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Environmental Protection Act 1990

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107 Meaning of “damage to the environment”, “control” and related expressions in Part VI.E+W

(1)The following provisions have effect for the interpretation of this Part.

[F1(2)The “environment” includes land, air and water and living organisms supported by any of those media.]

(3)Damage to the environment” is caused by the presence in the environment of genetically modified organisms which have (or of a single such organism which has) escaped or been released from a person’s control and are (or is) capable of causing harm [F2to the living organisms supported by the environment].

(4)An organism shall be regarded as present in the environment notwithstanding that it is present in or on any human or other organism, or any other thing, which is itself present in the environment.

(5)Genetically modified organisms present in the environment are capable of causing harm if—

(a)they are individually capable, or are present in numbers such that together they are capable, of causing harm; or

(b)they are able to produce descendants which will be capable, or which will be present in numbers such that together they will be capable, of causing harm;

and a single organism is capable of causing harm either if it is itself capable of causing harm or if it is able to produce descendants which will be so capable.

[F3(6)“Harm” means adverse effects as regards the health of humans or the environment.]

(7)Harmful” and “harmless” mean respectively, in relation to genetically modified organisms, their being capable or their being incapable of causing harm.

(8)The Secretary of State may by regulations provide, in relation to genetically modified organisms of any description specified in the regulations, that—

(a)the capacity of those organisms for causing harm of any description so specified, or

(b)harm of any description so specified,

shall be disregarded for such purposes of this Part as may be so specified.

[F4(9)Organisms of any description are under the “control” of a person where he keeps them contained by measures designed to limit their contact with humans and the environment and to prevent or minimise the risk of harm.]

(10)An organism under a person’s control is “released” if he deliberately causes or permits it to cease to be under his control or the control of any other person and to enter the environment; and such an organism “escapes” if, otherwise than by being released, it ceases to be under his control or that of any other person and enters the environment.

[F5(11)Genetically modified organisms of any description are “marketed” by a person when products consisting of or including such organisms are placed on the market by being made available to other persons, whether or not for consideration.]

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Extent Information

E2This version of this provision extends to England and Wales; a separate version has been created for Scotland only

Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I1S. 107 wholly in force at 1.2.1993; s. 107 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 164(2)(3); s. 107(8) in force 1.4.1991 see S.I. 1991/1042, art. 2; s. 107(1)-(7)(9)-(11) in force at 1.2.1993 see S.I. 1992/3253, art. 3.

107 Meaning of “damage to the environment”, “control” and related expressions in Part VI.S

(1)The following provisions have effect for the interpretation of this Part.

[F6(2)The “environment” includes land, air and water and the living organisms supported by any of those media.]

(3)Damage to the environment” is caused by the presence in the environment of genetically modified organisms which have (or of a single such organism which has) escaped or been released from a person’s control and are (or is) capable of causing harm F7. . . .

(4)An organism shall be regarded as present in the environment notwithstanding that it is present in or on any human or other organism, or any other thing, which is itself present in the environment.

(5)Genetically modified organisms present in the environment are capable of causing harm if—

(a)they are individually capable, or are present in numbers such that together they are capable, of causing harm; or

(b)they are able to produce descendants which will be capable, or which will be present in numbers such that together they will be capable, of causing harm;

and a single organism is capable of causing harm either if it is itself capable of causing harm or if it is able to produce descendants which will be so capable.

[F8(6)“Harm” means adverse effects as regards the health of humans or the environment.]

(7)Harmful” and “harmless” mean respectively, in relation to genetically modified organisms, their being capable or their being incapable of causing harm.

(8)The Secretary of State may by regulations provide, in relation to genetically modified organisms of any description specified in the regulations, that—

(a)the capacity of those organisms for causing harm of any description so specified, or

(b)harm of any description so specified,

shall be disregarded for such purposes of this Part as may be so specified.

[F9(9)Organisms of any description are under the “control” of a person where that person keeps them contained by specific measure designed to limit their contact with humans and the environment and to prevent or minimise the risk of harm.]

(10)An organism under a person’s control is “released” if he deliberately causes or permits it to cease to be under his control or the control of any other person and to enter the environment; and such an organism “escapes” if, otherwise than by being released, it ceases to be under his control or that of any other person and enters the environment.

[F10(11)Genetically modified organisms of any description are “marketed” when products consisting of or including such organisms are placed on the market by being made available to other persons, whether or not for consideration.]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E3This version of this provision extends to Scotland only; a separate version has been created for England and Wales only

Amendments (Textual)

Commencement Information

I1S. 107 wholly in force at 1.2.1993; s. 107 not in force at Royal Assent see s. 164(2)(3); s. 107(8) in force 1.4.1991 see S.I. 1991/1042, art. 2; s. 107(1)-(7)(9)-(11) in force at 1.2.1993 see S.I. 1992/3253, art. 3.

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