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Employment Rights Act 1996

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Employment Rights Act 1996, Cross Heading: Employee representatives is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 21 August 2018. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

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Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 8(2)(e) and word inserted by S.I. 2018/147 art. 2(b)
  • s. 43K(1)(ca) and word omitted by 2013 c. 24 s. 20(5) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 43K(1)(ba) by S.I. 2006/1056, Sch. para. 7 is to come into force on the day on which 2005 asp 13, s. 20 comes into force and that provision has never been brought into force)
  • s. 43K(2)(ba) omitted by 2013 c. 24 s. 20(6) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. The insertion of s. 43K(1)(ba) by S.I. 2006/1056, Sch. para. 7 is to come into force on the day on which 2005 asp 13, s. 20 comes into force and that provision has never been brought into force)
  • s. 47AA inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 37
  • s. 49C inserted by 2017 c. 16 s. 32(4)
  • s. 50(2)(i)-(k) inserted by S.I. 2018/665 art. 2(b)(ii)
  • s. 101B inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 38
  • s. 105(4B) inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 39(3)
  • s. 108(3)(de) inserted by 2008 c. 25 s. 39(4)
  • s. 110(3A) inserted by 2002 c. 22 s. 44

Employee representativesE+W+S

61 Right to time off for employee representatives.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is—

(a) an employee representative for the M1 purposes of Chapter II of Part IV of the M2 Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (redundancies) or [F1 regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 ] , or

(b)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such an employee representative,

is entitled to be permitted by his employer to take reasonable time off during the employee’s working hours in order to perform his functions as such an employee representative or candidate [F2or in order to undergo training to perform such functions].

(2)For the purposes of this section the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 61(1)(a) substituted (6.4.2006 with application in accordance with reg. 21(1) of the amending S.I.) by The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (S.I. 2006/246), regs. 1(2), 20, Sch. 2 para. 10(b)

F2Words in s. 61(1) inserted (28.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1925, reg. 15

Marginal Citations

62 Right to remuneration for time off under section 61.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is permitted to take time off under section 61 is entitled to be paid remuneration by his employer for the time taken off at the appropriate hourly rate.

(2)The appropriate hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week’s pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day when the time off is taken.

(3)But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week’s pay shall be divided instead by—

(a)the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee’s normal working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day on which the time off is taken, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of normal working hours in a week having regard to such of the considerations specified in subsection (4) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(4)The considerations referred to in subsection (3)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working hours in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of his contract, and

(b)the average number of normal working hours of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(5)A right to any amount under subsection (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment (“contractual remuneration”).

(6)Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under section 61 goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay remuneration under subsection (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration under subsection (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

63 Complaints to [F3employment tribunals].E+W+S

(1)An employee may present a complaint to an [F3employment tribunal] that his employer—

(a)has unreasonably refused to permit him to take time off as required by section 61, or

(b)has failed to pay the whole or any part of any amount to which the employee is entitled under section 62.

(2)An [F3employment tribunal] shall not consider a complaint under this section unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the day on which the time off was taken or on which it is alleged the time off should have been permitted, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

[F4(2A)Section 207A(3) (extension because of mediation in certain European cross-border disputes) [F5and section 207B (extension of time limits to facilitate conciliation before institution of proceedings) apply] for the purposes of subsection (2)(a).]

(3)Where an [F3employment tribunal] finds a complaint under this section well-founded, the tribunal shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4)If the complaint is that the employer has unreasonably refused to permit the employee to take time off, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee an amount equal to the remuneration to which he would have been entitled under section 62 if the employer had not refused.

(5)If the complaint is that the employer has failed to pay the employee the whole or part of any amount to which he is entitled under section 62, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee the amount which it finds due to him.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F3Words in s. 63(1)-(3) and sidenote to s. 63 substituted (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a)(b) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F4S. 63(2A) inserted (20.5.2011 with application as mentioned in regs. 3 and 4 of the amending S.I.) by The Cross-Border Mediation (EU Directive) Regulations 2011 (S.I. 2011/1133), regs. 2, 40

[F663A Right to time off for young person [F7in Wales or Scotland] for study or training.E+W+S

(1)An employee who—

(a)is aged 16 or 17,

(b)is not receiving full-time secondary or further education, and

( c )has not attained such standard of achievement as is prescribed by regulations made by the Secretary of State,

is entitled to be permitted by his employer to take time off during the employee’s working hours in order to undertake study or training leading to a relevant qualification.

( 2 )In this section—

(a)secondary education ”—

(i) in relation to England and Wales, has the same meaning as in the M3 Education Act 1996, and

(ii) in relation to Scotland, has the same meaning as in section 135(2)(b) of the M4 Education (Scotland) Act 1980;

(b)further education ”—

(i)in relation to England and Wales, [F8has the same meaning as in the Education Act 1996,] and

(ii) in relation to Scotland, has the same meaning as in section 1(3) of the M5 Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act 1992; and

( c )relevant qualification ” means an external qualification the attainment of which—

(i)would contribute to the attainment of the standard prescribed for the purposes of subsection (1)(c), and

(ii)would be likely to enhance the employee’s employment prospects (whether with his employer or otherwise);

and for the purposes of paragraph (c) “ external qualification ” means an academic or vocational qualification awarded or authenticated by such person or body as may be specified in or under regulations made by the Secretary of State.

(3)An employee who—

(a)satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (a) to (c) of subsection (1), and

(b) is for the time being supplied by his employer to another person (“ the principal ”) to perform work in accordance with a contract made between the employer and the principal,

is entitled to be permitted by the principal to take time off during the employee’s working hours in order to undertake study or training leading to a relevant qualification.

(4)Where an employee—

(a)is aged 18,

(b)is undertaking study or training leading to a relevant qualification, and

(c)began such study or training before attaining that age,

subsections (1) and (3) shall apply to the employee, in relation to that study or training, as if “or 18” were inserted at the end of subsection (1)(a).

(5)The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this section, and the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken, are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard, in particular, to—

(a)the requirements of the employee’s study or training, and

(b)the circumstances of the business of the employer or the principal and the effect of the employee’s time off on the running of that business.

[F9(5A)References in this section to an employee do not include a person to whom Part 1 of the Education and Skills Act 2008 (duty to participate in education or training for 16 and 17 year olds in England) applies, or is treated by section 29 of that Act (extension for person reaching 18) as applying.]

(6)Regulations made for the purposes of subsections (1)(c) and (2) may make different provision for different cases, and in particular may make different provision in relation to England, Wales and Scotland respectively.

(7)References in this section to study or training are references to study or training on the premises of the employer or (as the case may be) principal or elsewhere.

(8)For the purposes of this section the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F6S. 63A inserted (1.9.1999) by 1998 c. 30, s. 32 (with s. 42(8)); S.I. 1999/987, art. 2

F7Words in s. 63A title inserted (28.6.2013) by Education and Skills Act 2008 (c. 25), ss. 39(2), 173(4) (with ss. 62(3)-(6), 64(4)-(6)); S.I. 2013/1204, art. 2(q) (with art. 4)

F8Words in s. 63A substituted (1.4.2001) by 2000 c. 21, s. 149, Sch. 9 para. 50, S.I. 2001/654, art. 2(2), Sch. Pt. II (with art. 3)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 63A(1)(c)(2): transfer of certain functions (1.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1750, arts. 1, 2, Sch. 1 (with art. 7); S.I. 1998/3178, art. 3

C2S. 63A(2)(c) extended (1.9.2001) by S.I. 2001/2801, reg. 5

Marginal Citations

[F1063B Right to remuneration for time off under section 63A.E+W+S

(1)An employee who is permitted to take time off under section 63A is entitled to be paid remuneration by his employer for the time taken off at the appropriate hourly rate.

(2)The appropriate hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week’s pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day when the time off is taken.

(3)But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week’s pay shall be divided instead by—

(a)the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee’s working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day on which the time off is taken, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of normal working hours in a week having regard to such of the considerations specified in subsection (4) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(4)The considerations referred to in subsection (3)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working hours in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of his contract, and

(b)the average number of normal working hours of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(5) A right to any amount under subsection (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment (“ contractual remuneration ”).

(6)Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under section 63A goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay remuneration under subsection (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration under subsection (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F10Ss. 63B, 63C inserted (1.9.1999) by 1998 c. 30, s. 33 (with s. 42(8)); S.I. 1999/987, art. 2

F11 63C Complaints to employment tribunals.E+W+S

(1)An employee may present a complaint to an employment tribunal that—

(a)his employer, or the principal referred to in subsection (3) of section 63A, has unreasonably refused to permit him to take time off as required by that section, or

(b)his employer has failed to pay the whole or any part of any amount to which the employee is entitled under section 63B.

(2)An employment tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this section unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the day on which the time off was taken or on which it is alleged the time off should have been permitted, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

[F12(2A)Section 207A(3) (extension because of mediation in certain European cross-border disputes) [F13and section 207B (extension of time limits to facilitate conciliation before institution of proceedings) apply] for the purposes of subsection (2)(a).]

(3)Where an employment tribunal finds a complaint under this section well-founded, the tribunal shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4)If the complaint is that the employer or the principal has unreasonably refused to permit the employee to take time off, the tribunal shall also order the employer or the principal, as the case may be, to pay to the employee an amount equal to the remuneration to which he would have been entitled under section 63B if the employer or the principal had not refused.

(5)If the complaint is that the employer has failed to pay the employee the whole or part of any amount to which he is entitled under section 63B, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee the amount which it finds due to him.

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F11Ss. 63B, 63C inserted (1.9.1999) by 1998 c. 30, s. 33 (with s. 42(8)); S.I. 1999/987, art. 2

F12S. 63C(2A) inserted (20.5.2011 with application as mentioned in regs. 3 and 4 of the amending S.I.) by The Cross-Border Mediation (EU Directive) Regulations 2011 (S.I. 2011/1133), regs. 2, 41

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