Search Legislation

Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992

Status:

This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

Part ITrade Unions

Chapter IIntroductory

Meaning of “trade union”

1Meaning of “trade union”

In this Act a “trade union” means an organisation (whether temporary or permanent)—

(a)which consists wholly or mainly of workers of one or more descriptions and whose principal purposes include the regulation of relations between workers of that description or those descriptions and employers or employers' associations; or

(b)which consists wholly or mainly of—

(i)constituent or affiliated organisations which fulfil the conditions in paragraph (a) (or themselves consist wholly or mainly of constituent or affiliated organisations which fulfil those conditions), or

(ii)representatives of such constituent or affiliated organisations,

and whose principal purposes include the regulation of relations between workers and employers or between workers and employers' associations, or the regulation of relations between its constituent or affiliated organisations.

The list of trade unions

2The list of trade unions

(1)The Certification Officer shall keep a list of trade unions containing the names of—

(a)the organisations whose names were, immediately before the commencement of this Act, duly entered in the list of trade unions kept by him under section 8 of the [1974 c. 52.] Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974, and

(b)the names of the organisations entitled to have their names entered in the list in accordance with this Part.

(2)The Certification Officer shall keep copies of the list of trade unions, as for the time being in force, available for public inspection at all reasonable hours free of charge.

(3)A copy of the list shall be included in his annual report.

(4)The fact that the name of an organisation is included in the list of trade unions is evidence (in Scotland, sufficient evidence) that the organisation is a trade union.

(5)On the application of an organisation whose name is included in the list, the Certification Officer shall issue it with a certificate to that effect.

(6)A document purporting to be such a certificate is evidence (in Scotland, sufficient evidence) that the name of the organisation is entered in the list.

3Application to have name entered in the list

(1)An organisation of workers, whenever formed, whose name is not entered in the list of trade unions may apply to the Certification Officer to have its name entered in the list.

(2)The application shall be made in such form and manner as the Certification Officer may require and shall be accompanied by—

(a)a copy of the rules of the organisation,

(b)a list of its officers,

(c)the address of its head or main office, and

(d)the name under which it is or is to be known,

and by the prescribed fee.

(3)If the Certification Officer is satisfied—

(a)that the organisation is a trade union,

(b)that subsection (2) has been complied with, and

(c)that entry of the name in the list is not prohibited by subsection (4),

he shall enter the name of the organisation in the list of trade unions.

(4)The Certification Officer shall not enter the name of an organisation in the list of trade unions if the name is the same as that under which another organisation—

(a)was on 30th September 1971 registered as a trade union under the Trade Union Acts 1871 to 1964,

(b)was at any time registered as a trade union or employers' association under the [1971 c. 72.] Industrial Relations Act 1971, or

(c)is for the time being entered in the list of trade unions or in the list of employers' associations kept under Part II of this Act,

or if the name is one so nearly resembling any such name as to be likely to deceive the public.

4Removal of name from the list

(1)If it appears to the Certification Officer, on application made to him or otherwise, that an organisation whose name is entered in the list of trade unions is not a trade union, he may remove its name from the list.

(2)He shall not do so without giving the organisation notice of his intention and considering any representations made to him by the organisation within such period (of not less than 28 days beginning with the date of the notice) as may be specified in the notice.

(3)The Certification Officer shall remove the name of an organisation from the list of trade unions if—

(a)he is requested by the organisation to do so, or

(b)he is satisfied that the organisation has ceased to exist.

Certification as independent trade union

5Meaning of “independent trade union”

In this Act an “independent trade union” means a trade union which—

(a)is not under the domination or control of an employer or group of employers or of one or more employers' associations, and

(b)is not liable to interference by an employer or any such group or association (arising out of the provision of financial or material support or by any other means whatsoever) tending towards such control;

and references to “independence”, in relation to a trade union, shall be construed accordingly.

6Application for certificate of independence

(1)A trade union whose name is entered on the list of trade unions may apply to the Certification Officer for a certificate that it is independent.

The application shall be made in such form and manner as the Certification Officer may require and shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee.

(2)The Certification Officer shall maintain a record showing details of all applications made to him under this section and shall keep it available for public inspection (free of charge) at all reasonable hours.

(3)If an application is made by a trade union whose name is not entered on the list of trade unions, the Certification Officer shall refuse a certificate of independence and shall enter that refusal on the record.

(4)In any other case, he shall not come to a decision on the application before the end of the period of one month after it has been entered on the record; and before coming to his decision he shall make such enquiries as he thinks fit and shall take into account any relevant information submitted to him by any person.

(5)He shall then decide whether the applicant trade union is independent and shall enter his decision and the date of his decision on the record.

(6)If he decides that the trade union is independent he shall issue a certificate accordingly; and if he decides that it is not, he shall give reasons for his decision.

7Withdrawal or cancellation of certificate

(1)The Certification Officer may withdraw a trade union’s certificate of independence if he is of the opinion that the union is no longer independent.

(2)Where he proposes to do so he shall notify the trade union and enter notice of the proposal in the record.

(3)He shall not come to a decision on the proposal before the end of the period of one month after notice of it was entered on the record; and before coming to his decision he shall make such enquiries as he thinks fit and shall take into account any relevant information submitted to him by any person.

(4)He shall then decide whether the trade union is independent and shall enter his decision and the date of his decision on the record.

(5)He shall confirm or withdraw the certificate accordingly; and if he decides to withdraw it, he shall give reasons for his decision.

(6)Where the name of an organisation is removed from the list of trade unions, the Certification Officer shall cancel any certificate of independence in force in respect of that organisation by entering on the record the fact that the organisation’s name has been removed from that list and that the certificate is accordingly cancelled.

8Conclusive effect of Certification Officer’s decision

(1)A certificate of independence which is in force is conclusive evidence for all purposes that a trade union is independent; and a refusal, withdrawal or cancellation of a certificate of independence, entered on the record, is conclusive evidence for all purposes that a trade union is not independent.

(2)A document purporting to be a certificate of independence and to be signed by the Certification Officer, or by a person authorised to act on his behalf, shall be taken to be such a certificate unless the contrary is proved.

(3)A document purporting to be a certified copy of an entry on the record and to be signed by the Certification Officer, or by a person authorised to act on his behalf, shall be taken to be a true copy of such an entry unless the contrary is proved.

(4)If in any proceedings before a court, the Employment Appeal Tribunal, the Central Arbitration Committee, ACAS or an industrial tribunal a question arises whether a trade union is independent and there is no certificate of independence in force and no refusal, withdrawal or cancellation of a certificate recorded in relation to that trade union—

(a)that question shall not be decided in those proceedings, and

(b)the proceedings shall instead be stayed or sisted until a certificate of independence has been issued or refused by the Certification Officer.

(5)The body before whom the proceedings are stayed or sisted may refer the question of the independence of the trade union to the Certificate Officer who shall proceed in accordance with section 6 as on an application by that trade union.

Supplementary

9Appeal against decision of Certification Officer

(1)An organisation aggrieved by the refusal of the Certification Officer to enter its name in the list of trade unions, or by a decision of his to remove its name from the list, may appeal to the Employment Appeal Tribunal.

(2)A trade union aggrieved by the refusal of the Certification Officer to issue it with a certificate of independence, or by a decision of his to withdraw its certificate, may appeal to the Employment Appeal Tribunal.

(3)If on appeal the Tribunal is satisfied that the organisation’s name should be or remain entered in the list or, as the case may be, that the certificate should be issued or should not be withdrawn, it shall declare that fact and give directions to the Certification Officer accordingly.

(4)The rights of appeal conferred by this section extend to any question of fact or law arising in the proceedings before, or arising from the decision of, the Certification Officer.

Chapter IIStatus and property of trade unions

General

10Quasi-corporate status of trade unions

(1)A trade union is not a body corporate but—

(a)it is capable of making contracts;

(b)it is capable of suing and being sued in its own name, whether in proceedings relating to property or founded on contract or tort or any other cause of action; and

(c)proceedings for an offence alleged to have been committed by it or on its behalf may be brought against it in its own name.

(2)A trade union shall not be treated as if it were a body corporate except to the extent authorised by the provisions of this Part.

(3)A trade union shall not be registered—

(a)as a company under the [1985 c. 9.] Companies Act 1985, or

(b)under the [1974 c. 46.] Friendly Societies Act 1974 or the [1965 c. 12.] Industrial and Provident Societies Act 1965;

and any such registration of a trade union (whenever effected) is void.

11Exclusion of common law rules as to restraint of trade

(1)The purposes of a trade union are not, by reason only that they are in restraint of trade, unlawful so as—

(a)to make any member of the trade union liable to criminal proceedings for conspiracy or otherwise, or

(b)to make any agreement or trust void or voidable.

(2)No rule of a trade union is unlawful or unenforceable by reason only that it is in restraint of trade.

Property of trade union

12Property to be vested in trustees

(1)All property belonging to a trade union shall be vested in trustees in trust for it.

(2)A judgment, order or award made in proceedings of any description brought against a trade union is enforceable, by way of execution, diligence, punishment for contempt or otherwise, against any property held in trust for it to the same extent and in the same manner as if it were a body corporate.

(3)Subsection (2) has effect subject to section 23 (restriction on enforcement of awards against certain property).

13Vesting of property in new trustees

(1)The provisions of this section apply in relation to the appointment or discharge of trustees in whom any property is vested in trust for a trade union whose name is entered in the list of trade unions.

(2)In the following sections as they apply to such trustees references to a deed shall be construed as references to an instrument in writing—

(a)section 39 of the [1925 c. 19.] Trustee Act 1925 and section 38 of the [1958 c. 23 (N.I.).] Trustee Act (Northern Ireland) 1958 (retirement of trustee without a new appointment), and

(b)section 40 of the Trustee Act 1925 and section 39 of the Trustee Act (Northern Ireland) 1958 (vesting of trust property in new or continuing trustees).

(3)Where such a trustee is appointed or discharged by a resolution taken by or on behalf of the union, the written record of the resolution shall be treated for the purposes of those sections as an instrument in writing appointing or discharging the trustee.

(4)In section 40 of the Trustee Act 1925 and section 39 of the Trustee Act (Northern Ireland) 1958 as they apply to such trustees, paragraphs (a) and (c) of subsection (4) (which exclude certain property from the section) shall be omitted.

14Transfer of securities held in trust for trade union

(1)In this section—

  • “instrument of appointment” means an instrument in writing appointing a new trustee of a trade union whose name is entered in the list of trade unions, and

  • “instrument of discharge” means an instrument in writing discharging a trustee of such a trade union;

and for the purposes of this section where a trustee is appointed or discharged by a resolution taken by or on behalf of such a trade union, the written record of the resolution shall be treated as an instrument in writing appointing or discharging the trustee.

(2)Where by any enactment or instrument the transfer of securities of any description is required to be effected or recorded by means of entries in a register, then if—

(a)there is produced to the person authorised or required to keep the register a copy of an instrument of appointment or discharge which contains or has attached to it a list identifying the securities of that description held in trust for the union at the date of the appointment or discharge, and

(b)it appears to that person that any of the securities so identified are included in the register kept by him,

he shall make such entries as may be necessary to give effect to the instrument of appointment or discharge.

This subsection has effect notwithstanding anything in any enactment or instrument regulating the keeping of the register.

(3)A document which purports to be a copy of an instrument of appointment or discharge containing or having attached to it such a list, and to be certified in accordance with the following subsection to be a copy of such an instrument, shall be taken to be a copy of such an instrument unless the contrary is proved.

(4)The certificate shall be given by the president and general secretary of the union and, in the case of an instrument to which a list of securities is attached, shall appear both on the instrument and on the list.

(5)Nothing done for the purposes of or in pursuance of this section shall be taken to affect any person with notice of any trust or to impose on any person a duty to inquire into any matter.

(6)In relation to a Scottish trust, references in this section to the appointment and discharge of a trustee shall be construed as including references to, respectively, the assumption and resignation of a trustee; and references to an instrument appointing or discharging a trustee shall be construed accordingly.

15Prohibition on use of funds to indemnify unlawful conduct

(1)It is unlawful for property of a trade union to be applied in or towards—

(a)the payment for an individual of a penalty which has been or may be imposed on him for an offence or for contempt of court,

(b)the securing of any such payment, or

(c)the provision of anything for indemnifying an individual in respect of such a penalty.

(2)Where any property of a trade union is so applied for the benefit of an individual on whom a penalty has been or may be imposed, then—

(a)in the case of a payment, an amount equal to the payment is recoverable by the union from him, and

(b)in any other case, he is liable to account to the union for the value of the property applied.

(3)If a trade union fails to bring or continue proceedings which it is entitled by bring by virtue of subsection (2), a member of the union who claims that the failure is unreasonable may apply to the court on that ground for an order authorising him to bring or continue the proceedings on the union’s behalf and at the union’s expense.

(4)In this section “penalty”, in relation to an offence, includes an order to pay compensation and an order for the forfeiture of any property; and references to the imposition of a penalty for an offence shall be construed accordingly.

(5)The Secretary of State may by order designate offences in relation to which the provisions of this section do not apply.

Any such order shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(6)This section does not affect—

(a)any other enactment, any rule of law or any provision of the rules of a trade union which makes it unlawful for the property of a trade union to be applied in a particular way; or

(b)any other remedy available to a trade union, the trustees of its property or any of its members in respect of an unlawful application of the union’s property.

(7)In this section “member”, in relation to a trade union consisting wholly or partly of, or of representatives of, constituent or affiliated organisations, includes a member of any of the constituent or affiliated organisations.

16Remedy against trustees for unlawful use of union property

(1)A member of a trade union who claims that the trustees of the union’s property—

(a)have so carried out their functions, or are proposing so to carry out their functions, as to cause or permit an unlawful application of the union’s property, or

(b)have complied, or are proposing to comply, with an unlawful direction which has been or may be given, or purportedly given, to them under the rules of the union,

may apply to the court for an order under this section.

(2)In a case relating to property which has already been unlawfully applied, or to an unlawful direction that has already been complied with, an application under this section may be made only by a person who was a member of the union at the time when the property was applied or, as the case may be, the direction complied with.

(3)Where the court is satisfied that the claim is well-founded, it shall make such order as it considers appropriate.

The court may in particular—

(a)require the trustees (if necessary, on behalf of the union) to take all such steps as may be specified in the order for protecting or recovering the property of the union;

(b)appoint a receiver of, or in Scotland a judicial factor on, the property of the union;

(c)remove one or more of the trustees.

(4)Where the court makes an order under this section in a case in which—

(a)property of the union has been applied in contravention of an order of any court, or in compliance with a direction given in contravention of such an order, or

(b)the trustees were proposing to apply property in contravention of such an order or to comply with any such direction,

the court shall by its order remove all the trustees except any trustee who satisfies the court that there is a good reason for allowing him to remain a trustee.

(5)Without prejudice to any other power of the court, the court may on an application for an order under this section grant such interlocutory relief (in Scotland, such interim order) as it considers appropriate.

(6)This section does not affect any other remedy available in respect of a breach of trust by the trustees of a trade union’s property.

(7)In this section “member”, in relation to a trade union consisting wholly or partly of, or of representatives of, constituent or affiliated organisations, includes a member of any of the constituent or affiliated organisations.

17Nominations by members of trade unions

(1)The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations for enabling members of trade unions who are not under 16 years of age to nominate a person or persons to become entitled, on the death of the person making the nomination, to the whole or part of any money payable on his death out of the funds of the trade union.

(2)The regulations may include provision as to the manner in which nominations may be made and as to the manner in which nominations may be varied or revoked.

(3)The regulations may provide that, subject to such exceptions as may be prescribed, no nomination made by a member of a trade union shall be valid if at the date of the nomination the person nominated is an officer or employee of the trade union or is otherwise connected with the trade union in such manner as may be prescribed by the regulations.

(4)The regulations may include such incidental, transitional or supplementary provisions as the Secretary of State may consider appropriate.

(5)They may, in particular, include provision for securing, to such extent and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed in the regulations, that nominations made under the [1876 c. 22.] Trade Union Act 1871 Amendment Act 1876 have effect as if made under the regulations and may be varied or revoked accordingly.

(6)Regulations under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

18Payments out of union funds on death of member

(1)The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations for enabling money payable out of the funds of a trade union on the death of a member, to an amount not exceeding £5,000, to be paid or distributed on his death without letters of administration, probate of any will or confirmation.

(2)The regulations may include such incidental, transitional and supplementary provisions as the Secretary of State may consider appropriate.

(3)Regulations under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(4)The Treasury may by order under section 6(1) of the [1965 c. 32.] Administration of Estates (Small Payments) Act 1965 direct that subsection (1) above shall have effect with the substitution for the reference to £5,000 of a reference to such higher amount as may be specified in the order.

19Application of certain provisions relating to industrial assurance or friendly societies

(1)The following provisions apply to a trade union as to an industrial assurance company—

(a)section 6(1) of the [1948 c. 39.] Industrial Assurance and Friendly Societies Act 1948 (prohibition on insuring money to be paid on death of child under ten);

(b)sections 63 to 66 of the [1896 c. 25.] Friendly Societies Act 1896 and section 4(2) of the [1923 c. 8.] Industrial Assurance Act 1923 (conditions on which payments to be made), so far as they apply to cases excepted from that prohibition by paragraph (c) of the proviso to section 6(1) (children not ordinarily resident in United Kingdom or the Isle of Man).

(2)A trade union which contravenes section 6(1) of the Industrial Assurance and Friendly Societies Act 1948 commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

The provisions of the [1974 c. 46.] Friendly Societies Act 1974 as to offences under that Act apply to an offence under this subsection.

(3)Section 52 of the Friendly Societies Act 1974 (charitable subscriptions and contributions to other registered societies) extends to a trade union, or branch of a trade union, as regards contributing to the funds and taking part in the government of a medical society, that is, a society for the purpose of relief in sickness by providing medical attendance and medicine.

A trade union, or branch of a trade union, shall not withdraw from contributing to the funds of such a society except on three months notice to the society and on payment of all contributions accrued or accruing due to the date of the expiry of the notice.

Liability of trade unions in proceedings in tort

20Liability of trade union in certain proceedings in tort

(1)Where proceedings in tort are brought against a trade union—

(a)on the ground that an act—

(i)induces another person to break a contract or interferes or induces another person to interfere with its performance, or

(ii)consists in threatening that a contract (whether one to which the union is a party or not) will be broken or its performance interfered with, or that the union will induce another person to break a contract or interfere with its performance, or

(b)in respect of an agreement or combination by two or more persons to do or to procure the doing of an act which, if it were done without any such agreement or combination, would be actionable in tort on such a ground,

then, for the purpose of determining in those proceedings whether the union is liable in respect of the act in question, that act shall be taken to have been done by the union if, but only if, it is to be taken to have been authorised or endorsed by the trade union in accordance with the following provisions.

(2)An act shall be taken to have been authorised or endorsed by a trade union if it was done, or was authorised or endorsed—

(a)by any person empowered by the rules to do, authorise or endorse acts of the kind in question, or

(b)by the principal executive committee or the president or general secretary, or

(c)by any other committee of the union or any other official of the union (whether employed by it or not).

(3)For the purposes of paragraph (c) of subsection (2)—

(a)any group of persons constituted in accordance with the rules of the union is a committee of the union; and

(b)an act shall be taken to have been done, authorised or endorsed by an official if it was done, authorised or endorsed by, or by any member of, any group of persons of which he was at the material time a member, the purposes of which included organising or co-ordinating industrial action.

(4)The provisions of paragraphs (b) and (c) of subsection (2) apply notwithstanding anything in the rules of the union, or in any contract or rule of law, but subject to the provisions of section 21 (repudiation by union of certain acts).

(5)Where for the purposes of any proceedings an act is by virtue of this section taken to have been done by a trade union, nothing in this section shall affect the liability of any other person, in those or any other proceedings, in respect of that act.

(6)In proceedings arising out of an act which is by virtue of this section taken to have been done by a trade union, the power of the court to grant an injunction or interdict includes power to require the union to take such steps as the court considers appropriate for ensuring—

(a)that there is no, or no further, inducement of persons to take part or to continue to take part in industrial action, and

(b)that no person engages in any conduct after the granting of the injunction or interdict by virtue of having been induced before it was granted to take part or to continue to take part in industrial action.

The provisions of subsections (2) to (4) above apply in relation to proceedings for failure to comply with any such injunction or interdict as they apply in relation to the original proceedings.

(7)In this section “rules”, in relation to a trade union, means the written rules of the union and any other written provision forming part of the contract between a member and the other members.

21Repudiation by union of certain acts

(1)An act shall not be taken to have been authorised or endorsed by a trade union by virtue only of paragraph (c) of section 20(2) if it was repudiated by the executive, president or general secretary as soon as reasonably practicable after coming to the knowledge of any of them.

(2)Where an act is repudiated—

(a)written notice of the repudiation must be given to the committee or official in question, without delay, and

(b)the union must do its best to give individual written notice of the fact and date of repudiation, without delay—

(i)to every member of the union who the union has reason to believe is taking part, or might otherwise take part, in industrial action as a result of the act, and

(ii)to the employer of every such member.

(3)The notice given to members in accordance with paragraph (b)(i) of subsection (2) must contain the following statement— Your union has repudiated the call (or calls) for industrial action to which this notice relates and will give no support to unofficial industrial action taken in response to it (or them). If you are dismissed while taking unofficial industrial action, you will have no right to complain of unfair dismissal.

(4)If subsection (2) or (3) is not complied with, the repudiation shall be treated as ineffective.

(5)An act shall not be treated as repudiated if at any time after the union concerned purported to repudiate it the executive, president or general secretary has behaved in a manner which is inconsistent with the purported repudiation.

(6)The executive, president or general secretary shall be treated as so behaving if, on a request made to any of them within six months of the purported repudiation by a person who—

(a)is a party to a commercial contract whose performance has been or may be interfered with as a result of the act in question, and

(b)has not been given written notice by the union of the repudiation,

it is not forthwith confirmed in writing that the act has been repudiated.

(7)In this section “commercial contract” mean means any contract other than—

(a)a contract of employment, or

(b)any other contract under which a person agrees personally to do work or perform services for another.

22Limit on damages awarded against trade unions in actions in tort

(1)This section applies to any proceedings in tort brought against a trade union, except—

(a)proceedings for personal injury as a result of negligence, nuisance or breach of duty;

(b)proceedings for breach of duty in connection with the ownership, occupation, possession, control or use of property;

(c)proceedings brought by virtue of Part I of the [1987 c. 43.] Consumer Protection Act 1987 (product liability).

(2)In any proceedings in tort to which this section applies the amount which may awarded against the union by way of damages shall not exceed the following limit—

Number of members of unionMaximum award of damages
Less than 5,000£10,000
5,000 or more but less than 25,000£50,000
25,000 or more but less than 100,000£125,000
100,000 or more£250,000

(3)The Secretary of State may by order amend subsection (2) so as to vary any of the sums specified; and the order may make such transitional provision as the Secretary of State considers appropriate.

(4)Any such order shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(5)In this section—

  • “breach of duty” means breach of a duty imposed by any rule of law or by or under any enactment;

  • “personal injury” includes any disease and any impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; and

  • “property” means any property, whether real or personal (or in Scotland, heritable or moveable).

Restriction on enforcement against certain property

23Restriction on enforcement of awards against certain property

(1)Where in any proceedings an amount is awarded by way of damages, costs or expenses—

(a)against a trade union,

(b)against trustees in whom property is vested in trust for a trade union, in their capacity as such (and otherwise than in respect of a breach of trust on their part), or

(c)against members or officials of a trade union on behalf of themselves and all of the members of the union,

no part of that amount is recoverable by enforcement against any protected property.

(2)The following is protected property—

(a)property belonging to the trustees otherwise than in their capacity as such;

(b)property belonging to any member of the union otherwise than jointly or in common with the other members;

(c)property belonging to an official of the union who is neither a member nor a trustee;

(d)property comprised in the union’s political fund where that fund—

(i)is subject to rules of the union which prevent property which is or has been comprised in the fund from being used for financing strikes or other industrial action, and

(ii)was so subject at the time when the act in respect of which the proceedings are brought was done;

(e)property comprised in a separate fund maintained in accordance with the rules of the union for the purpose only of providing provident benefits.

(3)For this purpose “provident benefits” includes—

(a)any payment expressly authorised by the rules of the union which is made—

(i)to a member during sickness or incapacity from personal injury or while out of work, or

(ii)to an aged member by way of superannuation, or

(iii)to a member who has met with an accident or has lost his tools by fire or theft;

(b)a payment in discharge or aid of funeral expenses on the death of a member or the wife of a member or as provision for the children of a deceased member.

Chapter IIITrade union administration

Register of members' names and addresses

24Duty to maintain register of members' names and addresses

(1)A trade union shall compile and maintain a register of the names and addresses of its members, and shall secure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the entries in the register are accurate and are kept up-to-date.

(2)The register may be kept by means of a computer.

(3)A trade union shall—

(a)allow any member, upon reasonable notice, to ascertain from the register, free of charge and at any reasonable time, whether there is an entry on it relating to him; and

(b)if requested to do so by any member, supply him as soon as reasonably practicable, either free of charge or on payment of a reasonable fee, with a copy of any entry on the register relating to him.

(4)Any duty falling upon a branch under this section by reason of its being a trade union shall be treated as having been discharged to the extent to which the union of which it is a branch has discharged the duty instead.

(5)For the purposes of this section a member’s address means either his home address or another address which he has requested the union in writing to treat as his postal address.

(6)The remedy for failure to comply with the requirements of this section is by way of application under section 25 (to the Certification Officer) or section 26 (to the court).

The making of an application to the Certification Officer does not prevent the applicant, or any other person, from making an application to the court in respect of the same matter.

25Remedy for failure: application to Certification Officer

(1)A member of a trade union who claims that the union has failed to comply with any of the requirements of section 24 (duties with respect to register of members' names and addresses) may apply to the Certification Officer for a declaration to that effect.

(2)On an application being made to him, the Certification Officer shall—

(a)make such enquiries as he thinks fit, and

(b)where he considers it appropriate, give the applicant and the trade union an opportunity to be heard,

and may make or refuse the declaration asked for.

(3)If he makes a declaration he shall specify in it the provisions with which the trade union has failed to comply.

(4)Where he makes a declaration and is satisfied that steps have been taken by the union with a view to remedying the declared failure, or securing that a failure of the same or any similar kind does not occur in future, or that the union has agreed to take such steps, he shall specify those steps in the declaration.

(5)Whether he makes or refuses a declaration, he shall give reasons for his decision in writing; and the reasons may be accompanied by written observations on any matter arising from, or connected with, the proceedings.

(6)In exercising his functions under this section the Certification Officer shall ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, an application made to him is determined within six months of being made.

(7)Where he requests a person to furnish information to him in connection with enquiries made by him under this section, he shall specify the date by which that information is to be furnished and, unless he considers that it would be inappropriate to do so, shall proceed with his determination of the application notwithstanding that the information has not been furnished to him by the specified date.

26Remedy for failure: application to court

(1)A member of a trade union who claims that the union has failed to comply with any of the requirements of section 24 (duties with respect to register of members' names and addresses) may apply to the court for a declaration to that effect.

(2)If an application in respect of the same matter has been made to the Certification Officer, the court shall have due regard to any declaration, reasons or observations of his which are brought to its notice.

(3)If the court makes a declaration it shall specify in it the provisions with which the trade union has failed to comply.

(4)Where the court makes a declaration it shall also, unless it considers that to do so would be inappropriate, make an enforcement order, that is, an order imposing on the union one or both of the following requirements—

(a)to take such steps to remedy the declared failure, within such period, as may be specified in the order;

(b)to abstain from such acts as may be so specified with a view to securing that a failure of the same or a similar kind does not occur in future.

(5)Where an enforcement order has been made, any person who is a member of the union and was a member at the time it was made, is entitled to enforce obedience to the order as if he had made the application on which the order was made.

(6)Without prejudice to any other power of the court, the court may on an application under this section grant such interlocutory relief (in Scotland, such interim order) as it considers appropriate.

Duty to supply copy of rules

27Duty to supply copy of rules

A trade union shall at the request of any person supply him with a copy of its rules either free of charge or on payment of a reasonable charge.

Accounting records

28Duty to keep accounting records

(1)A trade union shall—

(a)cause to be kept proper accounting records with respect to its transactions and its assets and liabilities, and

(b)establish and maintain a satisfactory system of control of its accounting records, its cash holdings and all its receipts and remittances.

(2)Proper accounting records shall not be taken to be kept with respect to the matters mentioned in subsection (1)(a) unless there are kept such records as are necessary to give a true and fair view of the state of the affairs of the trade union and to explain its transactions.

29Duty to keep records available for inspection

(1)A trade union shall keep available for inspection from their creation until the end of the period of six years beginning with the 1st January following the end of the period to which they relate such of the records of the union, or of any branch or section of the union, as are, or purport to be, records required to be kept by the union under section 28.

This does not apply to records relating to periods before 1st January 1988.

(2)In section 30 (right of member to access to accounting records)—

(a)references to a union’s accounting records are to any such records as are mentioned in subsection (1) above, and

(b)references to records available for inspection are to records which the union is required by that subsection to keep available for inspection.

(3)The expiry of the period mentioned in subsection (1) above does not affect the duty of a trade union to comply with a request for access made under section 30 before the end of that period.

30Right of access to accounting records

(1)A member of a trade union has a right to request access to any accounting records of the union which are available for inspection and relate to periods including a time when he was a member of the union.

In the case of records relating to a branch or section of the union, it is immaterial whether he was a member of that branch or section.

(2)Where such access is requested the union shall—

(a)make arrangements with the member for him to be allowed to inspect the records requested before the end of the period of twenty-eight days beginning with the day the request was made,

(b)allow him and any accountant accompanying him for the purpose to inspect the records at the time and place arranged, and

(c)secure that at the time of the inspection he is allowed to take, or is supplied with, any copies of, or of extracts from, records inspected by him which he requires.

(3)The inspection shall be at a reasonable hour and at the place where the records are normally kept, unless the parties to the arrangements agree otherwise.

(4)An “accountant” means a person who is eligible for appointment as a company auditor under section 25 of the [1989 c. 40.] Companies Act 1989.

(5)The union need not allow the member to be accompanied by an accountant if the accountant fails to enter into such agreement as the union may reasonably require for protecting the confidentiality of the records.

(6)Where a member who makes a request for access to a union’s accounting records is informed by the union, before any arrangements are made in pursuance of the request—

(a)of the union’s intention to charge for allowing him to inspect the records to which the request relates, for allowing him to take copies of, or extracts from, those records or for supplying any such copies, and

(b)of the principles in accordance with which its charges will be determined,

then, where the union complies with the request, he is liable to pay the union on demand such amount, not exceeding the reasonable administrative expenses incurred by the union in complying with the request, as is determined in accordance with those principles.

(7)In this section “member”, in relation to a trade union consisting wholly or partly of, or of representatives of, constituent or affiliated organisations, includes a member of any of the constituent or affiliated organisations.

31Remedy for failure to comply with request for access

(1)A person who claims that a trade union has failed in any respect to comply with a request made by him under section 30 may apply to the court.

(2)Where the court is satisfied that the claim is well-founded, it shall make such order as it considers appropriate for ensuring that that person—

(a)is allowed to inspect the records requested,

(b)is allowed to be accompanied by an accountant when making the inspection of those records, and

(c)is allowed to take, or is supplied with, such copies of, or of extracts from, the records as he may require.

(3)Without prejudice to any other power of the court, the court may on an application under this section grant such interlocutory relief (in Scotland, such interim order) as it considers appropriate.

Annual return, accounts and audit

32Annual return

(1)A trade union shall send to the Certification Officer as respects each calendar year a return relating to its affairs.

(2)The annual return shall be in such form and be signed by such persons as the Certification Officer may require and shall be sent to him before 1st June in the calendar year following that to which it relates.

(3)The annual return shall contain—

(a)the following accounts—

(i)revenue accounts indicating the income and expenditure of the trade union for the period to which the return relates,

(ii)a balance sheet as at the end of that period, and

(iii)such other accounts as the Certification Officer may require,

each of which must give a true and fair view of the matters to which it relates,

(b)a copy of the report made by the auditor or auditors of the trade union on those accounts and such other documents relating to those accounts and such further particulars as the Certification Officer may require, and

(c)a copy of the rules of the trade union as in force at the end of the period to which the return relates;

and shall have attached to it a note of all the changes in the officers of the union and of any change in the address of the head or main office of the union during the period to which the return relates.

(4)The Certification Officer may, if in any particular case he considers it appropriate to do so—

(a)direct that the period for which a return is to be sent to him shall be a period other than the calendar year last preceding the date on which the return is sent;

(b)direct that the date before which a return is to be sent to him shall be such date (whether before or after 1st June) as may be specified in the direction.

(5)A trade union shall at the request of any person supply him with a copy of its most recent return either free of charge or on payment of a reasonable charge.

(6)The Certification Officer shall at all reasonable hours keep available for public inspection either free of charge or on payment of a reasonable charge, copies of all annual returns sent to him under this section.

33Duty to appoint auditors

(1)A trade union shall in respect of each accounting period appoint an auditor or auditors to audit the accounts contained in its annual return.

(2)An “accounting period” means any period in relation to which it is required to send a return to the Certification Officer.

34Eligibility for appointment as auditor

(1)A person is not qualified to be the auditor or one of the auditors of a trade union unless he is eligible for appointment as a company auditor under section 25 of the [1989 c. 40.] Companies Act 1989.

(2)Two or more persons who are not so qualified may act as auditors of a trade union in respect of an accounting period if—

(a)the receipts and payments in respect of the union’s last preceding accounting period did not in the aggregate exceed £5,000,

(b)the number of its members at the end of that period did not exceed 500, and

(c)the value of its assets at the end of that period did not in the aggregate exceed £5,000.

(3)Where by virtue of subsection (2) persons who are not qualified as mentioned in subsection (1) act as auditors of a trade union in respect of an accounting period, the Certification Officer may (during that period or after it comes to an end) direct the union to appoint a person who is so qualified to audit its accounts for that period.

(4)The Secretary of State may by regulations—

(a)substitute for any sum or number specified in subsection (2) such sum or number as may be specified in the regulations; and

(b)prescribe what receipts and payments are to be taken into account for the purposes of that subsection.

Any such regulations shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(5)None of the following shall act as auditor of a trade union—

(a)an officer or employee of the trade union or of any of its branches or sections;

(b)a person who is a partner of, or in the employment of, or who employs, such an officer or employee;

(c)a body corporate.

References in this subsection to an officer shall be construed as not including an auditor.

35Appointment and removal of auditors

(1)The rules of every trade union shall contain provision for the appointment and removal of auditors.

But the following provisions have effect notwithstanding anything in the rules.

(2)An auditor of a trade union shall not be removed from office except by resolution passed at a general meeting of its members or of delegates of its members.

(3)An auditor duly appointed to audit the accounts of a trade union shall be re-appointed as auditor for the following accounting period, unless—

(a)a resolution has been passed at a general meeting of the trade union appointing somebody instead of him or providing expressly that he shall not be re-appointed, or

(b)he has given notice to the trade union in writing of his unwillingness to be re-appointed, or

(c)he is ineligible for re-appointment, or

(d)he has ceased to act as auditor by reason of incapacity.

(4)Where notice has been given of an intended resolution to appoint somebody in place of a retiring auditor but the resolution cannot be proceeded with at the meeting because of the death or incapacity of that person, or because he is ineligible for the appointment, the retiring auditor need not automatically be re-appointed.

(5)The references above to a person being ineligible for appointment as auditor of a trade union are to his not being qualified for the appointment in accordance with subsections (1) to (6) of section 34 or being precluded by subsection (7) of that section from acting as its auditor.

(6)The Secretary of State may make provision by regulations as to the procedure to be followed when it is intended to move a resolution—

(a)appointing another auditor in place of a retiring auditor, or

(b)providing expressly that a retiring auditor shall not be re-appointed,

and as to the rights of auditors and members of the trade union in relation to such a motion.

Any such regulations shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(7)Where regulations under subsection (6)—

(a)require copies of any representations made by a retiring auditor to be sent out, or

(b)require any such representations to be read out at a meeting,

the court, on the application of the trade union or of any other person, may dispense with the requirement if satisfied that the rights conferred on the retiring auditor by the regulations are being abused to secure needless publicity for defamatory matter.

(8)On such an application the court may order the costs or expenses of the trade union to be paid, in whole or in part, by the retiring auditor, whether he is a party to the application or not.

36Auditors' report

(1)The auditor or auditors of a trade union shall make a report to it on the accounts audited by him or them and contained in its annual return.

(2)The report shall state whether, in the opinion of the auditor or auditors, the accounts give a true and fair view of the matters to which they relate.

(3)It is the duty of the auditor or auditors in preparing their report to carry out such investigations as will enable them to form an opinion as to—

(a)whether the trade union has kept proper accounting records in accordance with the requirements of section 28,

(b)whether it has maintained a satisfactory system of control over its transactions in accordance with the requirements of that section, and

(c)whether the accounts to which the report relates agree with the accounting records.

(4)If in the opinion of the auditor or auditors the trade union has failed to comply with section 28, or if the accounts do not agree with the accounting records, the auditor or auditors shall state that fact in the report.

37Rights of auditors

(1)Every auditor of a trade union—

(a)has a right of access at all times to its accounting records and to all other documents relating to its affairs, and

(b)is entitled to require from its officers, or the officers of any of its branches or sections, such information and explanations as he thinks necessary for the performance of his duties as auditor.

(2)If an auditor fails to obtain all the information and explanations which, to the best of his knowledge and belief, are necessary for the purposes of an audit, he shall state that fact in his report.

(3)Every auditor of a trade union is entitled—

(a)to attend any general meeting of its members, or of delegates of its members, and to receive all notices of and other communications relating to any general meeting which any such member or delegate is entitled to receive, and

(b)to be heard at any meeting which he attends on any part of the business of the meeting which concerns him as auditor.

Members' superannuation schemes

38Members' superannuation schemes: separate fund to be maintained

(1)In the following provisions a “members' superannuation scheme” means any scheme or arrangement made by or on behalf of a trade union (including a scheme or arrangement shown in the rules of the union) in so far as it provides—

(a)for benefits to be paid by way of pension (including any widows' or children’s pensions or dependants' pensions) to or in respect of members or former members of the trade union, and

(b)for those benefits to be so paid either out of the funds of the union or under an insurance scheme maintained out of those funds.

(2)A trade union shall not maintain a members' superannuation scheme unless it maintains a separate fund for the payment of benefits in accordance with the scheme.

A “separate fund” means a fund separate from the general funds of the trade union.

39Examination of proposals for new scheme

(1)A trade union shall not begin to maintain a members' superannuation scheme unless, before the date on which the scheme begins to be maintained—

(a)the proposals for the scheme have been examined by an appropriately qualified actuary, and

(b)a copy of a report made to the trade union by the actuary on the results of his examination of the proposals, signed by the actuary, has been sent to the Certification Officer.

(2)The actuary’s report shall state—

(a)whether in his opinion the premium or contribution rates will be adequate,

(b)whether the accounting or funding arrangements are suitable, and

(c)whether in his opinion the fund for the payment of benefits will be adequate.

(3)A copy of the actuary’s report shall, on the application of any of the union’s members, be supplied to him free of charge.

40Periodical re-examination of existing schemes

(1)Where a trade union maintains a members' superannuation scheme, it shall arrange for the scheme to be examined periodically by an appropriately qualified actuary and for a report to be made to it by the actuary on the result of his examination.

(2)The examination shall be of the scheme as it has effect at such date as the trade union may determine, not being more than five years after the date by reference to which the last examination or, as the case may be, the examination of the proposals for the scheme was carried out.

(3)The examination shall include a valuation (as at the date by reference to which the examination is carried out) of the assets comprised in the fund maintained for the payment of benefits and of the liabilities falling to be discharged out of it.

(4)The actuary’s report shall state—

(a)whether in his opinion the premium or contribution rates are adequate,

(b)whether the accounting or funding arrangements are suitable, and

(c)whether in his opinion the fund for the payment of benefits is adequate.

(5)A copy of the report, signed by the actuary, shall be sent to the Certification Officer.

(6)The trade union shall make such arrangements as will enable the report to be sent to the Certification Officer within a year of the date by reference to which the examination was carried out.

(7)A copy of the actuary’s report shall, on the application of any of the union’s members, be supplied to him free of charge.

41Powers of the Certification Officer

(1)The Certification Officer may, on the application of a trade union—

(a)exempt a members' superannuation scheme which the union proposes to maintain from the requirements of section 39 (examination of proposals for new scheme), or

(b)exempt a members' superannuation scheme which the union maintains from the requirements of section 40 (periodical re-examination of scheme),

if he is satisfied that, by reason of the small number of members to which the scheme is applicable or for any other special reasons, it is unnecessary for the scheme to be examined in accordance with those provisions.

(2)An exemption may be revoked if it appears to the Certification Officer that the circumstances by reason of which it was granted have ceased to exist.

(3)Where an exemption is revoked under subsection (1)(b), the date as at which the next periodical examination is to be carried out under section 40 shall be such as the Certification Officer may direct.

(4)The Certification Officer may in any case direct that section 40 (periodical re-examination of schemes) shall apply to a trade union with the substitution for the reference to five years of a reference to such shorter period as may be specified in the direction.

42Meaning of “appropriately qualified actuary”

In sections 39 and 40 an “appropriately qualified actuary” means a person who is either—

(a)a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries, or

(b)a Fellow of the Faculty of Actuaries,

or is approved by the Certification Officer on the application of the trade union as a person having actuarial knowledge.

Supplementary

43Newly-formed trade unions

(1)The following provisions of this Chapter do not apply to a trade union which has been in existence for less than twelve months—

(a)section 27 (duty to supply copy of rules),

(b)sections 32 to 37 (annual return, accounts and audit), and

(c)sections 38 to 42 (members' superannuation schemes).

(2)Sections 24 to 26 (register of members' names and addresses) do not apply to a trade union until more than one year has elapsed since its formation (by amalgamation or otherwise).

For this purpose the date of formation of a trade union formed otherwise than by amalgamation shall be taken to be the date on which the first members of the executive of the union are first appointed or elected.

44Discharge of duties in case of union having branches or sections

(1)The following provisions apply where a trade union consists of or includes branches or sections.

(2)Any duty falling upon the union in relation to a branch or section under the provisions of—

  • section 28 (duty to keep accounting records),

  • sections 32 to 37 (annual return, accounts and audit), or

  • sections 38 to 42 (members' superannuation schemes),

shall be treated as discharged to the extent to which a branch or section discharges it instead of the union.

(3)In sections 29 to 31 (right of member to access to accounting records) references to a branch or section do not include a branch or section which is itself a trade union.

(4)Any duty falling upon a branch or section by reason of its being a trade union under—

  • section 24 (register of members' names and addresses),

  • section 28 (duty to keep accounting records),

  • sections 32 to 37 (annual return, accounts and audit), or

  • section 38 to 42 (members' superannuation schemes),

shall be treated as discharged to the extent to which the union of which it is a branch or section discharges the duty instead of it.

45Offences

(1)If a trade union refuses or wilfully neglects to perform a duty imposed on it by or under any of the provisions of—

  • section 27 (duty to supply copy of rules),

  • sections 28 to 30 (accounting records),

  • sections 32 to 37 (annual return, accounts and audit), or

  • sections 38 to 42 (members' superannuation schemes),

it commits an offence.

(2)The offence shall be deemed to have been also committed by—

(a)every officer of the trade union who is bound by the rules of the union to discharge on its behalf the duty breach of which constitutes the offence, or

(b)if there is no such officer, every member of the general committee of management of the union.

(3)In any proceedings brought against an officer or member by virtue of subsection (2) in respect of a breach of duty, it is a defence for him to prove that he had reasonable cause to believe, and did believe, that some other person who was competent to discharge that duty was authorised to discharge it instead of him and had discharged it or would do so.

(4)A person who wilfully alters or causes to be altered a document which is required for the purposes of any of the provisions mentioned in subsection (1), with intent to falsify the document or to enable a trade union to evade any of those provisions, commits an offence.

(5)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction—

(a)in the case of an offence under subsection (1), to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale;

(b)in the case of an offence under subsection (4), to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

Chapter IVElections for certain positions

Duty to hold elections

46Duty to hold elections for certain positions

(1)A trade union shall secure—

(a)that every person who holds a position in the union to which this Chapter applies does so by virtue of having been elected to it at an election satisfying the requirements of this Chapter, and

(b)that no person continues to hold such a position for more than five years without being re-elected at such an election.

(2)The positions to which this Chapter applies (subject as mentioned below) are—

(a)member of the executive,

(b)any position by virtue of which a person is a member of the executive,

(c)president, and

(d)general secretary;

and the requirements referred to above are those set out in sections 47 to 52 below.

(3)In this Chapter “member of the executive” includes any person who, under the rules or practice of the union, may attend and speak at some or all of the meetings of the executive, otherwise than for the purpose of providing the committee with factual information or with technical or professional advice with respect to matters taken into account by the executive in carrying out its functions.

(4)This Chapter does not apply to the position of president or general secretary if the holder of that position—

(a)is not, in respect of that position, either a voting member of the executive or an employee of the union,

(b)holds that position for a period which under the rules of the union cannot end more than 13 months after he took it up, and

(c)has not held either position at any time in the period of twelve months ending with the day before he took up that position.

(5)A “voting member of the executive” means a person entitled in his own right to attend meetings of the executive and to vote on matters on which votes are taken by the executive (whether or not he is entitled to attend all such meetings or to vote on all such matters or in all circumstances).

(6)The provisions of this Chapter apply notwithstanding anything in the rules or practice of the union; and the terms and conditions on which a person is employed by the union shall be disregarded in so far as they would prevent the union from complying with the provisions of this Chapter.

Requirements to be satisfied with respect to elections

47Candidates

(1)No member of the trade union shall be unreasonably excluded from standing as a candidate.

(2)No candidate shall be required, directly or indirectly, to be a member of a political party.

(3)A member of a trade union shall not be taken to be unreasonably excluded from standing as a candidate if he is excluded on the ground that he belongs to a class of which all the members are excluded by the rules of the union.

But a rule which provides for such a class to be determined by reference to whom the union chooses to exclude shall be disregarded.

48Election addresses

(1)The trade union shall—

(a)provide every candidate with an opportunity of preparing an election address in his own words and of submitting it to the union to be distributed to the persons accorded entitlement to vote in the election; and

(b)secure that, so far as reasonably practicable, copies of every election address submitted to it in time are distributed to each of those persons by post along with the voting papers for the election.

(2)The trade union may determine the time by which an election address must be submitted to it for distribution; but the time so determined must not be earlier than the latest time at which a person may become a candidate in the election.

(3)The trade union may provide that election addresses submitted to it for distribution—

(a)must not exceed such length, not being less than one hundred words, as may be determined by the union, and

(b)may, as regards photographs and other matter not in words, incorporate only such matter as the union may determine.

(4)The trade union shall secure that no modification of an election address submitted to it is made by any person in any copy of the address to be distributed except—

(a)at the request or with the consent of the candidate, or

(b)where the modification is necessarily incidental to the method adopted for producing that copy.

(5)The trade union shall secure that the same method of producing copies is applied in the same way to every election address submitted and, so far as reasonably practicable, that no such facility or information as would enable a candidate to gain any benefit from—

(a)the method by which copies of the election addresses are produced, or

(b)the modifications which are necessarily incidental to that method,

is provided to any candidate without being provided equally to all the others.

(6)The trade union shall, so far as reasonably practicable, secure that the same facilities and restrictions with respect to the preparation, submission, length or modification of an election address, and with respect to the incorporation of photographs or other matter not in words, are provided or applied equally to each of the candidates.

(7)The arrangements made by the trade union for the production of the copies to be so distributed must be such as to secure that none of the candidates is required to bear any of the expense of producing the copies.

(8)No-one other than the candidate himself shall incur any civil or criminal liability in respect of the publication of a candidate’s election address or of any copy required to be made for the purposes of this section.

49Appointment of independent scrutineer

(1)The trade union shall, before the election is held, appoint a qualified independent person (“the scrutineer”) to carry out—

(a)the functions in relation to the election which are required under this section to be contained in his appointment; and

(b)such additional functions in relation to the election as may be specified in his appointment.

(2)A person is a qualified independent person in relation to an election if—

(a)he satisfies such conditions as may be specified for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State or is himself so specified; and

(b)the trade union has no grounds for believing either that he will carry out any functions conferred on him in relation to the election otherwise than competently or that his independence in relation to the union, or in relation to the election, might reasonably be called into question.

An order under paragraph (a) shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(3)The scrutineer’s appointment shall require him—

(a)to be the person who supervises the production and distribution of the voting papers and to whom the voting papers are returned by those voting;

(b)to take such steps as appear to him to be appropriate for the purpose of enabling him to make his report (see section 52);

(c)to make his report to the trade union as soon as reasonably practicable after the last date for the return of voting papers; and

(d)to retain custody of all voting papers returned for the purposes of the election—

(i)until the end of the period of one year beginning with the announcement by the union of the result of the election; and

(ii)if within that period an application is made under section 54 (complaint of failure to comply with election requirements), until the Certification Officer or the court authorises him to dispose of the papers.

(4)The trade union shall ensure that nothing in the terms of the scrutineer’s appointment (including any additional functions specified in the appointment) is such as to make it reasonable for any person to call the scrutineer’s independence in relation to the union into question.

(5)The trade union shall, before the scrutineer begins to carry out his functions, either—

(a)send a notice stating the name of the scrutineer to every member of the union to whom it is reasonably practicable to send such a notice, or

(b)take all such other steps for notifying members of the name of the scrutineer as it is the practice of the union to take when matters of general interest to all its members need to be brought to their attention.

(6)The trade union shall ensure that the scrutineer duly carries out his functions and that there is no interference with his carrying out of those functions which would make it reasonable for any person to call the scrutineer’s independence in relation to the union into question.

(7)The trade union shall comply with all reasonable requests made by the scrutineer for the purposes of, or in connection with, the carrying out of his functions.

50Entitlement to vote

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, entitlement to vote shall be accorded equally to all members of the trade union.

(2)The rules of the union may exclude entitlement to vote in the case of all members belonging to one of the following classes, or to a class falling within one of the following—

(a)members who are not in employment;

(b)members who are in arrears in respect of any subscription or contribution due to the union;

(c)members who are apprentices, trainees or students or new members of the union.

(3)The rules of the union may restrict entitlement to vote to members who fall within—

(a)a class determined by reference to a trade or occupation,

(b)a class determined by reference to a geographical area, or

(c)a class which is by virtue of the rules of the union treated as a separate section within the union,

or to members who fall within a class determined by reference to any combination of the factors mentioned in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c).

The reference in paragraph (c) to a section of a trade union includes a part of the union which is itself a trade union.

(4)Entitlement may not be restricted in accordance with subsection (3) if the effect is that any member of the union is denied entitlement to vote at all elections held for the purposes of this Chapter otherwise than by virtue of belonging to a class excluded in accordance with subsection (2).

51Voting

(1)The method of voting must be by the marking of a voting paper by the person voting.

(2)Each voting paper must—

(a)state the name of the independent scrutineer and clearly specify the address to which, and the date by which, it is to be returned,

(b)be given one of a series of consecutive whole numbers every one of which is used in giving a different number in that series to each voting paper printed or otherwise produced for the purposes of the election, and

(c)be marked with its number.

(3)Every person who is entitled to vote at the election must—

(a)be allowed to vote without interference from, or constraint imposed by, the union or any of its members, officials or employees, and

(b)so far as is reasonably practicable, be enabled to do so without incurring any direct cost to himself.

(4)So far as is reasonably practicable, every person who is entitled to vote at the election must—

(a)have sent to him by post, at his home address or another address which he has requested the trade union in writing to treat as his postal address, a voting paper which either lists the candidates at the election or is accompanied by a separate list of those candidates; and

(b)be given a convenient opportunity to vote by post.

(5)The ballot shall be conducted so as to secure that—

(a)so far as is reasonably practicable, those voting do so in secret, and

(b)the votes given at the election are fairly and accurately counted.

For the purposes of paragraph (b) an inaccuracy in counting shall be disregarded if it is accidental and on a scale which could not affect the result of the election.

(6)The ballot shall be so conducted as to secure that the result of the election is determined solely by counting the number of votes cast directly for each candidate.

(7)Nothing in subsection (6) shall be taken to prevent the system of voting used for the election being the single transferable vote, that is, a vote capable of being given so as to indicate the voter’s order of preference for the candidates and of being transferred to the next choice—

(a)when it is not required to give a prior choice the necessary quota of votes, or

(b)when, owing to the deficiency in the number of votes given for a prior choice, that choice is eliminated from the list of candidates.

52Scrutineer’s report

(1)The scrutineer’s report on the election shall state—

(a)the number of voting papers distributed for the purposes of the election,

(b)the number of voting papers returned to the scrutineer,

(c)the number of valid votes cast in the election for each candidate, and

(d)the number of spoiled or otherwise invalid voting papers returned.

(2)The report shall also state whether the scrutineer is satisfied—

(a)that there are no reasonable grounds for believing that there was any contravention of a requirement imposed by or under any enactment in relation to the election,

(b)that the arrangements made with respect to the production, storage, distribution, return or other handling of the voting papers used in the election, and the arrangements for the counting of the votes, included all such security arrangements as were reasonably practicable for the purpose of minimising the risk that any unfairness or malpractice might occur, and

(c)that he has been able to carry out his functions without such interference as would make it reasonable for any person to call his independence in relation to the union into question;

and if he is not satisfied as to any of those matters, the report shall give particulars of his reasons for not being satisfied as to that matter.

(3)The trade union shall not publish the result of the election until it has received the scrutineer’s report.

(4)The trade union shall within the period of three months after it receives the report either—

(a)send a copy of the report to every member of the union to whom it is reasonably practicable to send such a copy; or

(b)take all such other steps for notifying the contents of the report to the members of the union (whether by publishing the report or otherwise) as it is the practice of the union to take when matters of general interest to all its members need to be brought to their attention.

(5)Any such copy or notification shall be accompanied by a statement that the union will, on request, supply any member of the union with a copy of the report, either free of charge or on payment of such reasonable fee as may be specified in the notification.

(6)The trade union shall so supply any member of the union who makes such a request and pays the fee (if any) notified to him.

53Uncontested elections

Nothing in this Chapter shall be taken to require a ballot to be held at an uncontested election.

Remedy for failure to comply with requirements

54Remedy for failure to comply with requirements: general

(1)The remedy for a failure on the part of a trade union to comply with the requirements of this Chapter is by way of application under section 55 (to the Certification Officer) or section 56 (to the court).

The making of an application to the Certification Officer does not prevent the applicant, or any other person, from making an application to the court in respect of the same matter.

(2)An application under those sections may be made—

(a)by a person who is a member of the trade union (provided, where the election has been held, he was also a member at the time when it was held), or

(b)by a person who is or was a candidate at the election;

and the references in those sections to a person having a sufficient interest are to such a person.

(3)No such application may be made after the end of the period of one year beginning with the day on which the union announced the result of the election.

55Application to Certification Officer

(1)A person having a sufficient interest (see section 54(2)) who claims that a trade union has failed to comply with any of the requirements of this Chapter may apply to the Certification Officer for a declaration to that effect.

(2)On an application being made to him, the Certification Officer shall—

(a)make such enquiries as he thinks fit, and

(b)where he considers it appropriate, give the applicant and the trade union an opportunity to be heard,

and may make or refuse the declaration asked for.

(3)If he makes a declaration he shall specify in it the provisions with which the trade union has failed to comply.

(4)Where he makes a declaration and is satisfied that steps have been taken by the union with a view to remedying the declared failure, or securing that a failure of the same or any similar kind does not occur in future, or that the union has agreed to take such steps, he shall specify those steps in the declaration.

(5)Whether he makes or refuses a declaration, he shall give reasons for his decision in writing; and the reasons may be accompanied by written observations on any matter arising from, or connected with, the proceedings.

(6)In exercising his functions under this section the Certification Officer shall ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, an application made to him is determined within six months of being made.

(7)Where he requests a person to furnish information to him in connection with enquiries made by him under this section, he shall specify the date by which that information is to be furnished and, unless he considers that it would be inappropriate to do so, shall proceed with his determination of the application notwithstanding that the information has not been furnished to him by the specified date.

56Application to court

(1)A person having a sufficient interest (see section 54(2)) who claims that a trade union has failed to comply with any of the requirements of this Chapter may apply to the court for a declaration to that effect.

(2)If an application in respect of the same matter has been made to the Certification Officer, the court shall have due regard to any declaration, reasons or observations of his which are brought to its notice.

(3)If the court makes the declaration asked for, it shall specify in the declaration the provisions with which the trade union has failed to comply.

(4)Where the court makes a declaration it shall also, unless it considers that to do so would be inappropriate, make an enforcement order, that is, an order imposing on the union one or more of the following requirements—

(a)to secure the holding of an election in accordance with the order;

(b)to take such other steps to remedy the declared failure as may be specified in the order;

(c)to abstain from such acts as may be so specified with a view to securing that a failure of the same or a similar kind does not occur in future.

The court shall in an order imposing any such requirement as is mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) specify the period within which the union is to comply with the requirements of the order.

(5)Where the court makes an order requiring the union to hold a fresh election, the court shall (unless it considers that it would be inappropriate to do so in the particular circumstances of the case) require the election to be conducted in accordance with the requirements of this Chapter and such other provisions as may be made by the order.

(6)Where an enforcement order has been made—

(a)any person who is a member of the union and was a member at the time the order was made, or

(b)any person who is or was a candidate in the election in question,

is entitled to enforce obedience to the order as if he had made the application on which the order was made.

(7)Without prejudice to any other power of the court, the court may on an application under this section grant such interlocutory relief (in Scotland, such interim order) as it considers appropriate.

Supplementary

57Exemption of newly-formed trade unions, &c

(1)The provisions of this Chapter do not apply to a trade union until more than one year has elapsed since its formation (by amalgamation or otherwise).

For this purpose the date of formation of a trade union formed otherwise than by amalgamation shall be taken to be the date on which the first members of the executive of the union are first appointed or elected.

(2)Where a trade union is formed by amalgamation, the provisions of this Chapter do not apply in relation to a person who—

(a)by virtue of an election held a position to which this Chapter applies in one of the amalgamating unions immediately before the amalgamation, and

(b)becomes the holder of a position to which this Chapter applies in the amalgamated union in accordance with the instrument of transfer,

until after the end of the period for which he would have been entitled in accordance with this Chapter to continue to hold the first-mentioned position without being re-elected.

(3)Where a trade union transfers its engagements to another trade union, the provisions of this Chapter do not apply in relation to a person who—

(a)held a position to which this Chapter applies in the transferring union immediately before the transfer, and

(b)becomes the holder of a position to which this Chapter applies in the transferee union in accordance with the instrument of transfer,

until after the end of the period of one year beginning with the date of the transfer or, if he held the first-mentioned position by virtue of an election, any longer period for which he would have been entitled in accordance with this Chapter to continue to hold that position without being re-elected.

58Exemption of certain persons nearing retirement

(1)Section 46(1)(b) (requirement of re-election) does not apply to a person holding a position to which this Chapter applies if the following conditions are satisfied.

(2)The conditions are that—

(a)he holds the position by virtue of having been elected at an election in relation to which the requirements of this Chapter were satisfied,

(b)he is a full-time employee of the union by virtue of the position,

(c)he will reach retirement age within five years,

(d)he is entitled under the rules of the union to continue as the holder of the position until retirement age without standing for re-election,

(e)he has been a full-time employee of the union for a period (which need not be continuous) of at least ten years, and

(f)the period between the day on which the election referred to in paragraph (a) took place and the day immediately preceding that on which paragraph (c) is first satisfied does not exceed five years.

(3)For the purposes of this section “retirement age”, in relation to any person, means the earlier of—

(a)the age fixed by, or in accordance with, the rules of the union for him to retire from the position in question, or

(b)the age which is for the time being pensionable age for the purpose of Parts I to VI of the [1992 c. 4.] Social Security (Contributions and Benefits) Act 1992.

59Period for giving effect to election

Where a person holds a position to which this Chapter applies immediately before an election at which he is not re-elected to that position, nothing in this Chapter shall be taken to require the union to prevent him from continuing to hold that position for such period (not exceeding six months) as may reasonably be required for effect to be given to the result of the election.

60Overseas members

(1)A trade union which has overseas members may choose whether or not to accord any of those members entitlement to vote at an election for a position to which this Chapter applies.

(2)An “overseas member” means a member of the union (other than a merchant seaman or offshore worker) who is outside Great Britain throughout the period during which votes may be cast.

For this purpose—

  • “merchant seaman” means a person whose employment, or the greater part of it, is carried out on board sea-going ships; and

  • “offshore worker” means a person in offshore employment, other than one who is in such employment in an area where the law of Northern Ireland applies.

(3)Where the union chooses to accord an overseas member entitlement to vote, section 51 (requirements as to voting) applies in relation to him; but nothing in section 47 (candidates) or section 50 (entitlement to vote) applies in relation to an overseas member or in relation to a vote cast by such a member.

61Other supplementary provisions

(1)For the purposes of this Chapter the date on which a contested election is held shall be taken, in the case of an election in which votes may be cast on more than one day, to be the last of those days.

(2)Nothing in this Chapter affects the validity of anything done by a person holding a position to which this Chapter applies.

Chapter VRights of trade union members

Right to a ballot before industrial action

62Right to a ballot before industrial action

(1)A member of a trade union who claims that members of the union, including himself, are likely to be or have been induced by the union to take part or to continue to take part in industrial action which does not have the support of a ballot may apply to the court for an order under this section.

(2)For this purpose industrial action shall be regarded as having the support of a ballot only if—

(a)the union has held a ballot in respect of the action in relation to which the requirements of sections 227 to 232 were satisfied and in which the applicant was accorded entitlement to vote,

(b)the majority voting in the ballot answered “Yes” to the question applicable in accordance with section 229(2) to industrial action of the kind which the applicant has been or is likely to be induced to take part in, and

(c)the requirements of section 233 (calling of industrial action with support of ballot) are satisfied.

(3)Where on an application under this section the court is satisfied that the claim is well-founded, it shall make such order as it considers appropriate for requiring the union to take steps for ensuring—

(a)that there is no, or no further, inducement of members of the union to take part or to continue to take part in the industrial action to which the application relates, and

(b)that no member engages in conduct after the making of the order by virtue of having been induced before the making of the order to take part or continue to take part in the action.

(4)Without prejudice to any other power of the court, the court may on an application under this section grant such interlocutory relief (in Scotland, such interim order) as it considers appropriate.

(5)For the purposes of this section an act shall be taken to be done by a trade union if it is authorised or endorsed by the union; and the provisions of section 20(2) to (4) apply for the purpose of determining whether an act is to be taken to be so authorised or endorsed.

Those provisions also apply in relation to proceedings for failure to comply with an order under this section as they apply in relation to the original proceedings.

(6)In this section—

  • “inducement” includes an inducement which is or would be ineffective, whether because of the member’s unwillingness to be influenced by it or for any other reason; and

  • “industrial action” means a strike or other industrial action by persons employed under contracts of employment.

(7)Where a person holds any office or employment under the Crown on terms which do not constitute a contract of employment between that person and the Crown, those terms shall nevertheless be deemed to constitute such a contract for the purposes of this section.

(8)References in this section to a contract of employment include any contract under which one person personally does work or performs services for another; and related expressions shall be construed accordingly.

(9)Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring a trade union to hold separate ballots for the purposes of this section and sections 226 to 234 (requirement of ballot before action by trade union).

Right not to be denied access to the courts

63Right not to be denied access to the courts

(1)This section applies where a matter is under the rules of a trade union required or allowed to be submitted for determination or conciliation in accordance with the rules of the union, but a provision of the rules purporting to provide for that to be a person’s only remedy has no effect (or would have no effect if there were one).

(2)Notwithstanding anything in the rules of the union or in the practice of any court, if a member or former member of the union begins proceedings in a court with respect to a matter to which this section applies, then if—

(a)he has previously made a valid application to the union for the matter to be submitted for determination or conciliation in accordance with the union’s rules, and

(b)the court proceedings are begun after the end of the period of six months beginning with the day on which the union received the application,

the rules requiring or allowing the matter to be so submitted, and the fact that any relevant steps remain to be taken under the rules, shall be regarded for all purposes as irrelevant to any question whether the court proceedings should be dismissed, stayed or sisted, or adjourned.

(3)An application shall be deemed to be valid for the purposes of subsection (2)(a) unless the union informed the applicant, before the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the date on which the union received the application, of the respects in which the application contravened the requirements of the rules.

(4)If the court is satisfied that any delay in the taking of relevant steps under the rules is attributable to unreasonable conduct of the person who commenced the proceedings, it may treat the period specified in subsection (2)(b) as extended by such further period as it considers appropriate.

(5)In this section—

(a)references to the rules of a trade union include any arbitration or other agreement entered into in pursuance of a requirement imposed by or under the rules; and

(b)references to the relevant steps under the rules, in relation to any matter, include any steps falling to be taken in accordance with the rules for the purposes of or in connection with the determination or conciliation of the matter, or any appeal, review or reconsideration of any determination or award.

(6)This section does not affect any enactment or rule of law by virtue of which a court would apart from this section disregard any such rules of a trade union or any such fact as is mentioned in subsection (2).

Right not to be unjustifiably disciplined

64Right not to be unjustifiably disciplined

(1)An individual who is or has been a member of a trade union has the right not to be unjustifiably disciplined by the union.

(2)For this purpose an individual is “disciplined” by a trade union if a determination is made, or purportedly made, under the rules of the union or by an official of the union or a number of persons including an official that—

(a)he should be expelled from the union or a branch or section of the union,

(b)he should pay a sum to the union, to a branch or section of the union or to any other person;

(c)sums tendered by him in respect of an obligation to pay subscriptions or other sums to the union, or to a branch or section of the union, should be treated as unpaid or paid for a different purpose,

(d)he should be deprived to any extent of, or of access to, any benefits, services or facilities which would otherwise be provided or made available to him by virtue of his membership of the union, or a branch or section of the union,

(e)another trade union, or a branch or section of it, should be encouraged or advised not to accept him as a member, or

(f)he should be subjected to some other detriment;

and whether an individual is “unjustifiably disciplined” shall be determined in accordance with section 65.

(3)Where a determination made in infringement of an individual’s right under this section requires the payment of a sum or the performance of an obligation, no person is entitled in any proceedings to rely on that determination for the purpose of recovering the sum or enforcing the obligation.

(4)Subject to that, the remedies for infringement of the right conferred by this section are as provided by sections 66 and 67, and not otherwise.

(5)The right not to be unjustifiably disciplined is in addition to (and not in substitution for) any right which exists apart from this section; and nothing in this section or sections 65 to 67 affects any remedy for infringement of any such right.

65Meaning of “unjustifiably disciplined”

(1)An individual is unjustifiably disciplined by a trade union if the actual or supposed conduct which constitutes the reason, or one of the reasons, for disciplining him is—

(a)conduct to which this section applies, or

(b)something which is believed by the union to amount to such conduct;

but subject to subsection (6) (cases of bad faith in relation to assertion of wrongdoing).

(2)This section applies to conduct which consists in—

(a)failing to participate in or support a strike or other industrial action (whether by members of the union or by others), or indicating opposition to or a lack of support for such action;

(b)failing to contravene, for a purpose connected with such a strike or other industrial action, a requirement imposed on him by or under a contract of employment;

(c)asserting (whether by bringing proceedings or otherwise) that the union, any official or representative of it or a trustee of its property has contravened, or is proposing to contravene, a requirement which is, or is thought to be, imposed by or under the rules of the union or any other agreement or by or under any enactment (whenever passed) or any rule of law;

(d)encouraging or assisting a person—

(i)to perform an obligation imposed on him by a contract of employment, or

(ii)to make or attempt to vindicate any such assertion as is mentioned in paragraph (c); or

(e)contravening a requirement imposed by or in consequence of a determination which infringes the individual’s or another individual’s right not to be unjustifiably disciplined.

(3)This section applies to conduct which involves the Commissioner for the Rights of Trade Union Members or the Certification Officer being consulted or asked to provide advice or assistance with respect to any matter whatever, or which involves any person being consulted or asked to provide advice or assistance with respect to a matter which forms, or might form, the subject-matter of any such assertion as is mentioned in subsection (2)(c) above.

(4)This section also applies to conduct which consists in proposing to engage in, or doing anything preparatory or incidental to, conduct falling within subsection (2) or (3).

(5)This section does not apply to an act, omission or statement comprised in conduct falling within subsection (2), (3) or (4) above if it is shown that the act, omission or statement is one in respect of which individuals would be disciplined by the union irrespective of whether their acts, omissions or statements were in connection with conduct within subsection (2) or (3) above.

(6)An individual is not unjustifiably disciplined if it is shown—

(a)that the reason for disciplining him, or one of them, is that he made such an assertion as is mentioned in subsection (2)(c), or encouraged or assisted another person to make or attempt to vindicate such an assertion,

(b)that the assertion was false, and

(c)that he made the assertion, or encouraged or assisted another person to make or attempt to vindicate it, in the belief that it was false or otherwise in bad faith,

and that there was no other reason for disciplining him or that the only other reasons were reasons in respect of which he does not fall to be treated as unjustifiably disciplined.

(7)In this section—

  • “conduct” includes statements, acts and omissions;

  • “contract of employment”, in relation to an individual, includes any agreement between that individual and a person for whom he works or normally works; and

  • “representative”, in relation to a union, means a person acting or purporting to act—

    (a)

    in his capacity as a member of the union, or

    (b)

    on the instructions or advice of a person acting or purporting to act in that capacity or in the capacity of an official of the union.

(8)Where a person holds any office or employment under the Crown on terms which do not constitute a contract of employment between him and the Crown, those terms shall nevertheless be deemed to constitute such a contract for the purposes of this section.

66Complaint of infringement of right

(1)An individual who claims that he has been unjustifiably disciplined by a trade union may present a complaint against the union to an industrial tribunal.

(2)The tribunal shall not entertain such a complaint unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the making of the determination claimed to infringe the right, or

(b)where the tribunal is satisfied—

(i)that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period, or

(ii)that any delay in making the complaint is wholly or partly attributable to a reasonable attempt to appeal against the determination or to have it reconsidered or reviewed,

within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable.

(3)Where the tribunal finds the complaint well-founded, it shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4)Where an individual who is, or is seeking to be, in employment to which section 174 applies (employment subject to union membership agreement) is refused membership of, or is expelled from, a union in pursuance of a determination which infringes his right not to be unjustifiably disciplined, he may not present a complaint under this section but the refusal or expulsion shall be regarded as unreasonable for the purposes of that section.

67Further remedies for infringement of right

(1)An individual whose complaint under section 66 has been declared to be well-founded may make an application for one or both of the following—

(a)an award of compensation to be paid to him by the union;

(b)an order that the union pay him an amount equal to any sum which he has paid in pursuance of any such determination as is mentioned in section 64(2)(b).

(2)An application under this section shall be made to the Employment Appeal Tribunal if, when it is made—

(a)the determination infringing the applicant’s right not to be unjustifiably disciplined has not been revoked, or

(b)the union has failed to take all the steps necessary for securing the reversal of anything done for the purpose of giving effect to the determination;

and in any other case it shall be made to an industrial tribunal.

(3)An application under this section shall not be entertained if made before the end of the period of four weeks beginning with the date of the declaration or after the end of the period of six months beginning with that date.

(4)Where the Employment Appeal Tribunal or industrial tribunal is satisfied that it would be required by virtue of subsection (2) to dismiss the application, it may instead transfer it to the tribunal to which it should have been made; and an application so transferred shall be proceeded with as if it had been made in accordance with that subsection when originally made.

(5)The amount of compensation awarded shall, subject to the following provisions, be such as the Employment Appeal Tribunal or industrial tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances.

(6)In determining the amount of compensation to be awarded, the same rule shall be applied concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law in England and Wales or Scotland.

(7)Where the Employment Appeal Tribunal or industrial tribunal finds that the infringement complained of was to any extent caused or contributed to by the action of the applicant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensation by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

(8)The amount of compensation awarded against a trade union on an application under this section shall not exceed the aggregate of—

(a)an amount equal to 30 times the limit for the time being imposed by paragraph 8(1)(b) of Schedule 14 to the [1978 c. 44.] Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978 (maximum amount of a week’s pay for basic award in unfair dismissal cases), and

(b)an amount equal to the limit for the time being imposed by section 75 of that Act (maximum compensatory award in such cases);

and, in the case of an award by the Employment Appeal Tribunal, shall not be less than the amount for the time being specified in section 156(1) of this Act (minimum basic award in certain cases of unfair dismissal).

(9)A reduction or increase required to be made by virtue of the limits in subsection (8) shall be made before a reduction made—

(a)by virtue of subsection (6) or (7), or

(b)on account of sums already paid by the union by way of compensation in respect of the determination to which the application relates or in respect of anything done for the purpose of giving effect to the determination;

and, accordingly, where the case so requires, the reductions mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) shall be applied to the maximum or minimum award under subsection (8).

Right to require employer to stop deduction of union dues

68Right to require employer to stop deductions of union dues

(1)If a person certifies to his employer—

(a)that notice given by him to a trade union for the purpose of terminating his membership has expired or will expire on a particular date, or

(b)that his membership of a trade union to the knowledge of the union has been or will be terminated from a particular date,

the employer shall ensure that no amount representing a payment to the union in respect of his membership of the union after that date is deducted from emoluments payable to him.

(2)The employer’s duty under subsection (1) applies from the first day, following the giving of the certificate, on which it is reasonably practicable for him to comply with that subsection.

(3)If a person who has given a certificate under subsection (1) notifies his employer that the certificate is withdrawn, the employer’s duty under that subsection does not apply in relation to emoluments paid after the notification.

(4)A deduction made in contravention of this section shall be treated for the purposes of Part I of the [1986 c. 48.] Wages Act 1986 as a deduction in contravention of section 1(1) of that Act notwithstanding anything in any contract between the employee and employer, or in any agreement or consent signified by the employee.

Right to terminate membership of union

69Right to terminate membership of union

In every contract of membership of a trade union, whether made before or after the passing of this Act, a term conferring a right on the member, on giving reasonable notice and complying with any reasonable conditions, to terminate his membership of the union shall be implied.

Supplementary

70Membership of constituent or affiliated organisation

In this Chapter “member”, in relation to a trade union consisting wholly or partly of, or of representatives of, constituent or affiliated organisations, includes a member of any of the constituent or affiliated organisations.

Chapter VIApplication of funds for political objects

Restriction on use of funds for certain political objects

71Restriction on use of funds for political objects

(1)The funds of a trade union shall not be applied in the furtherance of the political objects to which this Chapter applies unless—

(a)there is in force in accordance with this Chapter a resolution (a “political resolution”) approving the furtherance of those objects as an object of the union (see sections 73 to 81), and

(b)there are in force rules of the union as to—

(i)the making of payments in furtherance of those objects out of a separate fund, and

(ii)the exemption of any member of the union objecting to contribute to that fund,

which comply with this Chapter (see sections 82, 84 and 85) and have been approved by the Certification Officer.

(2)This applies whether the funds are so applied directly, or in conjunction with another trade union, association or body, or otherwise indirectly.

72Political objects to which restriction applies

(1)The political objects to which this Chapter applies are the expenditure of money—

(a)on any contribution to the funds of, or on the payment of expenses incurred directly or indirectly by, a political party;

(b)on the provision of any service or property for use by or on behalf of any political party;

(c)in connection with the registration of electors, the candidature of any person, the selection of any candidate or the holding of any ballot by the union in connection with any election to a political office;

(d)on the maintenance of any holder of a political office;

(e)on the holding of any conference or meeting by or on behalf of a political party or of any other meeting the main purpose of which is the transaction of business in connection with a political party;

(f)on the production, publication or distribution of any literature, document, film, sound recording or advertisement the main purpose of which is to persuade people to vote for a political party or candidate or to persuade them not to vote for a political party or candidate.

(2)Where a person attends a conference or meeting as a delegate or otherwise as a participator in the proceedings, any expenditure incurred in connection with his attendance as such shall, for the purposes of subsection (1)(e), be taken to be expenditure incurred on the holding of the conference or meeting.

(3)In determining for the purposes of subsection (1) whether a trade union has incurred expenditure of a kind mentioned in that subsection, no account shall be taken of the ordinary administrative expenses of the union.

(4)In this section—

  • “candidate” means a candidate for election to a political office and includes a prospective candidate;

  • “contribution”, in relation to the funds of a political party, includes any fee payable for affiliation to, or membership of, the party and any loan made to the party;

  • “electors” means electors at an election to a political office;

  • “film” includes any record, however made, of a sequence of visual images, which is capable of being used as a means of showing that sequence as a moving picture;

  • “local authority” means a local authority within the meaning of section 270 of the [1972. c.70] Local Government Act 1972 or section 235 of the [1973 c. 65] Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973; and

  • “political office” means the office of member of Parliament, member of the European Parliament or member of a local authority or any position within a political party.

Political resolution

73Passing and effect of political resolution

(1)A political resolution must be passed by a majority of those voting on a ballot of the members of the trade union held in accordance with this Chapter.

(2)A political resolution so passed shall take effect as if it were a rule of the union and may be rescinded in the same manner and subject to the same provisions as such a rule.

(3)If not previously rescinded, a political resolution shall cease to have effect at the end of the period of ten years beginning with the date of the ballot on which it was passed.

(4)Where before the end of that period a ballot is held on a new political resolution, then—

(a)if the new resolution is passed, the old resolution shall be treated as rescinded, and

(b)if it is not passed, the old resolution shall cease to have effect at the end of the period of two weeks beginning with the date of the ballot.

74Approval of political ballot rules

(1)A ballot on a political resolution must be held in accordance with rules of the trade union (its “political ballot rules”) approved by the Certification Officer.

(2)Fresh approval is required for the purposes of each ballot which it is proposed to hold, notwithstanding that the rules have been approved for the purposes of an earlier ballot.

(3)The Certification Officer shall not approve a union’s political ballot rules unless he is satisfied that the requirements set out in—

  • section 75 (appointment of independent scrutineer),

  • section 76 (entitlement to vote),

  • section 77 (voting), and

  • section 78 (scrutineer’s report),

would be satisfied in relation to a ballot held by the union in accordance with the rules.

75Appointment of independent scrutineer

(1)The trade union shall, before the ballot is held, appoint a qualified independent person (“the scrutineer”) to carry out—

(a)the functions in relation to the ballot which are required under this section to be contained in his appointment; and

(b)such additional functions in relation to the ballot as may be specified in his appointment.

(2)A person is a qualified independent person in relation to a ballot if—

(a)he satisfies such conditions as may be specified for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State or is himself so specified; and

(b)the trade union has no grounds for believing either that he will carry out any functions conferred on him in relation to the ballot otherwise than competently or that his independence in relation to the union, or in relation to the ballot, might reasonably be called into question.

An order under paragraph (a) shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(3)The scrutineer’s appointment shall require him—

(a)to be the person who supervises the production and distribution of the voting papers and to whom the voting papers are returned by those voting;

(b)to take such steps as appear to him to be appropriate for the purpose of enabling him to make his report (see section 78);

(c)to make his report to the trade union as soon as reasonably practicable after the last date for the return of voting papers; and

(d)to retain custody of all voting papers returned for the purposes of the ballot—

(i)until the end of the period of one year beginning with the announcement by the union of the result of the ballot; and

(ii)if within that period an application is made under section 79 (complaint of failure to comply with ballot rules), until the Certification Officer or the court authorises him to dispose of the papers.

(4)The trade union shall ensure that nothing in the terms of the scrutineer’s appointment (including any additional functions specified in the appointment) is such as to make it reasonable for any person to call the scrutineer’s independence in relation to the union into question.

(5)The trade union shall, before the scrutineer begins to carry out his functions, either—

(a)send a notice stating the name of the scrutineer to every member of the union to whom it is reasonably practicable to send such a notice, or

(b)take all such other steps for notifying members of the name of the scrutineer as it is the practice of the union to take when matters of general interest to all its members need to be brought to their attention.

(6)The trade union shall ensure that the scrutineer duly carries out his functions and that there is no interference with his carrying out of those functions which would make it reasonable for any person to call the scrutineer’s independence in relation to the union into question.

(7)The trade union shall comply with all reasonable requests made by the scrutineer for the purposes of, or in connection with, the carrying out of his functions.

76Entitlement to vote

Entitlement to vote in the ballot shall be accorded equally to all members of the trade union.

77Voting

(1)The method of voting must be by the marking of a voting paper by the person voting.

(2)Each voting paper must—

(a)state the name of the independent scrutineer and clearly specify the address to which, and the date by which, it is to be returned, and

(b)be given one of a series of consecutive whole numbers every one of which is used in giving a different number in that series to each voting paper printed or otherwise produced for the purposes of the ballot, and

(c)be marked with its number.

(3)Every person who is entitled to vote in the ballot must—

(a)be allowed to vote without interference from, or constraint imposed by, the union or any of its members, officials or employees, and

(b)so far as is reasonably practicable, be enabled to do so without incurring any direct cost to himself.

(4)So far as is reasonably practicable, every person who is entitled to vote in the ballot must—

(a)have a voting paper sent to him by post at his home address or another address which he has requested the trade union in writing to treat as his postal address, and

(b)be given a convenient opportunity to vote by post.

(5)The ballot shall be conducted so as to secure that—

(a)so far as is reasonably practicable, those voting do so in secret, and

(b)the votes given in the ballot are fairly and accurately counted.

For the purposes of paragraph (b) an inaccuracy in counting shall be disregarded if it is accidental and on a scale which could not affect the result of the ballot.

78Scrutineer’s report

(1)The scrutineer’s report on the ballot shall state—

(a)the number of voting papers distributed for the purposes of the ballot,

(b)the number of voting papers returned to the scrutineer,

(c)the number of valid votes cast in the ballot for and against the resolution, and

(d)the number of spoiled or otherwise invalid voting papers returned.

(2)The report shall also state whether the scrutineer is satisfied—

(a)that there are no reasonable grounds for believing that there was any contravention of a requirement imposed by or under any enactment in relation to the ballot,

(b)that the arrangements made with respect to the production, storage, distribution, return or other handling of the voting papers used in the ballot, and the arrangements for the counting of the votes, included all such security arrangements as were reasonably practicable for the purpose of minimising the risk that any unfairness or malpractice might occur, and

(c)that he has been able to carry out his functions without such interference as would make it reasonable for any person to call his independence in relation to the union into question;

and if he is not satisfied as to any of those matters, the report shall give particulars of his reasons for not being satisfied as to that matter.

(3)The trade union shall not publish the result of the ballot until it has received the scrutineer’s report.

(4)The trade union shall within the period of three months after it receives the report—

(a)send a copy of the report to every member of the union to whom it is reasonably practicable to send such a copy; or

(b)take all such other steps for notifying the contents of the report to the members of the union (whether by publishing the report or otherwise) as it is the practice of the union to take when matters of general interest to all its members need to be brought to their attention.

(5)Any such copy or notification shall be accompanied by a statement that the union will, on request, supply any member of the union with a copy of the report, either free of charge or on payment of such reasonable fee as may be specified in the notification.

(6)The trade union shall so supply any member of the union who makes such a request and pays the fee (if any) notified to him.

79Remedy for failure to comply with ballot rules: general

(1)The remedy for—

(a)the taking by a trade union of a ballot on a political resolution otherwise than in accordance with political ballot rules approved by the Certification Officer, or

(b)the failure of a trade union, in relation to a proposed ballot on a political resolution, to comply with the political ballot rules so approved,

is by way of application under section 80 (to the Certification Officer) or 81 (to the court).

The making of an application to the Certification Officer does not prevent the applicant, or any other person, from making an application to the court in respect of the same matter.

(2)An application under those sections may be made only by a person who is a member of the trade union and, where the ballot has been held, was a member at the time when it was held.

References in those sections to a person having a sufficient interest are to such a person.

(3)No such application may be made after the end of the period of one year beginning with the day on which the union announced the result of the ballot.

80Application to Certification Officer

(1)A person having a sufficient interest (see section 79(2)) who claims that a trade union—

(a)has held a ballot on a political resolution otherwise than in accordance with political ballot rules approved by the Certification Officer, or

(b)has failed in relation to a proposed ballot on a political resolution to comply with political ballot rules so approved,

may apply to the Certification Officer for a declaration to that effect.

(2)On an application being made to him, the Certification Officer shall—

(a)make such enquiries as he thinks fit, and

(b)where he considers it appropriate, give the applicant and the trade union an opportunity to be heard,

and may make or refuse the declaration asked for.

(3)If he makes a declaration he shall specify in it the provisions with which the trade union has failed to comply.

(4)Where he makes a declaration and is satisfied that steps have been taken by the union with a view to remedying the declared failure, or securing that a failure of the same or any similar kind does not occur in future, or that the union has agreed to take such steps, he shall in making the declaration specify those steps.

(5)Whether he makes or refuses a declaration, he shall give reasons for his decision in writing; and the reasons may be accompanied by written observations on any matter arising from, or connected with, the proceedings.

(6)In exercising his functions under this section the Certification Officer shall ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, an application made to him is determined within six months of being made.

(7)Where he requests a person to furnish information to him in connection with enquiries made by him under this section, he shall specify the date by which that information is to be furnished and shall, unless he considers that it would be inappropriate to do so, proceed with his determination of the application notwithstanding that the information has not been furnished to him by the specified date.

81Application to court

(1)A person having a sufficient interest (see section 79(2)) who claims that a trade union—

(a)has held a ballot on a political resolution otherwise than in accordance with political ballot rules approved by the Certification Officer, or

(b)has failed in relation to a proposed ballot on a political resolution to comply with political ballot rules so approved,

may apply to the court for a declaration to that effect.

(2)If an application in respect of the same matter has been made to the Certification Officer, the court shall have due regard to any declaration, reasons or observations of his which are brought to its notice.

(3)If the court makes the declaration asked for, it shall specify in the declaration the provisions with which the trade union has failed to comply.

(4)Where the court makes a declaration it shall also, unless it considers that to do so would be inappropriate, make an enforcement order, that is, an order imposing on the union one or more of the following requirements—

(a)to secure the holding of a ballot in accordance with the order;

(b)to take such other steps to remedy the declared failure as may be specified in the order;

(c)to abstain from such acts as may be so specified with a view to securing that a failure of the same or a similar kind does not occur in future.

The court shall in an order imposing any such requirement as is mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) specify the period within which the union must comply with the requirements of the order.

(5)Where the court makes an order requiring the union to hold a fresh ballot, the court shall (unless it considers that it would be inappropriate to do so in the particular circumstances of the case) require the ballot to be conducted in accordance with the union’s political ballot rules and such other provisions as may be made by the order.

(6)Where an enforcement order has been made, any person who is a member of the union and was a member at the time the order was made is entitled to enforce obedience to the order as if he had made the application on which the order was made.

(7)Without prejudice to any other power of the court, the court may on an application under this section grant such interlocutory relief (in Scotland, such interim order) as it considers appropriate.

The political fund

82Rules as to political fund

(1)The trade union’s rules must provide—

(a)that payments in the furtherance of the political objects to which this Chapter applies shall be made out of a separate fund (the “political fund” of the union);

(b)that a member of the union who gives notice in accordance with section 84 that he objects to contributing to the political fund shall be exempt from any obligation to contribute to it;

(c)that a member shall not by reason of being so exempt—

(i)be excluded from any benefits of the union, or

(ii)be placed in any respect either directly or indirectly under a disability or at a disadvantage as compared with other members of the union (except in relation to the control or management of the political fund); and

(d)that contribution to the political fund shall not be made a condition for admission to the union.

(2)A member of a trade union who claims that he is aggrieved by a breach of any rule made in pursuance of this section may complain to the Certification Officer.

(3)Where, after giving the member and a representative of the union an opportunity of being heard, the Certification Officer considers that a breach has been committed, he may make such order for remedying the breach as he thinks just under the circumstances.

(4)Any such order, on being recorded in the county court or, in Scotland, the sheriff court, may be enforced in the same way as an order of that court.

83Assets and liabilities of political fund

(1)There may be added to a union’s political fund only—

(a)sums representing contributions made to the fund by members of the union or by any person other than the union itself, and

(b)property which accrues to the fund in the course of administering the assets of the fund.

(2)The rules of the union shall not be taken to require any member to contribute to the political fund at a time when there is no political resolution in force in relation to the union.

(3)No liability of a union’s political fund shall be discharged out of any other fund of the union.

This subsection applies notwithstanding any term or condition on which the liability was incurred or that an asset of the other fund has been charged in connection with the liability.

84Notice of objection to contributing to political fund

(1)A member of a trade union may give notice in the following form, or in a form to the like effect, that he objects to contribute to the political fund:—

(2)On the adoption of a political resolution, notice shall be given to members of the union acquainting them—

(a)that each member has a right to be exempted from contributing to the union’s political fund, and

(b)that a form of exemption notice can be obtained by or on behalf of a member either by application at or by post from—

(i)the head office or any branch office of the union, or

(ii)the office of the Certification Officer.

(3)The notice to members shall be given in accordance with rules of the union approved for the purpose by the Certification Officer, who shall have regard in each case to the existing practice and character of the union.

(4)On giving an exemption notice in accordance with this section, a member shall be exempt from contributing to the union’s political fund—

(a)where the notice is given within one month of the giving of notice to members under subsection (2) following the passing of a political resolution on a ballot held at a time when no such resolution is in force, as from the date on which the exemption notice is given;

(b)in any other case, as from the 1st January next after the exemption notice is given.

(5)An exemption notice continues to have effect until it is withdrawn.

85Manner of giving effect to exemptions

(1)Effect may be given to the exemption of members from contributing to the political fund of a union either—

(a)by a separate levy of contributions to that fund from the members who are not exempt, or

(b)by relieving members who are exempt from the payment of the whole or part of any periodical contribution required from members towards the expenses of the union.

(2)In the latter case, the rules shall provide—

(a)that relief shall be given as far as possible to all members who are exempt on the occasion of the same periodical payment, and

(b)for enabling each member of the union to know what portion (if any) of any periodical contribution payable by him is a contribution to the political fund.

Duties of employer who deducts union contributions

86Certificate of exemption or objection to contributing to political fund

(1)If a member of a trade union which has a political fund certifies in writing to his employer that, or to the effect that—

(a)he is exempt from the obligation to contribute to the fund, or

(b)he has, in accordance with section 84, notified the union in writing of his objection to contributing to the fund,

the employer shall ensure that no amount representing a contribution to the political fund is deducted by him from emoluments payable to the member.

(2)The employer’s duty under subsection (1) applies from the first day, following the giving of the certificate, on which it is reasonably practicable for him to comply with that subsection, until the certificate is withdrawn.

(3)An employer may not refuse to deduct any union dues from emoluments payable to a person who has given a certificate under this section if he continues to deduct union dues from emoluments payable to other members of the union, unless his refusal is not attributable to the giving of the certificate or otherwise connected with the duty imposed by subsection (1).

87Application to court in respect of employer’s failure

(1)A person who claims his employer has failed to comply with section 86 in deducting or refusing to deduct any amount from emoluments payable to him may apply to the county court or, in Scotland, the sheriff court.

(2)If the court is satisfied that there has been such a failure it shall make a declaration to that effect.

(3)The court may, if it considers it appropriate to do so in order to prevent a repetition of the failure, make an order requiring the employer to take, within a specified time, the steps specified in the order in relation to emoluments payable by him to the applicant.

(4)Where in proceedings arising out of section 86(3) (refusal to deduct union dues) the question arises whether the employer’s refusal to deduct an amount was attributable to the certificate having been given or was otherwise connected with the duty under section 86(1), it is for the employer to satisfy the court that it was not.

88Application of provisions of Wages Act 1986

(1)The following provisions apply where a certificate has been given by a worker to his employer for the purposes of section 86.

(2)Nothing in the worker’s contract, or in any agreement or consent signified by him, shall be taken for the purposes of section 1 of the [1986 c. 48.] Wages Act 1986 (general restriction on deductions from wages) as authorising the making of deductions in contravention of the obligation imposed on the employer in consequence of the giving of the certificate.

(3)No complaint under section 5 of the Wages Act 1986 (complaint to industrial tribunal in respect of unauthorised deduction) shall be presented in respect of a deduction made in contravention of the obligation imposed on the employer in consequence of the giving of the certificate unless a declaration has been made under section 87(2), either before or after the date of payment of the wages from which the deduction was made, that the employer has failed to comply with that obligation.

(4)Section 5(2) of the Wages Act 1986 (time limit for presenting complaint) shall be read in relation to a complaint in respect of such a deduction, or of a series of deductions of which such a deduction is the last, as referring, if it is later, to the date of the declaration instead of to the date of payment of the wages from which the deduction was made.

Position where political resolution ceases to have effect

89Administration of political fund where no resolution in force

(1)The following provisions have effect with respect to the political fund of a trade union where there ceases to be any political resolution in force in relation to the union.

(2)If the resolution ceases to have effect by reason of a ballot being held on which a new political resolution is not passed, the union may continue to make payments out of the fund as if the resolution had continued in force for six months beginning with the date of the ballot.

But no payment shall be made which causes the fund to be in deficit or increases a deficit in it.

(3)There may be added to the fund only—

(a)contributions to the fund paid to the union (or to a person on its behalf) before the resolution ceased to have effect, and

(b)property which accrues to the fund in the course of administering the assets of the fund.

(4)The union may, notwithstanding any of its rules or any trusts on which the fund is held, transfer the whole or part of the fund to such other fund of the union as it thinks fit.

(5)If a new political resolution is subsequently passed, no property held immediately before the date of the ballot by or on behalf of the union otherwise than in its political fund, and no sums representing such property, may be added to the fund.

90Discontinuance of contributions to political fund

(1)Where there ceases to be any political resolution in force in relation to a trade union, the union shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure that the collection of contributions to its political fund is discontinued as soon as is reasonably practicable.

(2)The union may, notwithstanding any of its rules, pay into any of its other funds any such contribution which is received by it after the resolution ceases to have effect.

(3)If the union continues to collect contributions, it shall refund to a member who applies for a refund the contributions made by him collected after the resolution ceased to have effect.

(4)A member of a trade union who claims that the union has failed to comply with subsection (1) may apply to the court for a declaration to that effect.

(5)Where the court is satisfied that the complaint is well-founded, it may, if it considers it appropriate to do so in order to secure that the collection of contributions to the political fund is discontinued, make an order requiring the union to take, within such time as may be specified in the order, such steps as may be so specified.

Such an order may be enforced by a person who is a member of the union and was a member at the time the order was made as if he had made the application.

(6)The remedy for failure to comply with subsection (1) is in accordance with subsections (4) and (5), and not otherwise; but this does not affect any right to recover sums payable to a person under subsection (3).

91Rules to cease to have effect

(1)If there ceases to be any political resolution in force in relation to a trade union, the rules of the union made for the purpose of complying with this Chapter also cease to have effect, except so far as they are required to enable the political fund to be administered at a time when there is no such resolution in force.

(2)If the resolution ceases to have effect by reason of a ballot being held on which a new political resolution is not passed, the rules cease to have effect at the end of the period of six months beginning with the date of the ballot.

In any other case the rules cease to have effect when the resolution ceases to have effect.

(3)Nothing in this section affects the operation of section 82(2) (complaint to Certification Officer in respect of breach of rules) in relation to a breach of a rule occurring before the rule in question ceased to have effect.

(4)No member of a trade union who has at any time been exempt from the obligation to contribute to its political fund shall by reason of his having been exempt—

(a)be excluded from any benefits of the union, or

(b)be placed in any respect either directly or indirectly under a disability or at a disadvantage as compared with other members (except in relation to the control or management of the political fund).

Supplementary

92Manner of making union rules

If the Certification Officer is satisfied, and certifies, that rules of a trade union made for any of the purposes of this Chapter and requiring approval by him have been approved—

(a)by a majority of the members of the union voting for the purpose, or

(b)by a majority of delegates of the union at a meeting called for the purpose,

the rules shall have effect as rules of the union notwithstanding that the rules of the union as to the alteration of rules or the making of new rules have not been complied with.

93Effect of amalgamation

(1)Where on an amalgamation of two or more trade unions—

(a)there is in force in relation to each of the amalgamating unions a political resolution and such rules as are required by this Chapter, and

(b)the rules of the amalgamated union in force immediately after the amalgamation include such rules as are required by this Chapter,

the amalgamated union shall be treated for the purposes of this Chapter as having passed a political resolution.

(2)That resolution shall be treated as having been passed on the date of the earliest of the ballots on which the resolutions in force immediately before the amalgamation with respect to the amalgamating unions were passed.

(3)Where one of the amalgamating unions is a Northern Ireland union, the references above to the requirements of this Chapter shall be construed as references to the requirements of the corresponding provisions of the law of Northern Ireland.

94Overseas members of trade union

(1)Where a political resolution is in force in relation to the union—

(a)rules made by the union for the purpose of complying with section 74 (political ballot rules) in relation to a proposed ballot may provide for overseas members of the union not to be accorded entitlement to vote in the ballot, and

(b)rules made by the union for the purpose of complying with section 84 (notice of right to object to contribute to political fund to be given where resolution passed) may provide for notice not to be given by the union to its overseas members.

(2)Accordingly, where provision is made in accordance with subsection (1)(a), the Certification Officer shall not on that ground withhold his approval of the rules; and where provision is made in accordance with subsection (1)(b), section 84(2) (duty to give notice) shall not be taken to require notice to be given to overseas members.

(3)An “overseas member” means a member of the trade union (other than a merchant seaman or offshore worker) who is outside Great Britain throughout the period during which votes may be cast.

For this purpose—

  • “merchant seaman” means a person whose employment, or the greater part of it, is carried out on board sea-going ships; and

  • “offshore worker” means a person in offshore employment, other than one who is in such employment in an area where the law of Northern Ireland applies.

95Appeals from Certification Officer

An appeal lies to the Employment Appeal Tribunal on any question of law arising in proceedings before or arising from any decision of the Certification Officer under this Chapter.

96Meaning of “date of the ballot”

In this Chapter the “date of the ballot” means, in the case of a ballot in which votes may be cast on more than one day, the last of those days.

Chapter VIIAmalgamations and similar matters

Amalgamation or transfer of engagements

97Amalgamation or transfer of engagements

(1)Two or more trade unions may amalgamate and become one trade union, with or without a division or dissolution of the funds of any one or more of the amalgamating unions, but shall not do so unless—

(a)the instrument of amalgamation is approved in accordance with section 98, and

(b)the requirements of sections 99 and 100 (notice to members and passing of resolution) are complied with in respect of each of the amalgamating unions.

(2)A trade union may transfer its engagements to another trade union which undertakes to fulfil those engagements, but shall not do so unless—

(a)the instrument of transfer is approved in accordance with section 98, and

(b)the requirements of sections 99 and 100 (notice to members and passing of resolution) are complied with in respect of the transferor union.

(3)An amalgamation or transfer of engagements does not prejudice any right of any creditor of any trade union party to the amalgamation or transfer.

(4)The above provisions apply to every amalgamation or transfer of engagements notwithstanding anything in the rules of any of the trade unions concerned.

98Approval of instrument of amalgamation or transfer

(1)The instrument of amalgamation or transfer must be approved by the Certification Officer and shall be submitted to him for approval before the resolution to approve it is voted on by members of any amalgamating union or, as the case may be, of the transferor union.

(2)The instrument must comply with the requirements of any regulations in force under this Chapter and the Certification Officer shall approve it if he is satisfied that it does so.

99Notice to be given to members

(1)The trade union shall take all reasonable steps to secure that, not less than seven days before voting begins on the resolution to approve the instrument of amalgamation or transfer, every member of the union is supplied with a notice in writing approved for the purpose by the Certification Officer.

(2)The notice shall be in writing and shall either—

(a)set out in full the instrument of amalgamation or transfer to which the resolution relates, or

(b)give an account of it sufficient to enable those receiving the notice to form a reasonable judgment of the main effects of the proposed amalgamation or transfer.

(3)If the notice does not set out the instrument in full it shall state where copies of the instrument may be inspected by those receiving the notice.

(4)The notice shall also comply with the requirements of any regulations in force under this Chapter.

(5)The notice proposed to be supplied to members of the union under this section shall be submitted to the Certification Officer for approval; and he shall approve it if he is satisfied that it meets the requirements of this section.

100Resolution approving instrument of amalgamation or transfer

(1)A resolution approving the instrument of amalgamation or transfer must be passed on a vote taken in a manner which satisfies the following conditions—

(a)every member of the union must be entitled to vote on the resolution;

(b)every member of the union must be allowed to vote without interference or constraint and must, so far as is reasonably possible, be given a fair opportunity of voting;

(c)the method of voting must involve the marking of a voting paper by the person voting.

(2)The committee of management or other governing body of the union may arrange for the vote to be taken in any manner which that body thinks fit.

This subsection does not apply if the rules of the trade union expressly provide that it is not to apply in relation to that union.

(3)A simple majority of the votes recorded is sufficient to pass the resolution, whether the vote is taken under arrangements made under subsection (2) or under the rules of the union.

This subsection does not apply if the rules of the trade union expressly provide that it is not to apply in relation to that union.

(4)The provisions of subsections (2) and (3) have effect, where they apply, notwithstanding anything in the rules of the trade union and, in particular, notwithstanding anything in those rules which would require the resolution—

(a)to be passed by a majority greater than a simple majority, or

(b)to be voted on by not less than a specified proportion of the members of the union.

101Registration of instrument of amalgamation or transfer

(1)An instrument of amalgamation or transfer shall not take effect before it has been registered by the Certification Officer under this Chapter.

(2)It shall not be so registered before the end of the period of six weeks beginning with the date on which an application for its registration is sent to the Certification Officer.

102Power to alter rules of transferee union for purposes of transfer

(1)Where a trade union proposes to transfer its engagements to another trade union and an alteration of the rules of the transferee union is necessary to give effect to provisions in the instrument of transfer, the committee of management or other governing body of that union may by memorandum in writing alter the rules of that union so far as is necessary to give effect to those provisions.

This subsection does not apply if the rules of the trade union expressly provide that this section is not to apply to that union.

(2)An alteration of the rules of a trade union under subsection (1) shall not take effect unless or until the instrument of transfer takes effect.

(3)The provisions of subsection (1) have effect, where they apply, notwithstanding anything in the rules of the union.

103Complaints as regards passing of resolution

(1)A member of a trade union which passes or purports to pass a resolution approving an instrument of amalgamation or transfer may complain to the Certification Officer on one or more of the following grounds—

(a)that section 99 (notice to be given to members) was not complied with;

(b)that the manner in which the vote on the resolution was taken did not satisfy the conditions specified in section 100(1);

(c)where that vote was taken under arrangements made under section 100(2), that the manner in which it was taken was not in accordance with the arrangements;

(d)where that vote was taken under provisions in the rules of the union, that the manner in which it was taken was not in accordance with those rules;

(e)that the votes recorded did not have the effect of passing the resolution.

(2)Any complaint must be made before the end of the period of six weeks beginning with the date on which an application for registration of the instrument of amalgamation or transfer is sent to the Certification Officer.

Where a complaint is made, the Certification Officer shall not register the instrument before the complaint is finally determined or is withdrawn.

(3)If the Certification Officer, after giving the complainant and the trade union an opportunity of being heard, finds the complaint to be justified—

(a)he shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)he may make an order specifying the steps which must be taken before he will entertain any application to register the instrument of amalgamation or transfer;

and where he makes such an order, he shall not entertain any application to register the instrument unless he is satisfied that the steps specified in the order have been taken.

An order under this subsection may be varied by the Certification Officer by a further order.

(4)The Certification Officer shall furnish a statement, orally or in writing, of the reasons for his decision on a complaint under this section.

(5)The validity of a resolution approving an instrument of amalgamation or transfer shall not be questioned in any legal proceedings whatsoever (except proceedings before the Certification Officer under this section or proceedings arising out of such proceedings) on any ground on which a complaint could be, or could have been, made to the Certification Officer under this section.

104Appeal from decision of Certification Officer

An appeal lies to the Employment Appeal Tribunal, at the instance of the complainant or the trade union, on any question of law arising in any proceedings before, or arising from any decision of, the Certification Officer under section 103.

105Transfer of property on amalgamation or transfer

(1)Where an instrument of amalgamation or transfer takes effect, the property held—

(a)for the benefit of any of the amalgamating unions, or for the benefit of a branch of any of those unions, by the trustees of the union or branch, or

(b)for the benefit of the transferor trade union, or for the benefit of a branch of the transferor trade union, by the trustees of the union or branch,

shall without any conveyance, assignment or assignation vest, on the instrument taking effect, or on the appointment of the appropriate trustees, whichever is the later, in the appropriate trustees.

(2)In the case of property to be held for the benefit of a branch of the amalgamated union, or of the transferee union, “the appropriate trustees” means the trustees of that branch, unless the rules of the amalgamated or transferee union provide that the property to be so held is to be held by the trustees of the union.

(3)In any other case “the appropriate trustees” means the trustees of the amalgamated or transferee union.

(4)This section does not apply—

(a)to property excepted from the operation of this section by the instrument of amalgamation or transfer, or

(b)to stocks and securities in the public funds of the United Kingdom or Northern Ireland.

106Amalgamation or transfer involving Northern Ireland union

(1)This Chapter has effect subject to the following modifications in the case of an amalgamation or transfer of engagements to which a trade union and a Northern Ireland union are party.

(2)The requirements of sections 98 to 100 (approval of instrument; notice to members; passing of resolution) do not apply in relation to the Northern Ireland union; but the Certification Officer shall not register the instrument under section 101 unless he is satisfied that it will be effective under the law of Northern Ireland.

(3)The instrument of amalgamation or transfer submitted to the Certification Officer for his approval under section 98 shall state which of the bodies concerned is a Northern Ireland union and, in the case of an amalgamation, whether the amalgamated body is to be a Northern Ireland union; and the Certification Officer shall withhold his approval if the instrument does not contain that information.

(4)Nothing in section 102 (alteration of rules) or section 103 (complaint as to passing of resolution) applies in relation to the Northern Ireland union.

(5)Subject to the exceptions specified above, the provisions of this Chapter as to amalgamations or transfers of engagements apply in relation to the Northern Ireland union.

Change of name

107Change of name of trade union

(1)A trade union may change its name by any method expressly provided for by its rules or, if its rules do not expressly provide for a method of doing so, by adopting in accordance with its rules an alteration of the provision in them which gives the union its name.

(2)If the name of the trade union is entered in the list of trade unions a change of name shall not take effect until approved by the Certification Officer.

(3)The Certification Officer shall not approve a change of name if it appears to him that the proposed new name—

(a)is the same as one entered in the list as the name of another trade union, or

(b)is the same as one entered in the list of employers' associations kept under Part II of this Act,

or is a name so nearly resembling such a name as to be likely to deceive the public.

(4)A change of name by a trade union does not affect any right or obligation of the union or any of its members; and any pending legal proceedings may be continued by or against the union, the trustees of the union or any other officer of the union who can sue or be sued on its behalf notwithstanding its change of name.

Supplementary

108General power to make regulations

(1)The Secretary of State may make regulations as respects—

(a)applications to the Certification Officer under this Chapter,

(b)the registration under this Chapter of any document or matter,

(c)the inspection of documents kept by the Certification Officer under this Chapter,

(d)the charging of fees in respect of such matters, and of such amounts, as may with the approval of the Treasury be prescribed by the regulations,

and generally for carrying this Chapter into effect.

(2)Provision may in particular be made—

(a)requiring an application for the registration of an instrument of amalgamation or transfer, or of a change of name, to be accompanied by such statutory declarations or other documents as may be specified in the regulations;

(b)as to the form or content of any document required by this Chapter, or by the regulations, to be sent or submitted to the Certification Officer and as to the manner in which any such document is to be signed or authenticated;

(c)authorising the Certification Officer to require notice to be given or published in such manner as he may direct of the fact that an application for registration of an instrument of amalgamation or transfer has been or is to be made to him.

(3)Regulations under this section may make different provision for different circumstances.

(4)Regulations under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

Chapter VIIIAssistance for certain legal proceedings

109Proceedings in relation to which assistance may be provided

(1)This Chapter applies to proceedings or prospective proceedings to the extent that they consist in, or arise out of—

(a)an application to the court under section 15(3) (application for order authorising member to take or continue proceedings on behalf of trade union) or any other proceedings brought by virtue of that section;

(b)an application to the court under section 16 (remedy against trustees for unlawful use of trade union property);

(c)an application to the court under section 26 (remedy for failure to maintain register of members);

(d)an application to the court under section 31 (remedy for failure to comply with request for access to trade union’s accounting records);

(e)an application to the court under section 56 (remedy for failure to comply with requirements as to election for office);

(f)an application to the court under section 62 (application for order where industrial action does not have support of ballot);

(g)proceedings brought by virtue of section 71 (restriction on use of funds for political objects) with respect to the unlawful application of the funds of a trade union;

(h)an application to the court under section 81 (remedy for failure to comply with requirements as to political ballot).

(2)This Chapter applies to proceedings or prospective proceedings in the High Court or the Court of Session (or on an appeal therefrom to the Court of Appeal or the House of Lords) to the extent that they arise out of an alleged breach or threatened breach of the rules of a trade union relating to any of the following matters—

(a)the appointment or election of a person to, or the removal of a person from, any office;

(b)disciplinary proceedings by the union (including expulsion);

(c)the authorising or endorsing of industrial action;

(d)the balloting of members;

(e)the application of the union’s funds or property;

(f)the imposition, collection or distribution of any levy for the purposes of industrial action;

(g)the constitution or proceedings of any committee, conference or other body.

The reference above to the rules of a trade union includes the rules of any branch or section of the trade union; and in paragraph (a) “office” includes any position by virtue of which a person is an official in relation to the trade union or is entitled to attend as a representative any meeting concerned with union business.

(3)This Chapter also applies to proceedings or prospective proceedings to the extent that they consist in, or arise out of such other proceedings against a trade union, an official of a trade union or the trustees of the property of a trade union as may be specified in an order made by the Secretary of State.

Any order shall be made by statutory instrument; and no such order shall be made unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by resolution of each House of Parliament.

110Application for assistance: its consideration

(1)An individual who is an actual or prospective party to proceedings to which this Chapter applies may apply to the Commissioner for assistance in relation to the proceedings, and the Commissioner shall, as soon as reasonably practicable after receiving the application, consider it and decide whether and to what extent to grant it.

(2)The matters to which the Commissioner may have regard in determining whether, and to what extent, to grant an application include—

(a)whether the case raises a question of principle,

(b)whether it is unreasonable, having regard to the complexity of the case, to expect the applicant to deal with it unaided, and

(c)whether, in the Commissioner’s opinion, the case involves a matter of substantial public interest.

(3)In the case of an application made by virtue of section 109(1)(c), (f) or (h) (failure to maintain register of members or to comply with requirements as to election or ballot), if—

(a)the Certification Officer has already made a declaration with respect to the subject-matter of the proceedings or prospective proceedings, and

(b)it appears to the Commissioner that the applicant would (if assisted) have a reasonable prospect of securing the making of an enforcement order in the proceedings,

the Commissioner shall grant the application to the extent he considers necessary for securing that, so far as reasonably practicable, all the steps he considers appropriate (including, where appropriate, the holding of another ballot or election) are taken by the trade union for the purpose of remedying the declared failure and of ensuring that a failure of the same or a similar kind does not occur in future.

(4)The Commissioner shall not grant an application made by virtue of section 109(2) (proceedings arising out of breach of rules) unless it appears to him—

(a)that the breach of rules in question affects, or may affect, members of the union other than the applicant, or

(b)that similar breaches of the rules have been or may be committed in relation to other members of the union.

(5)If the Commissioner decides not to provide assistance, he shall, as soon as reasonably practicable after making the decision, notify the applicant of his decision and, if he thinks fit, of the reasons for it.

111Provision of assistance

(1)If the Commissioner decides to provide assistance, he shall, as soon as reasonably practicable after making the decision—

(a)notify the applicant, stating the extent of the assistance to be provided, and

(b)give him a choice, subject to any restrictions specified in the notification, as to the financial arrangements to be made in connection with the provision of the assistance.

(2)The assistance provided may include the making of arrangements for, or for the Commissioner to bear the costs of—

(a)the giving of advice or assistance by a solicitor or counsel, and

(b)the representation of the applicant, or the provision to him of such assistance as is usually given by a solicitor or counsel—

(i)in steps preliminary or incidental to the proceedings, or

(ii)in arriving at or giving effect to a compromise to avoid or bring an end to the proceedings.

(3)Where assistance is provided with respect to the conduct of proceedings, it shall include an agreement by the Commissioner to indemnify the applicant (subject only to any exceptions specified in the notification) in respect of liability to pay costs or expenses arising by virtue of any judgment or order of the court in the proceedings.

(4)Where the Commissioner provides assistance in relation to any proceedings, he shall do so on such terms, or make such other arrangements, as will secure that a person against whom the proceedings have been or are commenced is informed that assistance has been or is being provided by the Commissioner in relation to them.

(5)In England and Wales, the recovery of expenses incurred by the Commissioner in providing an applicant with assistance (as taxed or assessed in such manner as may be prescribed by rules of court) shall constitute a first charge for the benefit of the Commissioner—

(a)on any costs which, by virtue of any judgment or order of the court, are payable to the applicant by any other person in respect of the matter in connection with which the assistance is provided, and

(b)on any sum payable to the applicant under a compromise or settlement arrived at in connection with that matter to avoid or bring proceedings to an end.

(6)In Scotland, the recovery of such expenses (as taxed or assessed in such manner as may be prescribed by rules of court) shall be paid to the Commissioner, in priority to other debts—

(a)out of any expenses which, by virtue of any judgment or order of the court, are payable to the applicant by any other person in respect of the matter in connection with which the assistance is provided, and

(b)out of any sum payable to the applicant under a compromise or settlement arrived at in connection with that matter to avoid or bring proceedings to an end.

112Title of proceedings where assistance provided

(1)Where a person is receiving assistance in relation to proceedings, there shall, if he so wishes, be added after his name in the title of the proceedings the words “(assisted by the Commissioner for the Rights of Trade Union Members)”.

(2)The addition of those words shall not be construed as making the Commissioner a party to the proceedings or as liable to be treated as a party for any purpose; and the omission of those words shall be treated as an irregularity only and shall not nullify the proceedings, any step taken in the proceedings or any document, judgment or order therein.

113Recovery of sums paid in case of fraud

(1)Where the Commissioner grants an application to a person who for the purposes of the application—

(a)has made a statement which he knew to be false in a material particular, or

(b)has recklessly made a statement which was false in a material particular,

he is entitled to recover from that person any sums paid by him to that person, or to any other person, by way of assistance.

(2)This does not affect the power of the Commissioner to enter into any agreement he thinks fit as to the terms on which assistance is provided.

114Supplementary provisions

(1)Nothing in this Chapter affects the law and practice regulating the descriptions of persons who may appear in, conduct, defend and address the court in any proceedings.

(2)The power of the Commissioner to provide assistance to a prospective applicant to the court under section 26, 56 or 81 (under which applications may be made either to the court or to the Certification Officer, and in certain cases to both) does not entitle the Commissioner to provide assistance with the making of an application to the Certification Officer.

(3)In this Chapter “applicant”, in relation to assistance under this Chapter, means the individual on whose application the assistance is provided.

Chapter IXMiscellaneous and general provisions

Further provisions with respect to ballots

115Payments towards expenditure in connection with secret ballots

(1)The Secretary of State may by regulations make a scheme providing for payments by the Certification Officer towards expenditure incurred by independent trade unions in respect of such ballots to which this section applies as may be prescribed by the scheme.

(2)This section applies to a ballot if the purpose of the question to be asked (or if there is more than one such question, the purpose of any of them) is—

(a)to obtain a decision or ascertain the views of members of a trade union—

(i)as to the acceptance or rejection of a proposal made by an employer in relation to the contractual terms and conditions upon which, or the other incidents of the relationship whereby, a person works or provides services for the employer, or

(ii)as to the calling or ending of a strike or other industrial action;

(b)to carry out an election—

(i)provided for by the rules of a trade union, or

(ii)required by section 46 (duty to hold elections for certain offices),

or to elect a worker who is a member of a trade union to be a representative of other members also employed by his employer;

(c)to amend the rules of a trade union;

(d)to obtain a decision in accordance with Chapter VI on a political resolution within the meaning of that Chapter at a time when there is such a resolution in force in relation to the union;

(e)to obtain a decision in accordance with Chapter VII on a resolution to approve an instrument of amalgamation or transfer;

(f)any other purpose specified by order of the Secretary of State.

(3)The scheme may include provision for payments to be made towards expenditure incurred in respect of arrangements to hold a ballot which is not proceeded with but which would have been a ballot to which this section applies if it had been held.

(4)The circumstances in which and the conditions subject to which payments may be made under the scheme, and the amounts of the payments, shall be such as may be prescribed by the scheme; and the scheme shall include provision for restricting the cases in which payments are made to cases in which the ballot is so conducted as to secure, so far as reasonably practicable, that those voting do so in secret.

(5)Regulations or an order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument; and—

(a)a statutory instrument containing regulations shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament; and

(b)no order shall be made unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.

116Use of employer’s premises for secret ballot

(1)Where an independent trade union which is recognised by an employer to any extent for the purposes of collective bargaining—

(a)proposes to hold a ballot to which this section applies, and

(b)requests the employer to permit premises of his to be used for the purpose of giving workers employed by him who are members of the union a convenient opportunity of voting,

the employer shall, so far as reasonably practicable, comply with that request.

(2)This section applies to a ballot if—

(a)as respects the purposes of the question (or one of the questions) to be voted upon, the ballot satisfies the requirements of a scheme under section 115, and

(b)the proposals for the conduct of the ballot are such as to secure, so far as reasonably practicable, that those voting do so in secret.

(3)Subsection (1) does not apply where—

(a)the ballot is one in which every person who is entitled to vote must be given a convenient opportunity to vote by post; or

(b)at the time the request is made the number of workers employed by the employer, added to the number employed by any associated employer, does not exceed 20.

(4)A trade union which claims that an employer has failed to comply with a request made by the union in accordance with subsection (1), which it was reasonably practicable for him to comply with, may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal.

(5)The tribunal shall not entertain a complaint unless it is presented to the tribunal—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the failure, or

(b)where the tribunal is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period, within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable.

(6)Where the tribunal finds that the complaint is well-founded, it shall make a declaration to that effect and may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the union of such amount as it considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to the employer’s failure and to any expenses incurred by the union in consequence of the failure.

(7)The remedy of a union for failure to comply with a request under subsection (1) is by way of complaint to an industrial tribunal in accordance with this section, and not otherwise.

Exceptions and adaptations for certain bodies

117Special register bodies

(1)In this section a “special register body” means an organisation whose name appeared in the special register maintained under section 84 of the [1971 c. 72.] Industrial Relations Act 1971 immediately before 16 September 1974, and which is a company registered under the [1985 c. 6.] Companies Act 1985 or is incorporated by charter or letters patent.

(2)The provisions of this Part apply to special register bodies as to other trade unions, subject to the following exceptions and adaptations.

(3)In Chapter II (status and property of trade unions)—

(a)in section 10 (quasi-corporate status of trade unions)—

(i)subsections (1) and (2) (prohibition on trade union being incorporated) do not apply, and

(ii)subsection (3) (prohibition on registration under certain Acts) does not apply so far as it relates to registration as a company under the [1985 c. 6.] Companies Act 1985;

(b)section 11 (exclusion of common law rules as to restraint of trade) applies to the purposes or rules of a special register body only so far as they relate to the regulation of relations between employers or employers' associations and workers;

(c)sections 12 to 14 (vesting of property in trustees; transfer of securities) do not apply; and

(d)in section 20 (liability of trade union in certain proceedings in tort) in subsection (7) the reference to the contract between a member and the other members shall be construed as a reference to the contract between a member and the body.

(4)Sections 33 to 35 (appointment and removal of auditors) do not apply to a special register body which is registered as a company under the Companies Act 1985; and sections 36 and 37 (rights and duties of auditors) apply to the auditors appointed by such a body under Chapter V of Part XI of that Act.

(5)Chapter IV (elections for certain union position) only applies to—

(a)the position of voting member of the executive, and

(b)any position by virtue of which a person is a voting member of the executive.

In this subsection “voting member of the executive” has the meaning given by section 46(5).

118Federated trade unions

(1)In this section a “federated trade union” means a trade union which consists wholly or mainly of constituent or affiliated organisations, or representatives or such organisations, as described in paragraph (b) of the definition of “trade union” in section 1.

(2)The provisions of this Part apply to federated trade unions subject to the following exceptions and adaptations.

(3)For the purposes of section 22 (limit on amount of damages) as it applies to a federated trade union, the members of such of its constituent or affiliated organisations as have their head or main office in Great Britain shall be treated as members of the union.

(4)The following provisions of Chapter III (trade union administration) do not apply to a federated trade union which consists wholly or mainly of representatives of constituent or affiliated organisations—

(a)section 27 (duty to supply copy of rules),

(b)section 28 (duty to keep accounting records),

(c)sections 32 to 37 (annual return, accounts and audit), and

(d)sections 38 to 42 (members' superannuation schemes).

(5)Sections 29 to 31 (right of member to access to accounting records) do not apply to a federated trade union which has no members other than constituent or affiliated organisations or representatives of such organisations.

(6)Sections 24 to 26 (register of members' names and addresses) and Chapter IV (elections for certain trade union positions) do not apply to a federated trade union—

(a)if it has no individual members other than representatives of constituent or affiliated organisations, or

(b)if its individual members (other than such representatives) are all merchant seamen and a majority of them are ordinarily resident outside the United Kingdom.

For this purpose “merchant seaman” means a person whose employment, or the greater part of it, is carried out on board sea-going ships.

(7)The provisions of Chapter VI (application of funds for political objects) apply to a trade union which is in whole or part an association or combination of other unions as if the individual members of the component unions were members of that union and not of the component unions.

But nothing in that Chapter prevents a component union from collecting contributions on behalf of the association or combination from such of its members as are not exempt from the obligation to contribute to the political fund of the association or combination.

Interpretation

119Expressions relating to trade unions

In this Act, in relation to a trade union—

  • “branch or section”, except where the context otherwise requires, includes a branch or section which is itself a trade union;

  • “executive” means the principal committee of the union exercising executive functions, by whatever name it is called;

  • “general secretary” means the official of the union who holds the office of general secretary or, where there is no such office, holds an office which is equivalent, or (except in section 14(4)) the nearest equivalent, to that of general secretary;

  • “officer” includes—

    (a)

    any member of the governing body of the union, and

    (b)

    any trustee of any fund applicable for the purposes of the union;

  • “official” means—

    (a)

    an officer of the union or of a branch or section of the union, or

    (b)

    a person elected or appointed in accordance with the rules of the union to be a representative of its members or of some of them,

    and includes a person so elected or appointed who is an employee of the same employer as the members or one or more of the members whom he is to represent;

  • “president” means the official of the union who holds the office of president or, where there is no such office, who holds an office which is equivalent, or (except in section 14(4) or Chapter IV) the nearest equivalent, to that of president; and

  • “rules”, except where the context otherwise requires, includes the rules of any branch or section of the union.

120Northern Ireland unions

In this Part a “Northern Ireland union” means a trade union whose principal office is situated in Northern Ireland.

121Meaning of “the court”

In this Part “the court” (except where the reference is expressed to be to the county court or sheriff court) means the High Court or the Court of Session.

Back to top

Options/Help

Print Options

You have chosen to open The Whole Act

The Whole Act you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Act as a PDF

The Whole Act you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Act without Schedules

The Whole Act without Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Act without Schedules as a PDF

The Whole Act without Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open the Whole Act

The Whole Act you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open the Whole Act without Schedules

The Whole Act without Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

Close

Legislation is available in different versions:

Latest Available (revised):The latest available updated version of the legislation incorporating changes made by subsequent legislation and applied by our editorial team. Changes we have not yet applied to the text, can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area.

Original (As Enacted or Made):The original version of the legislation as it stood when it was enacted or made. No changes have been applied to the text.

Close

Opening Options

Different options to open legislation in order to view more content on screen at once

Close

More Resources

Access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item from this tab. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as enactedversion that was used for the print copy
  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • correction slips
  • links to related legislation and further information resources
Close

More Resources

Use this menu to access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as enacted version that was used for the print copy
  • correction slips

Click 'View More' or select 'More Resources' tab for additional information including:

  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • links to related legislation and further information resources