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Disability Discrimination Act 1995

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Commencement Orders bringing legislation that affects this Act into force:

Part IIE+W+S+N.I.[F1THE EMPLOYMENT FIELD][F2 AND DISTRICT COUNCILS] [F3and members of locally-electable authorities]

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Pt. 2: heading substituted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), {4(1)} and same heading substituted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by S.R. 2004/55, regs. 1(2)(3), 4(1)

F2Pt. II heading: words inserted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), {Sch. 1 para. 4}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

F3Pt 2 heading: words inserted (E.W.S.) (5.12.2005) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 19(1), 20(3)-(6), Sch. 1 para. 4; S.I 2005/2774, {art. 3(j)}

[F4Meaning of “discrimination” and “harassment”E+W+S+N.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F4Ss. 3A, 3B and cross-heading inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), {4(2)} and said sections and cross-heading inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {4(2)}

3AMeaning of “discrimination”E+W+S+N.I.

(1)For the purposes of this Part, a person discriminates against a disabled person if—

(a)for a reason which relates to the disabled person’s disability, he treats him less favourably than he treats or would treat others to whom that reason does not or would not apply, and

(b)he cannot show that the treatment in question is justified.

(2)For the purposes of this Part, a person also discriminates against a disabled person if he fails to comply with a duty to make reasonable adjustments imposed on him in relation to the disabled person.

(3)Treatment is justified for the purposes of subsection (1)(b) if, but only if, the reason for it is both material to the circumstances of the particular case and substantial.

(4)But treatment of a disabled person cannot be justified under subsection (3) if it amounts to direct discrimination falling within subsection (5).

(5)A person directly discriminates against a disabled person if, on the ground of the disabled person’s disability, he treats the disabled person less favourably than he treats or would treat a person not having that particular disability whose relevant circumstances, including his abilities, are the same as, or not materially different from, those of the disabled person.

(6)If, in a case falling within subsection (1), a person is under a duty to make reasonable adjustments in relation to a disabled person but fails to comply with that duty, his treatment of that person cannot be justified under subsection (3) unless it would have been justified even if he had complied with that duty.

3BMeaning of “harassment”E+W+S+N.I.

(1)For the purposes of this Part, a person subjects a disabled person to harassment where, for a reason which relates to the disabled person’s disability, he engages in unwanted conduct which has the purpose or effect of—

(a)violating the disabled person’s dignity, or

(b)creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for him.

(2)Conduct shall be regarded as having the effect referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) only if, having regard to all the circumstances, including in particular the perception of the disabled person, it should reasonably be considered as having that effect.]

[F5Employment]E+W+S+N.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F5Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted for ss. 4-6 and preceding cross-heading (E.W.S) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5

[F64 Discrimination against applicants and employees.E+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining to whom he should offer employment;

(b)in the terms on which he offers that person employment; or

(c)by refusing to offer, or deliberately not offering, him employment.

(2)It is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a disabled person whom he employs—

(a)in the terms of employment which he affords him;

(b)in the opportunities which he affords him for promotion, a transfer, training or receiving any other benefit;

(c)by refusing to afford him, or deliberately not affording him, any such opportunity; or

(d)by dismissing him, or subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is also unlawful for an employer, in relation to employment by him, to subject to harassment—

(a)a disabled person whom he employs; or

(b)a disabled person who has applied to him for employment.

(4)Subsection (2) does not apply to benefits of any description if the employer is concerned with the provision (whether or not for payment) of benefits of that description to the public, or to a section of the public which includes the employee in question, unless—

(a)that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits by the employer to his employees;

(b)the provision of the benefits to the employee in question is regulated by his contract of employment; or

(c)the benefits relate to training.

(5)The reference in subsection (2)(d) to the dismissal of a person includes a reference—

(a)to the termination of that person’s employment by the expiration of any period (including a period expiring by reference to an event or circumstance), not being a termination immediately after which the employment is renewed on the same terms; and

(b)to the termination of that person’s employment by any act of his (including the giving of notice) in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate it without notice by reason of the conduct of the employer.

(6)This section applies only in relation to employment at an establishment in Great Britain.]

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Extent Information

E1This version of this provision extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate version has been created for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F6Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted (E.W.S) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) for ss. 4-6 by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 4 modified (E.W.) (2.3.1998 subject to art. 1(2) of the amending S.I.) by S.I. 1998/218, arts. 1(2), 3(1), Sch. (with art. 3(2)(b))

S. 4 modified (1.9.1999) by S.I. 1999/2256, art. 3, Sch.

[F1164 Discrimination against applicants and employees.N.I.

(1)It is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining to whom he should offer employment;

(b)in the terms on which he offers that person employment; or

(c)by refusing to offer, or deliberately not offering, him employment.

(2)It is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a disabled person whom he employs –

(a)in the terms of employment which he affords him;

(b)in the opportunities which he affords him for promotion, a transfer, training or receiving any other benefit;

(c)by refusing to afford him, or deliberately not affording him, any such opportunity; or

(d)by dismissing him, or subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is also unlawful for an employer, in relation to employment by him, to subject to harassment –

(a)a disabled person whom he employs; or

(b)a disabled person who has applied to him for employment.

(4)Subsection (2) does not apply to benefits of any description if the employer is concerned with the provision (whether or not for payment) of benefits of that description to the public, or to a section of the public which includes the employee in question, unless –

(a)that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits by the employer to his employees;

(b)the provision of the benefits to the employee in question is regulated by his contract of employment; or

(c)the benefits relate to training.

(5)The reference in subsection (2)(d) to the dismissal of a person includes a reference –

(a)to the termination of that person’s employment by the expiration of any period (including a period expiring by reference to an event or circumstance), not being a termination immediately after which the employment is renewed on the same terms; and

(b)to the termination of that person’s employment by any act of his (including the giving of notice) in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate it without notice by reason of the conduct of the employer.

(6)This section applies only in relation to employment at an establishment in Northern Ireland.]

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Extent Information

E51This version of this provision extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate version has been created for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F116Ss. 4-4K and cross-headings substituted for s. 4 (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 5

[F74AEmployers: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of an employer, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the employer,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the employer to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In subsection (1), “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom employment should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the employer that he may be, an applicant for that employment;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)an applicant for the employment concerned, or

(ii)an employee of the employer concerned.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on an employer in relation to a disabled person if the employer does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for the employment; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).]]

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Extent Information

E2This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4A exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F7Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted for ss. 4-6 (E.W.S) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F84AEmployers: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of an employer, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the employer,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the employer to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In subsection (1), “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom employment should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the employer that he may be, an applicant for that employment;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is –

(i)an applicant for the employment concerned, or

(ii)an employee of the employer concerned.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on an employer in relation to a disabled person if the employer does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for the employment; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).]]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E3This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4A exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F8Ss. 4-4K and cross-headings substituted for s. 4 (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004, regs. 1(2)(3), {5(1)}

F95 Meaning of “discrimination”E+W+S+N.I.

F10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F9Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted for ss. 4-6 (E.W.S) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(2)

F116 Duty of employer to make adjustments.E+W+S+N.I.

F12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F11Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted for ss. 4-6 (E.W.S) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(2)

7 Exemption for small businesses.E+W+S+N.I.

F13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F13S. 7 omitted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by virtue of The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), {7} and s. 7 repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {7}

[F14Contract workersE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F14Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted (E.W.S.) for ss. 4-6 and preceding cross-heading (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(1)

4BContract workersE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a principal, in relation to contract work, to discriminate against a disabled person who is a contract worker (a “disabled contract worker”)—

(a)in the terms on which he allows him to do that work;

(b)by not allowing him to do it or continue to do it;

(c)in the way he affords him access to any benefits or by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him access to them; or

(d)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(2)It is also unlawful for a principal, in relation to contract work, to subject a disabled contract worker to harassment.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply to benefits of any description if the principal is concerned with the provision (whether or not for payment) of benefits of that description to the public, or to a section of the public which includes the contract worker in question, unless that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits by the principal to contract workers.

(4)This subsection applies to a disabled contract worker where, by virtue of—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of all or most of the principals to whom he is or might be supplied, or

(b)a physical feature of premises occupied by such persons,

he is likely, on each occasion when he is supplied to a principal to do contract work, to be placed at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled which is the same or similar in each case.

(5)Where subsection (4) applies to a disabled contract worker, his employer must take such steps as he would have to take under section 4A if the provision, criterion or practice were applied by him or on his behalf or (as the case may be) if the premises were occupied by him.

(6)Section 4A applies to any principal, in relation to contract work, as if he were, or would be, the employer of the disabled contract worker and as if any contract worker supplied to do work for him were an employee of his.

(7)However, for the purposes of section 4A as applied by subsection (6), a principal is not required to take a step in relation to a disabled contract worker if under that section the disabled contract worker’s employer is required to take the step in relation to him.

(8)This section applies only in relation to contract work done at an establishment in Great Britain (the provisions of section 68 about the meaning of “employment at an establishment in Great Britain” applying for the purposes of this subsection with the appropriate modifications).

(9)In this section—

  • principal” means a person (“A”) who makes work available for doing by individuals who are employed by another person who supplies them under a contract made with A;

  • contract work” means work so made available; and

  • contract worker” means any individual who is supplied to the principal under such a contract.]

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Extent Information

E4This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4B exists for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C7Ss. 4-6 modified (W.) (12.5.2006) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (Wales) Order (S.I. 2006/1073), art. 3,{Sch.}

Contract workersN.I.

[F154BContract workersN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a principal, in relation to contract work, to discriminate against a disabled person who is a contract worker (a “disabled contract worker”) –

(a)in the terms on which he allows him to do that work;

(b)by not allowing him to do it or continue to do it;

(c)in the way he affords him access to any benefits or by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him access to them; or

(d)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(2)It is also unlawful for a principal, in relation to contract work, to subject a disabled contract worker to harassment.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply to benefits of any description if the principal is concerned with the provision (whether or not for payment) of benefits of that description to the public, or to a section of the public which includes the contract worker in question, unless that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits by the principal to contract workers.

(4)This subsection applies to a disabled contract worker where, by virtue of –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of all or most of the principals to whom he is or might be supplied, or

(b)a physical feature of premises occupied by such persons,

he is likely, on each occasion when he is supplied to a principal to do contract work, to be placed at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled which is the same or similar in each case.

(5)Where subsection (4) applies to a disabled contract worker, his employer must take such steps as he would have to take under section 4A if the provision, criterion or practice were applied by him or on his behalf or (as the case may be) if the premises were occupied by him.

(6)Section 4A applies to any principal, in relation to contract work, as if he were, or would be, the employer of the disabled contract worker and as if any contract worker supplied to do work for him were an employee of his.

(7)However, for the purposes of section 4A as applied by subsection (6), a principal is not required to take a step in relation to a disabled contract worker if under that section the disabled contract worker’s employer is required to take the step in relation to him.

(8)This section applies only in relation to contract work done at an establishment in Northern Ireland (the provisions of section 68 about the meaning of “employment at an establishment in Northern Ireland” applying for the purposes of this subsection with the appropriate modifications).

(9)In this section –

  • principal” means a person (“A”) who makes work available for doing by individuals who are employed by another person who supplies them under a contract made with A;

  • contract work” means work so made available; and

  • contract worker” means any individual who is supplied to the principal under such a contract.]]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E5This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4B exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F15Ss. 4-4K and cross-headings substituted for s. 4 (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(1)

[F16Office-holdersE+W+S

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F16Ss. 4-4F and cross-headings substituted for ss. 4-6 and preceding cross-heading (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(1)

4COffice-holders: introductoryE+W+S

(1)Subject to subsection (5), sections 4D and 4E apply to an office or post if—

(a)no relevant provision of this Part applies in relation to an appointment to the office or post; and

(b)one or more of the conditions specified in subsection (3) is satisfied.

(2)The following are relevant provisions of this Part for the purposes of subsection (1)(a): section 4, section 4B, section 6A, section 7A, section 7C [F17, section 14C and section 15B(3)(b)].

(3)The conditions specified in this subsection are that—

(a)the office or post is one to which persons are appointed to discharge functions personally under the direction of another person, and in respect of which they are entitled to remuneration;

(b)the office or post is one to which appointments are made by a Minister of the Crown, a government department, the [F18Welsh Ministers, the First Minister for Wales, the Counsel General to the Welsh Assembly Government] or any part of the Scottish Administration;

(c)the office or post is one to which appointments are made on the recommendation of, or subject to the approval of, a person referred to in paragraph (b).

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3)(a) the holder of an office or post—

(a)is to be regarded as discharging his functions under the direction of another person if that other person is entitled to direct him as to when and where he discharges those functions;

(b)is not to be regarded as entitled to remuneration merely because he is entitled to payments—

(i)in respect of expenses incurred by him in carrying out the functions of the office or post, or

(ii)by way of compensation for the loss of income or benefits he would or might have received from any person had he not been carrying out the functions of the office or post.

(5)Sections 4D and 4E do not apply to—

(a)any office of the House of Commons held by a member of it,

(b)a life peerage within the meaning of the Life Peerages Act 1958 F19, or any office of the House of Lords held by a member of it,

(c)any office mentioned in Schedule 2 (Ministerial offices) to the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 F20,

(d)the offices of Leader of the Opposition, Chief Opposition Whip or Assistant Opposition Whip within the meaning of the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975 F21,

(e)any office of the Scottish Parliament held by a member of it,

(f)a member of the Scottish Executive within the meaning of section 44 of the Scotland Act 1998 F22, or a junior Scottish Minister within the meaning of section 49 of that Act,

(g)any office of the National Assembly for Wales held by a member of it,

[F23(ga)a member of the Welsh Assembly Government,]

(h)in England, any office of a county council, a London borough council, a district council or a parish council held by a member of it,

(i)in Wales, any office of a county council, a county borough council or a community council held by a member of it,

(j)in relation to a council constituted under section 2 of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 F24 or a community council established under section 51 of the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 F25, any office of such a council held by a member of it,

(k)any office of the Greater London Authority held by a member of it,

(l)any office of the Common Council of the City of London held by a member of it,

(m)any office of the Council of the Isles of Scilly held by a member of it, or

(n)any office of a political party.

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Extent Information

E6This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4C exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F18Words in s. 4C(3)(b) substituted by The Government of Wales Act 2006 (Consequential Modifications and Transitional Provisions) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/1388), arts. 1, 3, Sch. 1 para. 49(2), the amending provision coming into force immediately after the end of "the initial period" (which ended with the day of the first appointment of a First Minister on 25.5.2007) - see s. 161(5) of the Government of Wales Act 2006.

F201975 c. 24. Schedule 2 was amended by S.I. 2002/794, article 5(2), Schedule 2 and by the Scotland Act 1998 sections 48(6), 125, Schedule 9 and section 87(1).

F23S. 4C(5)(ga) inserted by The Government of Wales Act 2006 (Consequential Modifications and Transitional Provisions) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/1388), arts. 1, 3, Sch. 1 para. 49(3), the amending provision coming into force immediately after the end of "the initial period" (which ended with the day of the first appointment of a First Minister on 25.5.2007) - see s. 161(5) of the Government of Wales Act 2006.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C9Ss. 4-6 modified (W.) (12.5.2006) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (Wales) Order (S.I. 2006/1073), art. 3,{Sch.}

4DOffice-holders: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to an appointment to an office or post to which this section applies, to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining who should be offered the appointment;

(b)in the terms on which he offers him the appointment; or

(c)by refusing to offer him the appointment.

(2)It is unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to an appointment to an office or post to which this section applies and which satisfies the condition set out in section 4C(3)(c), to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining who should be recommended or approved in relation to the appointment; or

(b)in making or refusing to make a recommendation, or giving or refusing to give an approval, in relation to the appointment.

(3)It is unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to a disabled person who has been appointed to an office or post to which this section applies, to discriminate against him—

(a)in the terms of the appointment;

(b)in the opportunities which he affords him for promotion, a transfer, training or receiving any other benefit, or by refusing to afford him any such opportunity;

(c)by terminating the appointment; or

(d)by subjecting him to any other detriment in relation to the appointment.

(4)It is also unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to an office or post to which this section applies, to subject to harassment a disabled person—

(a)who has been appointed to the office or post;

(b)who is seeking or being considered for appointment to the office or post; or

(c)who is seeking or being considered for a recommendation or approval in relation to an appointment to an office or post satisfying the condition set out in section 4C(3)(c).

(5)Subsection (3) does not apply to benefits of any description if the relevant person is concerned with the provision (for payment or not) of benefits of that description to the public, or a section of the public to which the disabled person belongs, unless—

(a)that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits to persons appointed to offices or posts which are the same as, or not materially different from, that to which the disabled person has been appointed;

(b)the provision of the benefits to the person appointed is regulated by the terms and conditions of his appointment; or

(c)the benefits relate to training.

(6)In subsection (3)(c) the reference to the termination of the appointment includes a reference—

(a)to the termination of the appointment by the expiration of any period (including a period expiring by reference to an event or circumstance), not being a termination immediately after which the appointment is renewed on the same terms and conditions; and

(b)to the termination of the appointment by any act of the person appointed (including the giving of notice) in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate the appointment by reason of the conduct of the relevant person.

(7)In this section—

(a)references to making a recommendation include references to making a negative recommendation; and

(b)references to refusal include references to deliberate omission.

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Extent Information

E7This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4D exists for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C11Ss. 4-6 modified (W.) (12.5.2006) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (Wales) Order (S.I. 2006/1073), art. 3,{Sch.}

4EOffice-holders: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a relevant person, or

(b)any physical feature of premises—

(i)under the control of a relevant person, and

(ii)at or from which the functions of an office or post to which this section applies are performed,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the relevant person to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining who should be appointed to, or recommended or approved in relation to, an office or post to which this section applies, any disabled person who—

(i)is, or has notified the relevant person that he may be, seeking appointment to, or (as the case may be) seeking a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post, or

(ii)is being considered for appointment to, or (as the case may be) for a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person—

(i)who is seeking or being considered for appointment to, or a recommendation or approval in relation to, the office or post concerned, or

(ii)who has been appointed to the office or post concerned.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on the relevant person in relation to a disabled person if the relevant person does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of a person who is being considered for, or is or may be seeking, appointment to, or a recommendation or approval in relation to, an office or post, that the disabled person concerned—

(i)is, or may be, seeking appointment to, or (as the case may be) seeking a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post, or

(ii)is being considered for appointment to, or (as the case may be) for a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E8This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4E exists for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C13Ss. 4-6 modified (W.) (12.5.2006) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (Wales) Order (S.I. 2006/1073), art. 3,{Sch.}

4FOffice-holders: supplementaryE+W+S

(1)In sections 4C to 4E, appointment to an office or post does not include election to an office or post.

(2)In sections 4D and 4E, “relevant person” means—

(a)in a case relating to an appointment to an office or post, the person with power to make that appointment;

(b)in a case relating to the making of a recommendation or the giving of an approval in relation to an appointment, a person or body referred to in section 4C(3)(b) with power to make that recommendation or (as the case may be) to give that approval;

(c)in a case relating to a term of an appointment, the person with power to determine that term;

(d)in a case relating to a working condition afforded in relation to an appointment—

(i)the person with power to determine that working condition; or

(ii)where there is no such person, the person with power to make the appointment;

(e)in a case relating to the termination of an appointment, the person with power to terminate the appointment;

(f)in a case relating to the subjection of a disabled person to any other detriment or to harassment, any person or body falling within one or more of paragraphs (a) to (e) in relation to such cases as are there mentioned.

(3)In subsection (2)(d), “working condition” includes—

(a)any opportunity for promotion, a transfer, training or receiving any other benefit; and

(b)any physical feature of premises at or from which the functions of an office or post are performed.]

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Extent Information

E9This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4F exists for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C15Ss. 4-6 modified (W.) (12.5.2006) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (Wales) Order (S.I. 2006/1073), art. 3,{Sch.}

[F26Office-holdersN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F26Ss. 4-4K and cross-headings substituted for s. 4 and preceding cross-heading (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(1)

4COffice-holders: introductoryN.I.

(1)Subject to subsection (5), sections 4D and 4E apply to an office or post if –

(a)no relevant provision of this Part applies in relation to an appointment to the office or post; and

(b)one or more of the conditions specified in subsection (3) is satisfied.

(2)The following are relevant provisions of this Part for the purposes of subsection (1)(a): section 4, section 4B, section 6A, section 7A [F27, section 14C and section 15B(3)(b)].

(3)The conditions specified in this subsection are that –

(a)the office or post is one to which persons are appointed to discharge functions personally under the direction of another person, and in respect of which they are entitled to remuneration;

(b)the office or post is one to which appointments are made by a Minister of the Crown, a Northern Ireland Minister or a government department;

(c)the office or post is one to which appointments are made on the recommendation of, or subject to the approval of, a body or person referred to in paragraph (b) or the Assembly.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3)(a) the holder of an office or post –

(a)is to be regarded as discharging his functions under the direction of another person if that other person is entitled to direct him as to when and where he discharges those functions;

(b)is not to be regarded as entitled to remuneration merely because he is entitled to payments –

(i)in respect of expenses incurred by him in carrying out the functions of the office or post, or

(ii)by way of compensation for the loss of income or benefits he would or might have received from any person had he not been carrying out the functions of the office or post.

(5)Sections 4D and 4E do not apply to –

(a)any office of the House of Commons held by a member of it;

(b)a life peerage within the meaning of the Life Peerages Act 1958 F28, or any office of the House of Lords held by a member of it;

(c)any office mentioned in Schedule 2 (Ministerial offices) to the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975;

(d)any office of the Assembly held by a member of it;

(e)any office of a district council held by a member of it; or

(f)any office of a political party.

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Extent Information

E10This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4C exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F27Words in s. 4C(2) substituted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), {Sch. 1 para. 5}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

4DOffice-holders: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to an appointment to an office or post to which this section applies, to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining who should be offered the appointment;

(b)in the terms on which he offers him the appointment; or

(c)by refusing to offer him the appointment.

(2)It is unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to an appointment to an office or post to which this section applies and which satisfies the condition set out in section 4C(3)(c), to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining who should be recommended or approved in relation to the appointment; or

(b)in making or refusing to make a recommendation, or giving or refusing to give an approval, in relation to the appointment.

(3)It is unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to a disabled person who has been appointed to an office or post to which this section applies, to discriminate against him –

(a)in the terms of the appointment;

(b)in the opportunities which he affords him for promotion, a transfer, training or receiving any other benefit, or by refusing to afford him any such opportunity;

(c)by terminating the appointment; or

(d)by subjecting him to any other detriment in relation to the appointment.

(4)It is also unlawful for a relevant person, in relation to an office or post to which this section applies, to subject to harassment a disabled person –

(a)who has been appointed to the office or post;

(b)who is seeking or being considered for appointment to the office or post; or

(c)who is seeking or being considered for a recommendation or approval in relation to an appointment to an office or post satisfying the condition set out in section 4C(3)(c).

(5)Subsection (3) does not apply to benefits of any description if the relevant person is concerned with the provision (for payment or not) of benefits of that description to the public, or a section of the public to which the disabled person belongs, unless –

(a)that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits to persons appointed to offices or posts which are the same as, or not materially different from, that to which the disabled person has been appointed;

(b)the provision of the benefits to the person appointed is regulated by the terms and conditions of his appointment; or

(c)the benefits relate to training.

(6)In subsection (3)(c) the reference to the termination of the appointment includes a reference –

(a)to the termination of the appointment by the expiration of any period (including a period expiring by reference to an event or circumstance), not being a termination immediately after which the appointment is renewed on the same terms and conditions; and

(b)to the termination of the appointment by any act of the person appointed (including the giving of notice) in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate the appointment by reason of the conduct of the relevant person.

(7)In this section –

(a)references to making a recommendation include references to making a negative recommendation; and

(b)references to refusal include references to deliberate omission.

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Extent Information

E11This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4D exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

4EOffice-holders: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a relevant person, or

(b)any physical feature of premises –

(i)under the control of a relevant person, and

(ii)at or from which the functions of an office or post to which this section applies are performed,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the relevant person to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining who should be appointed to, or recommended or approved in relation to, an office or post to which this section applies, any disabled person who –

(i)is, or has notified the relevant person that he may be, seeking appointment to, or (as the case may be) seeking a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post, or

(ii)is being considered for appointment to, or (as the case may be) for a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person –

(i)who is seeking or being considered for appointment to, or a recommendation or approval in relation to, the office or post concerned, or

(ii)who has been appointed to the office or post concerned.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on the relevant person in relation to a disabled person if the relevant person does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of a person who is being considered for, or is or may be seeking, appointment to, or a recommendation or approval in relation to, an office or post, that the disabled person concerned –

(i)is, or may be, seeking appointment to, or (as the case may be) seeking a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post, or

(ii)is being considered for appointment to, or (as the case may be) for a recommendation or approval in relation to, that office or post; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E12This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4E exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

4FOffice-holders: supplementaryN.I.

(1)In sections 4C to 4E, appointment to an office or post does not include election to an office or post.

(2)In sections 4D and 4E, “relevant person” means –

(a)in a case relating to an appointment to an office or post, the person with power to make that appointment;

(b)in a case relating to the making of a recommendation or the giving of an approval in relation to an appointment, a person or body referred to in section 4C(3)(b) with power to make that recommendation or (as the case may be) to give that approval;

(c)in a case relating to a term of an appointment, the person with power to determine that term;

(d)in a case relating to a working condition afforded in relation to an appointment –

(i)the person with power to determine that working condition; or

(ii)where there is no such person, the person with power to make the appointment;

(e)in a case relating to the termination of an appointment, the person with power to terminate the appointment;

(f)in a case relating to the subjection of a disabled person to any other detriment or to harassment, any person or body falling within one or more of paragraphs (a) to (e) in relation to such cases as are there mentioned.

(3)In subsection (2)(d), “working condition” includes –

(a)any opportunity for promotion, a transfer, training or receiving any other benefit; and

(b)any physical feature of premises at or from which the functions of an office or post are performed.]

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Extent Information

E13This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4F exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

[F29Occupational pension schemesN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F29Ss. 4-4K and cross-headings substituted for s. 4 and preceding cross-heading (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 5(1)

4GOccupational pension schemes: non-discrimination ruleN.I.

(1)Every occupational pension scheme shall be taken to include a provision (“the non-discrimination rule”) containing the following requirements –

(a)a requirement that the trustees or managers of the scheme refrain from discriminating against a relevant disabled person in carrying out any of their functions in relation to the scheme (including in particular their functions relating to the admission of members to the scheme and the treatment of members of the scheme);

(b)a requirement that the trustees or managers of the scheme do not subject a relevant disabled person to harassment in relation to the scheme.

(2)The other provisions of the scheme are to have effect subject to the non-discrimination rule.

(3)It is unlawful for the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme –

(a)to discriminate against a relevant disabled person contrary to requirement (a) of the non-discrimination rule; or

(b)to subject a relevant disabled person to harassment contrary to requirement (b) of the non-discrimination rule.

(4)The non-discrimination rule does not apply in relation to rights accrued, or benefits payable, in respect of periods of service prior to the coming into operation of this section (but it does apply to communications with members or prospective members of the scheme in relation to such rights or benefits).

(5)The trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme may, if –

(a)they do not (apart from this subsection) have power to make such alterations to the scheme as may be required to secure conformity with the non-discrimination rule, or

(b)they have such power but the procedure for doing so –

(i)is liable to be unduly complex or protracted, or

(ii)involves the obtaining of consents which cannot be obtained, or can only be obtained with undue delay or difficulty,

by resolution make such alterations to the scheme.

(6)The alterations referred to in subsection (5) may have effect in relation to a period before the alterations are made (but may not have effect in relation to a period before the coming into operation of this section).

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Extent Information

E14This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4G exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

4HOccupational pension schemes: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice (including a scheme rule) applied by or on behalf of the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the trustees or managers,

places a relevant disabled person at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the trustees or managers to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for them to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)The making of alterations to scheme rules is (in addition to the examples set out in section 18B(2)) an example of a step which trustees or managers may have to take in order to comply with the duty set out in subsection (1).

(3)Nothing in subsection (1) imposes any duty on trustees or managers in relation to a disabled person if they do not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)that the disabled person is a relevant disabled person; or

(b)that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E15This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4H exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

4IOccupational pension schemes: procedureN.I.

(1)Where under section 17A a relevant disabled person presents a complaint to an industrial tribunal that the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme have acted in relation to him in a way which is unlawful under this Part, the employer in relation to that scheme shall, for the purposes of the rules governing procedure, be treated as a party and be entitled to appear and be heard in accordance with those rules.

(2)In this section, “employer”, in relation to an occupational pension scheme, has the meaning given by Article 121(1) of the Pensions (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 F30 as at the date of coming into operation of this section.

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Extent Information

E16This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4I exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

4JOccupational pension schemes: remediesN.I.

(1)This section applies where –

(a)under section 17A a relevant disabled person presents to an industrial tribunal a complaint that –

(i)the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme have acted in relation to him in a way which is unlawful under this Part; or

(ii)an employer has so acted in relation to him;

(b)the complaint relates to –

(i)the terms on which persons become members of an occupational pension scheme, or

(ii)the terms on which members of the scheme are treated;

(c)the disabled person is not a pensioner member of the scheme; and

(d)the tribunal finds that the complaint is well-founded.

(2)The tribunal may, without prejudice to the generality of its power under section 17A(2)(a), make a declaration that the complainant has a right –

(a)(where subsection (1)(b)(i) applies) to be admitted to the scheme in question; or

(b)(where subsection (1)(b)(ii) applies) to membership of the scheme without discrimination.

(3)A declaration under subsection (2) –

(a)may be made in respect of such period as the declaration may specify (but may not be made in respect of any period before the coming into operation of this section);

(b)may make such provision as the tribunal considers appropriate as to the terms upon which, or the capacity in which, the disabled person is to enjoy such admission or membership.

(4)The tribunal may not award the disabled person any compensation under section 17A(2)(b) (whether in relation to arrears of benefits or otherwise) other than –

(a)compensation for injury to feelings;

(b)compensation pursuant to section 17A(5).

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Extent Information

E17This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4J exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

4KOccupational pension schemes: supplementaryN.I.

(1)In their application to communications, sections 4G to 4J apply in relation to a disabled person who is –

(a)entitled to the present payment of dependants' or survivors' benefits under an occupational pension scheme; or

(b)a pension credit member of such a scheme,

as they apply in relation to a disabled person who is a pensioner member of the scheme.

(2)In sections 4G to 4J and in this section –

  • active member”, “deferred member”, “managers"“, “pension credit member”, “pensioner member” and “trustees or managers” have the meanings given by Article 121(1) of the Pensions (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 as at the date of coming into operation of this section;

  • communications” includes –

    (i)

    the provision of information, and

    (ii)

    the operation of a dispute resolution procedure;

  • member”, in relation to an occupational pension scheme, means any active, deferred or pensioner member;

  • non-discrimination rule” means the rule in section 4G(1);

  • relevant disabled person”, in relation to an occupational pension scheme, means a disabled person who is a member or prospective member of the scheme; and

  • prospective member” means any person who, under the terms of his contract of employment or the scheme rules or both –

    (i)

    is able, at his own option, to become a member of the scheme,

    (ii)

    will become so able if he continues in the same employment for a sufficiently long period,

    (iii)

    will be admitted to it automatically unless he makes an election not to become a member, or

    (iv)

    may be admitted to it subject to the consent of his employer.]

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Extent Information

E18This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 4K exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

[F31Occupational pension schemesE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F31Ss. 4G-4K and cross-heading inserted (E.W.S.) (1.12.2003 for certain purposes, otherwise 1.10.2004) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Pensions) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/2770), regs. 1(2)(3){3}

4GOccupational pension schemes: non-discrimination ruleE+W+S

(1)Every occupational pension scheme shall be taken to include a provision (“the non- discrimination rule”) containing the following requirements—

(a)a requirement that the trustees or managers of the scheme refrain from discriminating against a relevant disabled person in carrying out any of their functions in relation to the scheme (including in particular their functions relating to the admission of members to the scheme and the treatment of members of the scheme);

(b)a requirement that the trustees or managers of the scheme do not subject a relevant disabled person to harassment in relation to the scheme.

(2)The other provisions of the scheme are to have effect subject to the non- discrimination rule.

(3)It is unlawful for the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme—

(a)to discriminate against a relevant disabled person contrary to requirement (a) of the non-discrimination rule; or

(b)to subject a relevant disabled person to harassment contrary to requirement (b) of the non-discrimination rule.

(4)The non-discrimination rule does not apply in relation to rights accrued, or benefits payable, in respect of periods of service prior to the coming into force of this section (but it does apply to communications with members or prospective members of the scheme in relation to such rights or benefits).

(5)The trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme may, if—

(a)they do not (apart from this subsection) have power to make such alterations to the scheme as may be required to secure conformity with the non-discrimination rule, or

(b)they have such power but the procedure for doing so—

(i)is liable to be unduly complex or protracted, or

(ii)involves the obtaining of consents which cannot be obtained, or can only be obtained with undue delay or difficulty,

by resolution make such alterations to the scheme.

(6)The alterations referred to in subsection (5) may have effect in relation to a period before the alterations are made (but may not have effect in relation to a period before the coming into force of this section).

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Extent Information

E19This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4G exists for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

4H Occupational pension schemes: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice (including a scheme rule) applied by or onbehalf of the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the trustees or managers,

places a relevant disabled person at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the trustees or managers to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for them to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)The making of alterations to scheme rules is (in addition to the examples set out in section 18B(2)) an example of a step which trustees or managers may have to take in order to comply with the duty set out in subsection (1).

(3)Nothing in subsection (1) imposes any duty on trustees or managers in relation to a disabled person if they do not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)that the disabled person is a relevant disabled person; or

(b)that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E20This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4H exists for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

4I Occupational pension schemes: procedureE+W+S

(1)Where under section 17A F32 a relevant disabled person presents a complaint to an employment tribunal that the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme have acted in relation to him in a way which is unlawful under this Part, the employer in relation to that scheme shall, for the purposes of the rules governing procedure, be treated as a party and be entitled to appear and be heard in accordance with those rules.

(2)In this section, “employer”, in relation to an occupational pension scheme, has the meaning given by section 124(1) of the Pensions Act 1995 F33 as at the date of coming into force of this section.

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Extent Information

E21This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4I exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F32The former section 8 of the 1995 Act, moved, renumbered and amended by regulation 9 of the Amendment Regulations.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

4J Occupational pension schemes: remediesE+W+S

(1)This section applies where—

(a)under section 17A a relevant disabled person presents to an employment tribunal a complaint that—

(i)the trustees or managers of an occupational pension scheme have acted in relation to him in a way which is unlawful under this Part; or

(ii)an employer has so acted in relation to him;

(b)the complaint relates to—

(i)the terms on which persons become members of an occupational pension scheme, or

(ii)the terms on which members of the scheme are treated;

(c)the disabled person is not a pensioner member of the scheme; and

(d)the tribunal finds that the complaint is well-founded.

(2)The tribunal may, without prejudice to the generality of its power under section 17A(2)(a), make a declaration that the complainant has a right—

(a)(where subsection (1)(b)(i) applies) to be admitted to the scheme in question; or

(b)(where subsection (1)(b)(ii) applies) to membership of the scheme without discrimination.

(3)A declaration under subsection (2)—

(a)may be made in respect of such period as the declaration may specify (but may not be made in respect of any period before the coming into force of this section);

(b)may make such provision as the tribunal considers appropriate as to the terms upon which, or the capacity in which, the disabled person is to enjoy such admission or membership.

(4)The tribunal may not award the disabled person any compensation under section 17A(2)(b) (whether in relation to arrears of benefits or otherwise) other than—

(a)compensation for injury to feelings;

(b)compensation pursuant to section 17A(5).

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Extent Information

E22This version of this provision extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate version has been created for Northern Ireland only.

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

4K Occupational pension schemes: supplementaryE+W+S

(1)In their application to communications, sections 4G to 4J apply in relation to a disabled person who is—

(a)entitled to the present payment of dependants' or survivors' benefits under an occupational pension scheme; or

(b)a pension credit member of such a scheme,

as they apply in relation to a disabled person who is a pensioner member of the scheme.

(2)In sections 4G to 4J and in this section—

  • active member”, “deferred member”, “managers”, “pension credit member”, “pensioner member” and “trustees or managers” have the meanings given by section 124(1) of the Pensions Act 1995 F34 as at the date of coming into force of this section;

  • communications” includes—

    (i)

    the provision of information, and

    (ii)

    the operation of a dispute resolution procedure;

  • member”, in relation to an occupational pension scheme, means any active, deferred or pensioner member;

  • non-discrimination rule” means the rule in section 4G(1);

  • relevant disabled person”, in relation to an occupational pension scheme, means a disabled person who is a member or prospective member of the scheme; and

  • prospective member” means any person who, under the terms of his contract of employment or the scheme rules or both—

    (i)

    is able, at his own option, to become a member of the scheme,

    (ii)

    will become so able if he continues in the same employment for a sufficiently long period,

    (iii)

    will be admitted to it automatically unless he makes an election not to become a member, or

    (iv)

    may be admitted to it subject to the consent of his employer.]

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Extent Information

E23This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 4K exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F35PartnershipsE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F35Ss. 6A-6C and cross-heading inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003

(S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), {6}

6APartnerships: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a firm, in relation to a position as partner in the firm, to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which they make for the purpose of determining who should be offered that position;

(b)in the terms on which they offer him that position;

(c)by refusing or deliberately omitting to offer him that position; or

(d)in a case where the person already holds that position—

(i)in the way they afford him access to any benefits or by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him access to them; or

(ii)by expelling him from that position, or subjecting him to any other detriment.

(2)It is also unlawful for a firm, in relation to a position as partner in the firm, to subject to harassment a disabled person who holds or has applied for that position.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply to benefits of any description if the firm are concerned with the provision (whether or not for payment) of benefits of that description to the public, or to a section of the public which includes the partner in question, unless that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits to other partners.

(4)The reference in subsection (1)(d)(ii) to the expulsion of a person from a position as partner includes a reference—

(a)to the termination of that person’s partnership by the expiration of any period (including a period expiring by reference to an event or circumstance), not being a termination immediately after which the partnership is renewed on the same terms; and

(b)to the termination of that person’s partnership by any act of his (including the giving of notice) in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate it without notice by reason of the conduct of the other partners.

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Extent Information

E24This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 6A exists for Northern Ireland only.

6BPartnerships: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a firm, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the firm,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the firm to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for them to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom the position of partner should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the firm that he may be, a candidate for that position;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)a partner, or

(ii)a candidate for the position of partner.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on a firm in relation to a disabled person if the firm do not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of a candidate or potential candidate, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, a candidate for the position of partner; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

(4)Where a firm are required by this section to take any steps in relation to the disabled person concerned, the cost of taking those steps shall be treated as an expense of the firm; and the extent to which such cost should be borne by that person, where he is or becomes a partner in the firm, shall not exceed such amount as is reasonable, having regard in particular to the proportion in which he is entitled to share in the firm’s profits.

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Extent Information

E25This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 6B exists for Northern Ireland only.

6CPartnerships: supplementaryE+W+S

(1)Sections 6A(1)(a) to (c) and (2) and section 6B apply in relation to persons proposing to form themselves into a partnership as they apply in relation to a firm.

(2)Sections 6A and 6B apply to a limited liability partnership as they apply to a firm; and, in the application of those sections to a limited liability partnership, references to a partner in a firm are references to a member of the limited liability partnership.

(3)In the case of a limited partnership, references in sections 6A and 6B to a partner shall be construed as references to a general partner as defined in section 3 of the Limited Partnerships Act 1907 F36.

(4)In sections 6A and 6B and in this section, “firm” has the meaning given by section 4 of the Partnership Act 1890 F37.]

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Extent Information

E26This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 6C exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

[F38PartnershipsN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F38Ss. 6A-6C and cross-heading inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 6

6APartnerships: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a firm, in relation to a position as partner in the firm, to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which they make for the purpose of determining who should be offered that position;

(b)in the terms on which they offer him that position;

(c)by refusing or deliberately omitting to offer him that position; or

(d)in a case where the person already holds that position –

(i)in the way they afford him access to any benefits or by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him access to them; or

(ii)by expelling him from that position, or subjecting him to any other detriment.

(2)It is also unlawful for a firm, in relation to a position as partner in the firm, to subject to harassment a disabled person who holds or has applied for that position.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply to benefits of any description if the firm are concerned with the provision (whether or not for payment) of benefits of that description to the public, or to a section of the public which includes the partner in question, unless that provision differs in a material respect from the provision of the benefits to other partners.

(4)The reference in subsection (1)(d)(ii) to the expulsion of a person from a position as partner includes a reference –

(a)to the termination of that person’s partnership by the expiration of any period (including a period expiring by reference to an event or circumstance), not being a termination immediately after which the partnership is renewed on the same terms; and

(b)to the termination of that person’s partnership by any act of his (including the giving of notice) in circumstances such that he is entitled to terminate it without notice by reason of the conduct of the other partners.

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Extent Information

E27This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 6A exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

6BPartnerships: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a firm, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the firm,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the firm to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for them to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom the position of partner should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the firm that he may be, a candidate for that position;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is –

(i)a partner, or

(ii)a candidate for the position of partner.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on a firm in relation to a disabled person if the firm do not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of a candidate or potential candidate, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, a candidate for the position of partner; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

(4)Where a firm are required by this section to take any steps in relation to the disabled person concerned, the cost of taking those steps shall be treated as an expense of the firm; and the extent to which such cost should be borne by that person, where he is or becomes a partner in the firm, shall not exceed such amount as is reasonable, having regard in particular to the proportion in which he is entitled to share in the firm’s profits.

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Extent Information

E28This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 6B exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

6CPartnerships: supplementaryN.I.

(1)Sections 6A(1)(a) to (c) and (2) and section 6B apply in relation to persons proposing to form themselves into a partnership as they apply in relation to a firm.

(2)Sections 6A and 6B apply to a limited liability partnership as they apply to a firm; and, in the application of those sections to a limited liability partnership, references to a partner in a firm are references to a member of the limited liability partnership.

(3)In the case of a limited partnership, references in sections 6A and 6B to a partner shall be construed as references to a general partner as defined in section 3 of the Limited Partnerships Act 1907 F39.

(4)In sections 6A and 6B and in this section, “firm” has the meaning given by section 4 of the Partnership Act 1890 F40.]

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Extent Information

E29This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 6C exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

[F41Barristers and advocatesE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F41Ss. 7A-7D and cross-heading inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003

(S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), {8}

7ABarristers: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a barrister or a barrister’s clerk, in relation to any offer of a pupillage or tenancy, to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which are made for the purpose of determining to whom it should be offered;

(b)in respect of any terms on which it is offered; or

(c)by refusing, or deliberately omitting, to offer it to him.

(2)It is unlawful for a barrister or a barrister’s clerk, in relation to a disabled pupil or tenant in the set of chambers in question, to discriminate against him—

(a)in respect of any terms applicable to him as a pupil or tenant;

(b)in the opportunities for training, or gaining experience, which are afforded or denied to him;

(c)in the benefits which are afforded or denied to him;

(d)by terminating his pupillage or by subjecting him to any pressure to leave the chambers; or

(e)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is unlawful for a barrister or barrister’s clerk, in relation to a pupillage or tenancy, to subject to harassment a disabled person who is, or has applied to be, a pupil or tenant in the set of chambers in question.

(4)It is also unlawful for any person, in relation to the giving, withholding or acceptance of instructions to a barrister, to discriminate against a disabled person or to subject him to harassment.

(5)In this section and in section 7B—

  • barrister’s clerk” includes any person carrying out any of the functions of a barrister’s clerk;

  • pupil”, “pupillage” and “set of chambers” have the meanings commonly associated with their use in the context of barristers practising in independent practice; and

  • tenancy” and “tenant” have the meanings commonly associated with their use in the context of barristers practising in independent practice, but they also include reference to any barrister permitted to practise from a set of chambers.

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Extent Information

E30This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 7A exists for Northern Ireland only.

7BBarristers: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a barrister or barrister’s clerk, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by a barrister or a barrister’s clerk,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the barrister or barrister’s clerk to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In a case where subsection (1) applies in relation to two or more barristers in a set of chambers, the duty in that subsection is a duty on each of them to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all of the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take.

(3)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom a pupillage or tenancy should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the barrister or the barrister’s clerk concerned that he may be, an applicant for a pupillage or tenancy;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)a tenant;

(ii)a pupil; or

(iii)an applicant for a pupillage or tenancy.

(4)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on a barrister or a barrister’s clerk in relation to a disabled person if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for a pupillage or tenancy; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E31This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 7B exists for Northern Ireland only.

7CAdvocates: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for an advocate, in relation to taking any person as his pupil, to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining whom he will take as his pupil;

(b)in respect of any terms on which he offers to take the disabled person as his pupil; or

(c)by refusing, or deliberately omitting, to take the disabled person as his pupil.

(2)It is unlawful for an advocate, in relation to a disabled person who is a pupil, to discriminate against him—

(a)in respect of any terms applicable to him as a pupil;

(b)in the opportunities for training, or gaining experience, which are afforded or denied to him;

(c)in the benefits which are afforded or denied to him;

(d)by terminating the relationship or by subjecting him to any pressure to leave; or

(e)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is unlawful for an advocate, in relation to taking any person as his pupil, to subject to harassment a disabled person who is, or has applied to be taken as, his pupil.

(4)It is also unlawful for any person, in relation to the giving, withholding or acceptance of instructions to an advocate, to discriminate against a disabled person or to subject him to harassment.

(5)In this section and section 7D—

  • advocate” means a member of the Faculty of Advocates practising as such; and

  • pupil” has the meaning commonly associated with its use in the context of a person training to be an advocate.

7DAdvocates: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of an advocate, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by, and under the control of, an advocate,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the advocate to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining whom he will take as his pupil, any disabled person who has applied, or has notified the advocate that he may apply, to be taken as a pupil;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)an applicant to be taken as the advocate’s pupil, or

(ii)a pupil.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on an advocate in relation to a disabled person if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, applying to be taken as his pupil; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).]

[F42BarristersN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F42Ss. 7A, 7B and cross-heading inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 8

7ABarristers: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a barrister, in relation to taking any person as his pupil, to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining whom he will take as his pupil;

(b)in respect of any terms on which he offers to take the disabled person as his pupil; or

(c)by refusing, or deliberately omitting, to take the disabled person as his pupil.

(2)It is unlawful for a barrister, in relation to a disabled person who is a pupil, to discriminate against him –

(a)in respect of any terms applicable to him as a pupil;

(b)in the opportunities for training, or gaining experience, which are afforded or denied to him;

(c)in the benefits which are afforded or denied to him;

(d)by terminating the relationship or by subjecting him to any pressure to leave; or

(e)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is unlawful for a barrister, in relation to taking any person as his pupil, to subject to harassment a disabled person who is, or has applied to be taken as, his pupil.

(4)It is also unlawful for any person, in relation to the giving, withholding or acceptance of instructions to a barrister, to discriminate against a disabled person or to subject him to harassment.

(5)In this section and section 7B “pupil” has the meaning commonly associated with its use in the context of a person training as a barrister.

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Extent Information

E32This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 7A exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

7BBarristers: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a barrister, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by, and under the control of, a barrister,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the barrister to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining whom he will take as his pupil, any disabled person who has applied, or has notified the barrister that he may apply, to be taken as a pupil;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is –

(i)an applicant to be taken as the barrister’s pupil, or

(ii)a pupil.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on a barrister in relation to a disabled person if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, applying to be taken as his pupil; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).]

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Extent Information

E33This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 7B exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

X1 Enforcement etc.E+W+S+N.I.

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Editorial Information

X1Cross-heading "Enforcement etc." preceding s. 8 moved (to follow s. 17) (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and otherwise 1.10.2004) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 9 and said cross-heading moved (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3) , {9}

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X48 Enforcement, remedies and procedure.E+W+S

(1)A complaint by any person that another person—

(a)has discriminated against him in a way which is unlawful under this Part, or

(b)is, by virtue of section 57 or 58, to be treated as having discriminated against him in such a way,

may be presented to an [F117employment tribunal].

(2)Where an [F117employment tribunal] finds that a complaint presented to it under this section is well-founded, it shall take such of the following steps as it considers just and equitable—

(a)making a declaration as to the rights of the complainant and the respondent in relation to the matters to which the complaint relates;

(b)ordering the respondent to pay compensation to the complainant;

(c)recommending that the respondent take, within a specified period, action appearing to the tribunal to be reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for the purpose of obviating or reducing the adverse effect on the complainant of any matter to which the complaint relates.

(3)Where a tribunal orders compensation under subsection (2)(b), the amount of the compensation shall be calculated by applying the principles applicable to the calculation of damages in claims in tort or (in Scotland) in reparation for breach of statutory duty.

(4)For the avoidance of doubt it is hereby declared that compensation in respect of discrimination in a way which is unlawful under this Part may include compensation for injury to feelings whether or not it includes compensation under any other head.

(5)If the respondent to a complaint fails, without reasonable justification, to comply with a recommendation made by an [F117employment tribunal] under subsection (2)(c) the tribunal may, if it thinks it just and equitable to do so—

(a)increase the amount of compensation required to be paid to the complainant in respect of the complaint, where an order was made under subsection (2)(b); or

(b)make an order under subsection (2)(b).

(6)Regulations may make provision—

(a)for enabling a tribunal, where an amount of compensation falls to be awarded under subsection (2)(b), to include in the award interest on that amount; and

(b)specifying, for cases where a tribunal decides that an award is to include an amount in respect of interest, the manner in which and the periods and rate by reference to which the interest is to be determined.

(7)Regulations may modify the operation of any order made under [F118section 14 of [F119the Employment Tribunals Act 1996]] (power to make provision as to interest on sums payable in pursuance of [F117employment tribunal] decisions) to the extent that it relates to an award of compensation under subsection (2)(b).

(8)Part I of Schedule 3 makes further provision about the enforcement of this Part and about procedure.

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Editorial Information

X4The moving of the cross-heading preceding s. 8 and the renumbering of s. 8 (as s. 17A) which began on 3.7.2003 for E.W.S. gives rise to a change in the structure of this legislation on legislation.gov.uk which breaks the continuity of historical versions of s. 8.

Extent Information

E52This version of this provision extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate version has been created for Northern Ireland only

Amendments (Textual)

F117Words in s. 8(1)(b)(2)(5)(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F118Words in s. 8(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (28.8.1996) by 1996 c. 17, ss. 43, 46, Sch. 1 para. 12(1)(2) (with s. 38)

F119Words in s. 8(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(c) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

Commencement Information

I6S. 8 wholly in force at 2.12.1996; s. 8 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 70(3); s. 8(6)(7) in force at 6.6.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. I; s. 8(1)-(5)(8) in force at 2.12.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. III

9 Validity of certain agreements.E+W+S+N.I.

F43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F43S. 9 omitted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and otherwise 1.10.2004 ) by virtue of The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 10 and s. 9 repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 10

10 F44 Charities and support for particular groups of persons.E+W+S+N.I.

F45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F44S. 10 moved and renumbered (as s. 18C) (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), arts. 1(2)(3), 11

11 Advertisements suggesting that employers will discriminate against disabled personsE+W+S+N.I.

F46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F46S. 11 omitted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 12 and s. 11 repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 11

Discrimination by other personsE+W+S+N.I.

12 Discrimination against contract workers.E+W+S+N.I.

F47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F47S. 12 omitted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 insofar as not yet in force) by virtue of The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1, {12} and said section repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 insofar as not yet in force) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1, {12}

15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X515 Appeal against refusal of exemption certificate.N.I.

(1)Where—

(a)any arrangements made by or on behalf of a trade organisation, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the organisation,

place the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the organisation to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the arrangements or feature having that effect.

(2)Subsection (1)(a) applies only in relation to—

(a)arrangements for determining who should become or remain a member of the organisation;

(b)any term, condition or arrangements on which membership or any benefit is offered or afforded.

(3)In determining whether it is reasonable for a trade organisation to have to take a particular step in order to comply with subsection (1), regard shall be had, in particular, to—

(a)the extent to which taking the step would prevent the effect in question;

(b)the extent to which it is practicable for the organisation to take the step;

(c)the financial and other costs which would be incurred by the organisation in taking the step and the extent to which taking it would disrupt any of its activities;

(d)the extent of the organisation’s financial and other resources;

(e)the availability to the organisation of financial or other assistance with respect to taking the step.

This subsection is subject to any provision of regulations made under subsection (7).

(4)In this section “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of arrangements for determining to whom membership should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the organisation that he may be, an applicant for membership;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)an applicant for membership; or

(ii)a member of the organisation.

(5)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on an organisation in relation to a disabled person if the organisation does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know that the disabled person concerned—

(a)is, or may be, an applicant for membership; or

(b)has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

(6)Subject to the provisions of this section, nothing in this Part is to be taken to require a trade organisation to treat a disabled person more favourably than it treats or would treat others.

(7)Regulations may make provision for the purposes of subsection (1) as to any of the matters mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (h) of section 6(8) (the references in those paragraphs to an employer being read for these purposes as references to a trade organisation).

(8)Subsection (9) of section 6 applies in relation to such regulations as it applies in relation to regulations made under section 6(8).

(9)Regulations may make provision adding to the duty imposed on trade organisations by this section, including provision of a kind which may be made under subsection (7).

(10)This section imposes duties only for the purpose of determining whether a trade organisation has discriminated against a disabled person; and accordingly a breach of any such duty is not actionable as such.

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Editorial Information

X5Ss. 13-14D and cross-headings substituted (3.7.2003 for certain purposes for E.W.S. and 21.2.2004 for certain purposes for N.I. and 1.10.2004 otherwise) for ss. 13-15 by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), arts. 1(2)(3), 13; The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 13

Commencement Information

I2S. 15 partly in force; s. 15 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 70(3); s. 15(1)(a)(2)-(10) in force (E.W.S.) at 1.10.1999 by S.I. 1999/1190, art. 5(b); s. 15(1)(a)(2)-(10) in force (N.I.) at 1.10.1999 by S.R. 1999/196, art. 4(b)

[F48Trade and professional bodiesE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F48Ss. 13-14D and cross-headings substituted for ss. 13-15 (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 13

13Trade organisations: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a trade organisation to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which it makes for the purpose of determining who should be offered membership of the organisation;

(b)in the terms on which it is prepared to admit him to membership of the organisation; or

(c)by refusing to accept, or deliberately not accepting, his application for membership.

(2)It is unlawful for a trade organisation, in the case of a disabled person who is a member of the organisation, to discriminate against him—

(a)in the way it affords him access to any benefits or by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him access to them;

(b)by depriving him of membership, or varying the terms on which he is a member; or

(c)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is also unlawful for a trade organisation, in relation to membership of that organisation, to subject to harassment a disabled person who—

(a)is a member of the organisation; or

(b)has applied for membership of the organisation.

(4)In this section and section 14 “trade organisation” means—

(a)an organisation of workers;

(b)an organisation of employers; or

(c)any other organisation whose members carry on a particular profession or trade for the purposes of which the organisation exists.

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Extent Information

E35This version of this provision extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate version has been created for Northern Ireland only.

14Trade organisations: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a trade organisation, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the organisation,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the organisation to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom membership should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the organisation that he may be, an applicant for membership;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)a member of the organisation, or

(ii)an applicant for membership of the organisation.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on an organisation in relation to a disabled person if the organisation does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for membership of the organisation; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

14AQualifications bodies: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a qualifications body to discriminate against a disabled person—

(a)in the arrangements which it makes for the purpose of determining upon whom to confer a professional or trade qualification;

(b)in the terms on which it is prepared to confer a professional or trade qualification on him;

(c)by refusing or deliberately omitting to grant any application by him for such a qualification; or

(d)by withdrawing such a qualification from him or varying the terms on which he holds it.

(2)It is also unlawful for a qualifications body, in relation to a professional or trade qualification conferred by it, to subject to harassment a disabled person who holds or applies for such a qualification.

(3)In determining for the purposes of subsection (1) whether the application by a qualifications body of a competence standard to a disabled person constitutes discrimination within the meaning of section 3A, the application of the standard is justified for the purposes of section 3A(1)(b) if, but only if, the qualifications body can show that—

(a)the standard is, or would be, applied equally to persons who do not have his particular disability; and

(b)its application is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3)—

(a)section 3A(2) (and (6)) does not apply; and

(b)section 3A(4) has effect as if the reference to section 3A(3) were a reference to subsection (3) of this section.

(5)In this section and section 14B—

  • qualifications body” means any authority or body which can confer a professional or trade qualification, but it does not include—

    (a)

    a responsible body (within the meaning of Chapter 1 or 2 of Part 4),

    (b)

    a local education authority in England or Wales, or

    (c)

    an education authority (within the meaning of section 135(1) of the Education (Scotland) Act 1980);

  • confer” includes renew or extend;

  • professional or trade qualification” means an authorisation, qualification, recognition, registration, enrolment, approval or certification which is needed for, or facilitates engagement in, a particular profession or trade;

  • competence standard” means an academic, medical or other standard applied by or on behalf of a qualifications body for the purpose of determining whether or not a person has a particular level of competence or ability.

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Extent Information

E36This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 14A exists for Northern Ireland only.

14BQualifications bodies: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice, other than a competence standard, applied by or on behalf of a qualifications body; or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by a qualifications body,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the qualifications body to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining on whom a professional or trade qualification is to be conferred, any disabled person who is, or has notified the qualifications body that he may be, an applicant for the conferment of that qualification;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who—

(i)holds a professional or trade qualification conferred by the qualifications body, or

(ii)applies for a professional or trade qualification which it confers.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes a duty on a qualifications body in relation to a disabled person if the body does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for the conferment of a professional or trade qualification; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E37This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 14B exists for Northern Ireland only.

Practical work experienceE+W+S

14CPractical work experience: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful, in the case of a disabled person seeking or undertaking a work placement, for a placement provider to discriminate against him—

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining who should be offered a work placement;

(b)in the terms on which he affords him access to any work placement or any facilities concerned with such a placement;

(c)by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him such access;

(d)by terminating the placement; or

(e)by subjecting him to any other detriment in relation to the placement.

(2)It is also unlawful for a placement provider, in relation to a work placement, to subject to harassment—

(a)a disabled person to whom he is providing a placement; or

(b)a disabled person who has applied to him for a placement.

[F49(3)This section and section 14D do not apply—

(a)to anything which is unlawful under any provision of section 4, sections 19 to 21A, sections 21F to 21J or Part 4; or

(b)to anything which would be unlawful under any such provision but for the operation of any provision in or made under this Act.]

(4)In this section and section 14D—

  • work placement” means practical work experience undertaken for a limited period for the purposes of a person’s vocational training;

  • placement provider” means any person who provides a work placement to a person whom he does not employ.

(5)This section and section 14D do not apply to a work placement undertaken in any of the naval, military and air forces of the Crown.

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Extent Information

E38This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 14C exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

14DPractical work experience: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a placement provider, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the placement provider,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the placement provider to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means—

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom a work placement should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the placement provider that he may be, an applicant for that work placement;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is—

(i)an applicant for the work placement concerned, or

(ii)undertaking a work placement with the placement provider.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on a placement provider in relation to the disabled person concerned if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know—

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for the work placement; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).]

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Extent Information

E39This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 14D exists for Northern Ireland only.

[F50Trade and professional bodiesN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F50Ss. 13-14D and cross-headings substituted for ss. 13-15 (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.I. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 13

13Trade organisations: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a trade organisation to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which it makes for the purpose of determining who should be offered membership of the organisation;

(b)in the terms on which it is prepared to admit him to membership of the organisation; or

(c)by refusing to accept, or deliberately not accepting, his application for membership.

(2)It is unlawful for a trade organisation, in the case of a disabled person who is a member of the organisation, to discriminate against him –

(a)in the way it affords him access to any benefits or by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him access to them;

(b)by depriving him of membership, or varying the terms on which he is a member; or

(c)by subjecting him to any other detriment.

(3)It is also unlawful for a trade organisation, in relation to membership of that organisation, to subject to harassment a disabled person who –

(a)is a member of the organisation; or

(b)has applied for membership of the organisation.

(4)In this section and section 14 “trade organisation” means –

(a)an organisation of workers;

(b)an organisation of employers; or

(c)any other organisation whose members carry on a particular profession or trade for the purposes of which the organisation exists.

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E40This version of this provision extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate version has been created for England and Wales and Scotland only.

14Trade organisations: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a trade organisation, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the organisation,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the organisation to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom membership should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the organisation that he may be, an applicant for membership;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is –

(i)a member of the organisation; or

(ii)an applicant for membership of the organisation.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on an organisation in relation to a disabled person if the organisation does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for membership of the organisation; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E41This version of this provision extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate version has been created for England and Wales and Scotland only.

14AQualifications bodies: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a qualifications body to discriminate against a disabled person –

(a)in the arrangements which it makes for the purpose of determining upon whom to confer a professional or trade qualification;

(b)in the terms on which it is prepared to confer a professional or trade qualification on him;

(c)by refusing or deliberately omitting to grant any application by him for such a qualification; or

(d)by withdrawing such a qualification from him or varying the terms on which he holds it.

(2)It is also unlawful for a qualifications body, in relation to a professional or trade qualification conferred by it, to subject to harassment a disabled person who holds or applies for such a qualification.

(3)In determining for the purposes of subsection (1) whether the application by a qualifications body of a competence standard to a disabled person constitutes discrimination within the meaning of section 3A, the application of the standard is justified for the purposes of section 3A(1)(b) if, but only if, the qualifications body can show that –

(a)the standard is, or would be, applied equally to persons who do not have his particular disability; and

(b)its application is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.

(4)For the purposes of subsection (3) –

(a)section 3A(2) (and (6)) does not apply; and

(b)section 3A(4) has effect as if the reference to section 3A(3) were a reference to subsection (3) of this section.

(5)In this section and section 14B –

  • qualifications body” means any authority or body which can confer a professional or trade qualification, but it does not include –

    (a)

    a board;

    (b)

    the Board of Governors of a grant-aided school;

    (c)

    the proprietor of an independent school;

    (d)

    the Council for Catholic Maintained Schools;

    (e)

    the governing body of a university;

    (f)

    the governing body of an instutution of further education;

    (g)

    the managers of a college of education;

    (h)

    the governing body of the College of Agriculture, Food and Rural Enterprise;

  • confer” includes renew or extend;

  • professional or trade qualification” means an authorisation, qualification, recognition, registration, enrolment, approval or certification which is needed for, or facilitates engagement in, a particular profession or trade;

  • competence standard” means an academic, medical or other standard applied by or on behalf of a qualifications body for the purpose of determining whether or not a person has a particular level of competence or ability.

(6)Words and expressions used in the definition of “qualifications body”in subsection (5) to which a meaning is assigned by Article 2(2) of the Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 F51 have the same meaning as in that Order.

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Extent Information

E42This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 14A exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F51Relevant amending Orders are S.I. 1989/2406 (N.I. 20), S.I. 1993/2810 (N.I. 12), S.I. 1996/274 (N.I. 1) and S.I. 1997/1772 (N.I. 15)

14BQualifications bodies: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice, other than a competence standard, applied by or on behalf of a qualifications body; or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by a qualifications body,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the qualifications body to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining on whom a professional or trade qualification is to be conferred, any disabled person who is, or has notified the qualifications body that he may be, an applicant for the conferment of that qualification;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who –

(i)holds a professional or trade qualification conferred by the qualifications body, or

(ii)applies for a professional or trade qualification which it confers.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes a duty on a qualifications body in relation to a disabled person if the body does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for the conferment of a professional or trade qualification; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

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Extent Information

E43This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 14B exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Practical work experienceN.I.

14CPractical work experience: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful, in the case of a disabled person seeking or undertaking a work placement, for a placement provider to discriminate against him –

(a)in the arrangements which he makes for the purpose of determining who should be offered a work placement;

(b)in the terms on which he affords him access to any work placement or any facilities concerned with such a placement;

(c)by refusing or deliberately omitting to afford him such access;

(d)by terminating the placement; or

(e)by subjecting him to any other detriment in relation to the placement.

(2)It is also unlawful for a placement provider, in relation to a work placement, to subject to harassment –

(a)a disabled person to whom he is providing a placement; or

(b)a disabled person who has applied to him for a placement.

[F52(3)This section and section 14D do not apply—

(a)to anything which is unlawful under any provision of section 4, sections 19 to 21A, sections 21F to 21J or Part 4; or

(b)to anything which would be unlawful under any such provision but for the operation of any provision in or made under this Act.]

(4)In this section and section 14D –

  • work placement” means practical work experience undertaken for a limited period for the purposes of a person’s vocational training;

  • placement provider” means any person who provides a work placement to a person whom he does not employ.

(5)This section and section 14D do not apply to a work placement undertaken in any of the naval, military and air forces of the Crown.

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Extent Information

E44This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 14C exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F52S. 14C(3) substituted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), {Sch. 1 para. 6}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

14DPractical work experience: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a placement provider, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by the placement provider,

places the disabled person concerned at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, it is the duty of the placement provider to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(2)In this section, “the disabled person concerned” means –

(a)in the case of a provision, criterion or practice for determining to whom a work placement should be offered, any disabled person who is, or has notified the placement provider that he may be, an applicant for that work placement;

(b)in any other case, a disabled person who is –

(i)an applicant for the work placement concerned, or

(ii)undertaking a work placement with the placement provider.

(3)Nothing in this section imposes any duty on a placement provider in relation to the disabled person concerned if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know –

(a)in the case of an applicant or potential applicant, that the disabled person concerned is, or may be, an applicant for the work placement; or

(b)in any case, that that person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).]

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Extent Information

E45This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 14D exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

[F53Relationships between locally-electable authorities and their membersE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F53Ss. 15A-15C and cross-heading inserted (E.W.S.) (5.12. 2005 so far as the amending provision inserts s. 15A to the extent that it relates to s. 15B, and s. 15B, and 4.12.2006 so far as the amending provision is not already in force) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 1, 20(3)-(6); S.I. 2005/2774, arts. 3(a), 4(a)

15AInterpretation of sections 15B and 15CE+W+S

(1)Sections 15B and 15C apply to the following authorities—

(a)the Greater London Authority;

(b)a county council (in England or Wales);

(c)a county borough council (in Wales);

(d)a district council (in England);

(e)a London borough council;

(f)the Common Council of the City of London;

(g)the Council of the Isles of Scilly;

(h)a council constituted under section 2 of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994;

(i)a parish council (in England); and

(j)a community council (in Wales or Scotland).

(2)In relation to a member of an authority to which sections 15B and 15C apply, a reference in those sections to his carrying-out of official business is to his doing of anything—

(a)as member of the authority;

(b)as member of any body to which he is appointed by, or is appointed following nomination by, the authority or a group of bodies that includes the authority; or

(c)as member of any other body if it is a public body.

(3)In this section and sections 15B and 15C “member”, in relation to the Greater London Authority, means Mayor of London or member of the London Assembly.

15BAuthorities and their members: discrimination and harassmentE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for an authority to which this section applies to discriminate against a disabled person who is a member of the authority—

(a)in the opportunities which it affords the disabled person to receive training, or any other facility, for his carrying-out of official business;

(b)by refusing to afford, or deliberately not affording, the disabled person any such opportunities; or

(c)by subjecting the disabled person to any other detriment in connection with his carrying-out of official business.

(2)It is unlawful for an authority to which this section applies to subject a disabled person who is a member of the authority to harassment in connection with his carrying-out of official business.

(3)A member of an authority to which this section applies is not subjected to a detriment for the purposes of subsection (1)(c) by reason of—

(a)his not being appointed or elected to an office of the authority;

(b)his not being appointed or elected to, or to an office of, a committee or sub-committee of the authority; or

(c)his not being appointed or nominated in exercise of any power of the authority, or of a group of bodies that includes the authority, to appoint, or nominate for appointment, to any body.

(4)Regulations may make provision as to the circumstances in which treatment is to be taken to be justified, or is to be taken not to be justified, for the purposes of section 3A(1)(b) as it has effect for the interpretation of “discriminate” in subsection (1).

(5)Regulations under subsection (4) may (in particular) provide for section 3A(3) to apply with prescribed modifications, or not to apply, for those purposes; but treatment of a disabled person cannot be justified under subsection (4) if it amounts to direct discrimination falling within section 3A(5).

(6)If, in a case falling within section 3A(1) as it has effect for the interpretation of “discriminate” in subsection (1), an authority to which this section applies is under a duty imposed by section 15C in relation to a disabled person but fails to comply with that duty, its treatment of that person cannot be justified under subsection (4) unless it would have been justified even if it had complied with that duty.

15CAuthorities and their members: duty to make adjustmentsE+W+S

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of an authority to which this section applies, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by, or under the control of, such an authority,

places a disabled person who is a member of the authority at a substantial disadvantage, in comparison with members of the authority who are not disabled persons, in connection with his carrying-out of official business.

(2)It is the duty of the authority to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(3)Subsection (2) does not impose any duty on an authority to which this section applies in relation to a member of the authority who is a disabled person if the authority does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know, that the member—

(a)has a disability; and

(b)is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

(4)Regulations may make provision, for purposes of this section—

(a)as to circumstances in which a provision, criterion or practice, or physical feature, is to be taken to have the effect mentioned in subsection (1);

(b)as to circumstances in which a provision, criterion or practice, or physical feature, is to be taken not to have the effect mentioned in subsection (1);

(c)as to circumstances in which it is, or as to circumstances in which it is not, reasonable for an authority to have to take steps of a prescribed description;

(d)as to steps which it is always, or as to steps which it is never, reasonable for an authority to have to take;

(e)as to things which are, or as to things which are not, to be treated as physical features.]

[F54Relationships between district councils and their membersN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F54Ss. 15A-15C and cross-heading inserted (N.I.) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 2006 (S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1), ss. 1(2), 3; S.R. 2007/466, art. {2(2)(a)}

15AInterpretation of sections 15B and 15CN.I.

(1)In sections 15B and 15C “council” means a district council.

(2)In relation to a member of a council, a reference in those sections to his carrying-out of official business is to his doing of anything—

(a)as member of the council;

(b)as member of any body to which he is appointed by, or is appointed following nomination by, the council or a group of bodies that includes the council; or

(c)as member of any other body if it is a public body.

15BCouncils and their members: discrimination and harassmentN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a council to discriminate against a disabled person who is a member of the council—

(a)in the opportunities which it affords the disabled person to receive training, or any other facility, for his carrying-out of official business;

(b)by refusing to afford, or deliberately not affording, the disabled person any such opportunities; or

(c)by subjecting the disabled person to any other detriment in connection with his carrying-out of official business.

(2)It is unlawful for a council to subject a disabled person who is a member of the council to harassment in connection with his carrying-out of official business.

(3)A member of a council is not subjected to a detriment for the purposes of subsection (1)(c) by reason of—

(a)his not being appointed or elected to an office of the council;

(b)his not being appointed or elected to, or to an office of, a committee or sub-committee of the council; or

(c)his not being appointed or nominated in exercise of any power of the council, or of a group of bodies that includes the council, to appoint, or nominate for appointment, to any body.

(4)Regulations may make provision as to the circumstances in which treatment is to be taken to be justified, or is to be taken not to be justified, for the purposes of section 3A(1)(b) as it has effect for the interpretation of “discriminate” in subsection (1).

(5)Regulations under subsection (4) may (in particular) provide for section 3A(3) to apply with prescribed modifications, or not to apply, for those purposes; but treatment of a disabled person cannot be justified under subsection (4) if it amounts to direct discrimination falling within section 3A(5).

(6)If, in a case falling within section 3A(1) as it has effect for the interpretation of “discriminate” in subsection (1), a council is under a duty imposed by section 15C in relation to a disabled person but fails to comply with that duty, its treatment of that person cannot be justified under subsection (4) unless it would have been justified even if it had complied with that duty.

15CCouncils and their members: duty to make adjustmentsN.I.

(1)Subsection (2) applies where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by or on behalf of a council, or

(b)any physical feature of premises occupied by, or under the control of, a council,

places a disabled person who is a member of the council at a substantial disadvantage, in comparison with members of the council who are not disabled persons, in connection with his carrying-out of official business.

(2)It is the duty of the council to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for it to have to take in order to prevent the provision, criterion or practice, or feature, having that effect.

(3)Subsection (2) does not impose any duty on a council in relation to a member of the council who is a disabled person if the council does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know, that the member—

(a)has a disability; and

(b)is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in subsection (1).

(4)Regulations may make provision, for purposes of this section—

(a)as to circumstances in which a provision, criterion or practice, or physical feature, is to be taken to have the effect mentioned in subsection (1);

(b)as to circumstances in which a provision, criterion or practice, or physical feature, is to be taken not to have the effect mentioned in subsection (1);

(c)as to circumstances in which it is, or as to circumstances in which it is not, reasonable for a council to have to take steps of a prescribed description;

(d)as to steps which it is always, or as to steps which it is never, reasonable for a council to have to take;

(e)as to things which are, or as to things which are not, to be treated as physical features.]

F55. . . E+W+S+N.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F55Cross-heading preceding s. 16 omitted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by virtue of The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 14(1) and said cross-heading repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3). {14(1)}

[F58Other unlawful actsE+W+S

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Amendments (Textual)

F58Ss. 16A-16C and cross-heading inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 15(1)

16ARelationships which have come to an endE+W+S

(1)This section applies where—

(a)there has been a relevant relationship between a disabled person and another person (“the relevant person”), and

(b)the relationship has come to an end.

(2)In this section a “relevant relationship” is—

(a)a relationship during the course of which an act of discrimination against, or harassment of, one party to the relationship by the other party to it is unlawful under any preceding provision of this Part [F59,other than sections 15B and 15C]; or

(b)a relationship between a person providing employment services F60. . . and a person receiving such services.

(3)It is unlawful for the relevant person—

(a)to discriminate against the disabled person by subjecting him to a detriment, or

(b)to subject the disabled person to harassment,

where the discrimination or harassment arises out of and is closely connected to the relevant relationship.

(4)This subsection applies where—

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by the relevant person to the disabled person in relation to any matter arising out of the relevant relationship, or

(b)a physical feature of premises which are occupied by the relevant person,

places the disabled person at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, but are in the same position as the disabled person in relation to the relevant person.

(5)Where subsection (4) applies, it is the duty of the relevant person to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, practice or criterion, or feature, having that effect.

(6)Nothing in subsection (5) imposes any duty on the relevant person if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know, that the disabled person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in that subsection.

(7)In subsection (2), reference to an act of discrimination or harassment which is unlawful includes, in the case of a relationship which has come to an end before the commencement of this section, reference to such an act which would, after the commencement of this section, be unlawful.

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Amendments (Textual)

F59Words in s. 16A(2)(a) inserted (E.W.S.) (5.12.2005 for certain purposes and 4.12.2006 otherwise) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 19(1), 20(3)-(6), Sch. 1 para. 7(a); S.I. 2005/2774, art. 3(j), 4(f)

16BDiscriminatory advertisementsE+W+S

[F61(1)It is unlawful for a person to publish or cause to be published an advertisement which—

(a)invites applications for a relevant appointment or benefit; and

(b)indicates, or might reasonably be understood to indicate, that an application will or may be determined to any extent by reference to—

(i)the applicant not having any disability, or any particular disability,

(ii)the applicant not having had any disability, or any particular disability, or

(iii)any reluctance of the person determining the application to comply with a duty to make reasonable adjustments or (in relation to employment services) with the duty imposed by section 21(1) as modified by section 21A(6).]

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply where it would not in fact be unlawful under this Part or, to the extent that it relates to the provision of employment services, Part 3 for an application to be determined in the manner indicated (or understood to be indicated) in the advertisement.

[F62(2A)A person who publishes an advertisement of the kind described in subsection (1) shall not be subject to any liability under subsection (1) in respect of the publication of the advertisement if he proves—

(a)that the advertisement was published in reliance on a statement made to him by the person who caused it to be published to the effect that, by reason of the operation of subsection (2), the publication would not be unlawful; and

(b)that it was reasonable for him to rely on the statement.

(2B)A person who knowingly or recklessly makes a statement such as is mentioned in subsection (2A)(a) which in a material respect is false or misleading commits an offence, and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.]

[F63(2C)Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an advertisement so far as it invites persons to apply, in their capacity as members of an authority to which sections 15B and 15C apply, for a relevant appointment or benefit which the authority is intending to make or confer.]

(3)In [F64;this section], “relevant appointment or benefit” means—

(a)any employment, promotion or transfer of employment;

(b)membership of, or a benefit under, an occupational pension scheme;

(c)an appointment to any office or post to which section 4D applies;

(d)any partnership in a firm (within the meaning of section 6A);

(e)any tenancy or pupillage (within the meaning of section 7A or 7C);

(f)any membership of a trade organisation (within the meaning of section 13);

(g)any professional or trade qualification (within the meaning of section 14A);

(h)any work placement (within the meaning of section 14C);

(i)any employment services F65. . . .

(4)In this section, “advertisement” includes every form of advertisement or notice, whether to the public or not.

[F66(5)Proceedings in respect of a contravention of subsection (1) may be brought only—

(a)by the Commission for Equality and Human Rights, and

(b)in accordance with section 25 of the Equality Act 2006.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F63S. 16B(2C) inserted (E.W.S.) (5.12.2005 for certain purposes and 4.12.2006 otherwise) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 19(1), 20(3)-(6), Sch. 1 para. 8(1)(2); S.I. 2005/2774, arts. 3(j), 4(f)

16CInstructions and pressure to discriminateE+W+S

(1)It is unlawful for a person—

(a)who has authority over another person, or

(b)in accordance with whose wishes that other person is accustomed to act,

to instruct him to do any act which is unlawful under this Part or, to the extent that it relates to the provision of employment services, Part 3, or to procure or attempt to procure the doing by him of any such act.

(2)It is also unlawful to induce, or attempt to induce, a person to do any act which contravenes this Part or, to the extent that it relates to the provision of employment services, Part 3 by—

(a)providing or offering to provide him with any benefit, or

(b)subjecting or threatening to subject him to any detriment.

(3)An attempted inducement is not prevented from falling within subsection (2) because it is not made directly to the person in question, if it is made in such a way that he is likely to hear of it.

[F67(4)Proceedings in respect of a contravention of this section may be brought only—

(a)by the Commission for Equality and Human Rights, and

(b)in accordance with section 25 of the Equality Act 2006.]]

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Amendments (Textual)

[F68Other unlawful actsN.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F68Ss. 16A-16C and cross-heading inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 15

16ARelationships which have come to an endN.I.

(1)This section applies where –

(a)there has been a relevant relationship between a disabled person and another person (“the relevant person”), and

(b)the relationship has come to an end.

(2)In this section a “relevant relationship”is –

(a)a relationship during the course of which an act of discrimination against, or harassment of, one party to the relationship by the other party to it is unlawful under any preceding provision of this Part [F69, other than sections 15B and 15C]; or

(b)a relationship between a person providing employment services F70. . . and a person receiving such services.

(3)It is unlawful for the relevant person –

(a)to discriminate against the disabled person by subjecting him to a detriment, or

(b)to subject the disabled person to harassment,

where the discrimination or harassment arises out of and is closely connected to the relevant relationship.

(4)This subsection applies where –

(a)a provision, criterion or practice applied by the relevant person to the disabled person in relation to any matter arising out of the relevant relationship, or

(b)a physical feature of premises which are occupied by the relevant person,

places the disabled person at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with persons who are not disabled, but are in the same position as the disabled person in relation to the relevant person.

(5)Where subsection (4) applies, it is the duty of the relevant person to take such steps as it is reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for him to have to take in order to prevent the provision, practice or criterion, or feature, having that effect.

(6)Nothing in subsection (5) imposes any duty on the relevant person if he does not know, and could not reasonably be expected to know, that the disabled person has a disability and is likely to be affected in the way mentioned in that subsection.

(7)In subsection (2), reference to an act of discrimination or harassment which is unlawful includes, in the case of a relationship which has come to an end before the commencement of this section, reference to such an act which would, after the commencement of this section, be unlawful.

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Amendments (Textual)

F69Words in s. 16(2)(a) inserted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), {Sch. 1 para. 7(a)}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

F70Words in s. 16(2)(b) repealed (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19, Sch. 1 para. 7(b), {Sch. 2}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(n)

16BDiscriminatory advertisementsN.I.

[F71(1)It is unlawful for a person to publish or cause to be published an advertisement which—

(a)invites applications for a relevant appointment or benefit; and

(b)indicates, or might reasonably be understood to indicate, that an application will or may be determined to any extent by reference to—

(i)the applicant not having any disability, or any particular disability,

(ii)the applicant not having had any disability, or any particular disability, or

(iii)any reluctance of the person determining the application to comply with a duty to make reasonable adjustments or (in relation to employment services) with the duty imposed by section 21(1) as modified by section 21A(6).]

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply where it would not in fact be unlawful under this Part or, to the extent that it relates to the provision of employment services, Part III for an application to be determined in the manner indicated (or understood to be indicated) in the advertisement.

[F72(2A)A person who publishes an advertisement of the kind described in subsection (1) shall not be subject to any liability under subsection (1) in respect of the publication of the advertisement if he proves—

(a)that the advertisement was published in reliance on a statement made to him by the person who caused it to be published to the effect that, by reason of the operation of subsection (2), the publication would not be unlawful; and

(b)that it was reasonable for him to rely on the statement.

(2B)A person who knowingly or recklessly makes a statement such as is mentioned in subsection (2A)(a) which in a material respect is false or misleading commits an offence, and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.]

[F73(2C)Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an advertisement so far as it invites persons to apply in their capacity as members of a district council, for a relevant appointment or benefit which the council is intending to make or confer.]

(3)In [F74this section], “relevant appointment or benefit” means –

(a)any employment, promotion or transfer of employment;

(b)membership of, or a benefit under, an occupational pension scheme;

(c)an appointment to any office or post to which section 4D applies;

(d)any partnership in a firm (within the meaning of section 6A);

(e)any pupillage (within the meaning of section 7A);

(f)any membership of a trade organisation (within the meaning of section 13);

(g)any professional or trade qualification (within the meaning of section 14A);

(h)any work placement (within the meaning of section 14C);

(i)any employment services F75. . . .

(4)In this section, “advertisement” includes every form of advertisement or notice, whether to the public or not.

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Amendments (Textual)

F71S. 16B(1) substituted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, {11(1)}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(e)

F72S. 16B(2A)(2B) inserted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, {11(2)}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(e)

F73S. 16B(2C) inserted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), {Sch. 1 para. 8(2)}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

F74Words in s. 16B(3) substituted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, {11(3)}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

F75Words in s. 16B(3)(i) repealed (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19, Sch. 1 para. 8(3), {Sch. 2}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)(n)

16CInstructions and pressure to discriminateN.I.

(1)It is unlawful for a person –

(a)who has authority over another person, or

(b)in accordance with whose wishes that other person is accustomed to act,

to instruct him to do any act which is unlawful under this Part or, to the extent that it relates to the provision of employment services, Part III, or to procure or attempt to procure the doing by him of any such act.

(2)It is also unlawful to induce, or attempt to induce, a person to do any act which contravenes this Part or, to the extent that it relates to the provision of employment services, Part III by –

(a)providing or offering to provide him with any benefit, or

(b)subjecting or threatening to subject him to any detriment.

(3)An attempted inducement is not prevented from falling within subsection (2) because it is not made directly to the person in question, if it is made in such a way that he is likely to hear of it.]

F76. . . E+W+S+N.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F76Cross-heading preceding s. 17 repealed (E.W.S.) (1.12.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Pensions) Regulations (S.I. 2003/2770), regs. 1(2)(3), {4(1)} and said cross-heading repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {5(2)}

17 Occupational pension schemes.E+W+S+N.I.

F77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F77S. 17 repealed (E.W.S.) (1.12.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Pensions) Regulations (S.I. 2003/2770), regs. 1(2)(3), {4(1)} and said provision repealed (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55, regs. 1(2)(3), 5(2)

[F78 Enforcement etc.]E+W+S+N.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

[F7917A Enforcement, remedies and procedure.E+W+S

(1)A complaint by any person that another person—

(a)has discriminated against him [F80, or subjected him to harassment,] in a way which is unlawful under this Part, or

(b)is, by virtue of section 57 or 58, to be treated as having [F81done so],

may be presented to an [F82employment tribunal]].

[F83(1A)Subsection (1) does not apply to a complaint under section 14A(1) or (2) of an act in respect of which an appeal, or proceedings in the nature of an appeal, may be brought under any enactment.

(1B)F84. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(1C)Where, on the hearing of a complaint under subsection (1), the complainant proves facts from which the tribunal could, apart from this subsection, conclude in the absence of an adequate explanation that the respondent has acted in a way which is unlawful under this Part, the tribunal shall uphold the complaint unless the respondent proves that he did not so act.]

(2)Where an [F85employment tribunal] finds that a complaint presented to it under this section is well-founded, it shall take such of the following steps as it considers just and equitable—

(a)making a declaration as to the rights of the complainant and the respondent in relation to the matters to which the complaint relates;

(b)ordering the respondent to pay compensation to the complainant;

(c)recommending that the respondent take, within a specified period, action appearing to the tribunal to be reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for the purpose of obviating or reducing the adverse effect on the complainant of any matter to which the complaint relates.

(3)Where a tribunal orders compensation under subsection (2)(b), the amount of the compensation shall be calculated by applying the principles applicable to the calculation of damages in claims in tort or (in Scotland) in reparation for breach of statutory duty.

(4)For the avoidance of doubt it is hereby declared that compensation in respect of discrimination in a way which is unlawful under this Part may include compensation for injury to feelings whether or not it includes compensation under any other head.

(5)If the respondent to a complaint fails, without reasonable justification, to comply with a recommendation made by an [F86employment tribunal] under subsection (2)(c) the tribunal may, if it thinks it just and equitable to do so—

(a)increase the amount of compensation required to be paid to the complainant in respect of the complaint, where an order was made under subsection (2)(b); or

(b)make an order under subsection (2)(b).

(6)Regulations may make provision—

(a)for enabling a tribunal, where an amount of compensation falls to be awarded under subsection (2)(b), to include in the award interest on that amount; and

(b)specifying, for cases where a tribunal decides that an award is to include an amount in respect of interest, the manner in which and the periods and rate by reference to which the interest is to be determined.

(7)Regulations may modify the operation of any order made under [F87section 14 of [F88the Employment Tribunals Act 1996]] (power to make provision as to interest on sums payable in pursuance of [F89employment tribunal] decisions) to the extent that it relates to an award of compensation under subsection (2)(b).

(8)Part I of Schedule 3 makes further provision about the enforcement of this Part and about procedure.

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Extent Information

E46This version of this provision extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate version has been created for Northern Ireland only

Amendments (Textual)

F79S. 8 moved and renumbered (as s. 17A) (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(1)

F80Words in s. 17A(1)(a) inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(a)

F81Words in s. 17A(1)(b) substituted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(b)

F82Words in s. 8(1)(b)(2)(5)(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F83S. 17A(1A)-(1C) inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(c)

F85Words in s. 8(1)(b)(2)(5)(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F86Words in s. 8(1)(b)(2)(5)(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F87Words in s. 8(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (28.8.1996) by 1996 c. 17, ss. 43, 46, Sch. 1 para. 12(1)(2) (with s. 38)

F88Words in s. 8(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(c) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

F89Words in s. 8(1)(b)(2)(5)(7) substituted (E.W.S.) (1.8.1998) by 1998 c. 8, s. 1(2)(a) (with s. 16(2)); S.I. 1998/1658, art. 2(1), Sch. 1

Commencement Information

I4S. 8 (now s. 17A) wholly in force at 2.12.1996; s. 8 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 70(3); s. 8(6)(7) in force at 6.6.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. I; s. 8(1)-(5)(8) in force at 2.12.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. III

[F12017A Enforcement, remedies and procedure.N.I.

(1)A complaint by any person that another person—

(a)has discriminated against him [F121, or subjected him to harassment,] in a way which is unlawful under this Part, or

(b)is, by virtue of section 57 or 58, to be treated as having [F122done so],

may be presented to an industrial tribunal.

[F123(1A)Subsection (1) does not apply to a complaint under section 14A(1) or (2) about an act in respect of which an appeal, or proceedings in the nature of an appeal, may be brought under any enactment.

(1B)Where, on the hearing of a complaint under subsection (1), the complainant proves facts from which the tribunal could, apart from this subsection, conclude in the absence of an adequate explanation that the respondent has acted in a way which is unlawful under this Part, the tribunal shall uphold the complaint unless the respondent proves that he did not so act.]

(2)Where an industrial tribunal finds that a complaint presented to it under this section is well-founded, it shall take such of the following steps as it considers just and equitable—

(a)making a declaration as to the rights of the complainant and the respondent in relation to the matters to which the complaint relates;

(b)ordering the respondent to pay compensation to the complainant;

(c)recommending that the respondent take, within a specified period, action appearing to the tribunal to be reasonable, in all the circumstances of the case, for the purpose of obviating or reducing the adverse effect on the complainant of any matter to which the complaint relates.

[F124(3)Where a tribunal orders compensation under subsection (2)(b), the amount of the compensation shall be calculated by applying the principles applicable to the calculation of damages in claims in tort for breach of statutory duty.]

(4)For the avoidance of doubt it is hereby declared that compensation in respect of discrimination in a way which is unlawful under this Part may include compensation for injury to feelings whether or not it includes compensation under any other head.

(5)If the respondent to a complaint fails, without reasonable justification, to comply with a recommendation made by an industrial tribunal under subsection (2)(c) the tribunal may, if it thinks it just and equitable to do so—

(a)increase the amount of compensation required to be paid to the complainant in respect of the complaint, where an order was made under subsection (2)(b); or

(b)make an order under subsection (2)(b).

(6)Regulations may make provision—

(a)for enabling a tribunal, where an amount of compensation falls to be awarded under subsection (2)(b), to include in the award interest on that amount; and

(b)specifying, for cases where a tribunal decides that an award is to include an amount in respect of interest, the manner in which and the periods and rate by reference to which the interest is to be determined.

[F125(7)Regulations may modify the operation of any order made under Article 16 of the Industrial Tribunals (Northern Ireland) Order 1996 F126 (power to make provision as to interest on sums payable in pursuance of industrial tribunal decisions) to the extent that it relates to an award of compensation under subsection (2)(b).]

(8)Part I of Schedule 3 makes further provision about the enforcement of this Part and about procedure.]

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Extent Information

E53This version of this provision extends to Northern Ireland only; in its application to Northern Ireland, this section has effect subject to the modifications set out in Sch. 8; see s. 70(6). A separate version has been created for England and Wales and Scotland only

Amendments (Textual)

F120S. 8 moved and renumbered (as s. 17A) (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by S.R. 2004/55, regs. 1(2)(3), 9(1)

F121Words in s. 17A(1)(a) inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(a)

F122Words in s. 17A(1)(b) substituted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(b)

F124S. 17A(3) substituted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(d)

F125S. 17A(7) substituted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 9(2)(e)

Commencement Information

I4S. 8 (now s. 17A) wholly in force at 2.12.1996; s. 8 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 70(3); s. 8(6)(7) in force at 6.6.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. I; s. 8(1)-(5)(8) in force at 2.12.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. III

[F9017BEnforcement of sections [F9116B(1)] and 16CN.I.

(1)Only the Commission may bring proceedings in respect of a contravention of section [F9116B(1)](discriminatory advertisements) or section 16C (instructions and pressure to discriminate).

(2)The Commission shall bring any such proceedings in accordance with subsection (3) or (4).

(3)The Commission may present to an industrial tribunal a complaint that a person has done an act which is unlawful under section [F9116B(1)] or 16C; and if the tribunal finds that the complaint is well-founded it shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4)Where –

(a)a tribunal has made a finding pursuant to subsection (3) that a person has done an act which is unlawful under section [F9116B(1)] or 16C,

(b)that finding has become final, and

(c)it appears to the Commission that, unless restrained, he is likely to do a further act which is unlawful under [F92section 16B(1) or (as the case may be) section 16C],

the Commission may apply to a county court for an injunction restraining him from doing such an act; and the court, if satisfied that the application is well-founded, may grant the injunction in the terms applied for or in more limited terms.

(5)A finding of a tribunal under subsection (3) in respect of any act shall, if it has become final, be treated as conclusive by a county court upon an application under subsection (4).

(6)A finding of a tribunal becomes final for the purposes of this section when an appeal against it is dismissed, withdrawn or abandoned or when the time for appealing expires without an appeal having been brought.

(7)An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under subsection (3) unless it is presented before the end of the period of six months beginning when the act to which it relates was done; and a county court shall not consider an application under subsection (4) unless it is made before the end of the period of five years so beginning.

(8)A court or tribunal may consider any such complaint or application which is out of time if, in all the circumstances of the case, it considers that it is just and equitable to do so.

(9)The provisions of paragraph 3(3) and (4) of Schedule 3 apply for the purposes of subsection (7) as they apply for the purposes of paragraph 3(1) of that Schedule.

(10)In this section “the Commission” means the Equality Commission for Northern Ireland.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F90Ss. 17B, 17C inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 16(1)

F91Word in s. 17B(1)(3)(4)(a) and heading substituted (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), {Sch. 1 para. 9(2)}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

17CValidity of contracts, collective agreements and rules of undertakingsN.I.

Schedule 3A shall have effect.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F90Ss. 17B, 17C inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by the Disability Discrimination Act (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004 (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), 16(1)

[F9317BEnforcement of sections [F9416B(1)] and 16CE+W+S

F95. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .]

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Amendments (Textual)

F93Ss. 17B, 17C inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 16(1)

17CValidity of contracts, collective agreements and rules of undertakingsE+W+S

Schedule 3A shall have effect.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F93Ss. 17B, 17C inserted (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 16(1)

[F96Supplementary and generalE+W+S+N.I.

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Amendments (Textual)

F96Cross-heading inserted (3.7.2003 for E.W.S. for certain purposes and 21.2.2004 for N.I. for certain purposes, and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 17(1); The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004

(S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {17(1)}

18 Insurance services.E+W+S+N.I.

F97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F97S. 18 repealed (E.W.S.) (5.12 2005) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 11, 19(2), 20(3)-(6), Sch. 2; S.I. 2005/2774, art. 3(f)(k)(i) and S. 18 repealed (N.I) (31.12.2007) by The Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order ( S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 12(1), 19(2), {Sch. 2}; S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(f)(n)

18A Alterations to premises occupied under leases.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)This section applies where—

(a)[F99a person to whom a duty to make reasonable adjustments applies](“the occupier”) occupies premises under a lease;

(b)but for this section, the occupier would not be entitled to make a particular alteration to the premises; and

(c)the alteration is one which the occupier proposes to make in order to comply with [F100that duty].

(2)Except to the extent to which it expressly so provides, the lease shall have effect by virtue of this subsection as if it provided—

(a)for the occupier to be entitled to make the alteration with the written consent of the lessor;

(b)for the occupier to have to make a written application to the lessor for consent if he wishes to make the alteration;

(c)if such an application is made, for the lessor not to withhold his consent unreasonably; and

(d)for the lessor to be entitled to make his consent subject to reasonable conditions.

[F101(2A)Except to the extent to which it expressly so provides, any superior lease under which the premises are held shall have effect in relation to the lessor and lessee who are parties to that lease as if it provided—

(i)for the lessee to have to make a written application to the lessor for consent to the alteration;

(ii)if such an application is made, for the lessor not to withhold his consent unreasonably; and

(iii)for the lessor to be entitled to make his consent subject to reasonable conditions.]]

(3)In this section—

  • lease” includes a tenancy, sub-lease or sub-tenancy and an agreement for a lease, tenancy, sub-lease or sub-tenancy; and

  • sub-lease” and “sub-tenancy” have such meaning as may be prescribed.

(4)If the terms and conditions of a lease—

(a)impose conditions which are to apply if the occupier alters the premises, or

(b)entitle the lessor to impose conditions when consenting to the occupier’s altering the premises,

the occupier is to be treated for the purposes of subsection (1) as not being entitled to make the alteration.

(5)Part I of Schedule 4 supplements the provisions of this section.

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Amendments (Textual)

F98S. 16 moved and renumbered (as s. 18A) (3.7.2003 for E.W.S. for certain purposes and 21.2.2004 for N.I. for certain purposes, and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), arts. 1(2)(3), 14(2); S.R. 2004/55, regs. 1(2)(3), 14(2)

F99Words in s. 18A(1)(a) substituted (3.7.2003 for E.W.S. for certain purposes and 21.2.2004 for N.I. for certain purposes, and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), arts. 1(2)(3), 14(3)(a); The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {14(3)(a)}

F100Words in s. 18A(1)(c) substituted (3.7.2003 for E.W.S. for certain purposes and 21.2.2004 for N.I. for certain purposes, and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), arts. 1(2)(3), 14(3)(b); The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {14(3)(b)}

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C25S. 16 modified (E.W.) (2.3.1998) by S.I. 1998/218, arts. 1(2), 3(1), Sch. (with art. 3(2)(b))

S. 16 modified (7.6.1996) by S.I. 1996/1333, reg. 4(a)

S. 16 modified (1.9.1999) by S.I. 1999/2256, art. 3, Sch.

C26Ss. 16 modified (1.9.2003) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (England) Order (S.I. 2003/1964), art. 3, {Sch.}

C27S. 18A modified (N.I.) (1.10.2004) by The Disability Discrimination (Employment Field) (Leasehold Premises) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2004/374, regs. 4-9

C28S. 18A modified (E.W.S) (1.10.2004) by The Disability Discrimination (Employment Field) (Leasehold Premises) Regulations (S.I 2004/153), {regs. 4-9}

C29S. 16 modified (W.) (12.5.2006) by The Education (Modification of Enactments Relating to Employment) (Wales) Order (S.I. 2006/1073), art. 3,{Sch.}

Commencement Information

I5S. 16 wholly in force at 2.12.1996; s. 16 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 70(3); s. 16(3)(5) in force for certain purposes (E.W.S.) at 17.5.1996 by S.I. 1996/1336, art. 3(d); s. 16(3)(5) in force for certain purposes (N.I.) at 30.5.1996 by S.R. 1996/219, art. 3(d); s. 16(5) in force insofar as not already in force (E.W.S.) at 6.6.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. I; s. 16(5) in force (N.I.) insofar as not already in force at 1.7.1996 by S.R. 1996/280, art. 2(1), Sch. Pt. I; s. 16(3) in force (E.W.S.) insofar as not already in force at 2.12.1996 by S.I. 1996/3003, art. 3; s. 16(3) in force insofar as not already in force (N.I.) at 2.12.1996 by S.R. 1996/280, art. 2(2), Sch. Pt. II; s. 16(1)(2)(4) in force (E.W.S.) at 2.12.1996 by S.I. 1996/1474, art. 2(3), Sch. Pt. III; s. 16(1)(2)(4) in force (N.I.) at 2.12.1996 by S.R. 1996/280, art. 2(2), Sch. Pt. II

18BReasonable adjustments: supplementaryE+W+S+N.I.

(1)In determining whether it is reasonable for a person to have to take a particular step in order to comply with a duty to make reasonable adjustments, regard shall be had, in particular, to—

(a)the extent to which taking the step would prevent the effect in relation to which the duty is imposed;

(b)the extent to which it is practicable for him to take the step;

(c)the financial and other costs which would be incurred by him in taking the step and the extent to which taking it would disrupt any of his activities;

(d)the extent of his financial and other resources;

(e)the availability to him of financial or other assistance with respect to taking the step;

(f)the nature of his activities and the size of his undertaking;

(g)where the step would be taken in relation to a private household, the extent to which taking it would—

(i)disrupt that household, or

(ii)disturb any person residing there.

(2)The following are examples of steps which a person may need to take in relation to a disabled person in order to comply with a duty to make reasonable adjustments—

(a)making adjustments to premises;

(b)allocating some of the disabled person’s duties to another person;

(c)transferring him to fill an existing vacancy;

(d)altering his hours of working or training;

(e)assigning him to a different place of work or training;

(f)allowing him to be absent during working or training hours for rehabilitation, assessment or treatment;

(g)giving, or arranging for, training or mentoring (whether for the disabled person or any other person);

(h)acquiring or modifying equipment;

(i)modifying instructions or reference manuals;

(j)modifying procedures for testing or assessment;

(k)providing a reader or interpreter;

(l)providing supervision or other support.

(3)For the purposes of a duty to make reasonable adjustments, where under any binding obligation a person is required to obtain the consent of another person to any alteration of the premises occupied by him—

(a)it is always reasonable for him to have to take steps to obtain that consent; and

(b)it is never reasonable for him to have to make that alteration before that consent is obtained.

(4)The steps referred to in subsection (3)(a) shall not be taken to include an application to a court or tribunal.

(5)In subsection (3), “binding obligation” means a legally binding obligation (not contained in a lease (within the meaning of section 18A(3)) in relation to the premises, whether arising from an agreement or otherwise.

(6)A provision of this Part imposing a duty to make reasonable adjustments applies only for the purpose of determining whether a person has discriminated against a disabled person; and accordingly a breach of any such duty is not actionable as such.]]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

18C Charities and support for particular groups of persons.E+W+S

(1)Nothing in this Part—

(a)affects any charitable instrument which provides for conferring benefits on one or more categories of person determined by reference to any physical or mental capacity; or

(b)makes unlawful any act done by a charity or recognised body in pursuance of any of its charitable purposes, so far as those purposes are connected with persons so determined.

(2)Nothing in this Part prevents—

(a)a person who provides supported employment from treating members of a particular group of disabled persons more favourably than other persons in providing such employment; or

(b)the Secretary of State from agreeing to arrangements for the provision of supported employment which will, or may, have that effect.

(3)In this section—

  • charitable instrument” means an enactment or other instrument (whenever taking effect) so far as it relates to charitable purposes;

  • charity” has the same meaning as in the M1Charities Act 1993;

  • recognised body” means a body which is a recognised body for the purposes of Part I of the M2Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Scotland) Act 1990; and

  • supported employment” means facilities provided, or in respect of which payments are made, under section 15 of the M3Disabled Persons (Employment) Act 1944.

(4)In the application of this section to England and Wales, “charitable purposes” means purposes which are exclusively charitable according to the law of England and Wales.

(5)In the application of this section to Scotland, “charitable purposes” shall be construed in the same way as if it were contained in the Income Tax Acts.]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E47This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 18C exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F103S. 10 moved and renumbered (as s. 18C) (E.W.S.) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), arts. 1(2)(3), 11

Marginal Citations

18CCharities and support for particular groups of personsN.I.

(1)Nothing in this Part –

(a)affects any charitable instrument which provides for conferring benefits on one or more categories of person determined by reference to any physical or mental capacity; or

(b)makes unlawful any act done by a charity in pursuance of any of its charitable purposes, so far as those purposes are connected with persons so determined.

(2)Nothing in this Part prevents –

(a)a person who provides supported employment from treating members of a particular group of disabled persons more favourably than other persons in providing such employment; or

(b)the Department for Employment and Learning from agreeing to arrangements for the provision of supported employment which will, or may, have that effect.

(3)In this section –

  • charitable instrument” means an enactment or other instrument (whenever taking effect) so far as it relates to charitable purposes;

  • charitable purposes” means purposes which are exclusively charitable according to the law of Northern Ireland;

  • charity” has the same meaning as in Charities Act (Northern Ireland) 1964 F105; and

  • supported employment” means facilities provided, or in respect of which payments are made, under section 15 of the Disabled Persons (Employment) Act (Northern Ireland) 1945 F106.]]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E48This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 18C exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F104S. 18C inserted (N.I.) (21.2.2004 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2004

(S.R. 2004/55), regs. 1(2)(3), {17(2)}

18DInterpretation of Part IIN.I.

(1)Subject to any duty to make reasonable adjustments, nothing in this Part is to be taken to require a person to treat a disabled person more favourably than he treats or would treat others.

(2)In this Part –

  • “benefits”, except in sections 4G to 4K, includes facilities and services;

  • “detriment”, except in section 16C(2)(b), does not include conduct of the nature referred to in section 3B (harassment);

  • discriminate”, “discrimination” and other related expressions are to be construed in accordance with section 3A;

  • duty to make reasonable adjustments” means a duty imposed by or under section 4A, 4B(5) or (6), 4E, 4H, 6B, 7B, 14, 14B, 14D [F108, 15C] or 16A(5);

  • employer” includes a person who has no employees but is seeking to employ another person;

  • harassment” is to be construed in accordance with section 3B;

  • physical feature”, in relation to any premises, includes [F109(subject to any provision under section 15C(4)(e))] any of the following (whether permanent or temporary) –

    (a)

    any feature arising from the design or construction of a building on the premises,

    (b)

    any feature on the premises of any approach to, exit from or access to such a building,

    (c)

    any fixtures, fittings, furnishings, furniture, equipment or material in or on the premises,

    (d)

    any other physical element or quality of any land comprised in the premises;

  • provision, criterion or practice” includes any arrangements.]]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E49This section extends to Northern Ireland only; a separate s. 18D exists for England and Wales and Scotland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F10818D(2): word in definition of "duty to make reasonable adjustments" inserted (31.12.2007) by Disability Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 2006 (S.I. 2006/312 (N.I. 1)), arts. 1, 19(1), Sch. 1 para. 10(a); S.R. 2007/466, art. 2(2)(l)

18DInterpretation of Part 2E+W+S

(1)Subject to any duty to make reasonable adjustments, nothing in this Part is to be taken to require a person to treat a disabled person more favourably than he treats or would treat others.

(2)In this Part—

  • benefits[F111, except in sections 4G to 4K,] includes facilities and services;

  • “detriment”, except in section 16C(2)(b), does not include conduct of the nature referred to in section 3B (harassment);

  • “discriminate”, “discrimination” and other related expressions are to be construed in accordance with section 3A;

  • duty to make reasonable adjustments” means a duty imposed by or under section 4A, 4B(5) or (6), 4E, [F1124H,] 6B, 7B, 7D, 14, 14B, 14D [F113, 15C] or 16A(5);

  • employer” includes a person who has no employees but is seeking to employ another person;

  • harassment” is to be construed in accordance with section 3B;

  • physical feature”, in relation to any premises, includes [F114(subject to any provision under section 15C(4)(e))] any of the following (whether permanent or temporary)—

    (a)

    any feature arising from the design or construction of a building on the premises,

    (b)

    any feature on the premises of any approach to, exit from or access to such a building,

    (c)

    any fixtures, fittings, furnishings, furniture, equipment or material in or on the premises,

    (d)

    any other physical element or quality of any land comprised in the premises;

  • provision, criterion or practice” includes any arrangements.]]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E50This section extends to England and Wales and Scotland only; a separate s. 18D exists for Northern Ireland only.

Amendments (Textual)

F110S. 18D inserted (E.W.S) (3.7.2003 for certain purposes and 1.10.2004 otherwise) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (S.I. 2003/1673), regs. 1(2)(3), 18

F111Words in s. 18D(2) inserted (E.W.S) (1.12.2003 for specified purposes, otherwise 1.10.2004) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Pensions) Regulations (S.I 2003/2770), regs 1(2)(3), {4(2)(a)}

F112Words in s. 18D(2) inserted (E.W.S) (1.12.2003 for specified purposes, otherwise 1.10.2004) by The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Pensions) Regulations (S.I 2003/2770), regs 1(2)(3), {4(2)(b)}

F113S. 18D(2): words in definition of "duty to make reasonable adjustments" inserted (E.W.S.) (4.12.2006) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 19(1), 20(3)-(6), Sch. 1 para. 11(a); S.I. 2005/2774, art.4(f)

F114S. 18D(2): words in definition of "physical feature" inserted (E.W.S.) (4.12.2006) by Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (c. 13), ss. 19(1), 20(3)-(6), Sch. 1 para. 11(b); S.I. 2005/2774, art.4(f)

18EPremises provided otherwise than in course of a Part 2 relationshipE+W+S+N.I.

(1)This Part does not apply in relation to the provision, otherwise than in the course of a Part 2 relationship, of premises by the regulated party to the other party.

(2)For the purposes of subsection (1)—

(a)“Part 2 relationship” means a relationship during the course of which an act of discrimination against, or harassment of, one party to the relationship by the other party to it is unlawful under sections 4 to 15C; and

(b)in relation to a Part 2 relationship, “regulated party” means the party whose acts of discrimination, or harassment, are made unlawful by sections 4 to 15C.]]]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

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