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Water Industry Act 1991

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Part IIIE+W WATER SUPPLY

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1Part III: definition of "consumer" applied (01.12.1991) by Water Resources Act 1991 (c. 57, SIF 130), ss. 176(7), 225(2).

C2Part III: definition of "water fittings" applied (01.12.1991) by Statutory Water Companies Act 1991 (c. 58, SIF 130), ss. 15(1), 17(2).

chapter IE+W GENERAL DUTIES OF WATER UNDERTAKERS

37 General duty to maintain water supply system etc.E+W

(1)It shall be the duty of every water undertaker to develop and maintain an efficient and economical system of water supply within its area and to ensure that all such arrangements have been made—

(a)for providing supplies of water to premises in that area and for making such supplies available to persons who demand them; and

(b)for maintaining, improving and extending the water undertaker’s water mains and other pipes,

as are necessary for securing that the undertaker is and continues to be able to meet its obligations under this Part.

(2)The duty of a water undertaker under this section shall be enforceable under section 18 above—

(a)by the Secretary of State; or

(b)with the consent of or in accordance with a general authorisation given by the Secretary of State, by the Director.

(3)The obligations imposed on a water undertaker by the following Chapters of this Part, and the remedies available in respect of contraventions of those obligations, shall be in addition to any duty imposed or remedy available by virtue of any provision of this section or section 38 below and shall not be in any way qualified by any such provision.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F137AWater resources management plans: preparation and reviewE+W

(1)It shall be the duty of each water undertaker to prepare and maintain a water resources management plan.

(2)A water resources management plan is a plan for how the water undertaker will manage and develop water resources so as to be able, and continue to be able, to meet its obligations under this Part.

(3)A water resources management plan shall address in particular—

(a)the water undertaker’s estimate of the quantities of water required to meet those obligations;

(b)the measures which the water undertaker intends to take or continue for the purpose set out in subsection (2) above (also taking into account for that purpose the introduction of water into the undertaker’s supply system by or on behalf of licensed water suppliers);

(c)the likely sequence and timing for implementing those measures; and

(d)such other matters as the Secretary of State may specify in directions.

(4)The procedure for preparing a water resources management plan (including a revised plan) is set out in section 37B below.

(5)Before each anniversary of the date when its plan (or revised plan) was last published, the water undertaker shall —

(a)review its plan; and

(b)send a statement of the conclusions of its review to the Secretary of State.

(6)The water undertaker shall prepare a revised plan in each of the following cases—

(a)following conclusion of its annual review, if the review indicated a material change of circumstances;

(b)if directed to do so by the Secretary of State;

(c)in any event, not later than the end of the period of five years beginning with the date when the plan (or revised plan) was last published,

and shall follow the procedure in section 37B below (whether or not the revised plan prepared by the undertaker includes any proposed alterations to the previous plan).

(7)The Secretary of State may give directions specifying—

(a)the form which a water resources management plan must take;

(b)the planning period to which a water resources management plan must relate.

(8)Before preparing its water resources management plan (including a revised plan), the water undertaker shall consult—

(a)the Environment Agency;

(b)the Authority;

(c)the Secretary of State; and

(d)any licensed water supplier which supplies water to premises in the undertaker’s area via the undertaker’s supply system.

(9)The Secretary of State shall consult the Environment Agency before giving a direction under subsection (6)(b) above.

(10)In this section, in relation to a water resources management plan, “published” means published in accordance with section 37B(8)(a) below.

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Ss. 37A-37D inserted (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2006 for specified provisions and further purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 62, 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(j) (with art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(i) (with Sch. paras. 6, 8); S.I. 2006/984, art. 2(q) (with art. 3, Sch.); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C4Ss. 37A-37D modified (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by S.I. 1999/672, Sch. 2 (as amended by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 100(3)(7), 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(s) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(k) (with Sch. 2 para. 8); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(c)

37BWater resources management plans: publication and representationsE+W

(1)A water undertaker shall—

(a)send a draft water resources management plan to the Secretary of State;

(b)state whether it appears to the undertaker that any information contained in that plan is or might be commercially confidential (as regards itself or another person); and

(c)give the Secretary of State the name of each such other person and his address for service of a notice under subsection (2)(a) below.

(2)If the water undertaker states that it so appears in relation to any such information, the Secretary of State shall—

(a)if the person to whom or to whose business the information relates is not the water undertaker, give that person notice that the information is included in a draft water resources management plan and, unless subsection (10) below applies, is required to be published under this section; and

(b)give each person (including the water undertaker) to whom any such information relates a reasonable opportunity—

(i)of objecting to the publication of the information relating to him on the ground that it is commercially confidential; and

(ii)of making representations to the Secretary of State for the purpose of justifying any such objection,

and shall determine, taking any objections and representations under paragraph (b) into account, whether the information is or is not commercially confidential.

(3)A water undertaker shall—

(a)(subject to subsection (10) below) publish the draft water resources management plan in the prescribed way or, if no way is prescribed, in a way calculated to bring it to the attention of persons likely to be affected by it;

(b)publish with it a statement—

(i)whether any information has been excluded from the published draft plan by virtue of subsection (10) below and, if it has, the general nature of that information; and

(ii)that any person may make representations in writing about the plan to the Secretary of State before the end of a period specified in the statement; and

(c)send a copy of the published draft plan and accompanying statement to such persons (if any) as may be prescribed.

(4)The Secretary of State shall send to the water undertaker a copy of any representations he receives following publication of the draft plan under subsection (3) above and shall give it a reasonable period of time within which to comment on the representations.

(5)The Secretary of State may in regulations prescribe how such representations and any comments by the water undertaker on them are to be dealt with.

(6)Regulations under subsection (5) above—

(a)may provide for the Secretary of State to cause an inquiry or other hearing to be held in connection with the draft water resources management plan; and

(b)if they do so provide, may provide for subsections (2) to (5) of section 250 of the Local Government Act 1972 (local inquiries: evidence and costs) to apply with prescribed modifications to such an inquiry or hearing as they apply to inquiries under that section.

(7)The Secretary of State may direct a water undertaker that its water resources management plan must differ from the draft sent to him under subsection (1) above in ways specified in his direction, and (subject to subsection (9) below) it shall be the duty of the water undertaker to comply with the direction.

(8)The water undertaker shall—

(a)(subject to subsection (10) below) publish the water resources management plan in the prescribed way or, if no way is prescribed, in a way calculated to bring it to the attention of persons likely to be affected by it; and

(b)publish with it a statement whether any information has been excluded from the published plan by virtue of subsection (10) below and, if it has, the general nature of that information.

(9)If the water undertaker considers that publishing a water resources management plan complying with a direction under subsection (7) above would mean including in the published plan any information (other than any information in relation to which the Secretary of State has already made a determination under subsection (2) above) which might be commercially confidential (as regards itself or another person)—

(a)the water undertaker shall send the Secretary of State a notice saying so, and giving the Secretary of State the name of any such other person and his address for service of a notice under subsection (2)(a) above as applied by paragraph (b) below; and

(b)subsection (2) above shall apply in relation to that information as it applies in relation to the information referred to there;

and the Secretary of State may either confirm his direction under subsection (7) above (which is to be treated as a new direction under subsection (7)) or revoke the previous such direction (or the previous one so treated) and give a new one.

(10)The published version of a draft water resources management plan published under subsection (3)(a) above, and a water resources management plan published under subsection (8)(a) above, shall exclude any information which the Secretary of State—

(a)has determined under subsection (2) above (or that subsection as applied by subsection (9) above) is commercially confidential; or

(b)directs the water undertaker to exclude on the ground that it appears to him that its publication would be contrary to the interests of national security.

(11)Any steps to be taken by a water undertaker under this section shall be completed by such time or within such period as the Secretary of State may direct.

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Ss. 37A-37D inserted (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2006 for specified provisions and further purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 62, 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(j) (with art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(i) (with Sch. paras. 6, 8); S.I. 2006/984, art. 2(q) (with art. 3, Sch.); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C5Ss. 37A-37D modified (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by S.I. 1999/672, Sch. 2 (as amended by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 100(3)(7), 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(s) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(k) (with Sch. 2 para. 8); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(c)

37CWater resources management plans: provision of informationE+W

(1)It shall be the duty of each licensed water supplier to provide the water undertaker with such information as the water undertaker may reasonably request for the purposes of preparing or revising its water resources management plan.

(2)In the event of any dispute between a water undertaker and a licensed water supplier as to the reasonableness of the water undertaker’s request under subsection (1) above, either party may refer the matter for determination by the Secretary of State, and any such determination shall be final.

(3)For the purposes of paragraph (b) of section 37B(1) above, the water undertaker shall identify in its statement under that paragraph any information—

(a)provided by a licensed water supplier pursuant to subsection (1) above; and

(b)contained in the water undertaker’s draft water resources management plan,

which the licensed water supplier has (at the time of providing it to the water undertaker) specifically identified as being, in the licensed water supplier’s opinion, commercially confidential.

(4)The water undertaker shall not use any unpublished information save for the purpose of facilitating the performance by it of any of the duties imposed on it by or under this Act, any of the other consolidation Acts or the Water Act 1989.

(5)In subsection (4) above—

(a)unpublished information” means confidential information which—

(i)is provided to the water undertaker by a licensed water supplier under this section;

(ii)relates to the affairs of any individual or to any particular business; and

(iii)by virtue of section 37B above, is not published;

(b)the other consolidation Acts” has the same meaning as in section 206 below.

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Ss. 37A-37D inserted (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2006 for specified provisions and further purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 62, 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(j) (with art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(i) (with Sch. paras. 6, 8); S.I. 2006/984, art. 2(q) (with art. 3, Sch.); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C6Ss. 37A-37D modified (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by S.I. 1999/672, Sch. 2 (as amended by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 100(3)(7), 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(s) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(k) (with Sch. 2 para. 8); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(c)

37DWater resources management plans: supplementaryE+W

(1)Directions given under section 37A or 37B above may be—

(a)general directions applying to all water undertakers; or

(b)directions applying only to one or more water undertakers specified in the directions,

and shall be given by an instrument in writing.

(2)It shall be the duty of each water undertaker to whom directions apply to comply with the directions.

(3)The duties of—

(a)a water undertaker under sections 37A to 37C above and under this section; and

(b)a licensed water supplier under section 37C above,

shall be enforceable by the Secretary of State under section 18 above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Ss. 37A-37D inserted (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2006 for specified provisions and further purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 62, 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(j) (with art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(i) (with Sch. paras. 6, 8); S.I. 2006/984, art. 2(q) (with art. 3, Sch.); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(a)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C7Ss. 37A-37D modified (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by S.I. 1999/672, Sch. 2 (as amended by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 100(3)(7), 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(s) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(k) (with Sch. 2 para. 8); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(c)

38 Standards of performance in connection with water supply.E+W

(1)For the purpose-

(a)of facilitating the determination of the extent to which breaches of the obligations imposed by the following provisions of this Part are to amount to breaches of the duty imposed by section 37 above; or

(b)of supplementing that duty by establishing overall standards of performance in relation to that duty,

the Secretary of State may, in accordance with section 39 below, by regulations provide for contraventions of such requirements as may be prescribed to be treated for the purposes of this Act as breaches of that duty.

(2)The Secretary of State may, in accordance with section 39 below, by regulations prescribe such standards of performance in connection with the provision of supplies of water as, in his opinion, ought to be achieved in individual cases.

(3)Regulations under subsection (2) above may provide that if a water undertaker fails to meet a prescribed standard it shall pay such amount as may be prescribed to any person who is affected by the failure and is of a prescribed description.

(4)Without prejudice to the generality of the power conferred by subsection (2) above, regulations under that subsection may—

(a)include in a standard of performance a requirement for a water undertaker, in prescribed circumstances, to inform a person of his rights by virtue of any such regulations;

(b)provide for any dispute under the regulations to be referred by either party to the dispute to the Director;

(c)make provision for the procedure to be followed in connection with any such reference and for the Director’s determination on such a reference to be enforceable in such manner as may be prescribed;

(d)prescribe circumstances in which a water undertaker is to be exempted from requirements of the regulations.

[F2(5)Where the Director determines any dispute in accordance with regulations under this section he shall, in such manner as may be specified in the regulations, give his reasons for reaching his decision with respect to the dispute.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F2S. 38(5) added (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para. 18; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992 , art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

[38AF3Information with respect to levels of performance.E+W

(1)The Director shall from time to time collect information with respect to—

(a)the compensation paid by water undertakers under regulations under section 38(2) above; and

(b)the levels of overall performance achieved by water undertakers in connection with the provision of water supplies.

(2)At such times as the Director may direct, each water undertaker shall give the following information to the Director—

(a)as respects each standard prescribed by regulations under section 38(2) above, the number of cases in which compensation was paid and the aggregate amount or value of that compensation; and

(b)as respects each standard established by regulations under section 38(1)(b) above, such information with respect to the level of performance achieved by the undertaker as may be so specified.

(3)A water undertaker who without reasonable excuse fails to do anything required of him by subsection (2) above shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

(4)The Director shall, at least once in every year, arrange for the publication, in such form and in such manner as he considers appropriate, of such of the information collected by or given to him under this section as it may appear to him expedient to give to customers or potential customers of water undertakers.

(5)In arranging for the publication of any such information the Director shall have regard to the need for excluding, so far as practicable—

(a)any matter which relates to the affairs of an individual, where publication of that matter would or might, in the opinion of the Director, seriously and prejudicially affect the interests of that individual; and

(b)any matter which relates specifically to the affairs of a particular body of persons, whether corporate or unincorporate, where publication of that matter would or might, in the opinion of the Director, seriously and prejudicially affect the interests of that body.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F3S. 38A inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s.27; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

[F438BPublication of statistical information about complaintsE+W

(1)It shall be the duty of the Council to publish, in such form and manner and with such frequency as it thinks appropriate, such statistical information as it considers appropriate relating to complaints made by consumers about any matter relating to the activities of water undertakers or licensed water suppliers and the handling of such complaints.

(2)In subsection (1) above, “complaints” includes complaints made directly to water undertakers or licensed water suppliers (or anyone carrying on activities on their behalf) and complaints to the Authority, the Council, the Assembly or the Secretary of State.]

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Amendments (Textual)

39 Procedure for regulations under section 38.E+W

[F5(A1)The Secretary of State may make regulations under section 38 above—

(a)on an application by the Authority, in accordance with subsections (1) to (3) below; or

(b)otherwise than on such an application, in accordance with subsections (4) to (8) below.]

(1)[F6Where the Authority has made to the Secretary of State a written application complying with subsection (2) below, the Secretary of State may make regulations under section 38 above if—]

[F7(b) the Secretary of State is satisfied that a copy of the application has been served by the Director—

(i)on every water undertaker specified in the application;F8. . .

(ii)on persons or bodies appearing to the Secretary of State to be representative of persons likely to be affected by the regulations;]

[F9(iii)on the Council; and

(iv)on such other persons or bodies as the Secretary of State may consider appropriate;]

(c)such period as the Secretary of State considers appropriate has been allowed for the making—

(i)by the Director; and

(ii)by any affected water undertaker [F10or person or body on whom a copy of the application has been served under paragraph [F11(b)] above],

of representations or objections with respect to the Director’s proposals and any modifications proposed by the Secretary of State; and

(d)the Secretary of State has considered [F12the summary mentioned in subsection (2)(bb) below,] the Director’s reasons for his proposals and every representation or objection which has been duly made with respect to those proposals, or any proposed modifications of those proposals, and has not been withdrawn.

[F13(1A)Before making an application to the Secretary of State under this section the Director shall arrange for such research as he considers appropriate with a view to discovering the views of a representative sample of persons likely to be affected and consider the results.]

(2)An application made by the Director to the Secretary of State complies with this subsection if it—

(a)sets out [F14the Authority’s proposals for the making of] regulations under section 38 above;

(b)specifies the water undertaker or undertakers in relation to which it is proposed [F15the regulations] should apply

[F16(bb) is accompanied by a written summary of the results of the research carried out in accordance with subsection (1A) above;] ; and

(c)summarises the Director’s reasons for his proposals.

(3)The Secretary of State shall not make any regulations [F17on an application by the Authority under this section] except where—

(a)the only provisions of the regulations are [F18those which in the opinion of the Secretary of State give effect to the proposals set out in the Authority’s application or to those proposals] with such modifications as the Secretary of State considers appropriate; and

(b)each of the modifications (if any) of the Director’s proposals to which effect is given by the regulations is a modification the proposal to make which has been notified—

(i)to the Director;F19. . .

(ii)to any water undertaker appearing to the Secretary of State to be likely to be affected by the modifications [F20and

(iii)to any person or body on whom a copy of the Authority’s application was served under subsection (1)(b) above.]

[F21(4)Where no such application as is mentioned in subsection (1) above has been made, the Secretary of State may make regulations under section 38 above only if he considers—

(a)that the regulations will contribute towards the attainment of policies relating to public health or the environment; or

(b)(if he does not consider that they will so contribute) that there are exceptional reasons why it is otherwise in the public interest that the regulations should be made.

(5)Before making regulations under section 38 above by virtue of subsection (4) above, the Secretary of State shall—

(a)give notice of his proposals;

(b)consider the results of the research carried out in accordance with subsection (7) below; and

(c)consider every representation or objection with respect to the proposals which has been duly made and not withdrawn.

(6)A notice under subsection (5)(a) above must—

(a)summarise the Secretary of State’s reasons for his proposals;

(b)specify the water undertaker or undertakers in relation to which it is proposed the regulations should apply; and

(c)specify the period within which objections or representations with respect to the proposals may be made.

(7)Before giving notice under subsection (5)(a) above the Secretary of State shall arrange for such research as he considers appropriate with a view to discovering the views of a representative sample of persons likely to be affected.

(8)A notice under subsection (5)(a) above shall be given by serving a copy on—

(a)the Authority;

(b)the Council;

(c)every water undertaker to which the regulations will apply;

(d)persons or bodies appearing to the Secretary of State to be representative of persons likely to be affected by the regulations; and

(e)such other persons or bodies as the Secretary of State may consider appropriate.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F6S. 39(1): words substituted (1.4.2005) for para. (a) and preceding words by virtue of Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(3)(a), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

F7S. 39(1)(b) substituted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para. 19(2); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992 , art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

F10Words in s. 39(1)(c)(ii) inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para. 19(3); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992 , art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F11Words in s. 39(1)(c)(ii) substituted (1.4.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(3)(c), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

F12Words in s. 39(1)(d) substituted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 26(2); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992 , art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

F13S. 39(1A) inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 26(3); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992 , art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F14Words in s. 39(2)(a) substituted (1.4.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(4)(a), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

F15Words in s. 39(2)(b) substituted (1.4.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(4)(b), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

F16S. 39(2)(bb) inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 26(4); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992 , art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

F17Words in s. 39(3) substituted (1.4.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(5)(a), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

F18Words in s. 39(3)(a) substituted (1.4.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(5)(b), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

F20S. 39(3)(b)(iii) and preceding word inserted (1.4.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 41(5)(c), 105(3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(h) (with savings in art. 4, Sch. 1, 2)

[39AF22Information to be given to customers about overall performance.E+W

(1)Each water undertaker shall, in such form and manner and with such frequency as the Director may direct, take steps to inform its customers [F23, and, if the direction so specifies, licensed water suppliers using the undertaker’s supply system for the purpose of supplying water to the premises of customers or those customers,] of—

(a)the standards of overall performance established under section 38(1)(b) above which are applicable to that undertaker; and

(b)that undertaker’s level of performance as respects each of those standards.

(2)In giving any such direction, the Director shall not specify a frequency of less than once in every period of twelve months.

[F24(2A)The licensed water suppliers referred to in subsection (1) above shall, if the Authority so directs, pass on the information about the matters mentioned in that subsection to their customers.

(2B)In subsection (1) above, the reference to the water undertaker’s supply system shall be construed in accordance with section 17B(5) above.]

(3)The duty of a water undertaker [F25or licensed water supplier] to comply with this section shall be enforceable by the Director under section 18 above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F22S. 39A inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 28; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act. 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

[F2639BDrought plans: preparation and reviewE+W

(1)It shall be the duty of each water undertaker to prepare and maintain a drought plan.

(2)A drought plan is a plan for how the water undertaker will continue, during a period of drought, to discharge its duties to supply adequate quantities of wholesome water, with as little recourse as reasonably possible to drought orders or drought permits under Chapter 3 of Part 2 of the Water Resources Act 1991.

(3)The duties referred to in subsection (2) above include in particular those imposed under or by virtue of—

(a)section 37 above;

(b)sections 67 to 69 below.

(4)A drought plan shall address, in particular, the following matters—

(a)what measures the water undertaker might need to take to restrain the demand for water within its area;

(b)what measures the water undertaker might need to take to obtain extra water from other sources (also taking into account for that purpose the introduction of water into the undertaker’s supply system by or on behalf of licensed water suppliers);

(c)how the water undertaker will monitor the effects of the drought and of the measures taken under the drought plan;

(d)such other matters as the Secretary of State may specify in directions.

(5)Section 37B above (water resources management plans: publication and representations), including any power in that section to make regulations or give directions, applies in relation to drought plans (including revised plans) as it applies in relation to water resources management plans.

(6)Each water undertaker shall review (or further review) its drought plan and prepare a revised plan in each of the following cases—

(a)if there is a material change of circumstances;

(b)if directed to do so by the Secretary of State;

(c)in any event, not later than the end of the period of three years beginning with the date when the plan (or revised plan) was last published in accordance with section 37B(8)(a) above as applied by subsection (5) above,

and shall follow the procedure in section 37B above as applied by subsection (5) above (whether or not the revised plan prepared by the undertaker includes any proposed alterations to the previous plan).

(7)Before preparing its drought plan (including a revised plan), the water undertaker shall consult—

(a)the Environment Agency;

(b)the Authority;

(c)the Secretary of State; and

(d)any licensed water supplier which supplies water to premises in the undertaker’s area via the undertaker’s supply system.

(8)The Secretary of State may give directions specifying the form which a drought plan must take.

(9)Directions given under this section (including directions given under section 37B above as applied by subsection (5) above) may be—

(a)general directions applying to all water undertakers; or

(b)directions applying only to one or more water undertakers specified in the directions,

and shall be given by an instrument in writing.

(10)It shall be the duty of each water undertaker to whom directions apply to comply with the directions.

(11)The Secretary of State shall consult the Environment Agency before giving a direction under subsection (6)(b) above.

(12)The duty of a water undertaker under this section shall be enforceable by the Secretary of State under section 18 above.

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Amendments (Textual)

F26Ss. 39B, 39C inserted (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and otherwise 1.10.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 63, 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(j) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(j) (with Sch. 2 para. 8)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C8S. 39B modified (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by S.I. 1999/672, Sch. 2 (as amended by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 100(3)(7), 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(s) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(k) (with Sch. 2 para. 8); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(c)

39CDrought plans: provision of informationE+W

(1)It shall be the duty of each licensed water supplier to provide the water undertaker with such information as the water undertaker may reasonably request for the purposes of preparing or revising its drought plan.

(2)In the event of any dispute between a water undertaker and a licensed water supplier as to the reasonableness of the water undertaker’s request under subsection (1) above, either party may refer the matter for determination by the Secretary of State, and any such determination shall be final.

(3)For the purposes of paragraph (b) of section 37B(1) above as applied by section 39B(5) above, the water undertaker shall identify in its statement under that paragraph any information—

(a)provided by a licensed water supplier pursuant to subsection (1) above; and

(b)contained in the water undertaker’s draft drought plan,

which the licensed water supplier has (at the time of providing it to the water undertaker) specifically identified as being, in the licensed water supplier’s opinion, commercially confidential.

(4)The water undertaker shall not use any unpublished information save for the purpose of facilitating the performance by it of any of the duties imposed on it by or under this Act, any of the other consolidation Acts or the Water Act 1989.

(5)In subsection (4) above—

(a)unpublished information” means confidential information which—

(i)is provided to the water undertaker by a licensed water supplier under this section;

(ii)relates to the affairs of any individual or to any particular business; and

(iii)by virtue of section 37B above as applied by section 39B(5) above, is not published;

(b)the other consolidation Acts” has the same meaning as in section 206 below.

(6)The duties of a licensed water supplier and a water undertaker under this section shall be enforceable by the Secretary of State under section 18 above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F26Ss. 39B, 39C inserted (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and otherwise 1.10.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 63, 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(j) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(j) (with Sch. 2 para. 8)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C9S. 39C modified (1.10.2004 for specified purposes and 1.10.2005 for further specified purposes and 1.4.2007 otherwise) by S.I. 1999/672, Sch. 2 (as amended by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 100(3)(7), 105(3); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(s) (with savings in art. 4); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 2(k) (with Sch. 2 para. 8); S.I. 2007/1021, art. 2(c)

chapter IIE+W SUPPLY DUTIES

Major suppliesE+W

[40F27Bulk supplies.E+W

(1)Where, on the application of any qualifying person—

(a)it appears to the Director that it is necessary or expedient for the purposes of securing the efficient use of water resources, or the efficient supply of water, that the water undertaker specified in the application (“the supplier”) should give a supply of water in bulk to the applicant, and

(b)the Director is satisfied that the giving and taking of such a supply cannot be secured by agreement,

the Director may by order require the supplier to give and the applicant to take such a supply for such period and on such terms and conditions as may be provided in the order.

(2)In this section “qualifying person” means—

(a)a water undertaker; or

(b)a person who has made an application for an appointment or variation under section 8 above which has not been determined.

(3)Where the application is made by a person who is a qualifying person by virtue of subsection (2)(b) above, an order made under this section in response to that application shall be expressed not to come into force until the applicant becomes a water undertaker for the area specified in the order, or for an area which includes that area.

(4)Subject to subsection (3) above, an order under this section shall have effect as an agreement between the supplier and the applicant.

(5)The Director shall not make an order under this section unless he has first consulted [F28the Environment Agency]].

(6)In exercising his functions under this section, the Director shall have regard to the desirability of—

(a)facilitating effective competition within the water supply industry;

(b)the supplier’s recovering the expenses of complying with its obligations by virtue of this section and securing a reasonable return on its capital;

(c)the supplier’s being able to meet its existing obligations, and likely future obligations, to supply water without having to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works;

(d)not putting at risk the ability of the supplier to meet its existing obligations, or likely future obligations, to supply water.

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Amendments (Textual)

F27Ss. 40 and 40A substituted (1.7.1992) for s. 40 by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 44; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F28Words in s. 40(5) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 25, s. 120(1), Sch. 22 para. 99 (with ss. 7(6), 115, 117); S.I. 1996/186, art. 3

[F2940AVariation and termination of bulk supply agreements.E+W

(1)This section applies where, on the application of any party to a bulk supply agreement—

(a)it appears to the Director that it is necessary or expedient for the purpose of securing the efficient use of water resources, or the efficient supply of water, to vary the agreement or to terminate it, and

(b)the Director is satisfied that that cannot be achieved by agreement between the parties to the agreement.

(2)The Director may by order—

(a)vary the agreement by—

(i)varying the period for which the supply of water is to be given; or

(ii)varying any of the terms or conditions on which that supply is to be given; or

(b)terminate the agreement.

(3)Before making any order under this section the Director shall consult [F30the Environment Agency].

(4)Where an order is made under this section the agreement concerned shall have effect subject to the provision made by the order or (as the case may be) shall cease to have effect.

(5)An order under this section may require the payment of compensation by any party to the agreement to any other party.

(6)The obligations of a water undertaker under subsection (5) above shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the Director.

(7)In exercising his functions under this section, the Director shall have regard to the expenses incurred by the supplier in complying with its obligations under the bulk supply agreement and to the desirability of—

(a)facilitating effective competition within the water supply industry;

(b)the supplier’s recovering the expenses of complying with its obligations by virtue of this section and securing a reasonable return on its capital;

(c)the supplier’s being able to meet its existing obligations, and likely future obligations, to supply water without having to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works;

(d)not putting at risk the ability of the supplier to meet its existing obligations, or likely future obligations, to supply water.

(8)In this section—

  • bulk supply agreement” means an agreement between one or more water undertakers for the supply of water in bulk and includes—

    (a)

    an order under section 40 above which is deemed to be an agreement by virtue of subsection (4) of that section; and

    (b)

    any agreement which has been varied by order under this section; and

  • supplier”, in relation to a bulk supply agreement, means any water undertaker which is required by the agreement to provide a bulk supply of water.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F29Ss. 40 and 40A substituted (1.7.1992) for s. 40 by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 44; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F30Words in s. 40A(3) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 25, s. 120(1), Sch. 22 para. 100 (with ss. 7(6), 115, 117); S.I. 1996/186, art. 3

41 Duty to comply with water main requisition.E+W

(1)It shall be the duty of a water undertaker (in accordance with section 44 below) to provide a water main to be used for providing such supplies of water to premises in a particular locality in its area as (so far as those premises are concerned) are sufficient for domestic purposes, if-

(a)the undertaker is required to provide the main by a notice served on the undertaker by one or more of the persons who under subsection (2) below are entitled to require the provision of the main for that locality;

(b)the premises in that locality to which those supplies would be provided by means of that main are—

(i)premises consisting in buildings or parts of buildings; or

(ii)premises which will so consist when proposals made by any person for the erection of buildings or parts of buildings are carried out;

and

(c)the conditions specified in section 42 below are satisfied in relation to that requirement.

(2)Each of the following persons shall be entitled to require the provision of a water main for any locality, that is to say—

(a)the owner of any premises in that locality;

(b)the occupier of any premises in that locality;

(c)any local authority within whose area the whole or any part of that locality is situated;

(d)where the whole or any part of that locality is situated in a new town, within the meaning of the M1New Towns Act 1981—

(i)the [F31new towns residuary body]; and

(ii)F32. . . the development corporation for the new town, F32. . .;

and

(e)where the whole or any part of that locality is situated within an area designated as an urban development area under Part XVI of the M2Local Government, Planning and Land Act 1980, the urban development corporation.

(3)The duty of a water undertaker under this section to provide a water main shall be owed to the person who requires the provision of the main or, as the case may be, to each of the persons who joins in doing so.

(4)Where a duty is owed by virtue of subsection (3) above to any person, any breach of that duty which causes that person to sustain loss or damage shall be actionable at the suit of that person; but, in any proceedings brought against a water undertaker in pursuance of this subsection, it shall be a defence for the undertaker to show that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid the breach.

(5)In this section “local authority”, in relation to the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple, includes, respectively, the Sub-Treasurer of the Inner Temple and the Under-Treasurer of the Middle Temple.

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Amendments (Textual)

F31Words in s. 41(2)(d)(i) substituted (1.12.2008) by Housing and Regeneration Act 2008 (c. 17), ss. 56, 325, Sch. 8 para. 56; S.I. 2008/3068, art. 2(1)(w) (with savings and transitional provisions in arts. 6-13)

Marginal Citations

42 Financial conditions of compliance.E+W

(1)The conditions mentioned in section 41(1)(c) above are satisfied in relation to a requirement for the provision of a water main by a water undertaker if—

(a)such undertakings as the undertaker may have reasonably required in accordance with subsection (2) below have been given by the person or persons who have required the provision of the main; and

(b)such security as the undertaker may have reasonably required has been provided for the discharge of any obligations imposed by those undertakings on any person who, under subsection (3) below, may be required to secure his undertakings.

(2)The undertakings which a water undertaker may require for the purposes of subsection (1) above in respect of any water main are undertakings which—

[F33(a)bind the person or persons mentioned in that subsection to pay to the undertaker either (at the election of such person or persons)—

(i)in respect of each of the twelve years following the provision of the main, an amount not exceeding the relevant deficit (if any) for that year on that main; or

(ii)following provision of the main, a single amount not exceeding the discounted aggregate deficit on that main; and]

(b)in the case of undertakings binding two or more persons, bind them either jointly and severally or with liability to pay apportioned in such manner as they may agree.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) above a person may be required to secure his undertakings in relation to the provision of a water main if—

(a)it was by virtue of section 41(2)(a) or (b) above that he required, or joined in requiring, the provision of the main; and

(b)he is not a public authority.

(4)Where for the purposes of subsection (1)(b) above any sums have been deposited with a water undertaker by way of security for the discharge of any obligation, the undertaker shall pay interest at such rate as may be determined either—

(a)by the undertaker with the approval of the Director; or

(b)in default of a determination under paragraph (a) above, by the Director,

on every sum of 50p so deposited for every three months during which it remains in the hands of the undertaker.

(5)An approval or determination given or made by the Director for the purposes of subsection (4) above—

(a)may be given or made in relation to the provision of a particular water main, in relation to the provision of mains of a particular description or in relation to the provision of water mains generally; and

(b)may be revoked at any time.

(6)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to—

(a)the undertakings or security required by the undertaker for the purposes of this section; or

(b)the amount required to be paid in pursuance of any such undertaking,

[F34may be referred to the Authority for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

[F35(7)In this section “relevant deficit” and “discounted aggregate deficit” have the meanings given by sections 43 and 43A below, respectively.]

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Amendments (Textual)

43 Calculation of “relevant deficit” for the purposes of section 42.E+W

(1)For the purposes of section 42 above the relevant deficit for any year on a water main is the amount (if any) by which the [F36relevant revenue in respect of that main for that year is] exceeded by the annual borrowing costs of a loan of the amount required for the provision of that main.

(2)The annual borrowing costs of a loan of the amount required for the provision of a water main is the aggregate amount which would fall to be paid in any year by way of payments of interest and repayments of capital if an amount equal to so much of the costs reasonably incurred in providing that main as were not incurred in the provision of additional capacity had been borrowed, by the water undertaker providing the main, on terms—

(a)requiring interest to be paid and capital to be repaid in twelve equal annual instalments; and

(b)providing for the amount of the interest to be calculated at such rate, and in accordance with such other provision, as may have been determined for the purposes of this subsection.

(3)A determination for the purposes of subsection (2) above shall be made either—

(a)by the undertaker with the approval of the Director; or

(b)in default of such a determination, by the Director.

(4)For the purposes of this section the costs reasonably incurred in providing a water main (“the new main”) shall include—

(a)the costs reasonably incurred in providing such other water mains and such tanks, service reservoirs and pumping stations as it is necessary to provide in consequence of the provision of the new main; and

(b)such proportion (if any) as is reasonable of the costs reasonably incurred in providing [F37or procuring the provision of] any such additional capacity in an earlier main as falls to be used in consequence of the provision of the new main.

[F38(5)In subsection (4) above the reference to an earlier main, in relation to the new main, is a reference to any water main which—

(a)has been provided in pursuance of a water main requisition; or

(b)has been vested (by virtue of a declaration made under this Chapter) in the water undertaker,

in the period of twelve years immediately before the provision of the new main.]

(6)Any reference in this section to the provision of additional capacity in a water main provided in pursuance of a requirement under any enactment is a reference to such works carried out or other things done in connection with the provision of that main as are carried out or done for the purpose of enabling that main to be used for purposes in addition to those for which it is necessary to provide the main in order to comply with the requirement.

[F39(7)Any reference in this section to the relevant revenue in respect of a main provided by a water undertaker for any year is—

(a)in relation to premises connected with the main which are supplied with water by the undertaker, is a reference to so much of the aggregate of any charges payable to the undertaker in respect of services provided in the course of that year as represents charges which—

(i)have been imposed by the undertaker in relation to those premises; and

(ii)are reasonably attributable to the provision of a supply of water (whether or not for domestic purposes) to those premises by means of that main;

(b)in relation to premises connected with the main which are supplied with water by a licensed water supplier, is a reference to so much of the aggregate of any charges made during the course of that year which—

(i)are payable by the supplier to the undertaker in respect of the duty under section 66A(2)(b), 66B(3)(b) or 66C(2)(b)(ii) below; and

(ii)are reasonably attributable to the use of that main for the purpose of the supplier supplying water to those premises.]

(8)An approval or determination given or made by the Director for the purposes of subsection (2) above—

(a)may be given or made in relation to the provision of a particular water main, in relation to the provision of mains of a particular description or in relation to the provision of water mains generally; and

(b)may be revoked at any time except in relation to a water main [F40in respect of which the conditions referred to in section 42(1) above have already been satisfied.] .

(9)In this section “water main requisition” means—

(a)a requirement under section 41 above (including, by virtue of paragraph 1 of Schedule 2 to the M3Water Consolidation (Consequential Provisions) Act 1991, a requirement under section 40 of the M4Water Act 1989);

(b)a requirement under the provisions of section 36 or 37 of the M5Water Act 1945 or of section 29 of Schedule 3 to that Act (water main requisitions); or

(c)a requirement under any local statutory provision corresponding to section 41 above or to any of those provisions of that Act of 1945.

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Amendments (Textual)

Marginal Citations

[F4143ACalculation of “discounted aggregate deficit” for the purposes of section 42E+W

(1)For the purposes of section 42 above the discounted aggregate deficit on a water main is the amount equal to the sum of the estimated relevant deficits for each of the twelve years following the provision of the main, in each case discounted in accordance with subsection (6) below.

(2)The estimated relevant deficit for any year is the amount (if any) by which the estimated revenue in respect of the water main for that year would be exceeded by the annual borrowing costs of a loan of the amount required for the provision of that main.

(3)Subsections (2) to (6), (8) and (9) of section 43 above (which relate to the annual borrowing costs of a loan of the amount required for the provision of a water main) shall apply for the purposes of this section as they apply for the purposes of that.

(4)Any reference in this section to the estimated revenue in respect of a water main for any year—

(a)in relation to premises expected to be connected with the main and supplied with water by a water undertaker, is a reference to so much of the aggregate of any charges expected to be payable to the undertaker for the provision of services in the course of that year as would represent charges—

(i)imposed by the undertaker in relation to those premises, and

(ii)reasonably attributable to the provision of a supply of water (whether or not for domestic purposes) to those premises by means of that main; and

(b)in relation to premises expected to be connected with the main and supplied with water by a licensed water supplier, is a reference to so much of the aggregate of any charges expected to be made during the course of that year as would be—

(i)payable by the supplier to the undertaker in respect of the duty under section 66A(2)(b), 66B(3)(b) or 66C(2)(b)(ii) below; and

(ii)reasonably attributable to the use of that main for the purpose of the supplier’s supplying water to those premises.

(5)For the purpose of calculating estimated revenue under subsection (4) above, a thing is expected to be the case if, at the time the calculation is made, it is reasonably likely to occur.

(6)The estimated relevant deficit for a year mentioned in subsection (1) above shall be discounted in order to determine its net present value by applying such factor, and in accordance with such other provision, as may be determined by the Authority.

(7)A determination made by the Authority for the purposes of subsection (6) above—

(a)may be made in relation to the provision of a particular water main or in relation to the provision of water mains generally; and

(b)may be revoked at any time except in relation to a water main in respect of which the conditions referred to in section 42(1) above have already been satisfied.]

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Amendments (Textual)

44 Determination of completion date and route for requisitioned main.E+W

(1)A water undertaker shall not be in breach of a duty imposed by section 41 above in relation to any locality unless-

(a)the period of three months beginning with the relevant day has expired; and

[F42(b)the water undertaker has not, before the end of that period, so laid the water main to be provided as to enable (as the case may be)—

(i)service pipes to premises in that locality; or

(ii)a water main which is the subject of an agreement under section 51A below (“the self-laid main”),

to connect with the main at the place or places determined under subsection (3) below.]

(2)The period mentioned in subsection (1)(a) above may be extended in any case—

(a)by agreement between the water undertaker and the person or persons who required the provision of the main; or

(b)where there is a dispute as to whether the period should be extended, by [F43the Authority] on a reference under subsection (4) below.

(3)The places mentioned in subsection (1)(b) above shall be—

(a)such places as are determined by agreement between the water undertaker and the person or persons who required the provision of the water main; or

(b)in default of agreement, such places as are determined by [F44the Authority] , on a reference under subsection (4) below, to be the places at which it is reasonable, in all the circumstances, for service pipes to premises in the locality in question [F45, or (as the case may be) the self-laid main,] to connect with the water main.

[F46(4)A reference for the purposes of subsection (2) or (3) above may be made to the Authority for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

(5)In this section “relevant day”, in relation to a requirement to provide a water main F47. . . , means the day after whichever is the later of the following, that is to say—

(a)the day on which the conditions specified in section 42 above are satisfied in relation to the requirement; and

[F48(b)the day on which the place or places where (as the case may be)—

(i)service pipes to premises in the locality in question; or

(ii)the self-laid main,

will connect with the main are determined under subsection (3) above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F47Words in s. 44(5) omitted (28.5.2004) and repealed (1.4.2005) by virtue of Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 91(3)(e)(4), 101(2), 105(3), Sch. 9 Pt. 3; S.I. 2004/641, art. 4(a) (with art. 6, Sch. 3); S.I. 2005/968, art. 2(n) (with savings in art. 4, Schs. 1, 2)

Domestic connectionsE+W

45 Duty to make connections with main.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section and to sections 46 and 47 below, it shall be the duty of a water undertaker (in accordance with section 51 below) to make a connection under this section where the owner or occupier of any premises F49. . .which—

(a)consist in the whole or any part of a building; or

(b)are premises on which any person is proposing to erect any building or part of a building,

serves a notice on the undertaker requiring it, for the purpose of providing a supply of water for domestic purposes to that building or part of a building, to connect a service pipe to those premises with one of the undertaker’s water mains.

[F50(1A)In relation to service pipes which do not belong to or fall to be laid by the undertaker—

(a)subsection (1) above is subject to section 51D(1) below; and

(b)any such service pipe which is to vest in the undertaker by virtue of an agreement under section 51A below shall be connected to one of the undertaker’s water mains subject to and in accordance with the terms of that agreement.]

(2)Where a notice has been served for the purposes of this section, the duty imposed by subsection (1) above shall be a duty, at the expense of the person serving the notice, to make the connection required by the notice if—

(a)the main with which the service pipe is required to be connected is neither a trunk main nor a water main which is or is to be used solely for the purpose of supplying water otherwise than for domestic purposes; and

(b)such conditions as the undertaker may have imposed under sections 47 to 50 below have been satisfied;

and, subject to section 51 below, that duty shall arise whether or not the service pipe to which the notice relates has been laid when the notice is served.

(3)A notice for the purposes of this section—

(a)shall be accompanied or supplemented by all such information as the undertaker may reasonably require; and

(b)if the notice has effect so that a requirement is imposed on the undertaker by virtue of section 46(4) below, shall set out the matters that have given rise to the imposition of that requirement;

but, subject to section 51(5) below and without prejudice to the effect (if any) of any other contravention of this subsection, a failure to provide information in pursuance of the obligation to supplement such a notice shall not invalidate that notice.

(4)The duty imposed on a water undertaker by this section shall be owed to the person who served the notice by virtue of which the duty arises.

(5)Where a duty is owed by virtue of subsection (4) above to any person, any breach of that duty which causes that person to sustain loss or damage shall be actionable at the suit of that person; but, in any proceedings brought against a water undertaker in pursuance of this subsection, it shall be a defence for the undertaker to show that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid the breach.

(6)Where a water undertaker carries out any works which it is its duty under this section to carry out at another person’s expense, the undertaker shall be entitled to recover from that person an amount equal to the expenses reasonably incurred by the undertaker in carrying out the works.

[F51(6A)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to whether the expenses were incurred reasonably may be referred to the Director for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

(7)Nothing in this section or in sections 46 to 51 below shall impose any duty on a water undertaker to connect a service pipe to any premises with a service pipe to any other premises.

(8)In the following provisions of this Chapter a notice served for the purposes of this section is referred to as a connection notice.

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Amendments (Textual)

F49Words in s. 45(1) repealed (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), ss. 43(1), 56(7), Sch. 2; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F51S. 45(6A) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 35(2); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

46 Duty to carry out ancillary works for the purpose of making domestic connection.E+W

(1)Where a water undertaker is required to make a connection in pursuance of any connection notice, it shall also be the duty of the undertaker, at the expense of the person serving the notice, to carry out such of the works to which this section applies as need to be carried out before the connection can be made.

(2)This section applies to the laying of so much of the service pipe to be connected with the water main as it is necessary, for the purpose of making that connection, to lay in a street.

(3)In a case where—

(a)the water main with which the service pipe is to be connected is situated in a street;

(b)the premises consisting in the building or part of a building in question together with any land occupied with it abut on the part of the street where the main is situated; and

(c)the service pipe to those premises will—

(i)enter the premises otherwise than through an outer wall of a building abutting on the street; and

(ii)have a stopcock fitted to it by the undertaker in the premises,

this section applies to the laying of so much of the service pipe as it is necessary, for the purpose of making the required connection, to lay in land between the boundary of the street and that stopcock.

(4)In a case where the connection notice is served in compliance with a requirement imposed by a notice by a local authority under section 80 below, this section applies to the laying of so much of the service pipe to be connected with a water main in pursuance of the connection notice as it is necessary, for the purpose of making the connection, to lay in land owned or occupied by a person who is certified by that authority—

(a)to have unreasonably refused his consent to the laying of the service pipe; or

(b)to have sought to make the giving of his consent subject to unreasonable conditions.

(5)Where a water main is alongside a street and within eighteen metres of the middle of that street, subsections (2) to (4) above shall have effect in relation to the laying, for the purpose of making a connection with that main, of a service pipe to any premises as if the street included so much of the land between the main and the boundary of the street as is not comprised in those premises or in any land occupied with those premises.

(6)It shall be the duty of any water undertaker making a connection in pursuance of a connection notice to ensure that a stopcock belonging to the undertaker is fitted to the service pipe which is connected.

(7)Subsections (4) to [F52(6A)] of section 45 above shall have effect-

(a)in relation to any duties which, by virtue of a connection notice, are imposed on a water undertaker by this section; and

(b)in relation to any works which, by virtue of the service of such a notice, such an undertaker carries out under this section at another person’s expense,

as they have effect by virtue of that notice in relation to the duty which arises under that section or, as the case may be, to works which the undertaker carries out under that section at another person’s expense.

(8)Subject to subsection (9) below, a water undertaker may comply with any duty under this section to lay a service pipe by laying a water main instead; but nothing in section 45 above or this section shall impose any duty on a water undertaker to lay a water main where it has no power to lay a service pipe.

(9)Where a water undertaker exercises its power under subsection (8) above to lay a water main instead of a service pipe—

(a)paragraph (a) of section 51(1) below shall have effect as if any additional time reasonably required by reason of the laying of the main instead of the service pipe were included in the time allowed by that paragraph for the laying of the service pipe; but

(b)the expenses recoverable by virtue of section 45(6) and subsection (7) above shall not exceed such amount as it would have been reasonable for the undertaker to have incurred in laying a service pipe instead of the main.

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Amendments (Textual)

F52Words in s. 46(7) substituted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 35(3); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt. II

47 Conditions of connection with water main.E+W

(1)Subject to subsection (3) and sections 48 to 50 below, where the owner or occupier of any premises (“the relevant premises”) serves a connection notice on a water undertaker, the undertaker may make compliance with one or more of the requirements specified in subsection (2) below a condition of its complying with the duties to which it is subject by virtue of that notice.

(2)The requirements mentioned in subsection (1) above are—

(a)a requirement that such security as the undertaker may reasonably require has been provided for the discharge of any obligations imposed by virtue of section 45(6) or 46(7)(b) above on the person who served the connection notice;

(b)a requirement, in a case where the connection required by the connection notice is necessary as a consequence of a disconnection made by reason of any person’s failure to pay any charges, that the person serving the connection notice has paid any amount owed by him to the undertaker—

(i)in respect of a supply of water to the relevant premises; or

(ii)in respect of expenses [F53reasonably]incurred in the making of the disconnection;

(c)a requirement that a meter for use in determining the amount of any charges which have been or may be fixed in relation to the relevant premises by reference to volume has been installed and connected either—

(i)by the undertaker; or

(ii)in accordance with specifications approved by the undertaker;

(d)a requirement that—

[F54(i)subject to section 51D(1) below, so much of the service pipe to the relevant premises as does not belong to, vest in or fall to be laid by the undertaker; and]

(ii)the plumbing of the premises,

comply with specifications approved by the undertaker for the purpose of ensuring that it will be reasonably practicable for such a meter as is mentioned in paragraph (c) above to be installed and connected as so mentioned;

(e)a requirement that a separate service pipe has been provided—

(i)to each house or building on the relevant premises; or

(ii)where different parts of a building on the relevant premises are separately occupied, to each of those parts or to any of them;

(f)a requirement, in relation to the relevant premises—

(i)that such a requirement as may be imposed under section 66 below has been complied with; or

(ii)in a case where such a requirement could be imposed but for there already being such a cistern as is mentioned in that section, that the cistern and its float-operated valve are in good repair;

(g)a requirement that there is no contravention in relation to the water fittings used or to be used in connection with—

(i)the supply of water to the relevant premises; or

(ii)the use of water in those premises,

of such of the requirements of regulations under section 74 below as are prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph; and

(h)a requirement that every such step has been taken as has been specified in any notice served on any person under section 75 below in relation to the relevant premises.

[F55(2A)No condition shall be imposed by a water undertaker under subsection (2)(e) above unless it is reasonable to do so in order to ensure that the undertaker will be able to perform its functions, in relation to the supply of water to the relevant premises or any part of those premises, efficiently.]

(3)A condition shall not be imposed by a water undertaker under this section on a person who has served a connection notice except by a counter-notice served on that person before the end of the period of fourteen days beginning with the day after the service of the connection notice.

[F56(3A)Any dispute as to whether any requirement of a kind mentioned in subsection (2)(a), (b), (e) or (f) above has been complied with may be referred to the Director for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.

(3B)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to whether—

(a)any security required by a condition imposed under subsection (2)(a) above was reasonably required,

(b)the expenses referred to in subsection (2)(b)(ii) above were incurred reasonably, or

(c)in a particular case, subsection (2A) above prevents a water undertaker from imposing a condition under subsection (2)(e) above,

may be referred to the Director for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

(4)This section shall be without prejudice to the provisions of sections 233 and 372 of the M6Insolvency Act 1986 (conditions of supply after insolvency).

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Amendments (Textual)

F53Word in s. 47(2)(b)(ii) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 51(2); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

F55S. 47(2A) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 51(3); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

F56S. 47(3A)(3B) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 51(4); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

Marginal Citations

48 Interest on sums deposited in pursuance of the deposit condition.E+W

(1)Where for the purposes of subsection (2)(a) of section 47 above any sums have been deposited with a water undertaker by way of security for the discharge of any obligation, the undertaker shall pay interest at such rate as may be determined either—

(a)by the undertaker with the approval of the Director; or

(b)in default of a determination under paragraph (a) above, by the Director,

on every sum of 50p so deposited for every three months during which it remains in the hands of the undertaker.

(2)An approval or determination by the Director for the purposes of this section—

(a)may be given or made in relation to a particular case or description of cases or generally; and

(b)may be revoked at any time.

49 Supplemental provisions with respect to the metering conditions.E+W

(1)The power conferred on a water undertaker to impose conditions under section 47 above for the purposes of metering—

(a)shall be exercisable in relation to any premises even if the undertaker has no immediate intention, when the power is exercised, of fixing charges in relation to those premises by reference to volume; but

(b)shall not be exercisable so as to require the alteration or removal of any pipe laid or plumbing installed before 1st April 1989.

(2)Specifications approved by any water undertaker for the purposes of subsection (2)(c) or (d) of section 47 above may be approved—

(a)in relation to particular premises; or

(b)by being published in such manner as the undertaker considers appropriate, in relation to premises generally or to any description of premises.

[F57(3)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to the terms of any condition imposed under section 47 above for the purposes of metering shall be referred—

(a)to the arbitration of a single arbitrator appointed by agreement between the undertaker and that person; or

(b)if no agreement is reached, for determination by the Director under section 30A above.]

(4)References in this section to the imposition of a condition under section 47 above for the purposes of metering are references to the imposition of conditions by virtue of subsection (2)(c) or (d) of that section.

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Amendments (Textual)

F57S. 49(3) substituted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 35(4); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt. II

50 Restriction on imposition of condition requiring separate service pipes.E+W

(1)This section applies where the effect of a connection notice served in respect of any house is to require a service pipe to that house to be connected with a water main with which it has previously been connected.

(2)Where this section applies, the water undertaker on which the connection notice is served shall not be entitled to make the reconnection subject to any such condition as, apart from this section, may be imposed by virtue of section 47(2)(e) above unless the undertaker would have been entitled under section 64 below to require the provision of a separate service pipe if the reconnection had already been made.

51 Time for performance of connection etc. duties.E+W

(1)A water undertaker shall not be in breach of a duty imposed by virtue of the service of a connection notice unless—

(a)in the case of a duty to lay any service pipe or to connect any service pipe to which such a duty relates, it has failed to lay that pipe or to make that connection as soon as reasonably practicable after the relevant day;

(b)in the case of a duty to connect a service pipe the whole of which has already been laid when the notice is served on the undertaker, it has failed to make the connection before the end of the period of fourteen days beginning with the relevant day.

(2)In any case in which a water undertaker is subject to any such duty as is mentioned in subsection (1)(a) above, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is shown in relation to that case, that the period of twenty-one days beginning with the relevant day is the period within which it is reasonably practicable for a water undertaker—

(a)to lay so much of any service pipe; and

(b)to fit such stopcock,

as it is necessary to lay or fit in that case for connecting a water main in a street with a service pipe at the boundary of any premises which abut on the part of the street where the main is situated.

(3)Where—

(a)a connection notice is served in respect of any premises; and

(b)at the time when the notice is served, the customer’s part of the service pipe to those premises has not been laid,

the duties of the undertaker under sections 45 and 46 above shall not arise by virtue of that notice until the person serving the notice, having obtained the necessary consents from the owners and occupiers of any affected land, has, at his own expense, laid so much of the service pipe as it is necessary, for the purpose of making the connection, to lay otherwise than in a street or in land mentioned in subsections (3) to (5) of section 46 above.

(4)In subsection (3) above the reference to the customer’s part of the service pipe to any premises is a reference to so much of the service pipe to those premises as falls to be laid otherwise than by the water undertaker in pursuance of section 46 above.

(5)Where—

(a)a person who has served a connection notice on a water undertaker has failed to comply with his obligation under section 45(3)(a) above to supplement that notice with information required by the undertaker; and

(b)that requirement was made by the undertaker at such a time before the end of the period within which the undertaker is required to comply with the duties imposed by virtue of the notice as gave that person a reasonable opportunity to provide the required information within that period,

the undertaker may delay its compliance with those duties until a reasonable time after the required information is provided.

(6)In this section “the relevant day”, in relation to a duty imposed on a water undertaker by virtue of a connection notice, means the day after whichever is the latest of the following days, that is to say-

(a)the day on which the notice was served on the undertaker;

(b)in a case where it is necessary for the person serving the notice to lay any service pipe after serving the notice, the day on which a notice stating that the pipe has been laid is served on the undertaker;

(c)the day on which all such conditions are satisfied as the undertaker has, under sections 47 to 50 above, made conditions of its compliance with that duty.

[F58Adoption of water mains and service pipesE+W

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Amendments (Textual)

F58Ss. 51A-51E and preceding cross-heading inserted (28.5.2004) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 92(1), 105(3); S.I. 2004/641, art. 4(a) (with art. 6, Sch. 3)

51AAgreements to adopt water main or service pipe at future dateE+W

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (10) below, a water undertaker may agree with any person constructing or proposing to construct—

(a)any water main; or

(b)any service pipe,

that, if the water main or service pipe is constructed in accordance with the terms of the agreement, the undertaker will, upon completion of the work, at some specified date or on the happening of some future event, declare the water main or (as the case may be) so much of the service pipe as the undertaker could otherwise, by virtue of sections 45 to 51 above, be required to lay, to be vested in that undertaker.

(2)Subsection (1) above shall not apply in the case of water mains or service pipes which are to be used (in whole or in part) for the purpose of supplying water other than for domestic purposes, but—

(a)nothing in this section shall prevent a water undertaker from agreeing apart from this section to declare any such water main or service pipe (or a part of it, as specified in the agreement) to be vested in the undertaker; and

(b)such a declaration shall take effect as a declaration made under this Chapter.

(3)A person constructing or proposing to construct a water main or a service pipe to which subsection (1) above applies may make an application in writing to a water undertaker requesting the undertaker to make an agreement under this section.

(4)An application under subsection (3) above shall be accompanied and supplemented by all such information as the undertaker may reasonably require; but subject to subsection (5) below and without prejudice to the effect (if any) of any other contravention of the requirements of this section in relation to such an application, a failure to provide information in pursuance of the obligation to supplement such an application shall not invalidate the application.

(5)Where—

(a)a person who has made an application to a water undertaker under subsection (3) above has failed to comply with his obligation under this section to supplement that application with information required by the undertaker; and

(b)that requirement was made by the undertaker at such a time before the end of the period within which the undertaker is required, by virtue of section 51B below, to respond to the application as gave that person a reasonable opportunity to provide the required information within that period,

the undertaker may delay its response to the application until a reasonable time after the required information is provided.

(6)In deciding whether or on what terms to grant an application under subsection (3) above, a water undertaker shall have regard in particular to any effect or potential effect on the quality of water supplies and to any increased danger to life or health which it considers may result.

(7)The terms of an agreement under subsection (1) above relating to a water main may, in particular, include terms—

(a)for the provision (at the expense of the person constructing or proposing to construct the water main) by—

(i)that person; or

(ii)the water undertaker,

of such associated infrastructure at or downstream of the point of connection with the undertaker’s supply system as it is necessary to provide in consequence of incorporating the new water main into that system;

(b)providing that, if the water main and the associated infrastructure are constructed in accordance with the terms of the agreement, the undertaker will, in addition to declaring the water main to be vested in it, declare the associated infrastructure to be so vested;

(c)where the undertaker considers that the proposed main is, or is likely to be, needed for the provision of water supply services in addition to those for which the person is proposing to construct the main—

(i)requiring that person to construct the main in a manner differing, as regards material or size of pipes, depth or otherwise, from the manner in which that person proposes, or could otherwise be required by the undertaker, to construct it; and

(ii)providing for the repayment by the undertaker of any extra expense reasonably incurred by that person in complying with that requirement;

(d)for the connection of the new water main to the undertaker’s existing supply system at the point or points specified in the agreement;

(e)for any service pipes which the person constructing or proposing to construct the new water main proposes to connect to that main to be constructed in accordance with the terms of the agreement and, subject to that, to be vested in the undertaker at the same time as the main.

(8)The terms of an agreement under subsection (1) above relating to a service pipe may, in particular, include terms—

(a)for the connection of the new service pipe to the undertaker’s existing supply system at the point or points specified in the agreement;

(b)for such requirements of the kind referred to in section 47(2) above as may be applicable to be complied with before connection takes place.

(9)An agreement made under this section by a water undertaker shall be enforceable against the undertaker by the owner or occupier for the time being of any premises connected or to be connected with the water main or service pipe to which it relates.

(10)A water undertaker shall not make an agreement under this section with respect to a water main or a service pipe situated within the area of another water undertaker, until either—

(a)that other undertaker has consented in writing to the making of the agreement; or

(b)the Secretary of State, on an application made to him, has dispensed with the necessity for such consent, either unconditionally or subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose.

51BAppeals with respect to adoptionE+W

(1)Subject to section 51A(5) above, a person constructing or proposing to construct a water main or service pipe may appeal to the Authority where the water undertaker—

(a)has refused an application under section 51A above;

(b)has offered to grant such an application on terms to which that person objects; or

(c)has failed, before the end of two months from the making of such an application, either to refuse the application or to give notice to the applicant of the terms on which it is prepared to grant the application.

(2)On the hearing of an appeal under this section, the Authority may—

(a)uphold the refusal of the undertaker to grant the application or to modify the terms offered; or

(b)on behalf of the undertaker, refuse the application or enter into any agreement into which the undertaker might have entered on the application.

(3)Where the Authority makes an agreement under subsection (2)(b) above on behalf of a water undertaker, it may do so on such terms as it considers reasonable or, as the case may be, on the terms offered by the undertaker subject to such modifications as it considers appropriate for ensuring that the terms of the agreement are reasonable.

(4)An agreement entered into on behalf of a water undertaker under subsection (2)(b) above shall be deemed, for the purposes of this Act, to have been entered into under section 51A above.

(5)In deciding on an appeal under this section, the Authority may include such incidental, supplemental and consequential provision (including provision requiring either party to pay a sum in respect of the costs or expenses incurred by the Authority) as it thinks fit, and any such provision as to costs or expenses shall be enforceable as if it were a judgment of a county court.

51CFinancial conditions of complianceE+W

(1)This section applies where an agreement is, or is to be, entered into under section 51A above in relation to a water main (“the adopted main”) by, or on behalf of, a water undertaker and a person constructing or proposing to construct that water main.

(2)Where this section applies, the water undertaker may, as a condition of the undertaker’s compliance with the agreement, require that person to pay to it the costs mentioned in subsection (3) below.

(3)The costs are those reasonably incurred by the undertaker in connection with the adopted main equivalent to the costs referred to in section 43(4)(a) and (b) above, as if references there (and in section 43(5)) to the provision of the new main were references to the incorporation of the adopted main into the undertaker’s supply system.

(4)For the purposes of any payment required to be made by virtue of subsection (2) above, the water undertaker may require the person to provide such security as it may reasonably request, and the provisions of subsections (4) and (5) of section 42 above shall apply to any security so required as they apply to security required under that section.

(5)Where this section applies, the water undertaker shall pay to the person referred to in subsection (1) above, upon declaring the water main to be vested in the undertaker, a sum equal to the discounted offset amount.

(6)For the purposes of subsection (5) above, the discounted offset amount is the sum of the estimated offsets for each of the twelve years following the vesting in the undertaker of the water main, in each case discounted in accordance with subsection (9) below.

(7)The estimated offset for any year is the lesser of—

(a)the estimated revenue (if any) in respect of the adopted main for that year; and

(b)the annual borrowing costs of a loan of the amount required for the provision of that main.

(8)The amounts referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (7) above shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions of subsections (3) to (5) of section 43A above as if the adopted main had been provided in pursuance of a water main requisition (as defined in section 43 above).

(9)The estimated offset for a year shall be discounted in order to determine its net present value by applying such factor, and in accordance with such other provision, as may be determined by the Authority.

(10)A determination made by the Authority for the purposes of subsection (9) above—

(a)may be made in relation to a particular water main or in relation to water mains generally; and

(b)may be revoked at any time except in relation to an adopted main in respect of which the agreement referred to in subsection (1) above has already been made.

(11)Any dispute between the water undertaker and the other person as to the payments required to be made or the security required to be provided by virtue of this section may be referred to the Authority for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.

51DProhibition on connection without adoptionE+W

(1)Where a person (other than a water undertaker) constructs a water main or service pipe which is to be used, in whole or in part, for supplying water for domestic or food production purposes, no water undertaker may permit that water main or service pipe to become connected with its supply system unless it vests (to the relevant extent) in a water undertaker.

(2)In subsection (1) above, “the relevant extent” means the extent specified in the agreement for the vesting in the undertaker of the water main or service pipe in question.

(3)The prohibition imposed on a water undertaker by subsection (1) above shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the Authority.

51ESections 51A to 51D: supplementaryE+W

(1)For the purposes of sections 51A to 51D above, the definition of “water main” in section 219(1) below shall be treated as if the words “not being a pipe for the time being vested in a person other than the undertaker” were omitted.

(2)In sections 51A to 51C above, references to so much of the service pipe as the undertaker could otherwise, by virtue of sections 45 to 51 above, be required to lay shall be construed disregarding section 46(8) above.

(3)In this Act, references to vesting or the making of a declaration of vesting with respect to a service pipe refer to so much of the service pipe as is specified for those purposes in the relevant vesting agreement.]

Domestic suppliesE+W

52 The domestic supply duty.E+W

(1)The domestic supply duty of a water undertaker in relation to any premises is a duty, until there is an interruption of that duty—

(a)to provide to those premises such a supply of water as (so far as those premises are concerned) is sufficient for domestic purposes; and

(b)to maintain the connection between the undertaker’s water main and the service pipe by which that supply is provided to those premises.

(2)Subject to the following provisions of this section and to section 53 below, a water undertaker shall owe a domestic supply duty in relation to any premises to which this section applies F59. . . if—

(a)a demand for a supply of water for domestic purposes has been made, in accordance with subsection (5) below, to the undertaker in respect of those premises; or

(b)those premises are premises to which this section applies by reason of a supply of water provided before 1st September 1989,

and there has been no interruption of the domestic supply duty in relation to those premises since that demand was made or, as the case may be, since the beginning of 1st September 1989.

(3)[F60Subject to subsection (4A) below,]this section applies to any premises if—

(a)they consist in the whole or any part of a building and are connected by means of a service pipe to [F61one of the water undertaker’s water mains]; and

(b)the requirements of subsection (4) below are satisfied in relation to those premises.

(4)The requirements of this subsection are satisfied in relation to any premises if—

(a)the pipe by means of which the premises are connected to the water main in question was first connected with that main in pursuance of a connection notice served in respect of those premises;

(b)that pipe was the means by which a supply of water from that main was being supplied to those premises for domestic purposes immediately before 1st September 1989;

(c)the condition specified in paragraph (b) above would be satisfied in relation to the premises if any service pipe to those premises had not been temporarily disconnected for the purposes of any necessary works which were being carried out immediately before 1st September 1989; or

(d)the condition specified in any of the preceding paragraphs—

(i)has been satisfied in relation to the premises at any time on or after 1st September 1989; and

(ii)would continue to be satisfied in relation to the premises had not the whole or any part of a service pipe to those premises, or the main with which such a pipe had been connected, been renewed (on one or more previous occasions).

[F62(4A)This section does not apply to any premises if—

(a)they are not in the area of the water undertaker;

(b)they are not household premises (as defined in section 17C above); and

(c)the total quantity of water estimated to be supplied to them annually for the purposes of subsection (2) of section 17D above is not less than the quantity specified in that subsection.]

(5)For the purposes of this section a demand in respect of any premises is made in accordance with this subsection if it is made—

(a)by the person who is the occupier of the premises at the time when the demand is made; or

(b)by a person who is the owner of the premises at that time and agrees with the undertaker to pay all the undertaker’s charges in respect of the supply demanded.

(6)For the purposes of this section—

(a)there is an interruption of the domestic supply duty owed by a water undertaker in relation to any premises if that supply is cut off by anything done by the undertaker in exercise of any of its disconnection powers, other than a disconnection or cutting off for the purposes of the carrying out of any necessary works; and

(b)a domestic supply duty owed in relation to any premises shall not be treated as interrupted by reason only of a change of the occupier or owner of the premises.

[F63(6A)For the purposes of this section, there is also an interruption of the domestic supply duty owed by a water undertaker in relation to any premises where—

(a)a notice is served in respect of those premises under section 63AA below; and

(b)the time specified in that notice has passed.]

(7)Nothing in this section shall impose any duty on a water undertaker—

(a)to provide a supply of water directly from, or maintain any connection with, a water main which is a trunk main or is or is to be used solely for the purpose of supplying water otherwise than for domestic purposes; or

(b)to provide a supply of water to any premises, or maintain the connection between a water main and a service pipe to any premises, during any period during which it is reasonable—

(i)for the supply of water to those premises to be cut off or reduced; or

(ii)for the pipe to be disconnected,

for the purposes of the carrying out of any necessary works.

(8)In this section references to the disconnection powers of a water undertaker are references to the powers conferred on the undertaker by any of sections 60 to 62 and 75 below.

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Amendments (Textual)

F59Words in s. 52(2) repealed (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), ss. 41, 56(7), Sch. 2; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

F61WOrds in s. 52(3)(a) substituted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para. 20; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

53 Conditions of compliance with domestic supply duty.E+W

(1)Where a demand for the purposes of section 52(2) above has been made to a water undertaker in respect of any premises (“the relevant premises”), the undertaker may make compliance with one or more of the requirements specified in subsection (2) below a condition of providing his first supply of water in compliance with that demand.

(2)The requirements mentioned in subsection (1) above are—

(a)a requirement, in a case where the demand is made as a consequence of a supply having been cut off by reason of any person’s failure to pay any charges, that the person making the demand has paid any amount owed by him to the undertaker—

(i)in respect of a supply of water to the relevant premises; or

(ii)in respect of expenses [F64reasonably] incurred in cutting off any such supply;

(b)a requirement, in relation to the relevant premises

(i)that such a requirement as may be imposed under section 66 below has been complied with; or

(ii)in a case where such a requirement could be imposed but for there already being such a cistern as is mentioned in that section, that the cistern and its float-operated valve are in good repair;

(c)a requirement that there is no contravention in relation to the water fittings used or to be used in connection with—

(i)the supply of water to the relevant premises; or

(ii)the use of water in those premises,

of such of the requirements of regulations under section 74 below as are prescribed for the purposes of this subsection; and

(d)a requirement that every such step has been taken as has been specified in any notice served on any person under section 75 below in relation to the relevant premises.

[F65(2A)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to whether the expenses referred to in subsection (2)(a)(ii) above were incurred reasonably may be referred to the Director for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

[F66(2A)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to whether any requirement of a kind mentioned in subsection (2)(a) or (b) above has been complied with may be referred to the Director for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

(3)This section shall be without prejudice to the provisions of sections 233 and 372 of the M7Insolvency Act 1986 (conditions of supply after insolvency).

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Amendments (Textual)

F64Word in s. 53(2)(a)(ii) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 51(5); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

F65S. 53(2A) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 51(5); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt. II

F66S. 53(2A) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilitites) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 35(5); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

Marginal Citations

54 Enforcement of domestic supply duty.E+W

(1)A duty imposed on a water undertaker under section 52 above—

(a)to provide a supply of water to any premises; or

(b)to maintain a connection between a water main and a service pipe by which such a supply is provided,

shall be owed to the consumer.

(2)Where a duty is owed by virtue of this section to any person, any breach of that duty which causes that person to sustain loss or damage shall be actionable at the suit of that person; but, in any proceedings brought against a water undertaker in pursuance of this subsection, it shall be a defence for the undertaker to show that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid the breach.

Other suppliesE+W

55 Supplies for non-domestic purposes.E+W

(1)This section applies where the owner or occupier of any premises in the area of a water undertaker requests the undertaker to provide a supply of water to those premises and—

(a)the premises are premises which do not consist in the whole or any part of a building; or

(b)the requested supply is for purposes other than domestic purposes.

[F67(1A)This section also applies where—

(a)a water undertaker is requested to provide a supply of water to premises which are not in the undertaker’s area by the owner or occupier of the premises;

(b)the premises are household premises (as defined in section 17C above) or the total quantity of water estimated to be supplied to the premises annually for the purposes of subsection (2) of section 17D above is less than the quantity specified in that subsection; and

(c)paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) above applies.]

(2)Where this section applies, it shall be the duty of the water undertaker, in accordance with such terms and conditions as may be determined under section 56 below—

(a)to take any such steps as may be so determined in order to enable the undertaker to provide the requested supply; and

(b)having taken any such steps, to provide that supply.

(3)A water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to provide a new supply to any premises, or to take any steps to enable it to provide such a supply, if the provision of that supply or the taking of those steps would—

(a)require the undertaker, in order to meet all its existing obligations to supply water for domestic or other purposes, together with its probable future obligations to supply buildings and parts of buildings with water for domestic purposes, to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works; or

(b)otherwise put at risk the ability of the undertaker to meet any of the existing or probable future obligations mentioned in paragraph (a) above.

(4)A water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to provide a new supply to any premises, or to take any steps to enable it to provide such a supply, if there is a contravention in relation to the water fittings used or to be used in connection with—

(a)the supply of water to those premises; or

(b)the use of water in those premises,

of such of the requirements of regulations under section 74 below as are prescribed for the purposes of this subsection.

(5)Where—

(a)a request has been made by any person to a water undertaker for the purposes of subsection (2) above; and

(b)the steps which the undertaker is required to take by virtue of that request include steps for the purpose of obtaining any necessary authority for, or agreement to, any exercise by the undertaker of any of its powers or the carrying out by the undertaker of any works,

the failure of the undertaker to acquire the necessary authority or agreement shall not affect any liability of that person, under any term or condition in accordance with which those steps are taken, to re-imburse the undertaker in respect of some or all of the expenses incurred by the undertaker in taking those steps.

(6)Nothing in this section shall impose any duty on a water undertaker to provide a supply of water to any premises during any period during which it is reasonable for the supply of water to those premises to be cut off or reduced for the purposes of the carrying out of any necessary works.

(7)The duty of a water undertaker to supply water under this section at the request of any person, and any terms and conditions determined under section 56 below in default of agreement between the undertaker and that person, shall have effect as if contained in such an agreement.

(8)Except so far as otherwise provided by the terms and conditions determined under section 56 below in relation to any supply, the duties of a water undertaker under this section shall have effect subject to the provisions of sections 60 to 63 [F68and 63AB] and 75 below.

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Amendments (Textual)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

56 Determinations on requests for non-domestic supplies.E+W

(1)Subject to subsection (3) below, any terms or conditions or other matter which falls to be determined for the purposes of a request made by any person to a water undertaker for the purposes of section 55 above shall be determined—

(a)by agreement between that person and the water undertaker; or

(b)in default of agreement, by the Director according to what appears to him to be reasonable.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, the Director shall also determine any dispute arising between any person and a water undertaker by virtue of subsection (3) or (4) of section 55 above.

(3)The Director may, instead of himself making a determination under subsection (1) or (2) above, refer any matter submitted to him for determination under that subsection to the arbitration of such person as he may appoint.

(4)For the purposes of any determination under this section by the Director or any person appointed by him it shall be for a water undertaker to show that it should not be required to comply with a request made for the purposes of section 55 above.

(5)The charges in respect of a supply provided in compliance with any request made for the purposes of section 55 above—

(a)shall not be determined by the Director or a person appointed by him, except in so far as, at the time of the request, no provision is in force by virtue of a charges scheme under section 143 below in respect of supplies of the applicable description; and

(b)in so far they do fall to be determined, shall be so determined having regard to the desirability of the undertaker’s—

(i)recovering the expenses of complying with its obligations under section 55 above; and

(ii)securing a reasonable return on its capital.

(6)To the extent that subsection (5)(a) above excludes any charges from a determination under this section, those charges shall be fixed from time to time by a charges scheme under section 143 below, but not otherwise.

(7)The determination of any matter under this section shall be without prejudice to the provisions of sections 233 and 372 of the M8Insolvency Act 1986 (conditions of supply after insolvency).

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Marginal Citations

57 Duty to provide a supply of water etc. for fire-fighting.E+W

(1)It shall be the duty of a water undertaker to allow any person to take water for extinguishing fires from any of its water mains or other pipes on which a fire-hydrant is fixed.

(2)Every water undertaker shall, at the request of the [F69fire and rescue authority] concerned, fix fire-hydrants on its water mains (other than its trunk mains) at such places as may be most convenient for affording a supply of water for extinguishing any fire which may break out within the area of the undertaker.

(3)It shall be the duty of every water undertaker to keep every fire-hydrant fixed on any of its water mains or other pipes in good working order and, for that purpose, to replace any such hydrant when necessary.

(4)It shall be the duty of a water undertaker to ensure that a [F69fire and rescue authority] has been supplied by the undertaker with all such keys as the authority may require for the fire-hydrants fixed on the water mains or other pipes of the undertaker.

[F70(4A)Where a fire-hydrant is removed (other than at the request of the fire authority concerned) by a water undertaker in the course of carrying out works in relation to any of its water mains or other pipes, the cost of replacing the fire-hydrant shall be borne by the undertaker.]

(5)Subject to [F71subsection (5A) and] section 58(3) below, the expenses incurred by a water undertaker in complying with its obligations under subsections (2) to (4) above shall be borne by the [F72fire and rescue authority] concerned.

[F73(5A)Where a fire-hydrant is damaged as the result of any use made of it with the authority of a water undertaker, other than use for the purposes of fire-fighting or for any other purposes of a fire and rescue authority, the fire and rescue authority is not liable for the cost of repairing or replacing the hydrant.]

(6)Nothing in this section shall require a water undertaker to do anything which it is unable to do by reason of the carrying out of any necessary works.

(7)The obligations of a water undertaker under this section shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the Secretary of State.

(8)In addition, where a water undertaker is in breach of its obligations under this section, the undertaker shall be guilty of an offence and liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to a fine.

(9)In any proceedings against any water undertaker for an offence under subsection (8) above it shall be a defence for that undertaker to show that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of the offence.

(10)F74. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Amendments (Textual)

F69Words in s. 57(2)(4) substituted (1.10.2004 for E. and 10.11.2004 for W.) by Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 (c. 21), ss. 53, 61,{Sch. 1 para. 76(2)}; S.I. 2004/2304, art. 2(2) (subject to savings in art. 3); S.I. 2004/2917, art. 2

F71Words in s. 57(5) inserted (1.10.2004 for E. and 10.11.2004 for W.) by Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 (c. 21), ss. 53, 61,{Sch. 1 para. 76(3)(a)}; S.I. 2004/2304, art. 2(2) (subject to savings in art. 3); S.I. 2004/2917, art. 2

F72Words in s. 57(5) substituted (1.10.2004 for E. and 10.11.2004 for W.) by Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 (c. 21), ss. 53, 61,{Sch. 1 para. 76(3)(b)}; S.I. 2004/2304, art. 2(2) (subject to art. 2); S.I. 2004/2917, art. 2

F73S. 57(5A) inserted (1.10.2004 for E. and 10.11.2004 for W.) by Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 (c. 21), ss. 53, 61,{Sch. 1 para. 76(4)}; S.I. 2004/2304, art. 2(2) (subject to savings in art. 3); S.I. 2004/2917, art. 2

F74S. 57(10) repealed (1.10.2004 for E. and 10.11.2004 for W.) by Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 (c. 21), ss. 54, 61,{Sch. 2}; S.I. 2004/2304, art. 2(2) (subject to savings in art. 3); S.I. 2004/2917, art. 2

58 Specially requested fire-hydrants.E+W

(1)A water undertaker shall, at the request of the owner or occupier of any factory or place of business, fix a fire-hydrant, to be used for extinguishing fires and not other purposes, at such place on any suitable water main or other pipe of the undertaker as is as near as conveniently possible to that factory or place of business.

(2)For the purposes of subsection (1) above a water main or other pipe is suitable, in relation to a factory or place of business, if—

(a)it is situated in a street which is in or near to that factory or place of business; and

(b)it is of sufficient dimensions to carry a hydrant and is not a trunk main.

(3)Subsection (5) of section 57 above shall not apply in relation to expenses incurred in compliance, in relation to a specially requested fire-hydrant, with the obligations under subsections (3) and (4) of that section.

(4)Any expenses incurred by a water undertaker—

(a)in complying with its obligations under subsection (1) above; or

(b)in complying, in relation to a specially requested fire-hydrant, with its obligations under section 57(3) or (4) above,

shall be borne by the owner or occupier of the factory or place of business in question, according to whether the person who made the original request for the hydrant did so in his capacity as owner or occupier.

[F75(4A)Where a specially requested fire-hydrant is removed (other than at the request of the owner or occupier of the factory or place of business in question) by a water undertaker in the course of carrying out works in relation to any of its water mains or other pipes, the cost of replacing the fire-hydrant shall be borne by the undertaker.]

(5)Subsections (6) to (9) of section 57 above shall apply in relation to the obligations of a water undertaker under this section as they apply to the obligations of a water undertaker under that section.

(6)In this section—

  • factory” has the same meaning as in the M9Factories Act 1961; and

  • specially requested fire-hydrant” means a fire-hydrant which—

(a)is fixed on a water main or other pipe of a water undertaker; and

(b)was fixed on that main or pipe (whether before or after it became such a main or pipe under the M10Water Act 1989) in pursuance of a request made by the owner or occupier of a factory or place of business.

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Amendments (Textual)

F75S. 58(4A) inserted (1.4.2004) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 84(2), 105(3); S.I. 2004/641, art. 3(v) (art. 6, Sch. 3)

Marginal Citations

59 Supplies for other public purposes.E+W

(1)A water undertaker shall, at the request of a sewerage undertaker, highway authority or local authority, provide, from such of its pipes as are of an appropriate capacity, a supply of water for cleansing sewers and drains, for cleansing and watering highways or, as the case may be, for supplying any public pumps, baths or wash-houses.

(2)A supply of water provided by a water undertaker under this section shall be provided upon such terms and conditions as may be reasonable.

(3)A water main or other pipe of a water undertaker shall be treated as of an appropriate capacity for the purposes of this section if and only if it has a fire-hydrant fixed on it.

(4)Nothing in this section shall require a water undertaker to do anything which it is unable to do by reason of the carrying out of any necessary works.

(5)The obligations of a water undertaker under this section shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the Director.

DisconnectionsE+W

60 Disconnections for the carrying out of necessary works.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, a water undertaker may—

(a)disconnect a service pipe which, for the purposes of providing a supply of water to any premises, is connected with any water main of that undertaker; or

(b)otherwise cut off a supply of water to any premises,

if it is reasonable for the disconnection to be made, or the supply to be cut off, for the purposes of the carrying out of any necessary works.

(2)The power of a water undertaker under this section to cut off a supply of water shall include power to reduce a supply of water.

(3)Except in an emergency or in the case of a reduction which is immaterial, the power of a water undertaker under this section to cut off or reduce a supply shall be exercisable in relation to any premises only after the undertaker has served reasonable notice on the consumer of the proposal for the carrying out of the necessary works.

(4)Where a water undertaker exercises its power under this section to make any disconnection or to cut off or reduce a supply of water to any premises for the purposes of the carrying out of any necessary works, it shall owe a duty to the consumer to secure—

(a)that those works are carried out with reasonable dispatch; and

(b)that any supply of water to those premises for domestic purposes is interrupted for more than twenty-four hours for the purposes of the carrying out of those works only if an emergency supply has been made available (whether or not in pipes) within a reasonable distance of the premises.

(5)Any breach by a water undertaker of the duty owed by virtue of subsection (4) above which causes any person to whom it is owed to sustain loss or damage shall be actionable at the suit of that person.

61 Disconnections for non-payment of charges.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, a water undertaker may disconnect a service pipe which for the purposes of providing a supply of water to any premises is connected with any water main of that undertaker, or may otherwise cut off a supply of water to any premises, if the occupier of the premises—

(a)is liable (whether in his capacity as occupier or under any agreement with the undertaker) to pay charges due to the undertaker in respect of the supply of water to those premises; and

(b)has failed to do so before the end of the period of seven days beginning with the day after he is served with notice requiring him to do so.

[F76(1A)The power conferred by subsection (1) above is not exercisable in relation to any premises specified in Schedule 4A to this Act.]

(2)Where—

(a)a water undertaker has served a notice for the purposes of paragraph (b) of subsection (1) above on a person; and

(b)within the period of seven days mentioned in that paragraph, that person serves a counter-notice on the undertaker stating that he disputes his liability to pay the charges in question,

the undertaker shall not in respect of that notice exercise his power by virtue of that subsection in relation to any premises except at a time when that person is the occupier of the premises and those charges are enforceable against that person in a manner specified in subsection (3) below.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) above charges are enforceable in a manner specified in this subsection against a person if-

(a)the undertaker is able to enforce a judgment against that person for the payment of the charges; or

(b)that person is in breach of an agreement entered into, since the service of his counter-notice, for the purpose of avoiding or settling proceedings by the undertaker for the recovery of the charges.

(4)A water undertaker which exercises its power under this section to disconnect any pipe or otherwise to cut off any supply of water may recover, from the person in respect of whose liability the power is exercised, any expenses reasonably incurred by the undertaker in making the disconnection or in otherwise cutting off the supply.

(5)Where—

(a)a water undertaker has power under this section to disconnect any pipe to any premises, or otherwise to cut off any supply to any premises; and

(b)a supply of water is provided to those premises and to other premises wholly or partly by the same service pipe,

the undertaker may exercise that power so as to cut off the supply to those other premises if and only if the same person is the occupier of the premises in relation to which the charges are due and of the other premises.

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Amendments (Textual)

F76S. 61(1A) inserted (30.6.1999) by 1999 c. 9, ss. 1(1), 17(2)

62 Disconnections at request of customer.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, a water undertaker may—

(a)disconnect a service pipe which for the purposes of providing a supply of water to any premises is connected with any water main of that undertaker; or

(b)otherwise cut off a supply of water to any premises,

if notice specifying the time after which a supply of water to those premises will no longer be required has been served on the undertaker by a consumer and that time has passed.

(2)No person shall be liable to a water undertaker for any expenses incurred by the undertaker in exercising the power conferred on the undertaker by this section.

63 General duties of undertakers with respect to disconnections.E+W

(1)Where a water undertaker—

(a)disconnects a service pipe to any inhabited house, or otherwise cuts off a supply of water to such a house; and

(b)does so without restoring the supply to that house before the end of the period of twenty-four hours beginning with the time when it is cut off,

the undertaker shall, no later than forty-eight hours after that time, serve notice that it has cut off that supply on the local authority in whose area the house is situated.

(2)A water undertaker which fails, without reasonable excuse, to serve a notice on a local authority as required by subsection (1) above shall be guilty of an offence under this section.

(3)A water undertaker shall be guilty of an offence under this section if—

(a)it disconnects a service pipe to any premises, or otherwise cuts off a supply of water to any premises, in a case in which it has no power to do so under sections 60 to 62 above, section 75 below or any other enactment; or

(b)in disconnecting any such pipe or cutting off any such supply it fails, without reasonable excuse, to comply with any requirement of the provisions in pursuance of which it disconnects the pipe or cuts off the supply.

(4)A water undertaker which is guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

[F77Supply by licensed water supplier etcE+W

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Amendments (Textual)

F77Ss. 63AA-63AC and preceding cross-heading inserted (1.12.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 17; S.I. 2005/2714, art. 3(c) (with Sch. para. 8)

63AASupply by licensed water supplier: domestic supplyE+W

(1)The owner or occupier of any premises may serve a notice on a water undertaker—

(a)informing the undertaker that the premises are to be supplied by a licensed water supplier; and

(b)specifying the time after which a supply of water to the premises by the undertaker will no longer be required.

(2)Where the charges for the water supplied by the undertaker are, under Chapter 1 of Part 5 of this Act, fixed in relation to the premises by reference to volume, the time specified in the notice shall fall at least two working days after the notice is served.

(3)In this section and section 63AB below, any reference to two working days is a reference to a period of forty-eight hours calculated after disregarding any time falling on—

(a)a Saturday or Sunday; or

(b)Christmas Day, Good Friday or any day which is a bank holiday in England and Wales under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971.

63ABSupply by licensed water supplier: non-domestic supplyE+W

(1)The duty of a water undertaker under section 55 above to provide a supply of water to any premises shall cease to apply if—

(a)a notice specifying the time after which a supply of water to the premises by the undertaker will no longer be required in consequence of the premises being supplied by a licensed water supplier has been served on the undertaker by the owner or occupier of the premises; and

(b)that time has passed.

(2)Where the charges for the water supplied by the undertaker are, under Chapter 1 of Part 5 of this Act, fixed in relation to the premises by reference to volume, the time specified in the notice shall fall at least two working days after the notice is served.

63ACInterim duty of water undertaker: domestic and non-domestic supplyE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a licensed water supplier ceases to supply any premises with water; and

(b)the owner or occupier of the premises has not notified the water undertaker in whose area the premises are that—

(i)he has made arrangements for the continuation of the supply of water to the premises; or

(ii)he intends any supply of water to the premises to cease.

(2)Where this section applies, it shall be the duty of the water undertaker to continue the supply of water to the premises which was made by the licensed water supplier.

(3)Where a supply is made under subsection (2)—

(a)the charges payable in respect of the supply shall be fixed from time to time by a charges scheme under section 143 below; and

(b)subject to subsection (8) below, the supply shall be made until—

(i)a supply is made under section 52 or 55 above; or

(ii)a notice is served by the undertaker on the owner or occupier of the premises stating that the supply is to be discontinued (subject to subsection (4) below),

whichever is earlier.

(4)A notice under subsection (3)(b)(ii) above may not be served before the end of the period of three months beginning with the day on which the supply by the supplier ceased.

(5)A water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to provide a supply of water to any premises if the provision of the supply would—

(a)require the undertaker, in order to meet all its existing obligations to supply water for domestic or other purposes, together with its probable future obligations to supply buildings and parts of buildings with water for domestic purposes, to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works; or

(b)otherwise put at risk its ability to meet any of the existing or probable future obligations mentioned in paragraph (a) above.

(6)The supply of water to any premises by a water undertaker under this section shall not prevent a proposed supply to those premises by that undertaker under section 55 above from being regarded as a new supply for the purposes of that section.

(7)Where a duty is imposed by this section in respect of any premises, any breach of the duty which causes the owner or occupier of the premises to sustain loss or damage shall be actionable at the suit of that owner or occupier; but, in any proceedings brought against a water undertaker in pursuance of this subsection, it shall be a defence for the undertaker to show that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid the breach.

(8)Sections 60 to 63 above apply as they apply where a supply of water is made under section 52 or 55 above.]

[ Use of limiting devicesE+W

F7863A Prohibition of use of limiting devices.E+W

(1)A water undertaker shall be guilty of an offence under this section if it uses a limiting device in relation to any premises specified in Schedule 4A to this Act, with the intention of enforcing payment of charges which are or may become due to the undertaker in respect of the supply of water to the premises.

(2)For the purposes of this section “a limiting device”, in relation to any premises, means any device or apparatus which—

(a)is fitted to any pipe by which water is supplied to the premises or a part of the premises, whether that pipe belongs to the undertaker or to any other person, and

(b)is designed to restrict the use which may be made of water supplied to the premises by the undertaker.

(3)An undertaker does not commit an offence under this section by disconnecting a service pipe to any premises or otherwise cutting off a supply of water to the premises.

(4)An undertaker guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F78S. 63A inserted (30.6.1999) by 1999 c. 9, ss. 2, 17(2)

Means of supplyE+W

64 Supply by means of separate service pipes.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, a water undertaker may require the provision of a separate service pipe to any premises F79. . . which—

(a)consist in a house or any other building or part of a building, being, in the case of a part of a building, a part which is separately occupied; and

(b)are already supplied with water by the undertaker but do not have a separate service pipe.

(2)Where the supply of water to two or more houses [F80is provided wholly or partly by the same service pipe], the water undertaker shall not require the provision of separate service pipes to those houses until—

(a)the service pipe, in so far as it belongs to a person other than the undertaker, becomes so defective as to require renewal or is no longer sufficient to meet the requirements of those houses;

(b)a payment in respect of the supply of water to any of those houses remains unpaid after the end of the period for which it is due;

(c)the houses are, by structural alterations to one or more of them, converted into a larger number of houses;

(d)the owner or occupier of any of those houses has interfered with, or allowed another person to interfere with, the existing service pipe and thereby caused the supply of water to any house to be interfered with; or

(e)the undertaker has reasonable grounds for believing that such interference as is mentioned in paragraph (d) above is likely to take place.

[F81(2A)Any dispute between a water undertaker and any other person as to whether any condition of a kind mentioned in subsection (2) above has been complied with may be referred to the Director for determination under section 30A above by either party to the dispute.]

(3)If, in the case of any such premises as are described in subsection (1) above, the water undertaker which provides a supply of water to those premises serves notice on the consumer requiring the provision of a separate service pipe and setting out the power of the undertaker under subsection (4) below—

(a)that consumer shall, within three months after the service of the notice, lay so much of the required pipe as the undertaker is not under a duty to lay by virtue of paragraph (b) below;

(b)sections 45 to 51 above shall apply as if that consumer had by a connection notice required the undertaker to connect the separate service pipe to those premises with the undertaker’s water main;

(c)that consumer shall be presumed, without prejudice to his power to make further demands and requests—

(i)in so far as those premises were provided before the service of the notice with a supply of water for domestic purposes, to have made a demand for the purposes of section 52 above that such a supply is provided by means of the separate service pipe; and

(ii)in so far as those premises were provided before the service of the notice with a supply of water for other purposes, to have requested the undertaker to provide the same supply by means of that pipe as was provided before the service of the notice;

and

(d)on providing a supply of water to those premises by means of the separate service pipe, the undertaker may cut off any supply replaced by that supply and may make such disconnections of pipes by which the replaced supply was provided as it thinks fit.

(4)If a person upon whom a notice has been served for the purposes of subsection (3) above fails to comply with the notice, the water undertaker may—

(a)itself carry out the works which that person was required to carry out; and

(b)recover the expenses reasonably incurred by the undertaker in doing so from that person.

(5)Without prejudice—

(a)to the power of a water undertaker by virtue of paragraph (b) of subsection (3) above to impose conditions under section 47 above; or

(b)to the power conferred by virtue of paragraph (d) of that subsection,

any works carried out by a water undertaker by virtue of the provisions of the said paragraph (b) or of subsection (4) above shall be necessary works for the purposes of this Chapter.

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Amendments (Textual)

F79Words in s. 64(1) repealed (1.7.1992 ) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1, para. 21(a), Sch. 2; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F80Words in s. 64(2) substituted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para. 21(b); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

F81S. 64(2A) inserted (1.9.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 35(6); Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 4, Sch. Pt.II

65 Duties of undertakers as respects constancy and pressure.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, it shall be the duty of a water undertaker to cause the water in such of its water mains and other pipes as—

(a)are used for providing supplies of water for domestic purposes; or

(b)have fire-hydrants fixed on them,

to be laid on constantly and at such a pressure as will cause the water to reach to the top of the top-most storey of every building within the undertaker’s area.

(2)Nothing in subsection (1) above shall require a water undertaker to provide a supply of water at a height greater than that to which it will flow by gravitation through its water mains from the service reservoir or tank from which that supply is taken.

(3)For the purposes of this section a water undertaker shall be entitled to choose the service reservoir or tank from which any supply is to be taken.

(4)Nothing in subsection (1) above shall impose any duty on a water undertaker to maintain the constancy or pressure of any supply of water during any period during which it is reasonable for that supply to be cut off or reduced for the purposes of the carrying out of any necessary works.

(5)The Secretary of State may by order modify the application of the preceding provisions of this section in relation to any water undertaker.

(6)The Secretary of State shall not make an order under subsection (5) above except—

(a)in accordance with Schedule 5 to this Act; and

(b)on an application made in accordance with that Schedule by the Director or by the water undertaker in relation to which the order is made.

(7)Subject to subsection (6) above, the power of the Secretary of State to make an order under subsection (5) above shall be exercisable by statutory instrument subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament

(8)An order under subsection (5) above may—

(a)require the payment of compensation by a water undertaker to persons affected by the order;

(b)make different provision for different cases, including different provision in relation to different persons, circumstances or localities; and

(c)contain such supplemental, consequential and transitional provision as the Secretary of State considers appropriate.

(9)The obligations of a water undertaker under this section shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the [F82Director].

(10)In addition, where a water undertaker is in breach of a duty under this section, the undertaker shall be guilty of an offence and liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to a fine.

(11)In any proceedings against any water undertaker for an offence under subsection (10) above it shall be a defence for that undertaker to show that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of the offence.

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Amendments (Textual)

F82Word in s. 65(9) substituted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para.22; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

66 Requirements by undertaker for maintaining pressure.E+W

(1)A water undertaker may require that any premises consisting in—

(a)any building or part of a building the supply of water to which need not, in accordance with provision contained in or made under this Act, be constantly laid on under pressure; or

(b)any relevant house to which water is required to be delivered at a height greater than a point 10.5 metres below the draw-off level of the service reservoir or tank from which a supply of water is being provided by the undertaker to those premises,

shall be provided with a cistern which has a float-operated valve and is fitted on the pipe by means of which water is supplied to those premises.

(2)A water undertaker may, in the case of such a house as is mentioned in paragraph (b) of subsection (1) above, require that a cistern the provision of which is required under that subsection shall be capable of holding sufficient water to provide an adequate supply to the house for a period of twenty-four hours.

(3)If, where a water undertaker provides a supply of water to any premises, the consumer, after having been required to do so by notice served on him by the undertaker, fails before the end of the period specified in the notice—

(a)to provide a cistern in accordance with a requirement under this section; or

(b)to put any such cistern and its float-operated valve into good repair,

the water undertaker may itself provide a cistern, or carry out any repairs necessary to prevent waste of water.

(4)The period specified for the purposes of subsection (3) above in a notice under this section shall be a period of not less than twenty-eight days beginning with the day after the service of the notice.

(5)Where a water undertaker provides a cistern or carries out any repairs under subsection (3) above, it may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by it in doing so from the owner of the premises in question.

(6)In this section—

  • pre-transfer supplier”, in relation to a house, means the person who was supplying water to that house immediately before 1st September 1989; and

  • relevant house” means any house other than a house in relation to which the following two conditions are satisfied, that is to say—

    (i)

    the erection of the house was commenced before 1st September 1989; and

    (ii)

    no such requirement as is mentioned in subsection (1) or (2) above could have been imposed in relation to the house under any enactment having effect immediately before that date in relation to the pre-transfer supplier.

[F83CHAPTER 2AE+WSUPPLY DUTIES ETC: LICENSED WATER SUPPLIERS

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Amendments (Textual)

F83Pt. 3 Ch. 2A inserted (1.4.2004 for specified provisions and purposes and 1.12.2005 otherwise) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 56, 105(3), Sch. 4 para. 3; S.I. 2004/641, art. 3(l), Sch. 1 (with art. 6, Sch. 3); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 3(a) (with Sch. 2 para. 8)

Duty of undertaker to supply licensed water supplier etcE+W

66AWholesale water supply by primary water undertakerE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a licensed water supplier requests its primary water undertaker to provide it with a supply of water for the purpose of supplying water to the premises of its customers in accordance with the retail authorisation; and

(b)the premises are in the area of the undertaker.

(2)Where this section applies, it shall be the duty of the primary water undertaker, in accordance with an agreement or determination for such period and containing such terms and conditions as may be provided for under section 66D(2) below—

(a)to take any such steps—

(i)for the purpose of connecting the premises in question with the undertaker’s supply system; or

(ii)in respect of that system,

as may be so provided for in order to enable the undertaker to provide the requested supply; and

(b)having taken any such steps, to provide that supply.

(3)A primary water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to provide a supply of water to a licensed water supplier, or to take any steps to enable it to provide such a supply, if—

(a)both of the first and second conditions are satisfied; or

(b)the third condition is satisfied.

(4)The first condition is that—

(a)the premises to be supplied by the supplier do not consist in the whole or any part of a building; or

(b)the supply to be made by it to those premises is for purposes other than domestic purposes.

(5)The second condition is that the provision of the supply by the undertaker would—

(a)require the undertaker, in order to meet all its existing obligations to supply water for domestic or other purposes, together with its probable future obligations to supply buildings and parts of buildings with water for domestic purposes, to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works; or

(b)otherwise put at risk its ability to meet any of the existing or probable future obligations mentioned in paragraph (a) above.

(6)The third condition is that there is a contravention in relation to the water fittings used or to be used in connection with—

(a)the supply of water to the premises to be supplied by the supplier; or

(b)the use of water in those premises,

of such of the requirements of regulations under section 74 below as are prescribed for the purposes of this subsection.

(7)Where—

(a)a request has been made by a licensed water supplier to its primary water undertaker for the purposes of subsection (1) above; and

(b)the steps which the undertaker is required to take by virtue of that request include steps for the purpose of obtaining any necessary authority for, or agreement to, any exercise by it of any of its powers or the carrying out by it of any works,

the failure of the undertaker to acquire the necessary authority or agreement shall not affect any liability of the licensed water supplier, under any term or condition in accordance with which those steps are taken, to reimburse the undertaker in respect of some or all of the expenses incurred by it in taking those steps.

(8)A water undertaker is the primary water undertaker of a licensed water supplier for the purposes of this section and section 66C below if the undertaker’s supply system is to be used for the purpose of making the supply to premises mentioned in those sections.

(9)In this section and sections 66B and 66C below—

(a)any reference to the supply system of a water undertaker shall be construed in accordance with section 17B(5) above; and

(b)any reference to the retail authorisation shall be construed in accordance with section 17A(2) above.

66BIntroduction of water into water undertaker’s supply systemE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a qualifying licensed water supplier requests a water undertaker to permit it to introduce water into the undertaker’s supply system, by means of which any particular supply of water to any premises in accordance with the retail authorisation is to take place, in connection with that supply; and

(b)the premises are in the area of the undertaker.

(2)This section also applies where—

(a)a water undertaker agrees to permit a qualifying licensed water supplier to introduce water into the undertaker’s treatment works;

(b)in connection with that introduction, the supplier requests the undertaker to permit it to introduce water into the undertaker’s supply system, by means of which any particular supply of water to any premises in accordance with the retail authorisation is to take place, in connection with that supply; and

(c)the premises are in the area of the undertaker.

(3)Where this section applies, it shall be the duty of the water undertaker, in accordance with an agreement or determination for such period and containing such terms and conditions as may be provided for under section 66D(2) below—

(a)to take any such steps—

(i)for the purpose of connecting the premises in question with the undertaker’s supply system;

(ii)for the purpose of connecting the treatment works of the qualifying licensed water supplier with that system (in a case falling within subsection (1) above);

(iii)for the purpose of connecting with that system any source used by the qualifying licensed water supplier for the purpose of supplying water other than for domestic or food production purposes (in a case falling within subsection (1) above); or

(iv)in respect of that system,

as may be so provided for in order to enable the supplier to make the requested introduction of the water into that system; and

(b)having taken any such steps, to permit the requested introduction of the water into that system.

(4)A water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to permit the introduction of water into its supply system, or to take any steps to enable a qualifying water supplier to make such an introduction, if the first or second condition is satisfied.

(5)The first condition is that permitting the introduction of the water into the water undertaker’s supply system would—

(a)require the undertaker, in order to meet all its existing obligations to supply water for domestic or other purposes, together with its probable future obligations to supply buildings and parts of buildings with water for domestic purposes, to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works; or

(b)otherwise put at risk its ability to meet any of the existing or probable future obligations mentioned in paragraph (a) above.

(6)The second condition is that there is a contravention in relation to the water fittings used or to be used in connection with—

(a)the supply of water to the premises to be supplied by the supplier; or

(b)the use of water in those premises,

of such of the requirements of regulations under section 74 below as are prescribed for the purposes of section 66A(6) above.

(7)Where—

(a)a request has been made by a qualifying licensed water supplier to a water undertaker for the purposes of subsection (1) or (2) above; and

(b)the steps which the undertaker is required to take by virtue of that request include steps for the purpose of obtaining any necessary authority for, or agreement to, any exercise by it of any of its powers or the carrying out by it of any works,

the failure of the undertaker to acquire the necessary authority or agreement shall not affect any liability of the supplier, under any term or condition in accordance with which those steps are taken, to reimburse the undertaker in respect of some or all of the expenses incurred by it in taking those steps.

(8)In this section “treatment works”—

(a)in relation to a water undertaker, means the works designated as treatment works by the Secretary of State for the purposes of section 17B(6) above;

(b)in relation to a qualifying licensed water supplier, means the works designated from time to time by the Secretary of State as treatment works for the purposes of this paragraph.

(9)Before designating any works for the purposes of subsection (8)(b) above, the Secretary of State shall consult the Assembly.

(10)A list of any works designated for the purposes of subsection (8)(b) above shall be published from time to time by the Secretary of State in such manner as he considers appropriate for the purpose of bringing the designations to the attention of persons likely to be affected by them.

(11)Any pipe laid in pursuance of subsection (3)(a)(ii) or (iii) above shall be regarded as a water main for the purposes of this Act, subject to any provision to the contrary.

(12)In this section and section 66C below, references to a qualifying licensed water supplier are references to a licensed water supplier which is the holder of a combined licence (within the meaning of Chapter 1A of Part 2 of this Act).

66CWholesale water supply by secondary water undertakerE+W

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a qualifying licensed water supplier—

(i)requests a water undertaker other than its primary water undertaker (the “secondary water undertaker”) to provide a supply of water for the purpose of the supplier supplying water, using the primary water undertaker’s supply system, to the premises of the supplier’s customers in accordance with the retail authorisation; and

(ii)requests its primary water undertaker to permit it to introduce that water into its supply system; and

(b)the premises are in the area of the primary water undertaker.

(2)Where this section applies—

(a)it shall be the duty of the secondary water undertaker, in accordance with an agreement or determination for such period and containing such terms and conditions as may be provided for under section 66D(2) below—

(i)to take any such steps in respect of its supply system as may be so provided for in order to enable it to provide the requested supply; and

(ii)having taken any such steps, to provide that supply; and

(b)it shall be the duty of the primary water undertaker, in accordance with an agreement or determination for such period and containing such terms and conditions as may be provided for under section 66D(2) below—

(i)to take any such steps specified in subsection (3) below as may be so provided for in order to enable the licensed water supplier to make the introduction of the requested supply of water into the primary water undertaker’s supply system; and

(ii)having taken any such steps, to permit the introduction of that supply of water into that supply system.

(3)The steps mentioned in subsection (2)(b)(i) above are steps—

(a)for the purpose of connecting the premises in question with the primary water undertaker’s supply system;

(b)for the purpose of connecting that system with the secondary water undertaker’s supply system; or

(c)in respect of the primary water undertaker’s supply system.

(4)If the first or second condition is satisfied—

(a)a secondary water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to provide a supply of water to a licensed water supplier; and

(b)a primary water undertaker shall not be required by virtue of this section to permit the introduction of water into its supply system, or to take any steps to enable the licensed water supplier to make such an introduction.

(5)The first condition is that the provision of the supply or permitting the introduction would—

(a)require the undertaker in question, in order to meet all its existing obligations to supply water for domestic or other purposes, together with its probable future obligations to supply buildings and parts of buildings with water for domestic purposes, to incur unreasonable expenditure in carrying out works; or

(b)otherwise put at risk its ability to meet any of the existing or probable future obligations mentioned in paragraph (a) above.

(6)This second condition is that there is a contravention in relation to the water fittings used or to be used in connection with—

(a)the supply of water to the premises to be supplied by the supplier; or

(b)the use of water in those premises,

of such of the requirements of regulations under section 74 below as are prescribed for the purposes of section 66A(6) above.

(7)Where—

(a)requests have been made by a licensed water supplier to its primary water undertaker and secondary water undertaker for the purposes of subsection (1) above; and

(b)the steps which either of those undertakers is required to take by virtue of the request made to it include steps for the purpose of obtaining any necessary authority for, or agreement to, any exercise by it of any of its powers or the carrying out by it of any works,

the undertaker’s failure to acquire the necessary authority or agreement shall not affect any liability of the licensed water supplier, under any term or condition in accordance with which those steps are taken, to reimburse the undertaker in respect of some or all of the expenses incurred by it in taking those steps.

(8)Any pipe laid in pursuance of subsection (2)(b)(i) above by virtue of subsection (3)(b) above shall be regarded as a water main for the purposes of this Act, subject to any provision to the contrary.

66DSections 66A to 66C: determinations and agreementsE+W

(1)The Authority may determine, in a case referred to it by a licensed water supplier, whether any condition specified in section 66A(4) to (6), 66B(5) or (6) or 66C(5) or (6) above is satisfied (subject to section 66F below).

(2)The period for which and terms and conditions on which a water undertaker is to perform any duty under sections 66A to 66C above are—

(a)those which are—

(i)in a case falling within section 66A(2) or 66B(3) above, agreed between the water undertaker and the licensed water supplier in question; and

(ii)in a case falling within section 66C(2) above, agreed between the water undertakers and the licensed water supplier in question; or

(b)in default of such agreement, those which are determined by the Authority, in a case referred to it by the licensed water supplier in question, if they are acceptable to the supplier,

(subject to the following provisions of this section and sections 66E and 66F below).

(3)The charges payable by a licensed water supplier to a water undertaker under an agreement under paragraph (a)(i) or (ii) of subsection (2) above or a determination under paragraph (b) of that subsection shall be fixed in accordance with the costs principle set out in section 66E below.

(4)The Authority shall issue guidance in accordance with which the terms and conditions of an agreement under paragraph (a)(i) or (ii) of subsection (2) above shall be made.

(5)Before issuing guidance under subsection (4) above, the Authority shall consult such persons as it considers appropriate.

(6)The guidance issued under subsection (4) above shall include guidance with respect to the fixing of charges in accordance with subsection (3) above.

(7)Subsection (8) below applies if it appears to the Authority that an agreement under paragraph (a)(i) or (ii) of subsection (2) above has not been made in accordance with—

(a)subsection (3) above; or

(b)the guidance issued under subsection (4) above.

(8)The Authority may require the parties to the agreement to—

(a)modify the agreement; or

(b)terminate the agreement,

and that requirement shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the Authority.

(9)Neither the OFT nor the Authority may exercise, in respect of an agreement under paragraph (a)(i) or (ii) of subsection (2) above, the powers conferred by—

(a)section 32 of the Competition Act 1998 (directions in relation to agreements); and

(b)subsection (2) of section 35 of that Act (interim directions).

(10)Subsection (9)(b) above does not apply to the exercise of powers in respect of conduct—

(a)which is connected with an agreement under paragraph (a)(i) or (ii) of subsection (2) above; and

(b)in respect of which subsection (1)(b) of section 35 of that Act applies.

66ESection 66D: costs principleE+W

(1)The costs principle referred to in subsection (3) of section 66D above is that the charges payable by a licensed water supplier to a water undertaker, under the agreement or determination mentioned in that subsection, shall enable the undertaker to recover from the supplier—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred in performing any duty under sections 66A to 66C above in accordance with that agreement or determination, and

(b)the appropriate amount in respect of qualifying expenses and a reasonable return on that amount,

to the extent that those sums exceed any financial benefits which the undertaker receives as a result of the supplier supplying water to the premises of relevant customers.

(2)In subsection (1) above “qualifying expenses” means expenses (whether of a capital nature or otherwise) that the water undertaker has reasonably incurred or will reasonably incur in carrying out its functions.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) above, the appropriate amount is the amount which the water undertaker—

(a)reasonably expected to recover from relevant customers; but

(b)is unable to recover from those customers as a result of their premises being supplied with water by the licensed water supplier.

(4)Nothing in subsection (3) above shall enable a water undertaker to recover any amount—

(a)to the extent that any expenses can be reduced or avoided; or

(b)to the extent that any amount is recoverable in some other way (other than from other customers of the undertaker).

(5)In this section “relevant customers” means customers to whose premises the licensed water supplier is to make any supply of water in connection with which the agreement or determination mentioned in subsection (1) above is made.

66FSection 66D: supplementaryE+W

(1)Before the Authority makes—

(a)a determination for the purposes of subsection (1) of section 66D above as to whether any condition specified in section 66B(5) or (6) above is satisfied; or

(b)a determination for the purposes of subsection (2)(b) of section 66D above as to the period for which and terms and conditions on which a water undertaker is to perform any duty under section 66B above,

it shall consult the Secretary of State (subject to subsection (3) below).

(2)Before the Authority makes—

(a)a determination for the purposes of subsection (1) of section 66D above as to whether any condition specified in section 66C(5) or (6) is satisfied; or

(b)a determination for the purposes of subsection (2)(b) of section 66D above as to the period for which and terms and conditions on which the water undertakers are to perform any duty under section 66C above,

it shall consult the Secretary of State (subject to subsections (3) and (4) below) and the Environment Agency.

(3)If—

(a)a determination mentioned in subsection (1) or (2) above is in relation to premises supplied with water using the supply system of a water undertaker whose area is wholly or mainly in Wales; and

(b)in the case of a determination mentioned in subsection (2) above, the area of the secondary water undertaker in question is wholly or mainly in Wales,

the Authority shall consult the Assembly (and not the Secretary of State).

(4)If a determination mentioned in subsection (2) above—

(a)is in relation to premises supplied with water using the supply system of a water undertaker whose area is wholly or mainly in—

(i)England; or

(ii)Wales;

(b)but the area of the secondary water undertaker in question is (respectively) wholly or mainly in—

(i)Wales; or

(ii)England,

the Authority shall consult the Assembly (as well as the Secretary of State).

(5)The Authority shall publish guidance issued under section 66D(4) above in such manner as the Authority considers appropriate for the purpose of bringing it to the attention of persons likely to be affected by it.

(6)The Authority may from time to time revise the guidance so issued.

(7)Before revising any guidance under subsection (6) above, the Authority shall consult such persons as it considers appropriate.

(8)Subsection (5) above applies to guidance revised under subsection (6) above as it applies to guidance issued under section 66D(4) above.

(9)In this section, references to the supply system of a water undertaker shall be construed in accordance with section 17B(5) above.

(10)Where the period for which and terms and conditions on which a water undertaker is to perform any duty under sections 66A to 66C above are determined in accordance with subsection (2)(b) of section 66D above, they shall have effect as if they had been agreed between the parties in question (and references in the following provisions of this Act to an agreement under that section shall be construed accordingly).

66GDesignation of strategic supplyE+W

(1)Subsection (2) below applies if at any time the Authority determines that an introduction of water which a water undertaker is required to permit under section 66B or 66C above in accordance with an agreement under section 66D above constitutes a strategic supply of water.

(2)The Authority shall designate the introduction as a strategic supply.

(3)Subsection (4) below applies if—

(a)a water undertaker requests the Authority to make a determination that an introduction of water constitutes a strategic supply for the purposes of subsection (1) above, or

(b)the Authority otherwise proposes to make a determination that an introduction of water constitutes a strategic supply for the purposes of that subsection.

(4)The Authority shall give notice of the request or proposed determination to—

(a)the Secretary of State;

(b)the Assembly;

(c)the Environment Agency;

(d)the other party or parties, or the parties, to the agreement under section 66D above; and

(e)such other persons (if any) as the Authority thinks it appropriate to notify.

(5)Any such notice shall specify the time (not being less than twenty-eight days from the date on which the notice was given) within which representations or objections with respect to the request or proposed determination may be made.

(6)The Authority shall consider any representations or objections which are duly made and not withdrawn.

(7)If the Authority determines that an introduction designated under this section as a strategic supply no longer constitutes such a supply, it shall cancel its designation.

(8)If the Authority proposes to make a determination under subsection (7) above that an introduction no longer constitutes a strategic supply, it shall give notice of the proposed determination to the persons specified in paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (4) above.

(9)Subsection (5) above applies to a notice under subsection (8) above as it applies to a notice under subsection (4) above (and subsection (6) above applies accordingly).

(10)For the purposes of this section, an introduction of water is a strategic supply if, without that introduction being made, there is a substantial risk that the water undertaker would be unable to maintain supplies to its own customers as well as supplying customers of the licensed water supplier in question with water for domestic purposes.

66HDesignation of collective strategic supplyE+W

(1)Subsection (2) below applies if at any time the Authority determines that two or more introductions of water—

(a)which are made by a licensed water supplier; and

(b)which a water undertaker is required to permit under section 66B or 66C above in accordance with agreements under section 66D above,

constitute a collective strategic supply of water.

(2)The Authority shall designate the introductions as a collective strategic supply.

(3)Subsection (4) below applies if—

(a)a water undertaker requests the Authority to make a determination that two or more introductions of water constitute a collective strategic supply for the purposes of subsection (1) above, or

(b)the Authority otherwise proposes to make a determination that two or more introductions of water constitute a collective strategic supply for the purposes of that subsection.

(4)The Authority shall give notice of the request or proposed determination to—

(a)the Secretary of State;

(b)the Assembly;

(c)the Environment Agency;

(d)the other party or parties, or the parties, to the agreements under section 66D above; and

(e)such other persons (if any) as the Authority thinks it appropriate to notify.

(5)Any such notice shall specify the time (not being less than twenty-eight days from the date on which the notice was given) within which representations or objections with respect to the request or proposed determination may be made.

(6)The Authority shall consider any representations or objections which are duly made and not withdrawn.

(7)If the Authority determines that introductions designated under this section as a collective strategic supply no longer constitute such a supply, it shall cancel their designation.

(8)If the Authority proposes to make a determination under subsection (7) above that introductions no longer constitute a collective strategic supply, it shall give notice of the proposed determination to the persons specified in paragraphs (a) to (d) of subsection (4) above.

(9)Subsection (5) above applies to a notice under subsection (8) above as it applies to a notice under subsection (4) above (and subsection (6) above applies accordingly).

(10)For the purposes of this section, introductions of water are a collective strategic supply if, without those introductions being made, there is a substantial risk that the water undertaker would be unable to maintain supplies to its own customers as well as supplying the customers of the licensed water supplier in question with water for domestic purposes.

OffencesE+W

66IProhibition on unauthorised use of supply systemE+W

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (3) and section 66K below, no person shall use a water undertaker’s supply system for the purpose of supplying water to any premises of a customer.

(2)Subsection (1) above shall not apply where the supply is made—

(a)by the water undertaker, or

(b)by a licensed water supplier in pursuance of its licence.

(3)The Secretary of State may by regulations specify further circumstances in which subsection (1) above shall not apply.

(4)A person who contravenes subsection (1) above shall be guilty of an offence.

(5)Any undertaking entered into which involves a contravention of subsection (1) above shall be unenforceable.

(6)A person guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, and

(b)on conviction on indictment, to a fine.

(7)No proceedings for an offence under this section shall be instituted except by—

(a)the Secretary of State, or

(b)the Authority.

(8)The functions of—

(a)making regulations under subsection (3) above; and

(b)instituting proceedings under subsection (7)(a) above,

are exercisable by the Assembly (and not by the Secretary of State) in relation to any supply system of a water undertaker whose area is wholly or mainly in Wales.

(9)In this section and sections 66J and 66L below, references to the supply system of a water undertaker shall be construed in accordance with section 17B(5) above.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

66JProhibition on unauthorised introduction of waterE+W

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (3) and section 66K below, no person shall introduce water into a water undertaker’s supply system (other than the undertaker itself).

(2)Subsection (1) above shall not apply where the water is introduced—

(a)by a licensed water supplier in pursuance of its licence, or

(b)by another water undertaker under an agreement for a supply of water in bulk.

(3)The Secretary of State may by regulations specify further circumstances in which subsection (1) above shall not apply.

(4)A person who contravenes subsection (1) above shall be guilty of an offence.

(5)Any undertaking entered into which involves a contravention of subsection (1) above shall be unenforceable.

(6)A person guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding £20,000, and

(b)on conviction on indictment, to a fine.

(7)For the purposes of section 210 below, the penalty on conviction on indictment of an offence under this section shall be deemed to include imprisonment (in addition to or instead of a fine) for a term not exceeding two years.

(8)No proceedings for an offence under this section shall be instituted except by—

(a)the Secretary of State; or

(b)the Authority.

(9)The functions of—

(a)making regulations under subsection (3) above; and

(b)instituting proceedings under subsection (8)(a) above,

are exercisable by the Assembly (and not by the Secretary of State) in relation to any supply system of a water undertaker whose area is wholly or mainly in Wales.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

66KSections 66I and 66J: exemptionsE+W

(1)The Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument grant exemption from section 66I(1) or 66J(1) above to—

(a)a person or persons of a class;

(b)generally or to such extent as may be specified in the order; and

(c)unconditionally or subject to such conditions as may be so specified.

(2)Before making an order under subsection (1) above the Secretary of State shall give notice—

(a)stating that he proposes to make such an order and setting out the terms of the proposed order;

(b)stating the reasons why he proposes to make the order in the terms proposed; and

(c)specifying the time (not being less than twenty-eight days from the date of publication of the notice) within which representations or objections with respect to the proposals may be made,

and shall consider any representations or objections which are duly made and not withdrawn.

(3)The notice required by subsection (2) above shall be given—

(a)by serving a copy of it on the Authority; and

(b)by publishing it in such manner as the Secretary of State considers appropriate for bringing it to the attention of those likely to be affected by the proposed order.

(4)Notice of an exemption granted to a person shall be given—

(a)by serving a copy of the exemption on him; and

(b)by publishing the exemption in such manner as the Secretary of State considers appropriate for bringing it to the attention of other persons who may be affected by it.

(5)Notice of an exemption granted to persons of a class shall be given by publishing the exemption in such manner as the Secretary of State considers appropriate for bringing it to the attention of—

(a)persons of that class; and

(b)other persons who may be affected by it.

(6)An exemption may be granted—

(a)indefinitely; or

(b)for a period specified in, or determined by or under, the exemption.

(7)Conditions included in an exemption by virtue of subsection (1)(c) above may, in particular, require any person carrying on any activity in pursuance of the exemption—

(a)to comply with any direction given by the Secretary of State or the Authority as to such matters as are specified in the exemption or are of a description so specified;

(b)except in so far as the Secretary of State or the Authority consents to his doing or not doing them, not to do or to do such things as are specified in the exemption or are of a description so specified; and

(c)to refer for determination by the Secretary of State or the Authority such questions arising under the exemption as are specified in the exemption or are of a description so specified.

66LSection 66K: supplementaryE+W

(1)The Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument revoke an order by which an exemption was granted to a person under section 66K(1) above or vary an order by which more than one exemption was so granted so as to terminate any of the exemptions—

(a)at the person’s request;

(b)in accordance with any provision of the order by which the exemption was granted; or

(c)if it appears to the Secretary of State inappropriate that the exemption should continue to have effect.

(2)The Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument revoke an order by which an exemption was granted to persons of a class under section 66K(1) above or vary an order by which more than one exemption was so granted so as to terminate any of the exemptions—

(a)in accordance with any provision of the order by which the exemption was granted; or

(b)if it appears to the Secretary of State inappropriate that the exemption should continue to have effect.

(3)The Secretary of State may by direction withdraw an exemption granted to persons of a class under section 66K(1) above from any person of that class—

(a)at the person’s request;

(b)in accordance with any provision of the order by which the exemption was granted; or

(c)if it appears to the Secretary of State inappropriate that the exemption should continue to have effect in the case of the person.

(4)Before making an order under subsection (1)(b) or (c) or (2) above or giving a direction under subsection (3)(b) or (c) above, the Secretary of State shall—

(a)consult the Authority; and

(b)give notice—

(i)stating that he proposes to make such an order or give such a direction;

(ii)stating the reasons why he proposes to make such an order or give such a direction; and

(iii)specifying the time (not being less than twenty-eight days from the date of publication of the notice) within which representations or objections with respect to the proposals may be made,

and shall consider any representations or objections which are duly made and not withdrawn.

(5)The notice under subsection (4) above shall be given—

(a)where the Secretary of State is proposing to make an order under subsection (1)(b) or (c) above, by serving a copy of it on the person to whom the exemption was granted;

(b)where he is proposing to make an order under subsection (2) above, by publishing it in such manner as the Secretary of State considers appropriate for bringing it to the attention of persons of the class of persons to whom the exemption was granted; and

(c)where he is proposing to give a direction under subsection (3)(b) or (c) above, by serving a copy of it on the person from whom he proposes to withdraw the exemption.

(6)A statutory instrument containing an order under subsection (1) or (2) above or subsection (1) of section 66K above shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(7)The power to—

(a)make an order under subsection (1) or (2) above or subsection (1) of section 66K above; or

(b)give a direction under subsection (3) above,

is exercisable by the Assembly (and not by the Secretary of State) in relation to any supply system of a water undertaker whose area is wholly or mainly in Wales.

(8)Accordingly, subsections (1) to (5) above and section 66K above apply in relation to an order made or a direction given by the Assembly by virtue of subsection (7) above as they apply in relation to an order made or direction given by the Secretary of State.]

chapter IIIE+W Quality and Sufficiency of Supplies

Standards of wholesomenessE+W

67 Standards of wholesomeness.E+W

(1)The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision that water that is supplied to any premises is or is not to be regarded as wholesome for the purposes of this Chapter if it satisfies or, as the case may be, fails to satisfy such requirements as may be prescribed.

(2)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) above, regulations under this section may, for the purpose of determining the wholesomeness of any water—

(a)prescribe general requirements as to the purposes for which the water is to be suitable;

(b)prescribe specific requirements as to the substances that are to be present in or absent from the water and as to the concentrations of substances which are or are required to be present in the water;

(c)prescribe specific requirements as to other characteristics of the water;

(d)provide that the question whether prescribed requirements are satisfied may be determined by reference to such samples as may be prescribed;

(e)enable the Secretary of State to authorise such relaxations of and departures from the prescribed requirements (or from any of them) as may be prescribed, to make any such authorisation subject to such conditions as may be prescribed and to modify or revoke any such authorisation or condition; and

(f)enable the Secretary of State to authorise a local authority (either instead of the Secretary of State or concurrently with him) to exercise in relation to a private supply any power conferred on the Secretary of State by regulations made by virtue of paragraph (e) above.

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Subordinate Legislation Made

P1S. 67: ss. 67 and 77(3) (with ss. 77(4) and 213(2)) power exercised by S.I.1991/2790

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

General obligations of undertakers [F84and licensed water suppliers]E+W

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Amendments (Textual)

F84Words in cross-heading inserted (1.12.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 18(8); S.I. 2005/2714, art. 3(c) (with Sch. para. 8)

68 Duties of water undertakers [F85and licensed water suppliers] with respect to water quality.E+W

(1)It shall be the duty of a water undertaker [F86where its supply system is used for the purpose of supplying water to any premises for domestic or food production purposes]

(a)[F87to ensure that any water so supplied] is wholesome at the time of supply; and

(b)so far as reasonably practicable, to ensure, in relation to each source or combination of sources from which [F88water is so supplied] , that there is, in general, no deterioration in the quality of the water which is supplied from time to time from that source or combination of sources.

[F89and this section and section 69 below apply, in relation to the duty of an undertaker, whether or not the water supplied using the undertaker’s supply system is supplied by the undertaker.]

[F90(1A)It shall be the duty of a licensed water supplier—

(a)when supplying water to any premises for domestic or food production purposes, in accordance with its retail authorisation, to ensure that the water is wholesome at the time of supply; and

(b)so far as reasonably practicable, to ensure, in relation to each source or combination of sources from which that supplier supplies water to premises for domestic or food production purposes, in accordance with its retail authorisation, that there is, in general, no deterioration in the quality of the water which is supplied from time to time from that source or combination of sources,

and references in this subsection to the retail authorisation shall be construed in accordance with section 17A(2) above.]

(2)For the purposes of this section and section 69 below and subject to subsection (3) below, [F91where a water undertaker’s supply system is used for the purpose of supplying water to any premises, any water so supplied] to any premises shall not be regarded as unwholesome at the time of supply where it has ceased to be wholesome only after leaving the undertaker’s pipes.

(3)For the purposes of [F92subsection (1) above where a water undertaker’s supply system is used for the purpose of supplying water to any premises, and the water so supplied] would not otherwise be regarded as unwholesome at the time of supply, that water shall be regarded as unwholesome at that time if—

(a)it has ceased to be wholesome after leaving the undertaker’s pipes but while in a pipe which is subject to water pressure from a water main or which would be so subject but for the closing of some valve; and

(b)it has so ceased in consequence of the failure of the undertaker, before [F93the water is supplied, to ensure that such steps are taken] as may be prescribed for the purpose of securing the elimination, or reduction to a minimum, of any prescribed risk that the water would cease to be wholesome after leaving the undertaker’s pipes.

[F94(3A)For the purposes of subsection (1A) above where water supplied by a licensed water supplier to any premises would not otherwise be regarded as unwholesome at the time of supply, that water shall be regarded as unwholesome at that time if—

(a)it has ceased to be wholesome after leaving the relevant pipes but while in a pipe which is subject to water pressure from a water main or which would be so subject but for the closing of some valve; and

(b)it has so ceased in consequence of the failure of the supplier, before supplying the water, to ensure that such steps are taken as may be prescribed for the purpose of securing the elimination, or reduction to a minimum, of any prescribed risk that the water would cease to be wholesome after leaving the relevant pipes.

(3B)In subsection (3A) above “relevant pipes” means the pipes of the water undertaker whose supply system is used for the purpose of the supply made by the licensed water supplier.]

(4)The provisions of this section shall apply in relation to water which is supplied by a water undertaker whether or not the water is water which the undertaker is required to supply by virtue of any provision of this Act.

(5)The duties of a water undertaker [F95and licensed water supplier] under this section shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the Secretary of State.

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Amendments (Textual)

69 Regulations for preserving water quality.E+W

(1)The Secretary of State may by regulations require a water undertaker [F96or a licensed water supplier to ensure that such steps are taken] as may be prescribed for the purpose of securing compliance with section 68 above.

(2)Without prejudice to the generality of the power conferred by subsection (1) above, regulations under that subsection may impose an obligation on a water undertaker [F97or licensed water supplier]

(a)to [F98ensure that all such steps are taken] as may be prescribed for monitoring and recording whether the water [F99used for relevant supplies] to premises for domestic or food production purposes is wholesome at the time of supply;

(b)to [F100ensure that all such steps are taken] as may be prescribed for monitoring and recording the quality of the water from any source, or combination of sources, which [F101is used or is proposed to be used for making relevant supplies] to any premises for domestic or food production purposes;

(c)to ensure that a source which [F102is used or proposed to be used for making relevant supplies] for domestic or food production purposes is not so used until prescribed requirements for establishing the quality of water which may be supplied from that source have been complied with;

(d)to [F103ensure that records are kept] of the localities within which all the premises [F104receiving relevant supplies] for domestic or food production purposes F105. . . are normally supplied from the same source or combination of sources;

(e)to [F106ensure that prescribed requirements are complied with] with respect to the analysis of water samples or with respect to internal reporting or organisational arrangements.

(3)Without prejudice to subsections (1) and (2) above, the Secretary of State may by regulations make provision [F107imposing obligations on water undertakers or licensed water suppliers with respect to the use for the purposes of or in connection with making relevant supplies]

(a)of such processes and substances; and

(b)of products that contain or are made with such substances or materials,

as he considers might affect the quality of any water.

(4)Without prejudice to the generality of the power conferrred by subsection (3) above, regulations under that subsection may—

(a)[F108require water undertakers or licensed water suppliers to ensure that] processes, substances and products which have not been approved under the regulations or which contravene the regulations [F109are not used for the purposes of or in connection with relevant supplies];

(b)for the purposes of provision made by virtue of paragraph (a) above, require [F110water undertakers and licensed water suppliers to ensure that] processes, substances and products used [F111for the purposes of or in connection with relevant supplies] conform to such standards as may be prescribed by or approved under the regulations;

(c)impose such other requirements as may be prescribed with respect to the use [F112for the purposes of or in connection with relevant supplies] of prescribed processes, substances and products;

(d)provide for the giving, refusal and revocation, by prescribed persons, of approvals required for the purposes of the regulations, for such approvals to be capable of being made subject to such conditions as may be prescribed and for the modification and revocation of any such condition;

(e)impose obligations to furnish prescribed persons with information reasonably required by those persons for the purpose of carrying out functions under the regulations;

(f)provide for a contravention of the regulations to constitute—

(i)a summary offence punishable, on summary conviction, by a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale or such smaller sum as may be prescribed; or

(ii)an offence triable either way and punishable, on summary conviction, by a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum and, on conviction on indictment, by a fine;

and

(g)require prescribed charges to be paid to persons carrying out functions under the regulations.

(5)The Secretary of State may by regulations F113. . . —

(a)[F114require a water undertaker]to publish information about the quality of water supplied for domestic or food production purposes to any premises [F115using that undertaker’s supply system]; F116. . .

[F117(aa)require a licensed water supplier to publish information about the quality of water supplied for domestic or food production purposes to any premises by that supplier]

(b)[F118require any such undertaker or supplier]to provide information to prescribed persons about the quality of water [F119supplied as referred to in paragraph (a) or (aa) above (as the case may be)].

(6)Regulations under subsection (5) above—

(a)shall prescribe both the information which is to be published or provided in pursuance of the regulations and the manner and circumstances in which it is to be published or provided;

(b)may require the provision of information by a water undertaker [F120or licensed water supplier] to any person to be free of charge or may authorise it to be subject to the payment by that person to the undertaker [F121or supplier] of a prescribed charge; and

(c)may impose such other conditions on the provision of information by a water undertaker [F122or licensed water supplier] to any person as may be prescribed.

[F123(7)In this section, “relevant supplies” means—

(a)in the case of an obligation imposed on a water undertaker, supplies of water—

(i)made by the undertaker in carrying out its functions; or

(ii)made by a licensed water supplier using the undertaker’s supply system; and

(b)in the case of an obligation imposed on a licensed water supplier, supplies of water made by that supplier using a water undertaker’s supply system.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F113Words in s. 69(5) omitted (1.4.2004) by virtue of and repealed (prosp.) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1)(2), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 19(6)(a), Sch. 9 Pt. 3; S.I. 2004/641, art. 3(y), Sch. 2

F114Words in s. 69(5)(a) inserted (1.4.2004) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), {Sch. 8 para. 19(6)(b)(i))}; S.I. 2004/641, art. 3(y), Sch. 2

F116Words in s. 69(5)(a) omitted (1.4.2004) by virtue of and repealed (prosp.) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1)(2), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 19(6)(c), Sch. 9 Pt. 3; S.I. 2004/641, art. 3(y), Sch. 2

70 Offence of supplying water unfit for human consumption.E+W

(1)Subject to subsection (3) below, where a [F124water undertaker’s supply system is used for the purposes of supplying water] to any premises and that water is unfit for human consumption, [F125the relevant persons] shall be guilty of an offence and liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding [F126£20,000] ;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to a fine.

[F127(1A)For the purposes of subsection (1) above, the relevant persons are—

(a)the water undertaker whose supply system is used for the purposes of supplying the water (in this section referred to as the “primary water undertaker”); and

(b)any employer of persons, or any self-employed person, who is concerned in the supply of the water.]

(2)For the purposes of section 210 below and any other enactment under which an individual is guilty of an offence by virtue of subsection (1) above the penalty on conviction on indictment of an offence under this section shall be deemed to include imprisonment (in addition to or instead of a fine) for a term not exceeding two years.

(3)In any proceedings against any [F128relevant person] for an offence under this section it shall be a defence for [F129that person] to show that it—

(a)had no reasonable grounds for suspecting that the water would be used for human consumption; or

(b)took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence for securing that the water was fit for human consumption on leaving [F130the primary water undertaker's] pipes or was not used for human consumption.

[F131(3A)For the purposes of paragraph (b) of subsection (3) above—

(a)in the case of proceedings against a primary water undertaker, showing that the undertaker took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence as mentioned in that paragraph includes (among other things) showing that the relevant arrangements were reasonable in all the circumstances; and

(b)in the case of proceedings against any other relevant person, showing that the person took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence as mentioned in that paragraph includes (among other things) showing that it took all reasonable steps and exercised all due diligence for securing that all aspects of the relevant arrangements for which it was responsible were properly carried out.

(3B)In subsection (3A) above, “relevant arrangements” means arrangements made by the primary water undertaker to ensure that all other relevant persons were required to take all reasonable steps and exercise all due diligence for securing that the water was fit for human consumption on leaving the undertaker’s pipes or was not used for human consumption.]

(4)Proceedings for an offence under this section shall not be instituted except by the Secretary of State or the Director of Public Prosecutions.

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Amendments (Textual)

F129Words in s. 70(3) substituted (1.10.2004) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 20(4)(b); S.I. 2004/2528, art. 2(t)(iv) (with art. 4, Sch. )

Waste, contamination, misuse etc.E+W

71 Waste from water sources.E+W

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (3) below, a person shall be guilty of an offence under this section if—

(a)he causes or allows any underground water to run to waste from any well, borehole or other work; or

(b)he abstracts from any well, borehole or other work water in excess of his reasonable requirements.

(2)A person shall not be guilty of an offence by virtue of subsection (1)(a) above in respect of anything done for the purpose—

(a)of testing the extent or quality of the supply; or

(b)of cleaning, sterilising, examining or repairing the well, borehole or other work in question.

(3)Where underground water interferes or threatens to interfere with the carrying out or operation of any underground works (whether waterworks or not), it shall not be an offence under this section, if no other method of disposing of the water is reasonably practicable, to cause or allow the water to run to waste so far as may be necessary for enabling the works to be carried out or operated.

(4)A person who is guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(5)On the conviction of a person under this section, the court may—

(a)order that the well, borehole or other work to which the offence relates shall be effectively sealed; or

(b)make such other order as appears to the court to be necessary to prevent waste of water.

(6)If any person fails to comply with an order under subsection (5) above, then, without prejudice to any penalty for contempt of court, the court may, on the application of [F132the Environment Agency], authorise [F133the Agency] to take such steps as may be necessary to execute the order; and any expenses incurred in taking any such steps shall be recoverable summarily as a civil debt from the person convicted.

(7)Any person designated for the purpose by [F134the Environment Agency] shall, on producing some duly authenticated document showing his authority, have a right at all reasonable times—

(a)to enter any premises for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is, or has been, any contravention of the provisions of this section on or in connection with the premises;

(b)to enter any premises for the purpose of executing any order of the court under this section which [F134the Environment Agency] has been authorised to execute in those premises.

(8)Part I of Schedule 6 to this Act shall apply to the rights of entry conferred by subsection (7) above.

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Amendments (Textual)

F134Words in s. 71(7) substituted (1.4.1996) by 1995 c. 25, s. 120(1), Sch. 22 para. 101(2) (with ss. 7(6), 115, 117): S.I. 1996/186, art. 3

72 Contamination of water sources.E+W

(1)Subject to subsections (2) and (3) below, a person is guilty of an offence under this section if he is guilty of any act or neglect whereby the water in any waterworks which is used or likely to be used—

(a)for human consumption or domestic purposes; or

(b)for manufacturing food or drink for human consumption,

is polluted or likely to be polluted.

(2)Nothing in this section shall be construed as restricting or prohibiting any method of cultivation of land which is in accordance with the principles of good husbandry.

(3)Nothing in this section shall be construed as restricting or prohibiting the reasonable use of oil or tar on any highway maintainable at public expense so long as the highway authority take all reasonable steps for preventing—

(a)the oil or tar; and

(b)any liquid or matter resulting from the use of the oil or tar,

from polluting the water in any waterworks.

(4)A person who is guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable—

(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum and, in the case of a continuing offence, to a further fine not exceeding £50 for every day during which the offence is continued after conviction;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to a fine or to both.

(5)In this section “waterworks” includes—

(a)any spring, well, adit, borehole, service reservoir or tank; and

(b)any main or other pipe or conduit of a water undertaker[F135; and

(c)any pipe or conduit of a licensed water supplier.]

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Amendments (Textual)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C14S. 72 amended (27.8.1993) by 1993 c. 12, ss. 40, 51(2), Sch. 3 Pt. I para. 8 (with ss. 42, 46).

73 Offences of contaminating, wasting and misusing water etc.E+W

(1)If any person who is the owner or occupier of any premises to which a supply of water is provided by a water undertaker [F136or licensed water supplier] intentionally or negligently causes or suffers any water fitting for which he is responsible to be or remain so out of order, so in need of repair or so constructed or adapted, or to be so used—

(a)that water in a water main or other pipe of a water undertaker, or in a pipe connected with such a water main or pipe, is or is likely to be contaminated by the return of any substance from those premises to that main or pipe;

(b)that water that has been supplied by the undertaker [F137or supplier] to those premises is or is likely to be contaminated before it is used; or

(c)that water so supplied is or is likely to be wasted or, having regard to the purposes for which it is supplied, misused or unduly consumed,

that person shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

[F138(1A)In any proceedings under subsection (1) above it shall be a defence to prove–

(a)that the contamination or likely contamination, or the wastage, misuse or undue consumption, was caused (wholly or mainly) by the installation, alteration, repair or connection of the water fitting on or after 1st July 1999;

(b)that the works were carried out by or under the direction of an approved contractor within the meaning of the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999; and

(c)that the contractor certified to the person who commissioned those works that the water fitting complied with the requirements of those regulations.]

(2)Any person who uses any water supplied to any premises by a water undertaker for a purpose other than one for which it is supplied to those premises shall, unless the other purpose is the extinguishment of a fire, be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(3)Where a person has committed an offence under subsection (2) above, the water undertaker in question shall be entitled to recover from that person such amount as may be reasonable in respect of any water wasted, misused or improperly consumed in consequence of the commission of the offence.

(4)For the purposes of this section the owner or occupier of any premises shall be regarded as responsible for every water fitting on the premises which is not a water fitting which a person other than the owner or, as the case may be, occupier is liable to maintain.

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Amendments (Textual)

F138S. 73(1A) inserted (1.7.1999) by S.I. 1999/1148, reg. 8

74 Regulations for preventing contamination, waste etc. and with respect to water fittings.E+W

(1)The Secretary of State may by regulations make such provision as he considers appropriate for any of the following purposes, that is to say—

(a)for securing—

(i)that water in a water main or other pipe of a water undertaker is not contaminated; and

(ii)that its quality and suitability for particular purposes is not prejudiced,

by the return of any substance from any premises to that main or pipe;

(b)for securing that water which is in any pipe connected with any such main or other pipe or which has been supplied to any premises by a water undertaker [F139or licensed water supplier] is not contaminated, and that its quality and suitability for particular purposes is not prejudiced, before it is used;

(c)for preventing the waste, undue consumption and misuse of any water at any time after it has left the pipes of a water undertaker for the purpose of being supplied by that undertaker [F140or a licensed water supplier] to any premises; and

(d)for securing that water fittings installed and used by persons to whom water is or is to be supplied by a water undertaker [F141or licensed water supplier] are safe and do not cause or contribute to the erroneous measurement of any water or the reverberation of any pipes.

(2)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) above, regulations under this section may, for any of the purposes specified in that subsection, make provision in relation to such water fittings as may be prescribed—

(a)for forbidding the installation, connection or use of the fittings if they have not been approved under the regulations or if they contravene the regulations;

(b)for requiring the fittings, for the purposes of provision made by virtue of paragraph (a) above, to be of such a size, nature, strength or workmanship, to be made of such materials or in such a manner or to conform to such standards as may be prescribed by or approved under the regulations;

(c)for imposing such other requirements as may be prescribed with respect to the installation, arrangement, connection, testing, disconnection, alteration and repair of the fittings and with respect to the materials used in their manufacture;

(d)for the giving, refusal and revocation, by prescribed persons, of approvals required for the purposes of the regulations; and

(e)for such approvals to be capable of being made subject to such conditions as may be prescribed and for the modification and revocation of any such condition.

(3)Without prejudice as aforesaid, regulations under this section may—

(a)impose separate or concurrent duties with respect to the enforcement of the regulations on water undertakers, local authorities and such other persons as may be prescribed;

(b)confer powers on a water undertaker or local authority to carry out works and take other steps, in prescribed circumstances, for remedying any contravention of the regulations;

(c)provide for the recovery by a water undertaker or local authority of expenses reasonably incurred by the undertaker or authority in the exercise of any power conferred by virtue of paragraph (b) above;

(d)repeal or modify the provisions of section 73 above or section 75 below;

(e)provide for a contravention of the regulations to constitute a summary offence punishable, on summary conviction, by a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale or such smaller sum as may be prescribed;

(f)require prescribed charges to be paid to persons carrying out functions under the regulations;

(g)enable the Secretary of State to authorise such relaxations of and departures from such of the requirements of the regulations as may be prescribed, to make any such authorisation subject to such conditions as may be prescribed and to modify or revoke any such authorisation or condition;

(h)enable the Secretary of State to authorise a water undertaker or local authority (either instead of the Secretary of State or concurrently with him) to exercise any power conferred on the Secretary of State by regulations made by virtue of paragraph (g) above; and

(i)require disputes arising under the regulations to be referred to arbitration and for determinations under the regulations to be subject to such rights of appeal as may be prescribed.

(4)Without prejudice to sections 84 and 170 below, any person designated in writing for the purposes of this subsection in such manner as may be prescribed may—

(a)enter any premises for the purpose of—

(i)ascertaining whether any provision contained in or made or having effect under this Act with respect to any water fittings or with respect to the waste or misuse of water is being or has been contravened;

(ii)determining whether, and if so in what manner, any power or duty conferred or imposed on any person by regulations under this section should be exercised or performed; or

(iii)exercising any such power or performing any such duty;

or

(b)carry out such inspections, measurements and tests on premises entered by that person or on water fittings or other articles found on any such premises, and take away such samples of water or of any land and such water fittings and other articles, as that person has been authorised to carry out or take away in accordance with regulations under this section.

(5)Part II of Schedule 6 to this Act shall apply to the rights and powers conferred by subsection (4) above.

(6)The power of the Secretary of State under this section to make regulations with respect to the matters specified in the preceding provisions of this section shall include power, by regulations under this section—

(a)to modify the operation of Schedule 2 to the M11Water Consolidation (Consequential Provisions) Act 1991 in relation to any byelaws made under section 17 of the M12Water Act 1945 which have effect by virtue of paragraph 19 of Schedule 26 to the M13Water Act 1989 and that Schedule 2; and

(b)to revoke or amend any such byelaws;

but, so long as any such byelaws so have effect, the references in sections 47(2)(g), 53(2)(c) and 55(4) above to such regulations under this section as are prescribed shall have effect as including references to those byelaws.

(7)Any sums received by the Secretary of State in consequence of the provisions of any regulations under this section shall be paid into the Consolidated Fund.

(8)In this section “safe” has the same meaning as in Part II of the M14Consumer Protection Act 1987.

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Amendments (Textual)

Marginal Citations

75 Power to prevent damage and to take steps to prevent contamination, waste etc.E+W

(1)Without prejudice to any power conferred on water undertakers by regulations under section 74 above, where a water undertaker which provides a supply of water to any premises has reason for believing—

(a)that damage to persons or property is being or is likely to be caused by any damage to, or defect in, any water fitting used in connection with the supply of water to those premises which is not a service pipe belonging to the undertaker;

(b)that water in a water main or other pipe of the undertaker is being or is likely to be contaminated by the return of any substance from those premises to that main or pipe;

(c)that water which is in any pipe connected with any such main or other pipe or which has been supplied by the undertaker to those premises is being or is likely to be contaminated before it is used; or

(d)that water which has been or is to be so supplied is being or is likely to be wasted or, having regard to the purposes for which it is supplied, misused or unduly consumed,

the undertaker may exercise the power conferred by subsection (2) below in relation to those premises.

[F142(1A)Without prejudice to any power conferred on water undertakers by regulations under section 74 above, where a water undertaker whose supply system is used for the purpose of a licensed water supplier making a supply of water to any premises has reason for believing—

(a)that damage to persons or property is being or is likely to be caused by any damage to, or defect in, any water fitting used in connection with the supply of water to those premises which is not a service pipe belonging to the water undertaker;

(b)that water in a water main or other pipe of the undertaker is being or is likely to be contaminated by the return of any substance from those premises to that pipe or main;

(c)that water which is in any pipe connected with any such main or other pipe or which has been supplied by the supplier to those premises is being or is likely to be contaminated before it is used; or

(d)that water which has been or is to be so supplied is being or is likely to be wasted or, having regard to the purposes for which it is supplied, misused or unduly consumed,

the undertaker may exercise the power conferred by subsection (2) below in relation to those premises.]

(2)The power conferred by this subsection in relation to any premises is—

(a)where the case constitutes an emergency, power to disconnect the service pipe or otherwise to cut off the supply of water to those premises; and

(b)in any other case, power to serve notice on the consumer requiring him to take such steps as may be specified in the notice as necessary to secure that the damage, contamination, waste, misuse or undue consumption ceases or, as the case may be, does not occur.

(3)Where a water undertaker, in exercise of the power conferred by virtue of subsection (2)(a) above, disconnects a service pipe to any premises or otherwise cuts off any supply of water to any premises, the undertaker shall, as soon as reasonably practicable after the supply is disconnected or cut off, serve a notice on the consumer specifying the steps which that person is required to take before the undertaker will restore the supply.

(4)The steps specified in a notice under subsection (3) above shall be the steps necessary to secure that, as the case may be—

(a)the damage, contamination, waste, misuse or undue consumption; or

(b)the likelihood of damage, contamination, waste, misuse or undue consumption,

would not recur if the supply were restored.

(5)A water undertaker which fails, without reasonable excuse, to serve a notice in accordance with subsection (3) above shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(6)A notice served for the purposes of subsection (2)(b) above shall—

(a)specify the period, not being less than the period of seven days beginning with the day after the service of the notice, within which the steps specified in the notice are to be taken; and

(b)set out the powers of the undertaker under subsections (7) to (9) below.

(7)Where a water undertaker has served a notice for the purposes of subsection (2)(b) above in relation to any premises and—

(a)the case becomes an emergency; or

(b)the premises appear to be unoccupied and the steps specified in the notice are not taken before the end of the period so specified,

the undertaker may disconnect the service pipe to those premises or otherwise cut off the supply of water to those premises.

(8)Subsections (3) to (5) above shall apply where a water undertaker exercises its power under subsection (7) above as they apply where such an undertaker exercises its power by virtue of subsection (2)(a) above.

(9)Where, in a case not falling within subsection (7)(a) or (b) above, any steps specified in a notice served by a water undertaker for the purposes of subsection (2)(b) above have not been taken by the end of the period so specified, the water undertaker shall have power—

(a)to take those steps itself; and

(b)subject to subsection (10) below, to recover any expenses reasonably incurred by the undertaker in taking those steps from the person on whom the notice was served;

and any steps taken by a water undertaker by virtue of paragraph (a) above shall be necessary works for the purposes of Chapter II of this Part.

(10)Where any steps are taken by virtue of this section and it is shown that, in the circumstances of the case, those steps were not necessary as mentioned in subsection (2) or, as the case may be, (4) above, the water undertaker in question-

(a)shall not be entitled to recover any expenses incurred by it in taking those steps; and

(b)shall be liable to pay to any other person who took any of those steps an amount equal to any expenses reasonably incurred by that person in taking any of those steps.

[F143(11)Where the power conferred by subsection (2) above on a water undertaker is exercisable by virtue of subsection (1A) above—

(a)the references to the consumer in subsections (2) and (3), in relation to a supply of water to any premises, shall be taken to be references to the person in respect of whom the supply is made; and

(b)the undertaker shall serve on the licensed water supplier providing the supply a copy of any notice under this section which is served on the person mentioned in paragraph (a) above.

(12)In subsection (1A) above, the reference to the supply system of a water undertaker shall be construed in accordance with section 17B(5) above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F143S. 75(11)(12) inserted (1.12.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 24(3); S.I 2005/2714, {art. 3(c)} (with Sch. para. 8)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

76 Temporary hosepipe bans.E+W

(1)If a water undertaker is of the opinion that a serious deficiency of water available for distribution by that undertaker exists or is threatened, that undertaker may, for such period as it thinks necessary, prohibit or restrict, as respects the whole or any part of its area, the use for the purpose of—

(a)watering private gardens; or

(b)washing private motor cars,

of any water supplied by that undertaker [F144or a licensed water supplier] and drawn through a hosepipe or similar apparatus.

(2)A water undertaker imposing a prohibition or restriction under this section shall, before it comes into force, give public notice of it, and of the date on which it will come into force, in two or more newspapers circulating in the locality affected by the prohibition or restriction.

(3)Any person who, at a time when a prohibition or restriction under this section is in force, contravenes its provisions shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

(4)Where a prohibition or restriction is imposed by a water undertaker under this section, charges made by the undertaker for the use of a hosepipe or similar apparatus shall be subject to a reasonable reduction and, in the case of a charge paid in advance, the undertaker shall make any necessary repayment or adjustment.

(5)In this section “private motor car” means any mechanically propelled vehicle intended or adapted for use on roads other than—

(a)a public service vehicle, within the meaning of the M15Public Passenger Vehicles Act 1981; or

(b)a goods vehicle within the meaning of the M16Road Traffic Act 1988,

and includes any vehicle drawn by a private motor car.

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Amendments (Textual)

F144Words in s. 76(1) inserted (1.12.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 25; S.I 2005/2714, {art. 3(c)} (with Sch. para. 8)

Marginal Citations

Local authority functionsE+W

77 General functions of local authorities in relation to water quality.E+W

(1)It shall be the duty of every local authority to take all such steps as they consider appropriate for keeping themselves informed about the wholesomeness and sufficiency of water supplies provided to premises in their area, including every private supply to any such premises.

(2)It shall be the duty of a local authority to comply with any direction given by the Secretary of State to that authority, to authorities of a description applicable to that authority or to local authorities generally as to—

(a)the cases and circumstances in which they are or are not to exercise any of the powers conferred on them by this Chapter in relation to private supplies; and

(b)the manner in which those powers are to be exercised.

(3)The Secretary of State may by regulations make such provision, supplementing the provisions of this section and of sections 78 and 79(2) below, as he considers appropriate for—

(a)imposing duties and conferring powers on local authorities with respect to the acquisition of information about the quality and sufficiency of water supplies provided to premises in their areas; and

(b)regulating the performance of any duty imposed by or under any of those provisions.

(4)Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (3) above, regulations under that subsection may—

(a)prescribe the matters to be taken into account by a local authority in determining, for the purposes of subsection (1) above, what is appropriate;

(b)provide, for the purposes of the exercise or performance of any power or duty conferred or imposed on a local authority by or under any of the provisions mentioned in subsection (3) above, for such samples of water to be taken and analysed at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed;

(c)authorise local authorities to exercise or perform any such power or duty through prescribed persons;

(d)provide for the recovery by a local authority from prescribed persons of such amounts as may be prescribed in respect of expenses reasonably incurred by the authority in the exercise of any such power or the performance of any such duty.

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Subordinate Legislation Made

P2S. 77(3)(4): ss. 67 and 77(3) (with ss. 77(4) and 213(2)) power exercised by S.I.1991/2790

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

78 Local authority functions in relation to undertakers’ supplies.E+W

(1)It shall be the duty of a local authority to notify any water undertaker of anything appearing to the authority to suggest—

(a)that any supply by that undertaker [F145, or by a licensed water supplier using that undertaker’s supply system,] of water for domestic or food production purposes to any premises in the area of that authority is, has been or is likely to become unwholesome or (so far as any such premises are concerned) insufficient for domestic purposes;

(b)that the unwholesomeness or insufficiency of any such supply is, was or is likely to be such as to cause a danger to life or health; or

(c)that the duty imposed on that undertaker by virtue of section 68(1)(b) above is being, has been or is likely to be so contravened as to affect any supply of water to premises in that area.

(2)Where a local authority have notified a water undertaker of any such matter as is mentioned in subsection (1) above, it shall be the duty of that authority, if they are not satisfied that all such remedial action as is appropriate will be taken by the undertaker, to inform the Secretary of State about the contents of the notification.

[F146(3)In subsection (1)(a) above, the reference to the water undertaker’s supply system shall be construed in accordance with section 17B(5) above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F145Words in s. 78(1)(a) inserted (1.12.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 26(2); S.I 2005/2714, {art. 3(c)} (with Sch. para. 8)

F146S. 78(3) inserted (1.12.2005) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 101(1), 105(3), Sch. 8 para. 26(3); S.I 2005/2714, {art. 3(c)} (with Sch. para. 8)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

79 Local authority functions where piped supplies insufficient or unwholesome.E+W

(1)This section applies to a case in which it is not practicable at reasonable cost for a water undertaker, by supplying water in pipes, to provide or maintain such a supply of wholesome water to any particular premises in its area as (so far as those premises are concerned) is sufficient for domestic purposes.

(2)In any case to which this section applies, it shall be the duty of the local authority in whose area the premises in question are situated, if they are satisfied—

(a)that the insufficiency or unwholesomeness of the supply of water for domestic purposes to those premises is such as to cause a danger to life or health; and

(b)that it is practicable at reasonable cost for the water undertaker, by providing it otherwise than in pipes, to provide to those premises such a supply of wholesome water as is sufficient for those purposes,

to require the undertaker, under subsection (3) below, to provide a supply of water to those premises otherwise than in pipes.

(3)Where, in a case to which this section applies—

(a)the insufficiency or unwholesomeness of the supply of water for domestic purposes to the premises in question is such as to cause a danger to life or health;

(b)it is practicable at reasonable cost for the water undertaker, by providing it otherwise than in pipes, to provide to those premises such a supply of wholesome water as (so far as those premises are concerned) is sufficient for domestic purposes; and

(c)the local authority in whose area those premises are situated notify the undertaker of the danger to life or health and require the undertaker to provide a supply otherwise than in pipes,

it shall be the duty of the undertaker, for such period as may be required by that local authority, to provide any supply to those premises which it is practicable at reasonable cost to provide otherwise than in pipes and which it is required to provide by that authority.

(4)Where under this section a local authority require the provision by a water undertaker of a supply of water to any premises, that authority—

(a)shall be liable to the undertaker for any charges payable by virtue of Chapter I of Part V of this Act in respect of the provision of that supply; but

(b)shall have power to recover the whole or any part of any charges paid by virtue of this subsection from the owner or occupier of the premises to which the supply is provided.

(5)In this section references to the provision of a supply of water to any premises otherwise than in pipes shall have effect, in a case in which it is practicable at reasonable cost to provide a supply (whether or not in pipes) to a place within a reasonable distance of those premises, as including references to the provision of a supply to that place.

(6)The duty of a water undertaker under subsection (3) above shall be enforceable under section 18 above by the [F147Director].

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Amendments (Textual)

F147Word in s. 79(6) substituted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 56(6), Sch. 1 para.23; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt.I

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

80 Remedial powers of local authorities in relation to private supplies.E+W

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, where a local authority are satisfied in relation to any premises in their area which are supplied with water for domestic or food production purposes by means of a private supply—

(a)that any water which is being, has been or is likely to be supplied for those purposes to those premises by means of that private supply is not, was not or, as the case may be, is likely not to be wholesome; or

(b)that that private supply is failing, has failed or is likely to fail to provide to any house on those premises such a supply of wholesome water as (so far as that house is concerned) is sufficient for domestic purposes,

the authority may serve a notice in relation to that private supply on one or more of the relevant persons.

(2)A notice under this section in relation to a private supply of water to any premises shall-

(a)give particulars of the matters mentioned in subsection (1) above in respect of which the notice is served;

(b)specify the steps which, in the opinion of the authority serving the notice, are required to be taken for ensuring that there is a supply of water to those premises which is both wholesome and (so far as any house on those premises is concerned) sufficient for domestic purposes;

(c)specify a period, ending not less than twenty-eight days after the day on which the notice is served, within which any representations or objections with respect to the notice must be received by that authority; and

(d)state the effect in relation to that notice of section 81(2) and (3) below.

(3)Subject to sections 81 and 82 below, where a local authority serve a notice under this section on any relevant person they may do one or more of the following, that is to say—

(a)by that notice designate as steps to be taken by the authority themselves such of the steps specified in the notice as they consider it appropriate so to designate;

(b)by that notice require that person, within such reasonable period as may be specified in the notice, to take one or more of the steps so specified;

(c)by that notice require that person, at such times as may be determined in accordance with provision contained in the notice, to make to another relevant person or to that authority such payments as may be so determined in respect of expenses reasonably incurred by that other person or that authority in taking any step specified in the notice;

(d)by that notice undertake from time to time to make such payments to that person as may be so determined in respect of expenses reasonably incurred by that person in taking any step specified in the notice.

(4)The power of a local authority to serve a notice under this section specifying the steps which are required to be taken in relation to any source from which a private supply is provided both to premises in the area of that authority and to premises in the area of another local authority shall be exercisable only where—

(a)the other authority consent to the service of the notice; or

(b)the authorities act jointly in exercising their respective powers under this section in relation to that source.

(5)The powers conferred by this section and sections 81 and 82 below shall be so exercised in relation to a private supply of water to any premises where there is no house as to secure that no local authority are required to bear any of the expenses incurred (whether by the authority or by any other person) in taking any of the steps for ensuring that the supply is wholesome which are specified in a notice under this section.

(6)The steps that a relevant person may be required by a notice under this section to take in relation to any premises shall include—

(a)requiring a supply of water to be provided to those premises by a water undertaker or by any other person; and

(b)taking such steps for the purpose of securing that such a requirement is complied with, and of enabling such a supply to be so provided, as may be specified in the notice.

(7)For the purposes of this section and sections 81 to 83 below the relevant persons, in relation to a private supply of water to any premises in the area of a local authority, are—

(a)the owners and occupiers of those premises; and

(b)whether or not the source of the private supply is in that authority’s area, the owners and occupiers of the premises where that source is situated and any other person who exercises powers of management or control in relation to that source;

and in sections 81 to 83 below a notice under this section is referred to as a private supply notice.

81 Confirmation of private supply notices.E+W

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, a private supply notice served by a local authority shall not take effect until the end of the period specified in the notice as the period within which representations or objections with respect to the notice must be received by that authority.

(2)Where any written representation or objection with respect to a private supply notice served by a local authority is received by the authority, before the end of the period specified in the notice, from a person on whom the notice was served, that notice shall not take effect unless—

(a)the notice is submitted by the authority to the Secretary of State and is confirmed by him either with or without modifications; or

(b)the representation or objection is withdrawn.

(3)If a local authority submit a private supply notice to the Secretary of State for confirmation, the Secretary of State—

(a)shall consider whether the notice should be confirmed and whether, if it is confirmed, it should be confirmed with or without modifications;

(b)may, with respect to the matters specified in the notice or any proposed modification of it, direct the local authority to serve a private supply notice, in such terms as may be specified in the direction, on any relevant person who has not previously been served with such a notice;

(c)may, for the purposes of paragraph (a) or (b) above cause a local inquiry to be held or afford—

(i)to the local authority; and

(ii)to every person who has made representations or objections with respect to the notice or any proposed direction under paragraph (b) above,

an opportunity of appearing before and being heard by a person appointed by the Secretary of State for the purpose; and

(d)if he is satisfied that the person on whom any notice to be served in pursuance of a direction under paragraph (b) above has had a proper opportunity of having his representations or objections with respect to the proposal for the direction considered, may dispense, in relation to the notice so served, with the provisions of subsections (1) and (2) above and of section 80(2)(c) and (d) above.

(4)Where the Secretary of State confirms a private supply notice (whether with or without modifications)—

(a)he, or if he so directs, the local authority concerned shall serve notice of that confirmation on every person originally served with the notice under section 80 above; and

(b)that notice shall take effect, with any modifications made by the Secretary of State, at such time as may be specified in the notice served under this subsection.

82 Enforcement and variation of private supply notice.E+W

(1)Where any relevant person who is required by virtue of a private supply notice to take any step in relation to any premises fails to take that step within the period specified in the notice, the authority which served the notice may, in accordance with any applicable provision having effect by virtue of section 83 or 84 below, take that step themselves.

(2)Where any step is taken by a local authority in relation to any premises by virtue of subsection (1) above—

(a)the authority may recover from the person who failed to take that step within the specified period any expenses reasonably incurred by the authority in taking that step; and

(b)for the purposes of any requirement under which payments are required to be made to that person by any person other than the authority, sums paid by virtue of paragraph (a) above in respect of the taking of any step shall be deemed to be expenses incurred in the taking of that step by the person who failed to take it.

(3)Nothing in this Act shall confer any right of action on any person in respect of any loss or damage sustained by that person in consequence of the failure by any other person to take any step specified in a private supply notice.

(4)Any sum required to be paid to any person by virtue of any requirement or undertaking contained in a private supply notice shall be recoverable by that person from the person who is required to pay it.

(5)Any requirement which—

(a)is imposed by virtue of a private supply notice on the owner or occupier of any premises; and

(b)is expressed to bind those premises in relation to the owners or occupiers from time to time,

shall bind successive owners or, as the case may be, occupiers of those premises and shall be a local land charge.

(6)Subject to subsection (7) below, a local authority may by notice served on any person modify or revoke the effect in relation to that person of any private supply notice or notice under this subsection (including a notice which has been confirmed, with or without modifications, by the Secretary of State).

(7)Sections 80(2)(c) and (d) and 81 above shall apply, as they apply in relation to a private supply notice, in relation to any notice served by a local authority on any person under subsection (6) above except where the notice—

(a)extends the period within which any step is required to be taken by that person; or

(b)discharges, postpones or abates any obligation of that person to make a payment to the local authority.

83 Application of certain powers to local authorities in relation to private supplies.E+W

(1)For the purposes of the taking of any steps falling to be taken by a local authority by virtue of a designation under subsection (3)(a) of section 80 above the provisions of Part VI of this Act shall have effect—

(a)as if the relevant works powers, so far as conferred on a water undertaker for the purpose of carrying out its functions, were also conferred on a local authority for the purpose of ensuring that a supply of water provided by means of a private supply to any premises in the authority’s area is both wholesome and (so far as any house on those premises is concerned) sufficient for domestic purposes;

(b)as if any such power, so far as it is conferred on a water undertaker in relation to things belonging to or operated or used by the undertaker for the purposes of its functions, were conferred by virtue of paragraph (a) above on a local authority in relation to things belonging to or operated or used by that authority, or a relevant person, in connection with the provision of water by means of a private supply;

(c)as if references to a water undertaker in any provision of Part VI of this Act relating to a relevant works power, except the references in sections 181 and 182 below, included references to a local authority; and

(d)as if the making by any person in pursuance of a private supply notice of any payment in respect of sums incurred in the laying of any pipe entitled that person, for the purposes of section 179(1) below, to an interest in the pipe.

(2)Where by virtue of this Act a local authority have power under Part VII of the M17Local Government Act 1972 (miscellaneous powers of a local authority) to acquire (whether compulsorily or otherwise) any land or right over land for the purpose of ensuring that private supplies of water to premises in their area are both wholesome and (so far as houses on those premises are concerned) sufficient for domestic purposes, that power shall include power to acquire land or any interest or right in or over land in order, for that purpose, to dispose of the land or the interest or right to a person who is a relevant person in relation to such a private supply.

(3)In this section “relevant works powers” means the powers conferred on water undertakers by sections 158, 159, 161, 163 and 165 below.

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Marginal Citations

84 Local authority rights of entry etc.E+W

(1)Any person designated for the purpose by a local authority within whose area any waterworks are situated shall, on producing some duly authenticated document showing his authority, have a right at all reasonable hours to enter any premises for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is or has been any contravention of section 72 above in relation to those waterworks.

(2)Any person designated in writing for the purpose by a local authority may—

(a)enter any premises for the purpose of—

(i)ascertaining whether any provision contained in or made or having effect under this Act with respect to any water fittings, or with respect to the waste or misuse of water, is being or has been contravened;

(ii)determining whether, and if so in what manner, any power or duty conferred or imposed on any person by regulations under section 74 above should be exercised or performed; or

(iii)exercising any such power or performing any such duty;

or

(b)carry out such inspections, measurements and tests on premises entered by that person or on water fittings or other articles found on any such premises, and take away such samples of water or of any land and such water fittings and other articles, as that person has been authorised to carry out or take away in accordance with regulations under that section.

(3)Any person designated in writing for the purpose by any local authority may—

(a)enter any premises for the purpose, in relation to any private supply, of—

(i)determining whether, and if so in what manner, any power or duty conferred or imposed on that authority by or under any of sections 77 to 82 above should be exercised or performed; or

(ii)exercising any such power or performing any such duty;

(b)enter any premises to which a supply of water is provided by a water undertaker for the purpose, in relation to a supply so provided of—

(i)determining whether, and if so in what manner, any such power should be exercised or any such duty performed; or

(ii)exercising any such power or performing any such duty;

or

(c)carry out such inspections, measurements and tests on premises entered by that person or of articles found on any such premises, and take away such samples of water or of any land or articles, as the local authority—

(i)consider appropriate for the purposes of any such power or duty; and

(ii)have authorised that person to carry out or take away.

(4)Part I of Schedule 6 to this Act shall apply to the right of entry conferred by subsection (1) above; but nothing in that subsection or in that Part of that Schedule shall entitle any person designated for the purposes of that subsection by a local authority to have access to any waterworks belonging to a water undertaker.

(5)Part II of Schedule 6 to this Act shall apply to the rights and powers conferred by subsections (2) and (3) above.

(6)In subsection (1) above the reference to a local authority includes a reference to a county council and to the Sub-Treasurer of the Inner Temple and the Under-Treasurer of the Middle Temple; and any expenses incurred by the Common Council of the City of London in the exercise of their functions under that subsection shall be defrayed as part of their general expenses.

(7)In this section “waterworks” has the same meaning as in section 72 above.

85 Local authority power to obtain information for the purposes of functions under Chapter III.E+W

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, a local authority may serve on any person a notice requiring him to furnish that authority, within a period or at times specified in the notice and in a form and manner so specified, with such information as is reasonably required by that authority for the purpose of exercising or performing any power or duty conferred or imposed on that authority by or under any of sections 77 to 82 above.

(2)The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision for restricting the information which may be required under subsection (1) above and for determining the form in which the information is to be so required.

(3)A person who fails without reasonable excuse to comply with the requirements of a notice served on him under subsection (1) above shall be guilty of an offence and liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale.

Assessors for the enforcement of water qualityE+W

86 Assessors for the enforcement of water quality.E+W

(1)The Secretary of State may for the purposes of this section appoint persons to act on his behalf F148. . . in relation to some or all of—

(a)the powers and duties conferred or imposed on him by or under sections 67 to 70 and 77 to 82 above; and

(b)such other powers and duties in relation to the quality and sufficiency of water supplied [F149using a water undertaker’s supply system] as are conferred or imposed on him by or under any other enactments.

[F150(1A)Subject to subsection (1B) below, the Secretary of State shall designate one such person as the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water.

(1B)If the function of the Secretary of State under subsection (1) above is transferred to any extent to the Assembly—

(a)subject to paragraph (b) below, the Assembly may designate one such person appointed by it as the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water for Wales; but

(b)if the person designated by the Assembly is the same as the person designated by the Secretary of State as the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water, he shall be known as such in both capacities.]

(2)[F151An inspector] appointed under this section shall—

(a)carry out such investigations as the Secretary of State may require him to carry out for the purpose of—

(i)ascertaining whether any duty or other requirement imposed on that undertaker [F152or a licensed water supplier by or under any of sections 68, 69 and 79 above or imposed on a relevant person (as defined in subsection (1A) of section 70 above) by or under that section] is being, has been or is likely to be contravened; or

(ii)advising the Secretary of State as to whether, and if so in what manner, any of the powers of the Secretary of State in relation to such a contravention, or any of the powers (including the powers to make regulations) which are conferred on him by or under any of sections 67 to 70 and 77 to 82 above should be exercised;

and

(b)make such reports to the Secretary of State with respect to any such investigation as the Secretary of State may require.

(3)Without prejudice to the powers conferred by subsection (4) below, it shall be the duty of a water undertaker [F153, licensed water supplier or other relevant person (as defined in section 70(1A) above)]

(a)to give [F154an inspector] appointed under this section all such assistance; and

(b)to provide [F154an inspector] so appointed with all such information,

as that person may reasonably require for the purpose of carrying out any such investigation as is mentioned in subsection (2) above.

(4)Any [F155inspector] appointed under this section who is designated in writing for the purpose by the Secretary of State may—

(a)enter any premises for the purpose of carrying out any such investigation as is mentioned in subsection (2) above;

(b)carry out such inspections, measurements and tests on premises entered by that [F155inspector] or of articles or records found on any such premises, and take away such samples of water or of any land or articles, as that [F155inspector] considers appropriate for the purpose of enabling him to carry out any such investigation; or

[F156(c)at any reasonable time require—

(i)any water undertaker or licensed water supplier to supply him with copies of, or extracts from, the contents of any records kept for the purpose of complying with any duty or other requirement imposed on that undertaker or supplier by or under any of sections 68, 69 and 79 above; or

(ii)any relevant person (as defined in subsection (1A) of section 70 above) to supply him with copies of, or extracts from, the contents of any records kept for the purpose of complying with any duty or other requirement imposed on that person by or under that section.]

(5)Part II of Schedule 6 to this Act shall apply to the rights and powers conferred by subsection (4) above.

(6)Any water undertaker [F157, licensed water supplier or other relevant person] which fails to comply with the duty imposed on it by virtue of subsection (3) above shall be guilty of an offence and liable,

[F158(a)on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding £20,000;

(b)on conviction on indictment, to a fine.]

[F159(7)Proceedings by the Secretary of State for an offence under this section or in relation to the quality and sufficiency of water supplied using a water undertaker’s supply system may be instituted and carried on in the name of the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water.

(8)Any such proceedings by the Assembly may be instituted and carried on in the name of the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water for Wales, if there is one (or, if subsection (1B)(b) above applies, in the name of the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water).

(9)In this section “inspector” means the Chief Inspector of Drinking Water or any other person appointed under subsection (1) above.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F158S. 86(6): paras. (a)(b) substituted (1.4.2004) for words by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 57(7)(10), 105(3); S.I. 2004/641, art. 3(m) (with art. 6, Sch. 3)

[F160ComplaintsE+W

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F160S. 86A inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 29; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

86AF161 Procedure for dealing with complaints.E+W

(1)Each water undertaker shall establish a procedure for dealing with complaints made by its customers or potential customers in connection with the supply of water.

(2)No such procedure shall be established, and no modification of such a procedure shall be made, unless—

(a)the water undertaker has consulted the [F162regional committee] to which it has been allocated; and

(b)the proposed procedure or modification has been approved by the Director.

(3)The water undertaker shall—

(a)publicise the procedure in such manner as may be approved by the Director; and

(b)send a description of the procedure, free of charge, to any person who asks for one.

(4)The Director may give a direction to a water undertaker requiring the undertaker to review its procedure or the manner in which the procedure operates.

(5)A direction under subsection (4) above—

(a)may specify the manner in which the review is to be conducted; and

(b)shall require a written report of the review to be made to the Director.

(6)Where the Director receives a report under subsection (5)(b) above, he may, after consulting the water undertaker, direct the undertaker to make such modifications of—

(a)the procedure; or

(b)the manner in which the procedure operates,

as may be specified in the direction.

(7)Subsection (2) above does not apply to any modification made in compliance with a direction under subsection (6) above.

(8)The duty of a water undertaker to comply with subsection (1) above and with any direction given to it under subsection (4) or (6) above shall be enforceable by the Director under section 18 above.

(9)Where the Director is considering whether to exercise his powers under subsection (4) or (6) above in relation to a water undertaker, it shall be the duty of that undertaker to give him such information as he may reasonably require for the purpose of assisting him in coming to a decision.

(10)Section 202 below shall have effect, with the necessary modifications, in relation to information which the Director requires for that purpose as it has effect in relation to information which the Secretary of State requires for purposes mentioned in subsection (1) of that section.]

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Amendments (Textual)

F161S. 86A inserted (1.7.1992) by Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (c. 43), s. 29; Competition and Service (Utilities) Act 1992 (Commencement No. 1) Order 1992, art. 3, Sch. Pt. I

CHAPTER IVE+W FLUORIDATION

[F16387 Fluoridation of water suppliesE+W

(1)If requested in writing to do so by a relevant authority, a water undertaker shall enter into arrangements with the relevant authority to increase the fluoride content of the water supplied by that undertaker to premises within the area specified in the arrangements.

(2)But a water undertaker shall not be required by subsection (1) above to enter into any such arrangements until an indemnity with respect to the arrangements has been given by virtue of section 90 below—

(a)to the water undertaker; and

(b)to any licensed water supplier which is entitled to one.

(3)In this section and the following provisions of this Chapter—

(a)references to a relevant authority—

(i)in relation to areas in England, are to a Strategic Health Authority established under [F164section 13 of the National Health Service Act 2006] ;

(ii)in relation to areas in Wales, are to the Assembly; and

(b)references to water supplied by a water undertaker are to water supplied (whether by a water undertaker or a licensed water supplier) to premises using the supply system of that undertaker.

(4)The area specified in arrangements under this section may be—

(a)in relation to England, the whole or any part of the area of the Strategic Health Authority in question;

(b)in relation to Wales, such area comprising the whole or any part of Wales as the Assembly may determine.

(5)The arrangements shall be on such terms as may be agreed between the relevant authority and the water undertaker or, in the absence of agreement, determined in accordance with section 87B below.

(6)Those terms shall include provision—

(a)requiring the relevant authority to meet the reasonable capital and operating costs incurred by the water undertaker in giving effect to the arrangements;

(b)specifying circumstances in which the requirement to increase the fluoride content may be temporarily suspended; and

(c)for the variation of the arrangements at the request of the relevant authority.

(7)The relevant authority shall consult the Authority in relation to the terms to be included in any arrangements under this section (in particular, terms which affect the operation of the water undertaker’s supply system).

(8)If two or more relevant authorities request a particular water undertaker to enter into arrangements in respect of adjoining areas—

(a)the authorities shall co-operate with each other so as to secure that the arrangements (taken together) are operable and efficient; and

(b)if suitable terms are not agreed for all the arrangements, a combined reference may be made by the relevant authorities under section 87B below to enable the terms of each set of arrangements to be determined so that they are consistent.

(9)If a relevant authority requests a water undertaker to vary arrangements, the authority shall co-operate with any relevant authority for an adjoining area which has entered into arrangements with the same water undertaker so as to secure that following the variation the arrangements (taken together) will be operable and efficient.

(10)If suitable terms are not agreed for a variation mentioned in subsection (9), a combined reference may be made by the relevant authorities under section 87B below to enable the terms of the variation to be determined so that (following the variation) both sets of arrangements are consistent.

(11)Before carrying out the consultation required by subsection (1) of section 89 below in relation to a step mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of subsection (2) of that section, a relevant authority shall consult the water undertaker in question as to whether the arrangements which would result from taking that step would be operable and efficient (or, where it is proposed to terminate the arrangements, as to whether it would be reasonably practicable to do so).]

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

F163Ss. 87-87C substituted for s. 87 (1.8.2008 for E. for certain purposes as regards s. 87 and 25.2.2009 for E. for all other purposes, otherwise prosp.) by Water Act 2003 (c. 37), ss. 58(2)(11)-(14), 105(3); S.I. 2008/1922, art. 2(a); S.I. 2009/359, art. 2, (with saving in art. 3, Sch. 3)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C18S. 87: functions not to be exercised by a primary care trust (1.4.2000) by virtue of S.I. 2000/695, art. 4(1), Sch. 4

[F16587ATarget concentration of fluorideE+W

(1)Arrangements under section 87(1) above shall include provision for securing that, so far as reasonably practicable, the concentration of fluoride in the water supplied to premises in the specified area is maintained at the general target concentration of one milligram per litre.

(2)But the arrangements may provide for the concentration in the specified area (or any part of it) to be lower than that if the relevant authority considers that it is not reasonably practicable to achieve the general target concentration in the specified area (or that part of it).

(3)Any such lower concentration must still be as high as is reasonably practicable in the circumstances.

(4)If, in relation to any area (“area A”), an order under section 88A(1) below specifies a general target concentration lower than that for which any arrangements effective there provide (or, by the previous operation of this subsection, are taken to provide