not a particular employee is one to whom the agreement applies.

(4)If at any time when an order under subsection (3) is in force in relation to a dismissal procedures agreement the Secretary of State is satisfied, whether on an application made to him by any of the parties to the agreement or otherwise, either—

(a)that it is the desire of all the parties to the agreement that the order should be revoked, or

(b)that the agreement no longer satisfies all the conditions specified in subsection (3),

the Secretary of State shall revoke the order by an order under this subsection.

(5)The transitional provisions which may be made in an order under subsection (4) include, in particular, provisions directing—

(a)that an employee—

(i)shall not be excluded from his right under section 94 where the effective date of termination falls within a transitional period which ends with the date on which the order takes effect and which is specified in the order, and

(ii)shall have an extended time for presenting a complaint under section 111 in respect of a dismissal where the effective date of termination falls within that period, and

(b)that, where the effective date of termination falls within such a transitional period, an industrial tribunal shall, in determining any complaint of unfair dismissal presented by an employee to whom the dismissal procedures agreement applies, have regard to such considerations as are specified in the order (in addition to those specified in this Part and section 10(4) and (5) of the M7Industrial Tribunals Act 1996).

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Marginal Citations

Chapter IIE+W+S Remedies for unfair dismissal

IntroductoryE+W+S

111 Complaints to industrial tribunal.E+W+S

(1)A complaint may be presented to an industrial tribunal against an employer by any person that he was unfairly dismissed by the employer.

(2)Subject to subsection (3), an industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this section unless it is presented to the tribunal—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the effective date of termination, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3)Where a dismissal is with notice, an industrial tribunal shall consider a complaint under this section if it is presented after the notice is given but before the effective date of termination.

(4)In relation to a complaint which is presented as mentioned in subsection (3), the provisions of this Act, so far as they relate to unfair dismissal, have effect as if—

(a)references to a complaint by a person that he was unfairly dismissed by his employer included references to a complaint by a person that his employer has given him notice in such circumstances that he will be unfairly dismissed when the notice expires,

(b)references to reinstatement included references to the withdrawal of the notice by the employer,

(c)references to the effective date of termination included references to the date which would be the effective date of termination on the expiry of the notice, and

(d)references to an employee ceasing to be employed included references to an employee having been given notice of dismissal.

112 The remedies: orders and compensation.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where, on a complaint under section 111, an industrial tribunal finds that the grounds of the complaint are well-founded.

(2)The tribunal shall—

(a)explain to the complainant what orders may be made under section 113 and in what circumstances they may be made, and

(b)ask him whether he wishes the tribunal to make such an order.

(3)If the complainant expresses such a wish, the tribunal may make an order under section 113.

(4)If no order is made under section 113, the tribunal shall make an award of compensation for unfair dismissal (calculated in accordance with sections 118 to 127) to be paid by the employer to the employee.

Orders for reinstatement or re-engagementE+W+S

113 The orders.E+W+S

An order under this section may be—

(a)an order for reinstatement (in accordance with section 114), or

(b)an order for re-engagement (in accordance with section 115),

as the tribunal may decide.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C31S. 113 restricted (24.4.2000) by 1992 c. 52, s. 239(4)(a) (as added (24.4.2000) by 1999 c. 26, s. 16, Sch. 5 para. 4(5); S.I. 2000/875, art. 2 (with transitional provision in art. 3))

114 Order for reinstatement.E+W+S

(1)An order for reinstatement is an order that the employer shall treat the complainant in all respects as if he had not been dismissed.

(2)On making an order for reinstatement the tribunal shall specify—

(a)any amount payable by the employer in respect of any benefit which the complainant might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal (including arrears of pay) for the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of reinstatement,

(b)any rights and privileges (including seniority and pension rights) which must be restored to the employee, and

(c)the date by which the order must be complied with.

(3)If the complainant would have benefited from an improvement in his terms and conditions of employment had he not been dismissed, an order for reinstatement shall require him to be treated as if he had benefited from that improvement from the date on which he would have done so but for being dismissed.

(4)In calculating for the purposes of subsection (2)(a) any amount payable by the employer, the tribunal shall take into account, so as to reduce the employer’s liability, any sums received by the complainant in respect of the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of reinstatement by way of—

(a)wages in lieu of notice or ex gratia payments paid by the employer, or

(b)remuneration paid in respect of employment with another employer,

and such other benefits as the tribunal thinks appropriate in the circumstances.

(5)Where a dismissal is treated as taking place by virtue of section 96, references in this section to the date of termination of employment are to the notified date of return.

115 Order for re-engagement.E+W+S

(1)An order for re-engagement is an order, on such terms as the tribunal may decide, that the complainant be engaged by the employer, or by a successor of the employer or by an associated employer, in employment comparable to that from which he was dismissed or other suitable employment.

(2)On making an order for re-engagement the tribunal shall specify the terms on which re-engagement is to take place, including—

(a)the identity of the employer,

(b)the nature of the employment,

(c)the remuneration for the employment,

(d)any amount payable by the employer in respect of any benefit which the complainant might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal (including arrears of pay) for the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of re-engagement,

(e)any rights and privileges (including seniority and pension rights) which must be restored to the employee, and

(f)the date by which the order must be complied with.

(3)In calculating for the purposes of subsection (2)(d) any amount payable by the employer, the tribunal shall take into account, so as to reduce the employer’s liability, any sums received by the complainant in respect of the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of re-engagement by way of—

(a)wages in lieu of notice or ex gratia payments paid by the employer, or

(b)remuneration paid in respect of employment with another employer,

and such other benefits as the tribunal thinks appropriate in the circumstances.

(4)Where a dismissal is treated as taking place by virtue of section 96, references in this section to the date of termination of employment are to the notified date of return.

116 Choice of order and its terms.E+W+S

(1)In exercising its discretion under section 113 the tribunal shall first consider whether to make an order for reinstatement and in so doing shall take into account—

(a)whether the complainant wishes to be reinstated,

(b)whether it is practicable for the employer to comply with an order for reinstatement, and

(c)where the complainant caused or contributed to some extent to the dismissal, whether it would be just to order his reinstatement.

(2)If the tribunal decides not to make an order for reinstatement it shall then consider whether to make an order for re-engagement and, if so, on what terms.

(3)In so doing the tribunal shall take into account—

(a)any wish expressed by the complainant as to the nature of the order to be made,

(b)whether it is practicable for the employer (or a successor or an associated employer) to comply with an order for re-engagement, and

(c)where the complainant caused or contributed to some extent to the dismissal, whether it would be just to order his re-engagement and (if so) on what terms.

(4)Except in a case where the tribunal takes into account contributory fault under subsection (3)(c) it shall, if it orders re-engagement, do so on terms which are, so far as is reasonably practicable, as favourable as an order for reinstatement.

(5)Where in any case an employer has engaged a permanent replacement for a dismissed employee, the tribunal shall not take that fact into account in determining, for the purposes of subsection (1)(b) or (3)(b), whether it is practicable to comply with an order for reinstatement or re-engagement.

(6)Subsection (5) does not apply where the employer shows—

(a)that it was not practicable for him to arrange for the dismissed employee’s work to be done without engaging a permanent replacement, or

(b)that—

(i)he engaged the replacement after the lapse of a reasonable period, without having heard from the dismissed employee that he wished to be reinstated or re-engaged, and

(ii)when the employer engaged the replacement it was no longer reasonable for him to arrange for the dismissed employee’s work to be done except by a permanent replacement.

117 Enforcement of order and compensation.E+W+S

(1)An industrial tribunal shall make an award of compensation, to be paid by the employer to the employee, if—

(a)an order under section 113 is made and the complainant is reinstated or re-engaged, but

(b)the terms of the order are not fully complied with.

(2)Subject to section 124, the amount of the compensation shall be such as the tribunal thinks fit having regard to the loss sustained by the complainant in consequence of the failure to comply fully with the terms of the order.

(3)Subject to subsections (1) and (2), if an order under section 113 is made but the complainant is not reinstated or re-engaged in accordance with the order, the tribunal shall make—

(a)an award of compensation for unfair dismissal (calculated in accordance with sections 118 to 127), and

(b)except where this paragraph does not apply, an additional award of compensation of the appropriate amount,

to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4)Subsection (3)(b) does not apply where—

(a)the employer satisfies the tribunal that it was not practicable to comply with the order, or

(b)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason)—

(i)in a redundancy case, for selecting the employee for dismissal, or

(ii)otherwise, for the dismissal,

is one of those specified in section 100(1)(a) and (b), 102(1) or 103.

(5)In subsection (3)(b) “the appropriate amount” means—

(a)where the dismissal is of a description referred to in subsection (6), not less than twenty-six nor more than fifty-two weeks’ pay, and

(b)in any other case, not less than thirteen nor more than twenty-six weeks’ pay.

(6)The descriptions of dismissal in respect of which an employer may incur a higher additional award in accordance with subsection (5)(a) are—

(a)a dismissal which is an act of discrimination within the meaning of the M8Sex Discrimination Act 1975 which is unlawful by virtue of that Act, and

(b)a dismissal which is an act of discrimination within the meaning of the M9Race Relations Act 1976 which is unlawful by virtue of that Act.

(7)Where in any case an employer has engaged a permanent replacement for a dismissed employee, the tribunal shall not take that fact into account in determining for the purposes of subsection (4)(a) whether it was practicable to comply with the order for reinstatement or re-engagement unless the employer shows that it was not practicable for him to arrange for the dismissed employee’s work to be done without engaging a permanent replacement.

(8)Where in any case an industrial tribunal finds that the complainant has unreasonably prevented an order under section 113 from being complied with, in making an award of compensation for unfair dismissal (in accordance with sections 118 to 127) it shall take that conduct into account as a failure on the part of the complainant to mitigate his loss.

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Marginal Citations

CompensationE+W+S

118 General.E+W+S

(1)Where a tribunal makes an award of compensation for unfair dismissal under section 112(4) or 117(3)(a) the award shall consist of—

(a)a basic award (calculated in accordance with sections 119 to 122 and 126), and

(b)a compensatory award (calculated in accordance with sections 123, 124, 126 and 127).

(2)Where this subsection applies, the award shall also include a special award calculated in accordance with section 125 unless—

(a)the complainant does not request the tribunal to make an order under section 113, or

(b)the case falls within section 121.

(3)Subsection (2) applies where the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason)—

(a)in a redundancy case, for selecting the employee for dismissal, or

(b)otherwise, for the dismissal,

is one of those specified in section 100(1)(a) and (b), 102(1) or 103.

119 Basic award.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, sections 120 to 122 and section 126, the amount of the basic award shall be calculated by—

(a)determining the period, ending with the effective date of termination, during which the employee has been continuously employed,

(b)reckoning backwards from the end of that period the number of years of employment falling within that period, and

(c)allowing the appropriate amount for each of those years of employment.

(2)In subsection (1)(c) “the appropriate amount” means—

(a)one and a half weeks’ pay for a year of employment in which the employee was not below the age of forty-one,

(b)one week’s pay for a year of employment (not within paragraph (a)) in which he was not below the age of twenty-two, and

(c)half a week’s pay for a year of employment not within paragraph (a) or (b).

(3)Where twenty years of employment have been reckoned under subsection (1), no account shall be taken under that subsection of any year of employment earlier than those twenty years.

(4)Where the effective date of termination is after the sixty-fourth anniversary of the day of the employee’s birth, the amount arrived at under subsections (1) to (3) shall be reduced by the appropriate fraction.

(5)In subsection (4) “the appropriate fraction” means the fraction of which—

(a)the numerator is the number of whole months reckoned from the sixty-fourth anniversary of the day of the employee’s birth in the period beginning with that anniversary and ending with the effective date of termination, and

(b)the denominator is twelve.

(6)Subsections (4) and (5) do not apply to a case within section 96(1).

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C32S. 119 applied (1.11.1998) by 1998 c. 39, s. 24(4)(a); S.I. 1998/2574, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

S. 117-127A applied (with modifications) (2.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1548, reg. 3

120 Basic award: minimum in certain cases.E+W+S

(1)The amount of the basic award (before any reduction under section 122) shall not be less than £2,770 where the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason)—

(a)in a redundancy case, for selecting the employee for dismissal, or

(b)otherwise, for the dismissal,

is one of those specified in section 100(1)(a) and (b), 102(1) or 103.

(2)The Secretary of State may by order increase the sum specified in subsection (1).

121 Basic award of two weeks’ pay in certain cases.E+W+S

The amount of the basic award shall be two weeks’ pay where the tribunal finds that the reason (or, where there is more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal of the employee is that he was redundant and the employee—

(a)by virtue of section 138 is not regarded as dismissed for the purposes of Part XI, or

(b)by virtue of section 141 is not, or (if he were otherwise entitled) would not be, entitled to a redundancy payment.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C33S. 117-127A applied (with modifications) (2.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1548, reg. 3

122 Basic award: reductions.E+W+S

(1)Where the tribunal finds that the complainant has unreasonably refused an offer by the employer which (if accepted) would have the effect of reinstating the complainant in his employment in all respects as if he had not been dismissed, the tribunal shall reduce or further reduce the amount of the basic award to such extent as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

(2)Where the tribunal considers that any conduct of the complainant before the dismissal (or, where the dismissal was with notice, before the notice was given) was such that it would be just and equitable to reduce or further reduce the amount of the basic award to any extent, the tribunal shall reduce or further reduce that amount accordingly.

(3)Subsection (2) does not apply in a redundancy case unless the reason for selecting the employee for dismissal was one of those specified in section 100(1)(a) and (b), 102(1) or 103; and in such a case subsection (2) applies only to so much of the basic award as is payable because of section 120.

(4)The amount of the basic award shall be reduced or further reduced by the amount of—

(a)any redundancy payment awarded by the tribunal under Part XI in respect of the same dismissal, or

(b)any payment made by the employer to the employee on the ground that the dismissal was by reason of redundancy (whether in pursuance of Part XI or otherwise).

123 Compensatory award.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section and sections 124 and 126, the amount of the compensatory award shall be such amount as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to the loss sustained by the complainant in consequence of the dismissal in so far as that loss is attributable to action taken by the employer.

(2)The loss referred to in subsection (1) shall be taken to include—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred by the complainant in consequence of the dismissal, and

(b)subject to subsection (3), loss of any benefit which he might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal.

(3)The loss referred to in subsection (1) shall be taken to include in respect of any loss of—

(a)any entitlement or potential entitlement to a payment on account of dismissal by reason of redundancy (whether in pursuance of Part XI or otherwise), or

(b)any expectation of such a payment,

only the loss referable to the amount (if any) by which the amount of that payment would have exceeded the amount of a basic award (apart from any reduction under section 122) in respect of the same dismissal.

(4)In ascertaining the loss referred to in subsection (1) the tribunal shall apply the same rule concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law of England and Wales or (as the case may be) Scotland.

(5)In determining, for the purposes of subsection (1), how far any loss sustained by the complainant was attributable to action taken by the employer, no account shall be taken of any pressure which by—

(a)calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or

(b)threatening to do so,

was exercised on the employer to dismiss the employee; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

(6)Where the tribunal finds that the dismissal was to any extent caused or contributed to by any action of the complainant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensatory award by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

(7)If the amount of any payment made by the employer to the employee on the ground that the dismissal was by reason of redundancy (whether in pursuance of Part XI or otherwise) exceeds the amount of the basic award which would be payable but for section 122(4), that excess goes to reduce the amount of the compensatory award.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C34S. 123 applied (1.11.1998) by 1998 c. 39, s. 24(4)(b)

124 Limit of compensatory award etc.E+W+S

(1)The amount of—

(a)any compensation awarded to a person under section 117(1) and (2), or

(b)a compensatory award to a person calculated in accordance with section 123,

shall not exceed £11,300.

(2)The Secretary of State may by order increase the sum specified in subsection (1).

(3)In the case of compensation awarded to a person under section 117(1) and (2), the limit imposed by this section may be exceeded to the extent necessary to enable the award fully to reflect the amount specified as payable under section 114(2)(a) or section 115(2)(d).

(4)Where—

(a)a compensatory award is an award under paragraph (a) of subsection (3) of section 117, and

(b)an additional award falls to be made under paragraph (b) of that subsection,

the limit imposed by this section on the compensatory award may be exceeded to the extent necessary to enable the aggregate of the compensatory and additional awards fully to reflect the amount specified as payable under section 114(2)(a) or section 115(2)(d).

(5)The limit imposed by this section applies to the amount which the industrial tribunal would, apart from this section, award in respect of the subject matter of the complaint after taking into account—

(a)any payment made by the respondent to the complainant in respect of that matter, and

(b)any reduction in the amount of the award required by any enactment or rule of law.

over 01/10/2004

124A Adjustments under the Employment Act 2002E+W+S

Where an award of compensation for unfair dismissal falls to be—

(a)reduced or increased under section 31 of the Employment Act 2002 (non-completion of statutory procedures), or

(b)increased under section 38 of that Act (failure to give statement of employment particulars),

the adjustment shall be in the amount awarded under section 118(1)(b) and shall be applied immediately before any reduction under section 123(6) or (7).

125 Special award.E+W+S

(1)Subject to the following provisions, the amount of the special award shall be—

(a)one week’s pay multiplied by 104, or

(b)£13,775,

whichever is the greater, but shall not exceed £27,500.

(2)Where the award of compensation is made under section 117(3)(a) then, unless the employer satisfies the tribunal that it was not practicable to comply with the order under section 113, the amount of the special award shall be increased to—

(a)one week’s pay multiplied by 156, or

(b)£20,600,

whichever is the greater (but subject to the following provisions).

(3)In a case where the amount of the basic award is reduced under section 119(4), the amount of the special award shall be reduced by the same fraction.

(4)Where the tribunal considers that any conduct of the complainant before the dismissal (or, where the dismissal was with notice, before the notice was given) was such that it would be just and equitable to reduce or further reduce the amount of the special award to any extent, the tribunal shall reduce or further reduce that amount accordingly.

(5)Where the tribunal finds that the complainant has unreasonably—

(a)prevented an order under section 113 from being complied with, or

(b)refused an offer by the employer (made otherwise than in compliance with such an order) which, if accepted, would have the effect of reinstating the complainant in his employment in all respects as if he had not been dismissed,

the tribunal shall reduce or further reduce the amount of the special award to such extent as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

(6)Where the employer has engaged a permanent replacement for the complainant, the tribunal shall not take that fact into account in determining for the purposes of subsection (2) whether it was practicable to comply with an order under section 113 unless the employer shows that it was not practicable for him to arrange for the complainant’s work to be done without engaging a permanent replacement.

(7)The Secretary of State may by order increase any of the sums specified in subsections (1) and (2).

126 Acts which are both unfair dismissal and discrimination.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where compensation falls to be awarded in respect of any act both under—

(a)the provisions of this Act relating to unfair dismissal, and

(b)either or both of the M10Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and the M11Race Relations Act 1976.

(2)An industrial tribunal shall not award compensation under any one of those two or three Acts in respect of any loss or other matter which is or has been taken into account under the other, or any of the others, by the tribunal (or another industrial tribunal) in awarding compensation on the same or another complaint in respect of that act.

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Marginal Citations

127 Dismissal of woman at or after end of maternity leave period.E+W+S

Where section 84 applies in relation to an employee, compensation in any unfair dismissal proceedings shall be assessed without regard to the right conferred on the employee by section 79.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C35S. 117-127A applied (with modifications) (2.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1548, reg. 3

over 01/01/1999

[F12127A Internal appeal procedures.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

(1)Where in a case in which an award of compensation for unfair dismissal falls to be made under section 112(4) or 117(3)(a) the tribunal finds that—

(a)the employer provided a procedure for appealing against dismissal, and

(b)the complainant was, at the time of the dismissal or within a reasonable period afterwards, given written notice stating that the employer provided the procedure and including details of it, but

(c)the complainant did not appeal against the dismissal under the procedure (otherwise than because the employer prevented him from doing so),

the tribunal shall reduce the compensatory award included in the award of compensation for unfair dismissal by such amount (if any) as it considers just and equitable.

(2)Where in a case in which an award of compensation for unfair dismissal falls to be made under section 112(4) or 117(3)(a) the tribunal finds that—

(a)the employer provided a procedure for appealing against dismissal, but

(b)the employer prevented the complainant from appealing against the dismissal under the procedure,

the award of compensation for unfair dismissal shall include a supplementary award of such amount (if any) as the tribunal considers just and equitable.

(3)In determining the amount of a reduction under subsection (1) or a supplementary award under subsection (2) the tribunal shall have regard to all the circumstances of the case, including in particular the chances that an appeal under the procedure provided by the employer would have been successful.

(4)The amount of such a reduction or supplementary award shall not exceed the amount of two weeks’ pay.]

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C36S. 117-127A applied (with modifications) (2.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1548, reg. 3

over 02/07/1998

[F13127B Dismissal as a result of protected disclosure.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

F13S. 127B inserted (2.7.1998 for specified purposes and otherwise 2.7.1999) by 1998 c. 23, s. 8(4); S.I. 1999/1547, art. 2

(1)This section applies where the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason)—

(a)in a redundancy case, for selecting the employee for dismissal, or

(b)otherwise, for the dismissal,

is that specified in section 103A.

(2)The Secretary of State may by regulations provide that where this section applies any award of compensation for unfair dismissal under section 112(4) or 117(1) or 117(3) shall, instead of being calculated in accordance with the provisions of sections 117 to 127A, consist of one or more awards calculated in such manner as may be prescribed by the regulations.

(3)Regulations under this section may, in particular, apply any of the provisions of sections 117 to 127A with such modifications as may be specified in the regulations.]

Interim reliefE+W+S

128 Interim relief pending determination of complaint.E+W+S

(1)An employee who presents a complaint to an industrial tribunal—

(a)that he has been unfairly dismissed by his employer, and

(b)that the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal is one of those specified in section 100(1)(a) and (b), 102(1) or 103,

may apply to the tribunal for interim relief.

(2)The tribunal shall not entertain an application for interim relief unless it is presented to the tribunal before the end of the period of seven days immediately following the effective date of termination (whether before, on or after that date).

(3)The tribunal shall determine the application for interim relief as soon as practicable after receiving the application.

(4)The tribunal shall give to the employer not later than seven days before the date of the hearing a copy of the application together with notice of the date, time and place of the hearing.

(5)The tribunal shall not exercise any power it has of postponing the hearing of an application for interim relief except where it is satisfied that special circumstances exist which justify it in doing so.

129 Procedure on hearing of application and making of order.E+W+S

(1)This section applies where, on hearing an employee’s application for interim relief, it appears to the tribunal that it is likely that on determining the complaint to which the application relates the tribunal will find that the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for his dismissal is one of those specified in section 100(1)(a) and (b), 102(1) or 103.

(2)The tribunal shall announce its findings and explain to both parties (if present)—

(a)what powers the tribunal may exercise on the application, and

(b)in what circumstances it will exercise them.

(3)The tribunal shall ask the employer (if present) whether he is willing, pending the determination or settlement of the complaint—

(a)to reinstate the employee (that is, to treat him in all respects as if he had not been dismissed), or

(b)if not, to re-engage him in another job on terms and conditions not less favourable than those which would have been applicable to him if he had not been dismissed.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3)(b) “terms and conditions not less favourable than those which would have been applicable to him if he had not been dismissed” means, as regards seniority, pension rights and other similar rights, that the period prior to the dismissal should be regarded as continuous with his employment following the dismissal.

(5)If the employer states that he is willing to reinstate the employee, the tribunal shall make an order to that effect.

(6)If the employer—

(a)states that he is willing to re-engage the employee in another job, and

(b)specifies the terms and conditions on which he is willing to do so,

the tribunal shall ask the employee whether he is willing to accept the job on those terms and conditions.

(7)If the employee is willing to accept the job on those terms and conditions, the tribunal shall make an order to that effect.

(8)If the employee is not willing to accept the job on those terms and conditions—

(a)where the tribunal is of the opinion that the refusal is reasonable, the tribunal shall make an order for the continuation of his contract of employment, and

(b)otherwise, the tribunal shall make no order.

(9)If on the hearing of an application for interim relief the employer—

(a)fails to attend before the tribunal, or

(b)states that he is unwilling either to reinstate or re-engage the employee as mentioned in subsection (3),

the tribunal shall make an order for the continuation of the employee’s contract of employment.

130 Order for continuation of contract of employment.E+W+S

(1)An order under section 129 for the continuation of a contract of employment is an order that the contract of employment continue in force—

(a)for the purposes of pay or any other benefit derived from the employment, seniority, pension rights and other similar matters, and

(b)for the purposes of determining for any purpose the period for which the employee has been continuously employed,

from the date of its termination (whether before or after the making of the order) until the determination or settlement of the complaint.

(2)Where the tribunal makes such an order it shall specify in the order the amount which is to be paid by the employer to the employee by way of pay in respect of each normal pay period, or part of any such period, falling between the date of dismissal and the determination or settlement of the complaint.

(3)Subject to the following provisions, the amount so specified shall be that which the employee could reasonably have been expected to earn during that period, or part, and shall be paid—

(a)in the case of a payment for any such period falling wholly or partly after the making of the order, on the normal pay day for that period, and

(b)in the case of a payment for any past period, within such time as may be specified in the order.

(4)If an amount is payable in respect only of part of a normal pay period, the amount shall be calculated by reference to the whole period and reduced proportionately.

(5)Any payment made to an employee by an employer under his contract of employment, or by way of damages for breach of that contract, in respect of a normal pay period, or part of any such period, goes towards discharging the employer’s liability in respect of that period under subsection (2); and, conversely, any payment under that subsection in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer under, or in respect of breach of, the contract of employment in respect of that period.

(6)If an employee, on or after being dismissed by his employer, receives a lump sum which, or part of which, is in lieu of wages but is not referable to any normal pay period, the tribunal shall take the payment into account in determining the amount of pay to be payable in pursuance of any such order.

(7)For the purposes of this section, the amount which an employee could reasonably have been expected to earn, his normal pay period and the normal pay day for each such period shall be determined as if he had not been dismissed.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C37Ss. 128-132 extended (4.9.2000) by 1999 c. 26, s. 12(5) (with ss. 14, 15); S.I. 2000/2242, art. 2

131 Application for variation or revocation of order.E+W+S

(1)At any time between—

(a)the making of an order under section 129, and

(b)the determination or settlement of the complaint,

the employer or the employee may apply to an industrial tribunal for the revocation or variation of the order on the ground of a relevant change of circumstances since the making of the order.

(2)Sections 128 and 129 apply in relation to such an application as in relation to an original application for interim relief except that, in the case of an application by the employer, section 128(4) has effect with the substitution of a reference to the employee for the reference to the employer.

132 Consequence of failure to comply with order.E+W+S

(1)If, on the application of an employee, an industrial tribunal is satisfied that the employer has not complied with the terms of an order for the reinstatement or re-engagement of the employee under section 129(5) or (7), the tribunal shall—

(a)make an order for the continuation of the employee’s contract of employment, and

(b)order the employer to pay compensation to the employee.

(2)Compensation under subsection (1)(b) shall be of such amount as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard—

(a)to the infringement of the employee’s right to be reinstated or re-engaged in pursuance of the order, and

(b)to any loss suffered by the employee in consequence of the non-compliance.

(3)Section 130 applies to an order under subsection (1)(a) as in relation to an order under section 129.

(4)If on the application of an employee an industrial tribunal is satisfied that the employer has not complied with the terms of an order for the continuation of a contract of employment subsection (5) or (6) applies.

(5)Where the non-compliance consists of a failure to pay an amount by way of pay specified in the order—

(a)the tribunal shall determine the amount owed by the employer on the date of the determination, and

(b)if on that date the tribunal also determines the employee’s complaint that he has been unfairly dismissed, it shall specify that amount separately from any other sum awarded to the employee.

(6)In any other case, the tribunal shall order the employer to pay the employee such compensation as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to any loss suffered by the employee in consequence of the non-compliance.

Chapter IIIE+W+S Supplementary

133 Death of employer or employee.E+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)an employer has given notice to an employee to terminate his contract of employment, and

(b)before that termination the employee or the employer dies,

this Part applies as if the contract had been duly terminated by the employer by notice expiring on the date of the death.

(2)Where—

(a)an employee’s contract of employment has been terminated,

(b)by virtue of subsection (2) or (4) of section 97 a date later than the effective date of termination as defined in subsection (1) of that section is to be treated for certain purposes as the effective date of termination, and

(c)the employer or the employee dies before that date,

subsection (2) or (4) of section 97 applies as if the notice referred to in that subsection as required by section 86 expired on the date of the death.

(3)Where an employee has died, sections 113 to 116 do not apply; and, accordingly, if the industrial tribunal finds that the grounds of the complaint are well-founded, the case shall be treated as falling within section 112(4) as a case in which no order is made under section 113.

(4)Subsection (3) does not prejudice an order for reinstatement or re-engagement made before the employee’s death.

(5)Where an order for reinstatement or re-engagement has been made and the employee dies before the order is complied with—

(a)if the employer has before the death refused to reinstate or re-engage the employee in accordance with the order, subsections (3) to (6) of section 117 apply, and an award shall be made under subsection (3)(b) of that section, unless the employer satisfies the tribunal that it was not practicable at the time of the refusal to comply with the order, and

(b)if there has been no such refusal, subsections (1) and (2) of that section apply if the employer fails to comply with any ancillary terms of the order which remain capable of fulfilment after the employee’s death as they would apply to such a failure to comply fully with the terms of an order where the employee had been reinstated or re-engaged.

134 Teachers in aided schools.E+W+S

(1)Where a teacher in an aided school is dismissed by the governors of the school in pursuance of a requirement of the local education authority under paragraph (a) of the proviso to section 24(2) of the M12Education Act 1944, this Part has effect in relation to the dismissal as if—

(a)the local education authority had at all material times been the teacher’s employer,

(b)the local education authority had dismissed him, and

(c)the reason or principal reason for which they did so had been the reason or principal reason for which they required his dismissal.

(2)For the purposes of a complaint under section 111 as it has effect by virtue of subsection (1)—

(a)section 117(4)(a) applies as if for the words “not practicable to comply” there were substituted the words “ not practicable for the local education authority to permit compliance ”, and

(b)section 123(5) applies as if the references in it to the employer were to the local education authority.

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Marginal Citations

Prospective

[F14134A Application to police.E+W+S
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Amendments (Textual)

F14S. 134A inserted (1.7.1998) by 1997 c. 42, s. 4; S.I. 1998/1542, art. 2

(1)For the purposes of section 100, and of the other provisions of this Part so far as relating to the right not to be unfairly dismissed in a case where the dismissal is unfair by virtue of section 100, the holding, otherwise than under a contract of employment, of the office of constable or an appointment as police cadet shall be treated as employment by the relevant [F15authority ]F15 under a contract of employment.

[F16(2)In this section “the relevant authority” means—

(a)in relation to a member of a police force, a special constable appointed for a police area or a police cadet appointed by a chief officer of police, the police authority or, in the case of a combined area in Scotland, the police board (within the meaning of the Police (Scotland) Act 1967 (c. 77));

(b)in relation to a person appointed as a police member of the National Criminal Intelligence Service, the Service Authority for that service;

(c)in relation to a person appointed as a police member of the National Crime Squad, the Service Authority for that squad;

(d)in relation to any other person holding the office of constable or an appointment as police cadet, the person responsible for maintaining the body of constables or police cadets in question.

(2A)The Commissioner of Police for the City of London shall be treated for the purposes of this section as if he were a member of the City of London police force.F16]]

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Amendments (Textual)

F15Word in s. 134A(1) substituted (prosp.) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. 95(2), 108(2)-(5) (which substituting provision was repealed (7.4.2005) by Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 (c. 15), ss. 158(4)(a), 174(2), Sch. 17 Pt. 1)

F16S. 134A(2)(2A) substituted (prosp.) for s. 134A(2) by Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30), ss. 95(3), 108(2)-(5) (which substituting provision was repealed (7.4.2005) by Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 (c. 15), ss. 158(4)(a), 174(2), Sch. 17 Pt. 1)

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