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Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988

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This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988

1988 CHAPTER 53

An Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to the prosecution and punishment (including the punishment without conviction) of road traffic offences with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission and the Scottish Law Commission.

[15th November 1988]

Be it enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—

Part ITrial

Introductory

1Requirement of warning etc. of prosecutions for certain offences

(1)Subject to section 2 of this Act, where a person is prosecuted for an offence to which this section applies, he is not to be convicted unless—

(a)he was warned at the time the offence was committed that the question of prosecuting him for some one or other of the offences to which this section applies would be taken into consideration, or

(b)within fourteen days of the commission of the offence a summons (or, in Scotland, a complaint) for the offence was served on him, or

(c)within fourteen days of the commission of the offence a notice of the intended prosecution specifying the nature of the alleged offence and the time and place where it is alleged to have been committed, was—

(i)in the case of an offence under section 28 or 29 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (cycling offences), served on him,

(ii)in the case of any other offence, served on him or on the person, if any, registered as the keeper of the vehicle at the time of the commission of the offence.

(2)A notice shall be deemed for the purposes of subsection (1)(c) above to have been served on a person if it was sent by registered post or recorded delivery service addressed to him at his last known address, notwithstanding that the notice was returned as undelivered or was for any other reason not received by him.

(3)The requirement of subsection (1) above shall in every case be deemed to have been complied with unless and until the contrary is proved.

(4)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which this section applies.

2Requirement of warning etc: supplementary

(1)The requirement of section 1(1) of this Act does not apply in relation to an offence if, at the time of the offence or immediately after it, an accident occurs owing to the presence on a road of the vehicle in respect of which the offence was committed.

(2)The requirement of section 1(1) of this Act does not apply in relation to an offence in respect of which—

(a)a fixed penalty notice (within the meaning of Part III of this Act) has been given or fixed under any provision of that Part, or

(b)a notice has been given under section 54(4) of this Act.

(3)Failure to comply with the requirement of section 1(1) of this Act is not a bar to the conviction of the accused in a case where the court is satisfied—

(a)that neither the name and address of the accused nor the name and address of the registered keeper, if any, could with reasonable diligence have been ascertained in time for a summons or, as the case may be, a complaint to be served or for a notice to be served or sent in compliance with the requirement, or

(b)that the accused by his own conduct contributed to the failure.

(4)Where a person is prosecuted on indictment in England and Wales—

(a)for an offence to which section 1 of this Act does not apply, or

(b)for an offence to which that section does apply, but as respects which the requirement of subsection (1) of that section has been satisfied,

that subsection does not prejudice any power of the jury on the charge for that offence, if they find him not guilty of it, to find him guilty of an offence under section 2 or 3 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (reckless driving or careless or inconsiderate driving).

(5)In Scotland a person may be convicted of an offence under section 2 of that Act by virtue of section 23(1) or (2) of this Act notwithstanding that the requirement of section 1(1) of this Act has not been satisfied as respects that offence.

(6)A person may be convicted of an offence under section 3 or 29 of that Act (careless and inconsiderate driving or careless and inconsiderate cycling) notwithstanding that the requirement of section 1(1) of this Act has not been satisfied as respects that offence where—

(a)the charge for the offence has been preferred against him by virtue of section 24(3) of this Act, and

(b)that requirement has been satisfied as respects the alleged offence under section 2 or, as the case may be, 28 of that Act (reckless driving or reckless cycling).

3Restriction on institution of proceedings for certain offences

(1)Proceedings for an offence under section 110 or 112(6) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (driving, or causing or permitting another to drive, an HGV without an HGV driver’s licence, or failing to comply with conditions of such a licence) shall not be instituted in England and Wales except—

(a)by or on behalf of the Director of Public Prosecutions, or

(b)by a person authorised in that behalf by a traffic commissioner (within the meaning of the [1981 c. 14.] Public Passenger Vehicles Act 1981), a chief officer of police or the council of a county or county district.

(2)In England and Wales, proceedings for an offence under section 94(3) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (notice about relevant or prospective disability) shall not be instituted except by the Secretary of State or by a constable acting with the approval of the Secretary of State.

4Offences for which local authorities in England and Wales may institute proceedings

(1)The council of a county, metropolitan district or London Borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for an offence under section 17 or 18 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (helmets and other head-worn appliances for motor cyclists).

(2)The council of a county, metropolitan district or London Borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for an offence under section 27 of that Act (dogs on roads) relating to a road in their area.

(3)The council of a county, district or London borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for offences under section 35(4), (5) or (7) of the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 which are committed in connection with parking places provided by the council, or provided under any letting arrangements made by the council under section 33(4) of that Act.

(4)The council of a county, metropolitan district or London borough or the Common Council of the City of London may institute proceedings for an offence under section 47 or 52 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 in connection with a designated parking place controlled by the council.

(5)In England, the council of a county or metropolitan district and, in Wales, the council of a county or district may institute proceedings for an offence under section 53 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 in connection with a designated parking place in the council’s area except, in Wales, any parking place for which another council has responsibility.

(6)In this section “parking place” means a place where vehicles, or vehicles of any class, may wait and “designated parking place” has the same meaning as in the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984.

(7)This section extends to England and Wales only.

5Exemption from Licensing Act offence

A person liable to be charged with an offence under section 4, 5, 7 or 30 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (drink and drugs) is not liable to be charged under section 12 of the [1872 c. 94.] Licensing Act 1872 with the offence of being drunk while in charge, on a highway or other public place, of a carriage.

6Time within which summary proceedings for certain offences must be commenced

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, summary proceedings for an offence to which this section applies may be brought within a period of six months from the date on which evidence sufficient in the opinion of the prosecutor to warrant the proceedings came to his knowledge.

(2)No such proceedings shall be brought by virtue of this section more than three years after the commission of the offence.

(3)For the purposes of this section, a certificate signed by or on behalf of the prosecutor and stating the date on which evidence sufficient in his opinion to warrant the proceedings came to his knowledge shall be conclusive evidence of that fact.

(4)A certificate stating that matter and purporting to be so signed shall be deemed to be so signed unless the contrary is proved.

(5)In relation to proceedings in Scotland, subsection (3) of section 331 of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (date of commencement of proceedings) shall apply for the purposes of this section as it applies for the purposes of that.

(6)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which this section applies.

7Duty of accused to provide licence

A person who is prosecuted for an offence involving obligatory endorsement and who is the holder of a licence must—

(a)cause it to be delivered to the clerk of the court not later than the day before the date appointed for the hearing, or

(b)post it, at such a time that in the ordinary course of post it would be delivered not later than that day, in a letter duly addressed to the clerk and either registered or sent by the recorded delivery service, or

(c)have it with him at the hearing.

8Duty to include date of birth and sex in written plea of guilty

A person who—

(a)gives a notification to the clerk of a court in pursuance of section 12(2) of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (written pleas of guilty), or

(b)gives a written intimation of a plea of guilty in pursuance of section 334(3) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975,

in respect of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification or of such other offence as may be prescribed by regulations under section 105 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988, must include in the notification or intimation a statement of the date of birth and sex of the accused.

Trial

9Mode of trial

An offence against a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or regulations made under such a provision (the general nature of which offence is indicated in column 2) shall be punishable as shown against the offence in column 3 (that is, on summary conviction or on indictment or in either one way or the other).

10Jurisdiction of district court in Scotland

(1)Notwithstanding anything in any enactment or rule of law to the contrary, a district court in Scotland may try—

(a)any fixed penalty offence (within the meaning of Part III of this Act), and

(b)any other offence in respect of which a conditional offer (within the meaning of sections 75 to 77 of this Act) may be sent.

(2)Subject to subsection (1) above, the district court may not try any offence involving obligatory endorsement.

11Evidence by certificate as to driver, user or owner

(1)In any proceedings in England and Wales for an offence to which this section applies, a certificate in the prescribed form, purporting to be signed by a constable and certifying that a person specified in the certificate stated to the constable—

(a)that a particular motor vehicle was being driven or used by, or belonged to, that person on a particular occasion, or

(b)that a particular motor vehicle on a particular occasion was used by, or belonged to, a firm and that he was, at the time of the statement, a partner in that firm, or

(c)that a particular motor vehicle on a particular occasion was used by, or belonged to, a corporation and that he was, at the time of the statement, a director, officer or employee of that corporation,

shall be admissible as evidence for the purpose of determining by whom the vehicle was being driven or used, or to whom it belonged, as the case may be, on that occasion.

(2)Nothing in subsection (1) above makes a certificate admissible as evidence in proceedings for an offence except in a case where and to the like extent to which oral evidence to the like effect would have been admissible in those proceedings.

(3)Nothing in subsection (1) above makes a certificate admissible as evidence in proceedings for an offence—

(a)unless a copy of it has, not less than seven days before the hearing or trial, been served in the prescribed manner on the person charged with the offence, or

(b)if that person, not later than three days before the hearing or trial or within such further time as the court may in special circumstances allow, serves a notice in the prescribed form and manner on the prosecutor requiring attendance at the trial of the person who signed the certificate.

(4)In this section “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the Secretary of State by statutory instrument.

(5)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which this section applies.

12Proof, in summary proceedings, of identity of driver of vehicle

(1)Where on the summary trial in England and Wales of an information for an offence to which this subsection applies—

(a)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court, on oath or in manner prescribed by rules made under section 144 of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, that a requirement under section 172(2) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 to give information as to the identity of the driver of a particular vehicle on the particular occasion to which the information relates has been served on the accused by post, and

(b)a statement in writing is produced to the court purporting to be signed by the accused that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion,

the court may accept that statement as evidence that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion.

(2)Schedule 1 to this Act shows the offences to which subsection (1) above applies.

(3)Where on the summary trial in England and Wales of an information for an offence to which section 112 of the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 applies—

(a)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court, on oath or in manner prescribed by rules made under section 144 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, that a requirement under section 112(2) of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 to give information as to the identity of the driver of a particular vehicle on the particular occasion to which the information relates has been served on the accused by post, and

(b)a statement in writing is produced to the court purporting to be signed by the accused that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion,

the court may accept that statement as evidence that the accused was the driver of that vehicle on that occasion.

13Admissibility of records as evidence

(1)This section applies to a statement contained in a document purporting to be—

(a)a part of the records maintained by the Secretary of State in connection with any functions exercisable by him by virtue of Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988 or a part of any other records maintained by the Secretary of State with respect to vehicles, or

(b)a copy of a document forming part of those records, or

(c)a note of any information contained in those records,

and to be authenticated by a person authorised in that behalf by the Secretary of State.

(2)A statement to which this section applies shall be admissible in any proceedings as evidence (in Scotland, sufficient evidence) of any fact stated in it to the same extent as oral evidence of that fact is admissible in those proceedings.

(3)In the preceding subsections—

(a)“document” and “statement” have the same meanings as in section 10(1) of the [1968 c. 64.] Civil Evidence Act 1968 or, in Scotland, section 17(3) of the [1968 c. 70.] Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Scotland) Act 1968, and

(b)the reference to a copy of a document shall be construed in accordance with section 10(2) of the Civil Evidence Act 1968 or, in Scotland, section 17(4) of the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Scotland) Act 1968.

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting to civil proceedings the references to proceedings in the preceding provisions of this section.

(4)In any case where—

(a)a statement to which this section applies is produced to a magistrates' court in any proceedings for an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification,

(b)the statement specifies an alleged previous conviction of an accused person of any such offence or any order made on the conviction,

(c)it is proved to the satisfaction of the court, on oath or in such manner as may be prescribed by rules under section 144 of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, that not less than seven days before the statement is so produced a notice was served on the accused, in such form and manner as may be so prescribed, specifying the previous conviction or order and stating that it is proposed to bring it to the notice of the court in the event of or, as the case may be, in view of his conviction, and

(d)the accused is not present in person before the court when the statement is so produced,

the court may take account of the previous conviction or order as if the accused had appeared and admitted it.

(5)Nothing in the preceding provisions of this section enables evidence to be given in respect of any matter other than a matter of a description prescribed by regulations made by the Secretary of State.

(6)The power to make regulations under this section shall be exercisable by statutory instrument, which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

14Use of records kept by operators of goods vehicles

In any proceedings for a contravention of or failure to comply with construction and use requirements (within the meaning of Part II of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988) or regulations under section 74 of that Act, any record purporting to be made and authenticated in accordance with regulations under that section shall be evidence (and in Scotland sufficient evidence) of the matters stated in the record and of its due authentication.

15Use of specimens in proceedings for an offence under section 4 or 5 of the Road Traffic Act

(1)This section and section 16 of this Act apply in respect of proceedings for an offence under section 4 or 5 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (motor vehicles: drink and drugs); and expressions used in this section and section 16 of this Act have the same meaning as in sections 4 to 10 of that Act.

(2)Evidence of the proportion of alcohol or any drug in a specimen of breath, blood or urine provided by the accused shall, in all cases, be taken into account and, subject to subsection (3) below, it shall be assumed that the proportion of alcohol in the accused’s breath, blood or urine at the time of the alleged offence was not less than in the specimen.

(3)If the proceedings are for an offence under section 5 of that Act or, where the accused is alleged to have been unfit through drink, for an offence under section 4 of that Act, that assumption shall not be made if the accused proves—

(a)that he consumed alcohol after he had ceased to drive, attempt to drive or be in charge of a motor vehicle on a road or other public place and before he provided the specimen, and

(b)that had he not done so the proportion of alcohol in his breath, blood or urine would not have exceeded the prescribed limit and, if the proceedings are for an offence under section 4 of that Act, would not have been such as to impair his ability to drive properly.

(4)A specimen of blood shall be disregarded unless it was taken from the accused with his consent by a medical practitioner.

(5)Where, at the time a specimen of blood or urine was provided by the accused, he asked to be provided with such a specimen, evidence of the proportion of alcohol or any drug found in the specimen is not admissible on behalf of the prosecution unless—

(a)the specimen in which the alcohol or drug was found is one of two parts into which the specimen provided by the accused was divided at the time it was provided, and

(b)the other part was supplied to the accused.

16Documentary evidence as to specimens in such proceedings

(1)Evidence of the proportion of alcohol or a drug in a specimen of breath, blood or urine may, subject to subsections (3) and (4) below and to section 15(5) of this Act, be given by the production of a document or documents purporting to be whichever of the following is appropriate, that is to say—

(a)a statement automatically produced by the device by which the proportion of alcohol in a specimen of breath was measured and a certificate signed by a constable (which may but need not be contained in the same document as the statement) that the statement relates to a specimen provided by the accused at the date and time shown in the statement, and

(b)a certificate signed by an authorised analyst as to the proportion of alcohol or any drug found in a specimen of blood or urine identified in the certificate.

(2)Subject to subsections (3) and (4) below, evidence that a specimen of blood was taken from the accused with his consent by a medical practitioner may be given by the production of a document purporting to certify that fact and to be signed by a medical practitioner.

(3)Subject to subsection (4) below—

(a)a document purporting to be such a statement or such a certificate (or both such a statement and such a certificate) as is mentioned in subsection (1)(a) above is admissible in evidence on behalf of the prosecution in pursuance of this section only if a copy of it either has been handed to the accused when the document was produced or has been served on him not later than seven days before the hearing, and

(b)any other document is so admissible only if a copy of it has been served on the accused not later than seven days before the hearing.

(4)A document purporting to be a certificate (or so much of a document as purports to be a certificate) is not so admissible if the accused, not later than three days before the hearing or within such further time as the court may in special circumstances allow, has served notice on the prosecutor requiring the attendance at the hearing of the person by whom the document purports to be signed.

(5)In Scotland—

(a)a document produced in evidence on behalf of the prosecution in pursuance of subsection (1) or (2) above and, where the person by whom the document was signed is called as a witness, the evidence of that person, shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the document, and

(b)a written execution purporting to be signed by the person who handed to or served on the accused or the prosecutor a copy of the document or of the notice in terms of subsection (3) or (4) above, together with, where appropriate, a post office receipt for the registered or recorded delivery letter shall be sufficient evidence of the handing or service of such a copy or notice.

(6)A copy of a certificate required by this section to be served on the accused or a notice required by this section to be served on the prosecutor may be served personally or sent by registered post or recorded delivery service.

(7)In this section “authorised analyst” means—

(a)any person possessing the qualifications prescribed by regulations made under section 76 of the [1984 c. 30.] Food Act 1984 or section 27 of the [1956 c. 30.] Food and Drugs (Scotland) Act 1956 as qualifying persons for appointment as public analysts under those Acts, and

(b)any other person authorised by the Secretary of State to make analyses for the purposes of this section.

17Provisions as to proceedings for certain offences in connection with the construction and use of vehicles and equipment

(1)If in any proceedings for an offence under section 42(1) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (contravention of construction and use regulations)—

(a)any question arises as to a weight of any description specified in the plating certificate for a goods vehicle, and

(b)a weight of that description is marked on the vehicle,

it shall be assumed, unless the contrary is proved, that the weight marked on the vehicle is the weight so specified.

(2)If, in any proceedings for an offence—

(a)under Part II of the Road Traffic Act 1988, except sections 47 and 75, or

(b)under section 174(2) or (5) (false statements and deception) of that Act,

any question arises as to the date of manufacture of a vehicle, a date purporting to be such a date and marked on the vehicle in pursuance of regulations under that Part of that Act shall be evidence (and in Scotland sufficient evidence) that the vehicle was manufactured on the date so marked.

(3)If in any proceedings for the offence of driving a goods vehicle on a road, or causing or permitting a goods vehicle to be so driven, in contravention of a prohibition under section 70(2) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 any question arises whether a weight of any description has been reduced to a limit imposed by construction and use requirements, the burden of proof shall lie on the accused.

(4)If in any proceedings in Scotland for an offence under the Traffic Acts any question arises as to a weight of any description in relation to a vehicle—

(a)a certificate purporting to be signed by an inspector of weights and measures and certifying the accuracy of a weighbridge or other machine for weighing vehicles shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the certificate, and

(b)where the inspector is called as a witness his evidence shall be sufficient evidence of those facts.

In this subsection “inspector of weights and measures” has the same meaning as in the [1985 c. 72.] Weights and Measures Act 1985, except that it includes a chief inspector within the meaning of that Act.

18Evidence by certificate as to registration of driving instructors and licences to give instruction

(1)A certificate signed by the Registrar and stating that, on any date—

(a)a person’s name was, or was not, in the register,

(b)the entry of a person’s name was made in the register or a person’s name was removed from it,

(c)a person was, or was not, the holder of a current licence under section 129 of the Road Traffic Act 1988, or

(d)a licence under that section granted to a person came into force or ceased to be in force,

shall be evidence, and in Scotland sufficient evidence, of the facts stated in the certificate in pursuance of this section.

(2)A certificate so stating and purporting to be signed by the Registrar shall be deemed to be so signed unless the contrary is proved.

(3)In this section “current licence”, “Registrar” and “register” have the same meanings as in Part V of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988.

19Evidence of disqualification in Scotland

In any proceedings in Scotland for an offence under section 103(1)(b) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (driving while disqualified) a conviction or extract conviction—

(a)of which a copy has been served on the accused not less than fourteen days before his trial,

(b)which purports to be signed by the clerk of court, and

(c)which shows that the person named in it is disqualified for holding or obtaining a licence,

shall be sufficient evidence of the application of that disqualification to the accused, unless not less than six days before his trial he serves notice on the prosecutor that he denies that it applies to him.

20Admissibility of measurement of speed by radar

On the prosecution of a person for any speeding offence, evidence of the measurement of any speed by a device designed or adapted for measuring by radar the speed of motor vehicles shall not be admissible unless the device is of a type approved by the Secretary of State.

21Proceedings in which evidence of one witness sufficient in Scotland

(1)In any proceedings in Scotland for an offence to which this subsection applies the accused may be convicted on the evidence of one witness.

(2)Subsection (1) above applies to any offence created by or under an enactment and punishable on summary conviction, being an offence committed in respect of a vehicle—

(a)by its being on a road during the hours of darkness without the lights or reflectors required by law, or

(b)by its obstructing a road, or waiting, or being left or parked, or being loaded or unloaded, in a road, or

(c)by the non-payment of a charge made at a street parking place, or

(d)by its being used in contravention of any provision of an order made or having effect as if made under section 1 or 9 of the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984, being a provision—

(i)as to the route to be followed by vehicles of the class to which that vehicle belongs, or

(ii)as to roads or parts of carriageways which are not to be used for traffic by such vehicles, or

(iii)as to the places where such vehicles may not turn so as to face in the opposite direction to that in which they were proceeding or as to the conditions under which such vehicles may so turn, or

(e)by its being used or kept on a public road without a licence under the [1971 c. 10.] Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971 being exhibited on the vehicle in the manner prescribed under that Act, or

(f)by its being used or kept on a public road without a licence under that Act for the vehicle being in force within the meaning of section 8 of that Act.

(3)Subsection (1) above also applies to any offence under section 35 or 36 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988.

(4)In subsection (2) above—

  • “hours of darkness” means the time between half-an-hour after sunset and half-an-hour before sunrise, and

  • “street parking place” means a parking place on land which forms part of a road.

(5)References in subsection (2) above to a class of vehicles are to be interpreted as references to a class defined or described by reference to any characteristics of the vehicles or to any other circumstances whatsoever.

22Notification of disability

(1)If in any proceedings for an offence committed in respect of a motor vehicle it appears to the court that the accused may be suffering from any relevant disability or prospective disability (within the meaning of Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988) the court must notify the Secretary of State.

(2)A notice sent by a court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of this section must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

Verdict

23Alternative verdicts in Scotland

(1)If on the trial on indictment in Scotland of a person for culpable homicide in connection with the driving of a motor vehicle by him the jury are not satisfied that he is guilty of culpable homicide but are satisfied that he is guilty of an offence under section 2 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (reckless driving), they may find him guilty of that offence.

(2)If on the trial in Scotland of a person for an offence under section 1 of that Act (causing death by reckless driving) the jury are not satisfied that his driving was the cause of the death but are satisfied that he is guilty of an offence under section 2 of that Act, they may convict him of that offence.

(3)If on the trial on indictment in Scotland of a person for stealing a motor vehicle the jury are not satisfied that he is guilty of stealing the motor vehicle but are satisfied that he is guilty of an offence under section 178 of that Act (taking motor vehicle without authority etc.), they may find him guilty of an offence under that section.

24Alternative verdicts in England and Wales

(1)Where on a person’s trial on indictment in England and Wales for an offence under section 1 (causing death by reckless driving), 2 (reckless driving) or 28 (reckless cycling) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 the jury find him not guilty of the offence specifically charged in the indictment, they may (without prejudice to section 6(3) of the [1967 c. 58.] Criminal Law Act 1967) find him guilty—

(a)where the offence so charged is an offence under section 1 or 2 of the Road Traffic Act 1988, of an offence under section 3 (careless and inconsiderate driving) of that Act, or

(b)where the offence so charged is an offence under section 28 of that Act, of an offence under section 29 (careless and inconsiderate cycling) of that Act.

(2)The Crown Court has the like powers and duties in the case of a person who is by virtue of subsection (1) above convicted before it of an offence under section 3 or 29 of that Act as a magistrates' court would have had on convicting him of that offence.

(3)Where—

(a)a person is charged in England and Wales before a magistrates' court with an offence under section 2 or 28 of that Act, and

(b)the court is of the opinion that the offence is not proved,

then, at any time during the hearing or immediately after it the court may (without prejudice to any other powers possessed by the court) direct or allow a charge for an offence under section 3 or, as the case may be, section 29 of that Act to be preferred forthwith against the defendant and may thereupon proceed with that charge.

(4)Where a magistrates' court exercises the power conferred by subsection (3) above—

(a)the defendant or his solicitor or counsel must be informed of the new charge and be given an opportunity, whether by way of cross-examining any witness whose evidence has already been given against the defendant or otherwise, of answering the new charge, and

(b)the court must, if it considers that the defendant is prejudiced in his defence by reason of the new charge’s being so preferred, adjourn the hearing.

After conviction

25Information as to date of birth and sex

(1)If on convicting a person of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification or of such other offence as may be prescribed by regulations under section 105 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 the court does not know his date of birth, the court must order him to give that date to the court in writing.

(2)If a court convicting a person of such an offence in a case where—

(a)notification has been given to the clerk of a court in pursuance of section 12(2) of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (written pleas of guilty), or written intimation of a plea of guilty has been given in pursuance of section 334(3) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975, and

(b)the notification or intimation did not include a statement of the person’s sex,

does not know the person’s sex, the court must order the person to give that information to the court in writing.

(3)A person who knowingly fails to comply with an order under subsection (1) or (2) above is guilty of an offence.

(4)Nothing in section 56(5) of the [1967 c. 80.] Criminal Justice Act 1967 (where magistrates' court commits a person to the Crown Court to be dealt with, certain powers and duties transferred to that court) applies to any duty imposed upon a magistrates' court by subsection (1) or (2) above.

(5)Where a person has given his date of birth in accordance with this section or section 8 of this Act, the Secretary of State may serve on that person a notice in writing requiring him to provide the Secretary of State—

(a)with such evidence in that person’s possession or obtainable by him as the Secretary of State may specify for the purpose of verifying that date, and

(b)if his name differs from his name at the time of his birth, with a statement in writing specifying his name at that time.

(6)A person who knowingly fails to comply with a notice under subsection (5) above is guilty of an offence.

(7)A notice to be served on any person under subsection (5) above may be served on him by delivering it to him or by leaving it at his proper address or by sending it to him by post; and for the purposes of this subsection and section 7 of the [1978 c. 30.] Interpretation Act 1978 in its application to this subsection the proper address of any person shall be his latest address as known to the person serving the notice.

26Interim disqualification on committal for sentence in England and Wales

(1)Where a magistrates' court—

(a)commits an offender to the Crown Court under subsection (1) of section 56 of the [1967 c. 80.] Criminal Justice Act 1967 or any enactment to which that section applies, and

(b)by reason of the provisions of that section the magistrates' court does not exercise its power or discharge its duty under section 34, 35 or 36 of this Act of ordering the offender to be disqualified,

it may nevertheless order him to be disqualified until the court to which he is committed has dealt with him in respect of the offence.

(2)Where a court makes an order under subsection (1) above in respect of any person, it must require him to produce to the court any licence held by him and must cause such licence to be sent to the clerk of the court to which he is committed.

(3)A person who fails to comply with a requirement under subsection (2) above is guilty of an offence.

(4)Subsection (3) above does not apply to a person who—

(a)surrenders to the court a current receipt for his licence issued under section 56 of this Act, and

(b)produces the licence to the court immediately on its return.

(5)Where a court makes an order under subsection (1) above in respect of any person, sections 44(1) and 47(2) of this Act and section 109(3) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (Northern Ireland drivers' licences) shall not apply in relation to the order, but—

(a)the court must send notice of the order to the Secretary of State, and

(b)the court to which he is committed must, if it determines not to order him to be disqualified under section 34, 35 or 36 of this Act, send notice of the determination to the Secretary of State.

(6)A period of disqualification imposed on any person by virtue of section 56(5) of the [1967 c. 80.] Criminal Justice Act 1967 (exercise by Crown Court on committal for sentence of certain powers of magistrates' courts) shall be treated as reduced by any period during which he was disqualified by reason only of an order made under subsection (1) above; but a period during which he was so disqualified shall not be taken into account under this subsection for the purpose of reducing more than one other period of disqualification.

(7)A notice sent by a court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of subsection (5) above must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

Part IISentence

Introductory

27Production of licence

(1)Where a person who is the holder of a licence is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, the court must, before making any order under section 44 of this Act, require the licence to be produced to it.

(2)Where a magistrates' court—

(a)commits a person who is the holder of a licence to the Crown Court, under section 56 of the Criminal Justice Act 1967 or any enactment to which that section applies, to be dealt with in respect of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, and

(b)does not make an order in his case under section 26(1) of this Act,

the Crown Court must require the licence to be produced to it.

(3)If the holder of the licence has not caused it to be delivered, or posted it, in accordance with section 7 of this Act and does not produce it as required then, unless he satisfies the court that he has applied for a new licence and has not received it—

(a)he is guilty of an offence, and

(b)the licence shall be suspended from the time when its production was required until it is produced to the court and shall, while suspended, be of no effect.

(4)Subsection (3) above does not apply where the holder of the licence—

(a)has caused a current receipt for the licence issued under section 56 of this Act to be delivered to the clerk of the court not later than the day before the date appointed for the hearing, or

(b)has posted such a receipt, at such time that in the ordinary course of post it would be delivered not later than that day, in a letter duly addressed to the clerk and either registered or sent by the recorded delivery service, or

(c)surrenders such a receipt to the court at the hearing,

and produces the licence to the court immediately on its return.

28Penalty points to be attributed to an offence

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence, subject to subsection (2) below, is—

(a)in the case of an offence under a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or an offence specified in column 1 of Part II of that Schedule, the number shown against the provision or offence in the last column or, where a range of numbers is so shown, a number falling within the range, and

(b)in the case of an offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring, or inciting to the commission of, an offence involving obligatory disqualification, ten penalty points.

(2)Where a person is convicted of two or more such offences, the number of penalty points to be attributed to those of them that were committed on the same occasion is the number or highest number that would be attributed on a conviction of one of them.

(3)The Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument—

(a)alter the number of penalty points shown in subsection (1)(b) above or against a provision or offence specified in that Schedule or, where a range of numbers is shown, alter that range, and

(b)provide for different numbers to be so shown in respect of the same offence committed in different circumstances;

but no such order shall be made unless a draft of it has been laid before Parliament and approved by resolution of each House of Parliament.

29Penalty points to be taken into account on conviction

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, the penalty points to be taken into account on that occasion are (subject to subsection (2) below)—

(a)any that are to be attributed to the offence or offences of which he is convicted, and

(b)any that were on a previous occasion ordered to be endorsed on any licence held by him, unless the offender has since that occasion and before the conviction been disqualified under section 34 or 35 of this Act.

(2)If any of the offences was committed more than three years before another, the penalty points in respect of that offence shall not be added to those in respect of the other.

30Penalty points: modification where fixed penalty also in question

(1)Sections 28 and 29 of this Act shall have effect subject to this section in any case where—

(a)a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, and

(b)the court is satisfied that his licence has been or is liable to be endorsed under section 57 or 77 of this Act in respect of an offence (referred to in this section as the “connected offence”) committed on the same occasion as the offence of which he is convicted.

(2)Subject to section 28(2) of this Act, the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence of which he is convicted is—

(a)the number of penalty points to be attributed to that offence under section 28(1) of this Act apart from this section, less

(b)the number of penalty points required to be endorsed on his licence under section 57 or 77 of this Act in respect of the connected offence.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) above, where a range of numbers is shown in the last column of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act against the provision of the Traffic Acts under which his offence is committed or punishable or in Part II of that Schedule against the offence of which he is convicted, the number of penalty points referred to in subsection (2)(a) above shall be taken to be a number falling within that range determined by the court as the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence under section 28(1) of this Act apart from this section.

31Court may take particulars endorsed on licence into consideration

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement and his licence is produced to the court—

(a)any existing endorsement on his licence is prima facie evidence of the matters endorsed, and

(b)the court may, in determining what order to make in pursuance of the conviction, take those matters into consideration.

(2)This section has effect notwithstanding anything in sections 311(5) and 357(1) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (requirements as to notices of penalties and previous convictions).

32In Scotland, court may take extract from licensing records into account

(1)Subsections (2) to (5) below apply where a person is convicted in Scotland of an offence involving obligatory endorsement but his licence is not produced to the court.

(2)The court may, in determining what order to make in pursuance of the conviction, take into consideration (subject to subsection (3) below)—

(a)particulars of any previous conviction or disqualification pertaining to him, and

(b)any penalty points ordered to be endorsed on any licence held by him which are to be taken into account under section 29 of this Act,

which are specified in a document purporting to be a note of information contained in the records maintained by the Secretary of State in connection with his functions under Part III of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988.

(3)If the prosecutor lays before the court such a document as is mentioned in subsection (2) above, the court or the clerk of court must ask the accused if he admits the accuracy of the particulars relating to him contained in the document.

(4)Where the accused admits the accuracy of any particulars, the prosecutor need not adduce evidence in proof of those particulars, and the admission must be entered in the record of the proceedings.

(5)Where the accused does not admit the accuracy of any particulars, the prosecutor must, unless he withdraws those particulars, adduce evidence in proof of them, either then or at any other diet.

(6)This section has effect notwithstanding anything in sections 311(5) and 357(1) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (requirements as to notices of penalties and previous convictions).

Fine and imprisonment

33Fine and imprisonment

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence against a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or regulations made under any such provision, the maximum punishment by way of fine or imprisonment which may be imposed on him is that shown in column 4 against the offence and (where appropriate) the circumstances or the mode of trial there specified.

(2)Any reference in column 4 of that Part to a period of years or months is to be construed as a reference to a term of imprisonment of that duration.

Disqualification

34Disqualification for certain offences

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory disqualification, the court must order him to be disqualified for such period not less than twelve months as the court thinks fit unless the court for special reasons thinks fit to order him to be disqualified for a shorter period or not to order him to be disqualified.

(2)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving discretionary disqualification, the court may order him to be disqualified for such period as the court thinks fit.

(3)Where a person convicted of an offence under any of the following provisions of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988, that is—

(a)section 4(1) (driving or attempting to drive while unfit),

(b)section 5(1)(a) (driving or attempting to drive with excess alcohol), and

(c)section 7(6) (failing to provide a specimen) where that is an offence involving obligatory disqualification,

has within the ten years immediately preceding the commission of the offence been convicted of any such offence, subsection (1) above shall apply in relation to him as if the reference to twelve months were a reference to three years.

(4)Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 1 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (causing death by reckless driving), subsection (1) above shall apply in relation to him as if the reference to twelve months were a reference to two years.

(5)The preceding provisions of this section shall apply in relation to a conviction of an offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring, or inciting to the commission of, an offence involving obligatory disqualification as if the offence were an offence involving discretionary disqualification.

(6)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

35Disqualification for repeated offences

(1)Where—

(a)a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, and

(b)the penalty points to be taken into account on that occasion number twelve or more,

the court must order him to be disqualified for not less than the minimum period unless the court is satisfied, having regard to all the circumstances, that there are grounds for mitigating the normal consequences of the conviction and thinks fit to order him to be disqualified for a shorter period or not to order him to be disqualified.

(2)The minimum period referred to in subsection (1) above is—

(a)six months if no previous disqualification imposed on the offender is to be taken into account, and

(b)one year if one, and two years if more than one, such disqualification is to be taken into account;

and a previous disqualification imposed on an offender is to be taken into account if it was imposed within the three years immediately preceding the commission of the latest offence in respect of which penalty points are taken into account under section 29 of this Act.

(3)Where an offender is convicted on the same occasion of more than one offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification—

(a)not more than one disqualification shall be imposed on him under subsection (1) above,

(b)in determining the period of the disqualification the court must take into account all the offences, and

(c)for the purposes of any appeal any disqualification imposed under subsection (1) above shall be treated as an order made on the conviction of each of the offences.

(4)No account is to be taken under subsection (1) above of any of the following circumstances—

(a)any circumstances that are alleged to make the offence or any of the offences not a serious one,

(b)hardship, other than exceptional hardship, or

(c)any circumstances which, within the three years immediately preceding the conviction, have been taken into account under that subsection in ordering the offender to be disqualified for a shorter period or not ordering him to be disqualified.

(5)References in this section to disqualification do not include a disqualification imposed under section 26 of this Act or section 44 of the [1973 c. 62.] Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973 (disqualification by Crown Court where vehicle used for commission of offence).

(6)In relation to Scotland, references in this section to the court include the district court.

(7)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

36Disqualification until test is passed

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, the court may order him to be disqualified until he passes the test of competence to drive prescribed by virtue of section 89(3) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988.

(2)That power is exercisable by the court whether or not the person convicted has previously passed that test and whether or not the court makes an order under section 34 or 35 of this Act.

(3)A disqualification by virtue of an order under subsection (1) above shall be deemed to have expired on production to the Secretary of State of evidence, in such form as may be prescribed by regulations under section 105 of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988, that the person disqualified has passed that test since the order was made.

(4)On the issue of a licence to a person who stands disqualified by an order under subsection (1) above, there shall be added to the endorsed particulars of the disqualification a statement that the person disqualified has passed that test since the order was made.

(5)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

37Effect of order of disqualification

(1)Where the holder of a licence is disqualified by an order of a court, the licence shall be treated as being revoked with effect from the beginning of the period of disqualification.

(2)Where the holder of the licence appeals against the order and the disqualification is suspended under section 39 of this Act, the period of disqualification shall be treated for the purpose of subsection (1) above as beginning on the day on which the disqualification ceases to be suspended.

(3)Notwithstanding anything in Part III of the Road Traffic Act 1988, a person disqualified by an order of a court under section 36(1) of this Act is (unless he is also disqualified otherwise than by virtue of such an order) entitled to obtain and to hold a provisional licence and to drive a motor vehicle in accordance with the conditions subject to which the provisional licence is granted.

38Appeal against disqualification

(1)A person disqualified by an order of a magistrates' court under section 34 or 35 of this Act may appeal against the order in the same manner as against a conviction.

(2)A person disqualified by an order of a court in Scotland may appeal against the order in the same manner as against a sentence.

39Suspension of disqualification pending appeal

(1)Any court in England and Wales (whether a magistrates' court or another) which makes an order disqualifying a person may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification pending an appeal against the order.

(2)The court by or before which a person disqualified by an order of a court in Scotland was convicted may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification pending an appeal against the order.

(3)Where a court exercises its power under subsection (1) or (2) above, it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(4)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address and must contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

40Power of appellate courts in England and Wales to suspend disqualification

(1)This section applies where a person has been convicted by or before a court in England and Wales of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification and has been ordered to be disqualified; and in the following provisions of this section—

(a)any reference to a person ordered to be disqualified is to be construed as a reference to a person so convicted and so ordered to be disqualified, and

(b)any reference to his sentence includes a reference to the order of disqualification and to any other order made on his conviction and, accordingly, any reference to an appeal against his sentence includes a reference to an appeal against any order forming part of his sentence.

(2)Where a person ordered to be disqualified—

(a)appeals to the Crown Court, or

(b)appeals or applies for leave to appeal to the Court of Appeal,

against his conviction or his sentence, the Crown Court or, as the case may require, the Court of Appeal may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(3)Where a person ordered to be disqualified has appealed or applied for leave to appeal to the House of Lords—

(a)under section 1 of the [1960 c. 65.] Administration of Justice Act 1960 from any decision of a Divisional Court of the Queen’s Bench Division which is material to his conviction or sentence, or

(b)under section 33 of the [1968 c. 19.] Criminal Appeal Act 1968 from any decision of the Court of Appeal which is material to his conviction or sentence,

the Divisional Court or, as the case may require, the Court of Appeal may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(4)Where a person ordered to be disqualified makes an application in respect of the decision of the court in question under section 111 of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (statement of case by magistrates' court) or section 28 of the [1981 c. 54.] Supreme Court Act 1981 (statement of case by Crown Court) the High Court may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(5)Where a person ordered to be disqualified—

(a)applies to the High Court for an order of certiorari to remove into the High Court any proceedings of a magistrates' court or of the Crown Court, being proceedings in or in consequence of which he was convicted or his sentence was passed, or

(b)applies to the High Court for leave to make such an application,

the High Court may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification.

(6)Any power of a court under the preceding provisions of this section to suspend the disqualification of any person is a power to do so on such terms as the court thinks fit.

(7)Where, by virtue of this section, a court suspends the disqualification of any person, it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(8)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address and must contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

41Power of High Court of Justiciary to suspend disqualification

(1)This section applies where a person has been convicted by or before a court in Scotland of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification and has been ordered to be disqualified; and in the following provisions of this section—

(a)any reference to a person ordered to be disqualified is to be construed as a reference to a person so convicted and so ordered to be disqualified, and

(b)any reference to his sentence includes a reference to the order of disqualification and to any other order made on his conviction and, accordingly, any reference to an appeal against his sentence includes a reference to an appeal against any order forming part of his sentence.

(2)Where a person ordered to be disqualified appeals to the High Court of Justiciary, whether on appeal against a summary conviction or a conviction on indictment or his sentence, the court may, if it thinks fit, suspend the disqualification on such terms as it thinks fit.

The powers conferred by this subsection on the court may be exercised by any single judge of the court.

(3)Where, by virtue of this section, the High Court suspends the disqualification of any person, it must send notice of the suspension to the Secretary of State.

(4)The notice must be sent in such manner and to such address and must contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine.

42Removal of disqualification

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, a person who by an order of a court is disqualified may apply to the court by which the order was made to remove the disqualification.

(2)On any such application the court may, as it thinks proper having regard to—

(a)the character of the person disqualified and his conduct subsequent to the order,

(b)the nature of the offence, and

(c)any other circumstances of the case,

either by order remove the disqualification as from such date as may be specified in the order or refuse the application.

(3)No application shall be made under subsection (1) above for the removal of a disqualification before the expiration of whichever is relevant of the following periods from the date of the order by which the disqualification was imposed, that is—

(a)two years, if the disqualification is for less than four years,

(b)one half of the period of disqualification, if it is for less than ten years but not less than four years,

(c)five years in any other case;

and in determining the expiration of the period after which under this subsection a person may apply for the removal of a disqualification, any time after the conviction during which the disqualification was suspended or he was not disqualified shall be disregarded.

(4)Where an application under subsection (1) above is refused, a further application under that subsection shall not be entertained if made within three months after the date of the refusal.

(5)If under this section a court orders a disqualification to be removed, the court—

(a)must cause particulars of the order to be endorsed on the licence, if any, previously held by the applicant, and

(b)may in any case order the applicant to pay the whole or any part of the costs of the application.

(6)The preceding provisions of this section shall not apply where the disqualification was imposed by order under section 36(1) of this Act.

43Rule for determining end of period of disqualification

In determining the expiration of the period for which a person is disqualified by an order of a court made in consequence of a conviction, any time after the conviction during which the disqualification was suspended or he was not disqualified shall be disregarded.

Endorsement

44Endorsement of licences

(1)Where a person is convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement, the court must order there to be endorsed on any licence held by him particulars of the conviction and also—

(a)if the court orders him to be disqualified, particulars of the disqualification, or

(b)if the court does not order him to be disqualified—

(i)particulars of the offence, including the date when it was committed, and

(ii)the penalty points to be attributed to the offence.

(2)Where the court does not order the person convicted to be disqualified, it need not make an order under subsection (1) above if for special reasons it thinks fit not to do so.

(3)In relation to Scotland, references in this section to the court include the district court.

(4)This section is subject to section 48 of this Act.

45Effect of endorsement

(1)An order that any particulars or penalty points are to be endorsed on any licence held by the person convicted shall, whether he is at the time the holder of a licence or not, operate as an order that any licence he may then hold or may subsequently obtain is to be so endorsed until he becomes entitled under subsection (4) below to have a licence issued to him free from the particulars or penalty points.

(2)On the issue of a new licence to a person, any particulars or penalty points ordered to be endorsed on any licence held by him shall be entered on the licence unless he has become entitled under subsection (4) below to have a licence issued to him free from those particulars or penalty points.

(3)If a person whose licence has been ordered to be endorsed with any particulars or penalty points applies for or obtains a licence without giving particulars of the order when he has not previously become entitled under subsection (4) below to have a licence issued to him free from those particulars or penalty points, he is guilty of an offence and any licence so obtained shall be of no effect.

(4)A person whose licence has been ordered to be endorsed is entitled to have a new licence issued to him free from the endorsement if, after the end of the period for which the endorsement remains effective, he applies for a new licence in pursuance of section 97(1) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988, surrenders any subsisting licence, pays the fee prescribed by regulations under Part III of that Act and satisfies the other requirements of section 97(1).

(5)An endorsement ordered on a person’s conviction of an offence remains effective (subject to subsections (6) and (7) below)—

(a)if an order is made for the disqualification of the offender, until four years have elapsed since the conviction, and

(b)if no such order is made, until either—

(i)four years have elapsed since the commission of the offence, or

(ii)such an order is made.

(6)Where the offence was one under section 1 or 2 of that Act (causing death by reckless driving and reckless driving), the endorsement remains in any case effective until four years have elapsed since the conviction.

(7)Where the offence was one—

(a)under section 4(1) or 5(1)(a) of that Act (driving when under influence of drink or drugs or driving with alcohol concentration above prescribed limit), or

(b)under section 7(6) of that Act (failing to provide specimen) involving obligatory disqualification,

the endorsement remains effective until eleven years have elapsed since the conviction.

General

46Combination of disqualification and endorsement with probation orders and orders for discharge

(1)Notwithstanding anything in section 13(3) of the [1973 c. 62.] Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973 (conviction of offender placed on probation or discharged to be disregarded for the purposes of enactments relating to disqualification), a court in England and Wales which on convicting a person of an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification makes—

(a)a probation order, or

(b)an order discharging him absolutely or conditionally,

may on that occasion also exercise any power conferred, and must also discharge any duty imposed, on the court by sections 34, 35, 36 or 44 of this Act.

(2)A conviction—

(a)in respect of which a court in England and Wales has ordered a person to be disqualified, or

(b)of which particulars have been endorsed on any licence held by him,

is to be taken into account, notwithstanding anything in section 13(1) of the Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973 (conviction of offender placed on probation or discharged to be disregarded for the purpose of subsequent proceedings), in determining his liability to punishment or disqualification for any offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification committed subsequently.

(3)Where—

(a)a person is charged in Scotland with an offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification, and

(b)the court makes an order in respect of the offence under section 182 or 383 (absolute discharge) or 183 or 384 (probation) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975,

then, for the purposes of sections 34, 35, 36, 44 and 45 of this Act, he shall be treated as if he had been convicted of an offence of the kind in question and section 191 or, as the case may be, section 392 of that Act shall not apply.

47Supplementary provisions as to disqualifications and endorsements

(1)In any case where a court exercises its power under section 34, 35 or 44 of this Act not to order any disqualification or endorsement or to order disqualification for a shorter period than would otherwise be required, it must state the grounds for doing so in open court and, if it is a magistrates' court or, in Scotland, a court of summary jurisdiction, must cause them to be entered in the register (in Scotland, record) of its proceedings.

(2)Where a court orders the endorsement of any licence held by a person it may and, if it orders him to be disqualified, must, send the licence, on its being produced to the court, to the Secretary of State; and if the court orders the endorsement but does not send the licence to the Secretary of State it must send him notice of the endorsement.

(3)Where on an appeal against any such order the appeal is allowed, the court by which the appeal is allowed must send notice of that fact to the Secretary of State.

(4)A notice sent by a court to the Secretary of State in pursuance of this section must be sent in such manner and to such address and contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may determine, and a licence so sent in pursuance of this section must be sent to such address as the Secretary of State may determine.

48Exemption from disqualification and endorsement for offences against construction and use regulations

Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 42(1) of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 (contravention of construction and use regulations) committed in a manner described against that section in column 5 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act, the court must not—

(a)order him to be disqualified, or

(b)order any particulars or penalty points to be endorsed on any licence held by him,

if he proves that he did not know, and had no reasonable cause to suspect, that the facts of the case were such that the offence would be committed.

49Offender escaping consequences of endorseable offence by deception

(1)This section applies where in dealing with a person convicted of an offence involving obligatory endorsement a court was deceived regarding any circumstances that were or might have been taken into account in deciding whether or for how long to disqualify him.

(2)If—

(a)the deception constituted or was due to an offence committed by that person, and

(b)he is convicted of that offence,

the court by or before which he is convicted shall have the same powers and duties regarding an order for disqualification as had the court which dealt with him for the offence involving obligatory endorsement but must, in dealing with him, take into account any order made on his conviction of the offence involving obligatory endorsement.

50Powers of district court in Scotland

Nothing in section 10 of this Act empowers a district court in Scotland in respect of any offence—

(a)to impose—

(i)a penalty of imprisonment which exceeds sixty days, or

(ii)a fine which exceeds level 4 on the standard scale, or

(b)to impose disqualification.

Part IIIFixed Penalties

Introductory

51Fixed penalty offences

(1)Any offence in respect of a vehicle under an enactment specified in column 1 of Schedule 3 to this Act is a fixed penalty offence for the purposes of this Part of this Act, but subject to subsection (2) below and to any limitation or exception shown against the enactment in column 2 (where the general nature of the offence is also indicated).

(2)An offence under an enactment so specified is not a fixed penalty offence for those purposes if it is committed by causing or permitting a vehicle to be used by another person in contravention of any provision made or restriction or prohibition imposed by or under any enactment.

(3)The Secretary of State may by order provide for offences to become or (as the case may be) to cease to be fixed penalty offences for the purposes of this Part of this Act, and may make such modifications of the provisions of this Part of this Act as appear to him to be necessary forthe purpose.

52Fixed penalty notices

(1)In this Part of this Act “fixed penalty notice” means a notice offering the opportunity of the discharge of any liability to conviction of the offence to which the notice relates by payment of a fixed penalty in accordance with this Part of this Act.

(2)A fixed penalty notice must give such particulars of the circumstances alleged to constitute the offence to which it relates as are necessary for giving reasonable information about the alleged offence.

(3)A fixed penalty notice must state—

(a)the period during which, by virtue of section 78(1) of this Act, proceedings cannot be brought against any person for the offence to which the notice relates, being the period of twenty-one days following the date of the notice or such longer period (if any) as may be specified in the notice (referred to in this Part of this Act as the “suspended enforcement period”),

(b)the amount of the fixed penalty, and

(c)the justices' clerk or, in Scotland, the clerk of court to whom and the address at which the fixed penalty may be paid.

(4)A fixed penalty notice given under section 54(2) of this Act in respect of an offence committed in Scotland must be in the prescribed form.

53Amount of fixed penalty

(1)The fixed penalty for an offence is—

(a)the amount mentioned in subsection (2) below, or

(b)one-half of the maximum amount of the fine to which a person committing that offence would be liable on summary conviction,

whichever is the less.

(2)The amount referred to in subsection (1)(a) above is—

(a)£24 in the case of any offence involving obligatory endorsement, and

(b)£12 in any other case.

(3)The Secretary of State may by order substitute a different amount or amounts for either or both of the amounts for the time being specified in subsection (2) above.

Giving notices to suspected offenders

54Notices on-the-spot or at a police station

(1)This section applies where on any occasion a constable in uniform has reason to believe that a person he finds is committing or has on that occasion committed a fixed penalty offence.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, the constable may give him a fixed penalty notice in respect of the offence.

(3)Where the offence appears to the constable to involve obligatory endorsement, the constable may only give him a fixed penalty notice under subsection (2) above in respect of the offence if—

(a)he produces his licence for inspection by the constable,

(b)the constable is satisfied, on inspecting the licence, that he would not be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act if he were convicted of that offence, and

(c)he surrenders his licence to the constable to be retained and dealt with in accordance with this Part of this Act.

(4)Where—

(a)the offence appears to the constable to involve obligatory endorsement, and

(b)the person concerned does not produce his licence for inspection by the constable,

the constable may give him a notice stating that if, within seven days after the notice is given, he produces the notice together with his licence in person to a constable or authorised person at the police station specified in the notice (being a police station chosen by the person concerned) and the requirements of subsection (5)(a) and (b) below are met he will then be given a fixed penalty notice in respect of the offence.

(5)If a person to whom a notice has been given under subsection (4) above produces the notice together with his licence in person to a constable or authorised person at the police station specified in the notice within seven days after the notice was so given to him and the following requirements are met, that is—

(a)the constable or authorised person is satisfied, on inspecting the licence, that he would not be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act if he were convicted of the offence, and

(b)he surrenders his licence to the constable or authorised person to be retained and dealt with in accordance with this Part of this Act,

the constable or authorised person must give him a fixed penalty notice in respect of the offence to which the notice under subsection (4) above relates.

(6)A notice under subsection (4) above shall give such particulars of the circumstances alleged to constitute the offence to which it relates as are necessary for giving reasonable information about the alleged offence.

(7)A licence surrendered in accordance with this section must be sent to the fixed penalty clerk.

(8)Subsection (4) above does not apply in respect of offences committed in Scotland and a notice under that subsection may not specify a police station in Scotland.

(9)In this Part of this Act “authorised person”, in relation to a fixed penalty notice given at a police station, means a person authorised for the purposes of this section by or on behalf of the chief officer of police for the area in which the police station is situated.

55Effect of fixed penalty notice given under section 54

(1)This section applies where a fixed penalty notice relating to an offence has been given to any person under section 54 of this Act, and references in this section to the recipient are to the person to whom the notice was given.

(2)No proceedings shall be brought against the recipient for the offence to which the fixed penalty notice relates unless before the end of the suspended enforcement period he has given notice requesting a hearing in respect of that offence in the manner specified in the fixed penalty notice.

(3)Where—

(a)the recipient has not given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence to which the fixed penalty notice relates in the manner so specified, and

(b)the fixed penalty has not been paid in accordance with this Part of this Act before the end of the suspended enforcement period,

a sum equal to the fixed penalty plus one-half of the amount of that penalty may be registered under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against the recipient as a fine.

56Licence receipts

(1)A constable or authorised person to whom a person surrenders his licence on receiving a fixed penalty notice given to him under section 54 of this Act must issue a receipt for the licence under this section.

(2)The fixed penalty clerk may, on the application of a person who has surrendered his licence in those circumstances, issue a new receipt for the licence.

(3)A receipt issued under this section ceases to have effect—

(a)if issued by a constable or authorised person, on the expiration of the period of one month beginning with the date of issue or such longer period as may be prescribed, and

(b)if issued by the fixed penalty clerk, on such date as he may specify in the receipt,

or, if earlier, on the return of the licence to the licence holder.

57Endorsement of licences without hearings

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, where a person (referred to in this section as “the licence holder”) has surrendered his licence to a constable or authorised person on the occasion when he was given a fixed penalty notice under section 54 of this Act, his licence may be endorsed in accordance with this section without any order of a court.

(2)A person’s licence may not be endorsed under this section if at the end of the suspended enforcement period—

(a)he has given notice, in the manner specified in the fixed penalty notice, requesting a hearing in respect of the offence to which the fixed penalty notice relates, and

(b)the fixed penalty has not been paid in accordance with this Part of this Act.

(3)On the payment of the fixed penalty before the end of the suspended enforcement period, the fixed penalty clerk must endorse the relevant particulars on the licence and return it to the licence holder.

(4)Where any sum determined by reference to the fixed penalty is registered under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against the licence holder as a fine, the fixed penalty clerk must endorse the relevant particulars on the licence and return it to the licence holder—

(a)if he is himself the clerk who registers that sum, on the registration of that sum, and

(b)in any other case, on being notified of the registration by the clerk who registers that sum.

(5)References in this section to the relevant particulars are to—

(a)particulars of the offence, including the date when it was committed, and

(b)the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence.

(6)On endorsing a person’s licence under this section the fixed penalty clerk must send notice of the endorsement and of the particulars endorsed to the Secretary of State.

58Effect of endorsement without hearing

(1)Where a person’s licence is endorsed under section 57 of this Act he shall be treated for the purposes of sections 13(4), 28, 29 and 45 of this Act and of the [1974 c. 53.] Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 as if—

(a)he had been convicted of the offence,

(b)the endorsement had been made in pursuance of an order made on his conviction by a court under section 44 of this Act, and

(c)the particulars of the offence endorsed by virtue of section 57(5)(a) of this Act were particulars of his conviction of that offence.

(2)In relation to any endorsement of a person’s licence under section 57 of this Act—

(a)the reference in section 45(4) of this Act to the order for endorsement, and

(b)the references in section 13(4) of this Act to any order made on a person’s conviction,

are to be read as references to the endorsement itself.

59Notification of court and date of trial in England and Wales

(1)On an occasion when a person is given a fixed penalty notice under section 54 of this Act in respect of an offence, he may be given written notification specifying the magistrates' court by which and the date on which the offence will be tried if he gives notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence as permitted by the fixed penalty notice.

(2)Subject to subsections (4) and (5) below, where—

(a)a person has been notified in accordance with this section of the court and date of trial of an offence in respect of which he has been given a fixed penalty notice, and

(b)he has given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence as permitted by the fixed penalty notice,

the provisions of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 shall apply as mentioned in subsection (3) below.

(3)Those provisions are to have effect for the purpose of any proceedings in respect of that offence as if—

(a)the allegation in the fixed penalty notice with respect to that offence were an information duly laid in accordance with section 1 of that Act, and

(b)the notification of the court and date of trial were a summons duly issued on that information by a justice of the peace for the area for which the magistrates' court notified as the court of trial acts, requiring the person notified to appear before that court to answer to that information and duly served on him on the date on which the notification was given.

(4)If, in a case within subsection (2) above, notice is served by or on behalf of the chief officer of police on the person who gave notice requesting a hearing stating that no proceedings are to be brought in respect of the offence concerned, that subsection does not apply and no such proceedings are to be brought against the person who gave notice requesting a hearing.

(5)Section 14 of that Act (proceedings invalid where accused did not know of them) is not applied by subsection (2) above in a case where a person has been notified in accordance with this section of the court and date of trial of an offence.

(6)This section does not extend to Scotland.

60Court procedure in Scotland

(1)Where a person is given a fixed penalty notice under section 54(2) of this Act in respect of an offence committed in Scotland, he may be given written notification specifying the court at which and the date on which the case will first call if he gives notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence as permitted by the fixed penalty notice.

(2)Such written notification may either be included in the fixed penalty notice or be given to the person when he is given the fixed penalty notice.

(3)Where—

(a)a person has been notified in accordance with this section of the court and date of first calling of a case concerning an offence in respect of which he has been given a fixed penalty notice, and

(b)he has given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence as permitted by the fixed penalty notice,

the following provisions of this section apply for the purpose of any proceedings in respect of the offence.

(4)The notification of the court and date of first calling shall have effect as if it were a citation to an accused person by virtue of section 315 of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 notwithstanding that such notification may not be in the form referred to in subsection (2) of that section.

(5)A copy of the fixed penalty notice given under section 54(2) of this Act shall have effect as if it were a complaint under Part II of that Act, and the provisions of that Part shall accordingly apply—

(a)to the copy fixed penalty notice as if it were a complaint, and

(b)to the fixed penalty notice as if it were a copy complaint served on the accused under that Part.

(6)For the purposes of subsection (5) above—

(a)it is not necessary for the fixed penalty notice to be signed by the prosecutor or by a solicitor on behalf of a prosecutor other than the public prosecutor of a court,

(b)a copy fixed penalty notice having effect as if it were a complaint shall not be held to be irrelevant by reason only—

(i)that the charge in the fixed penalty notice is not in the form referred to in section 312 of that Act, or

(ii)that no further specification is given than the specification required for a fixed penalty notice by section 52(2) of this Act,

and without prejudice to the generality of subsection (5) above, paragraphs (a) to (z) of section 312 of that Act shall apply in respect of the charge referred to in sub-paragraph (i) above, and

(c)section 311(5) of that Act shall not apply in respect of a copy fixed penalty notice having effect as if it were a complaint, but there shall be given to the alleged offender along with the fixed penalty notice a notice stating the penalties to which he would be liable in the event of his conviction for the offence.

61Fixed penalty notice mistakenly given: exclusion of fixed penalty procedures

(1)This section applies where, on inspection of a licence sent to him under section 54(7) of this Act, it appears to the fixed penalty clerk that the person whose licence it is would be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act if he were convicted of the offence in respect of which the fixed penalty notice was given.

(2)The fixed penalty clerk must not endorse the licence under section 57 of this Act but must instead send it to the chief officer of police.

(3)Nothing in this Part of this Act prevents proceedings being brought in respect of the offence in respect of which the fixed penalty notice was given where those proceedings are commenced before the end of the period of six months beginning with the date on which that notice was given.

(4)Where proceedings in respect of that offence are commenced before the end of that period, the case is from then on to be treated in all respects as if no fixed penalty notice had been given in respect of the offence.

(5)Accordingly, where proceedings in respect of that offence are so commenced, any action taken in pursuance of any provision of this Part of this Act by reference to that fixed penalty notice shall be void (including, but without prejudice to the generality of the preceding provision—

(a)the registration under section 71 of this Act of any sum, determined by reference to the fixed penalty for that offence, for enforcement against the person whose licence it is as a fine, and

(b)any proceedings for enforcing payment of any such sum within the meaning of sections 73 and 74 of this Act (defined in section 74(5))).

Notices fixed to vehicles

62Fixing notices to vehicles

(1)Where on any occasion a constable has reason to believe in the case of any stationary vehicle that a fixed penalty offence is being or has on that occasion been committed in respect of it, he may fix a fixed penalty notice in respect of the offence to the vehicle unless the offence appears to him to involve obligatory endorsement.

(2)A person is guilty of an offence if he removes or interferes with any notice fixed to a vehicle under this section, unless he does so by or under the authority of the driver or person in charge of the vehicle or the person liable for the fixed penalty offence in question.

63Service of notice to owner if penalty not paid

(1)This section applies where a fixed penalty notice relating to an offence has been fixed to a vehicle under section 62 of this Act.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, if at the end of the suspended enforcement period the fixed penalty has not been paid in accordance with this Part of this Act, a notice under this section may be served by or on behalf of the chief officer of police on any person who appears to him (or to any person authorised to act on his behalf for the purposes of this section) to be the owner of the vehicle.

Such a notice is referred to in this Part of this Act as a “notice to owner”.

(3)Subsection (2) above does not apply where before the end of the suspended enforcement period—

(a)any person has given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence in the manner specified in the fixed penalty notice, and

(b)the notice so given contains a statement by that person to the effect that he was the driver of the vehicle at the time when the offence is alleged to have been committed.

That time is referred to in this Part of this Act as the “time of the alleged offence”.

(4)A notice to owner—

(a)must give particulars of the alleged offence and of the fixed penalty concerned,

(b)must state the period allowed for response to the notice, and

(c)must indicate that, if the fixed penalty is not paid before the end of that period, the person on whom the notice is served is asked to provide before the end of that period to the chief officer of police by or on whose behalf the notice was served a statutory statement of ownership (as defined in Part I of Schedule 4 to this Act).

(5)For the purposes of this Part of this Act, the period allowed for response to a notice to owner is the period of twenty-one days from the date on which the notice is served, or such longer period (if any) as may be specified in the notice.

(6)A notice to owner relating to any offence must indicate that the person on whom it is served may, before the end of the period allowed for response to the notice, either—

(a)give notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence in the manner indicated by the notice, or

(b)if—

(i)he was not the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence, and

(ii)a person purporting to be the driver wishes to give notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence,

provide, together with a statutory statement of ownership provided as requested in that notice, a statutory statement of facts (as defined by Part II of Schedule 4 to this Act) having the effect referred to in paragraph 3(2) of that Schedule (that is, as a notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence given by the driver).

(7)In any case where a person on whom a notice to owner relating to any offence has been served provides a statutory statement of facts in pursuance of subsection (6)(b) above—

(a)any notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence that he purports to give on his own account shall be of no effect, and

(b)no sum may be registered for enforcement against him as a fine in respect of the offence unless, within the period of two months immediately following the period allowed for response to the notice to owner, no summons or, in Scotland, complaint in respect of the offence in question is served on the person identified in the statement as the driver.

64Enforcement or proceedings against owner

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a fixed penalty notice relating to an offence has been fixed to a vehicle under section 62 of this Act,

(b)a notice to owner relating to the offence has been served on any person under section 63(2) of this Act before the end of the period of six months beginning with the day on which the fixed penalty notice was fixed to the vehicle, and

(c)the fixed penalty has not been paid in accordance with this Part of this Act before the end of the period allowed for response to the notice to owner.

(2)Subject to subsection (4) below and to section 63(7)(b) of this Act, a sum equal to the fixed penalty plus one-half of the amount of that penalty may be registered under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against the person on whom the notice to owner was served as a fine.

(3)Subject to subsection (4) below and to section 65 of this Act, proceedings may be brought in respect of the offence against the person on whom the notice to owner was served.

(4)If the person on whom the notice to owner was served—

(a)was not the owner of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence, and

(b)provides a statutory statement of ownership to that effect in response to the notice before the end of the period allowed for response to the notice,

he shall not be liable in respect of the offence by virtue of this section nor shall any sum determined by reference to the fixed penalty for the offence be so registered by virtue of this section for enforcement against him as a fine.

(5)Subject to subsection (6) below—

(a)for the purposes of the institution of proceedings by virtue of subsection (3) above against any person on whom a notice to owner has been served, and

(b)in any proceedings brought by virtue of that subsection against any such person,

it shall be conclusively presumed (notwithstanding that that person may not be an individual) that he was the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence and, accordingly, that acts or omissions of the driver of the vehicle at that time were his acts or omissions.

(6)That presumption does not apply in any proceedings brought against any person by virtue of subsection (3) above if, in those proceedings, it is proved that at the time of the alleged offence the vehicle was in the possession of some other person without the consent of the accused.

(7)Where—

(a)by virtue of subsection (3) above proceedings may be brought in respect of an offence against a person on whom a notice to owner was served, and

(b)section 74(1) of this Act does not apply,

section 127(1) of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (information must be laid within six months of time offence committed) and section 331(1) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (proceedings must be commenced within six months of that time) shall have effect as if for the reference to six months there were substituted a reference to twelve months.

65Restrictions on proceedings against owner and others

(1)In any case where a notice to owner relating to an offence may be served under section 63 of this Act, no proceedings shall be brought in respect of the offence against any person other than a person on whom such a notice has been served unless he is identified as the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence in a statutory statement of facts provided in pursuance of section 63(6)(b) of this Act by a person on whom such a notice has been served.

(2)Proceedings in respect of an offence to which a notice to owner relates shall not be brought against the person on whom the notice was served unless, before the end of the period allowed for response to the notice, he has given notice, in the manner indicated by the notice to owner, requesting a hearing in respect of the offence.

(3)Proceedings in respect of an offence to which a notice to owner relates may not be brought against any person identified as the driver of the vehicle in a statutory statement of facts provided in response to the notice if the fixed penalty is paid in accordance with this Part of this Act before the end of the period allowed for response to the notice.

(4)Once any sum determined by reference to the fixed penalty for an offence has been registered by virtue of section 64 of this Act under section 71 for enforcement as a fine against a person on whom a notice to owner relating to that offence has been served, no proceedings shall be brought against any other person in respect of that offence.

66Hired vehicles

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a notice to owner has been served on a vehicle-hire firm,

(b)at the time of the alleged offence the vehicle in respect of which the notice was served was let to another person by the vehicle-hire firm under a hiring agreement to which this section applies, and

(c)within the period allowed for response to the notice the firm provides the chief officer of police by or on whose behalf the notice was served with the documents mentioned in subsection (2) below.

(2)Those documents are a statement on an official form, signed by or on behalf of the firm, stating that at the time of the alleged offence the vehicle concerned was hired under a hiring agreement to which this section applies, together with—

(a)a copy of that hiring agreement, and

(b)a copy of a statement of liability signed by the hirer under that hiring agreement.

(3)In this section a “statement of liability” means a statement made by the hirer under a hiring agreement to which this section applies to the effect that the hirer acknowledges that he will be liable, as the owner of the vehicle, in respect of any fixed penalty offence which may be committed with respect to the vehicle during the currency of the hiring agreement and giving such information as may be prescribed.

(4)In any case where this section applies, sections 63, 64 and 65 of this Act shall have effect as if—

(a)any reference to the owner of the vehicle were a reference to the hirer under the hiring agreement, and

(b)any reference to a statutory statement of ownership were a reference to a statutory statement of hiring,

and accordingly references in this Part of this Act (with the exceptions mentioned below) to a notice to owner include references to a notice served under section 63 of this Act as it applies by virtue of this section.

This subsection does not apply to references to a notice to owner in this section or in section 81(2)(b) of or Part I of Schedule 4 to this Act.

(5)In any case where this section applies, a person authorised in that behalf by the chief officer of police to whom the documents mentioned in subsection (2) above are provided may, at any reasonable time within six months after service of the notice to owner (and on the production of his authority) require the firm to produce the originals of the hiring agreement and statement of liability in question.

(6)If a vehicle-hire firm fails to produce the original of a document when required to do so under subsection (5) above, this section shall thereupon cease to apply (and section 64 of this Act shall apply accordingly in any such case after that time as it applies in a case where the person on whom the notice to owner was served has failed to provide a statutory statement of ownership in response to the notice within the period allowed).

(7)This section applies to a hiring agreement under the terms of which the vehicle concerned is let to the hirer for a fixed period of less than six months (whether or not that period is capable of extension by agreement between the parties or otherwise); and any reference in this section to the currency of the hiring agreement includes a reference to any period during which, with the consent of the vehicle-hire firm, the hirer continues in possession of the vehicle as hirer, after the expiry of the fixed period specified in the agreement, but otherwise on the terms and conditions so specified.

(8)In this section—

  • “hiring agreement” refers only to an agreement which contains such particulars as may be prescribed and does not include a hire-purchase agreement within the meaning of the [1974 c. 39.] Consumer Credit Act 1974, and

  • “vehicle-hire firm” means any person engaged in hiring vehicles in the course of a business.

67False statements in response to notices to owner

A person who, in response to a notice to owner, provides a statement which is false in a material particular and does so recklessly or knowing it to be false in that particular is guilty of an offence.

68“Owner”, “statutory statement” and “official form”

(1)For the purposes of this Part of this Act, the owner of a vehicle shall be taken to be the person by whom the vehicle is kept; and for the purposes of determining, in the course of any proceedings brought by virtue of section 64(3) of this Act, who was the owner of a vehicle at any time, it shall be presumed that the owner was the person who was the registered keeper of the vehicle at that time.

(2)Notwithstanding the presumption in subsection (1) above, it is open to the defence in any proceedings to prove that the person who was the registered keeper of a vehicle at a particular time was not the person by whom the vehicle was kept at that time and to the prosecution to prove that the vehicle was kept by some other person at that time.

(3)References in this Part of this Act to statutory statements of any description are references to the statutory statement of that description defined in Schedule 4 to this Act; and that Schedule shall also have effect for the purpose of requiring certain information to be provided in official forms for the statutory statements so defined to assist persons in completing those forms and generally in determining what action to take in response to a notice to owner.

(4)In this Part of this Act “official form”, in relation to a statutory statement mentioned in Schedule 4 to this Act or a statement under section 66(2) of this Act, means a document supplied by or on behalf of a chief officer of police for use in making that statement.

The fixed penalty procedure

69Payment of penalty

(1)Payment of a fixed penalty under this Part of this Act must be made to such justices' clerk or, in Scotland, clerk of court as may be specified in the fixed penalty notice relating to that penalty.

(2)Without prejudice to payment by any other method, payment of a fixed penalty under this Part of this Act may be made by properly addressing, pre-paying and posting a letter containing the amount of the penalty (in cash or otherwise) and, unless the contrary is proved, shall be regarded as having been made at the time at which that letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.

(3)A letter is properly addressed for the purposes of subsection (2) above if it is addressed to the fixed penalty clerk at the address specified in the fixed penalty notice relating to the fixed penalty as the address at which the fixed penalty may be paid.

(4)References in this Part of this Act, in relation to any fixed penalty or fixed penalty notice, to the fixed penalty clerk are references to the clerk specified in accordance with subsection (1) above in the fixed penalty notice relating to that penalty or (as the case may be) in that fixed penalty notice.

70Registration certificates

(1)This section and section 71 of this Act apply where by virtue of section 55(3) or 64(2) of this Act a sum determined by reference to the fixed penalty for any offence may be registered under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against any person as a fine.

In this section and section 71 of this Act—

(a)that sum is referred to as a “sum payable in default”, and

(b)the person against whom that sum may be so registered is referred to as the “defaulter”.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, the chief officer of police may in respect of any sum payable in default issue a certificate (referred to in this section and section 71 as a “registration certificate”) stating that the sum is registrable under section 71 for enforcement against the defaulter as a fine.

(3)Where the fixed penalty notice in question was given to the defaulter under section 54 in respect of an offence committed in Scotland—

(a)subsection (2) above does not apply, but

(b)the fixed penalty clerk must, unless the defaulter appears to him to reside within the jurisdiction of the court of summary jurisdiction of which he is himself the clerk, issue a registration certificate in respect of the sum payable in default.

(4)Where the chief officer of police or the fixed penalty clerk issues a registration certificate under this section, he must—

(a)if the defaulter appears to him to reside in England and Wales, cause it to be sent to the clerk to the justices for the petty sessions area in which the defaulter appears to him to reside, and

(b)if the defaulter appears to him to reside in Scotland, cause it to be sent to the clerk of a court of summary jurisdiction for the area in which the defaulter appears to him to reside.

(5)A registration certificate issued under this section in respect of any sum payable in default must—

(a)give particulars of the offence to which the fixed penalty notice relates,

(b)indicate whether registration is authorised under section 55(3) or 64(2) of this Act, and

(c)state the name and last known address of the defaulter and the amount of the sum payable in default.

71Registration of sums payable in default

(1)Where the clerk to the justices for a petty sessions area receives a registration certificate issued under section 70 of this Act in respect of any sum payable in default, he must, subject to subsection (4) below, register that sum for enforcement as a fine in that area by entering it in the register of a magistrates' court acting for that area.

(2)Where the clerk of a court of summary jurisdiction receives a registration certificate issued under section 70 of this Act in respect of any sum payable in default, he must, subject to subsection (4) below, register that sum for enforcement as a fine by that court.

(3)Where—

(a)the fixed penalty notice in question was given to the defaulter under section 54 of this Act in respect of an offence committed in Scotland, and

(b)the defaulter appears to the fixed penalty clerk to reside within the jurisdiction of the court of summary jurisdiction of which he is himself the clerk,

the fixed penalty clerk must register the sum payable in default for enforcement as a fine by that court.

(4)Where it appears to the clerk receiving a registration certificate issued under section 70 of this Act in respect of any sum payable in default that the defaulter does not reside in the petty sessions area or (as the case may be) within the jurisdiction of the court of summary jurisdiction in question—

(a)he is not required by subsection (1) or (2) above to register that sum, but

(b)he must cause the certificate to be sent to the appropriate clerk,

and subsection (1) or, as the case may be, (2) above shall apply accordingly on receipt by the appropriate clerk of the certificate as it applies on receipt by the clerk to whom it was originally sent.

(5)For the purposes of subsection (4) above, the appropriate clerk—

(a)if the defaulter appears to the clerk receiving the registration certificate to reside in England and Wales, is the clerk to the justices for the petty sessions area in which the defaulter appears to him to reside, and

(b)if the defaulter appears to the clerk receiving the registration certificate to reside in Scotland, is the clerk of a court of summary jurisdiction for the area in which the defaulter appears to him to reside.

(6)On registering any sum under this section for enforcement as a fine, the clerk to the justices for a petty sessions area or, as the case may be, the clerk of a court of summary jurisdiction must give to the defaulter notice of registration—

(a)specifying the amount of that sum, and

(b)giving the information with respect to the offence and the authority for registration included in the registration certificate by virtue of section 70(5)(a) and (b) of this Act or (in a case within subsection (3) above) the corresponding information.

(7)On the registration of any sum in a magistrates' court or a court of summary jurisdiction by virtue of this section any enactment referring (in whatever terms) to a fine imposed or other sum adjudged to be paid on the conviction of such a court shall have effect in the case in question as if the sum so registered were a fine imposed by that court on the conviction of the defaulter on the date of the registration.

(8)Accordingly, in the application by virtue of this section of the provisions of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 relating to the satisfaction and enforcement of sums adjudged to be paid on the conviction of a magistrates' court, section 85 of that Act (power to remit a fine in whole or in part) is not excluded by subsection (2) of that section (references in that section to a fine not to include any other sum adjudged to be paid on a conviction) from applying to a sum registered in a magistrates' court by virtue of this section.

(9)For the purposes of this section, where the defaulter is a body corporate, the place where that body resides and the address of that body are either of the following—

(a)the registered or principal office of that body, and

(b)the address which, with respect to the vehicle concerned, is the address recorded in the record kept under the [1971 c. 10.] Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971 as being that body’s address.

72Notices on-the-spot or at a police station: when registration and endorsement invalid

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person who has received notice of the registration, by virtue of section 55(3) of this Act, of a sum under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against him as a fine makes a statutory declaration to the effect mentioned in subsection (2) below, and

(b)that declaration is, within twenty-one days of the date on which the person making it received notice of the registration, served on the clerk of the relevant court.

(2)The statutory declaration must state—

(a)that the person making the declaration was not the person to whom the relevant fixed penalty notice was given, or

(b)that he gave notice requesting a hearing in respect of the alleged offence as permitted by the fixed penalty notice before the end of the suspended enforcement period.

(3)In any case within subsection (2)(a) above, the relevant fixed penalty notice, the registration and any proceedings taken before the declaration was served for enforcing payment of the sum registered shall be void.

(4)Where in any case within subsection (2)(a) above the person to whom the relevant fixed penalty notice was given surrendered a licence held by the person making the declaration, any endorsement of that licence made under section 57 of this Act in respect of the offence in respect of which that notice was given shall be void.

(5)In any case within subsection (2)(b) above—

(a)the registration, any proceedings taken before the declaration was served for enforcing payment of the sum registered, and any endorsement, in respect of the offence in respect of which the relevant fixed penalty notice was given, made under section 57 of this Act before the declaration was served, shall be void, and

(b)the case shall be treated after the declaration is served as if the person making the declaration had given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the alleged offence as stated in the declaration.

(6)The clerk of the relevant court must—

(a)cancel an endorsement of a licence under section 57 of this Act that is void by virtue of this section on production of the licence to him for that purpose, and

(b)send notice of the cancellation to the Secretary of State.

(7)References in this section to the relevant fixed penalty notice are to the fixed penalty notice relating to the fixed penalty concerned.

73Notices fixed to vehicles: when registration invalid

(1)This section applies where—

(a)a person who has received notice of the registration, by virtue of section 64(2) of this Act, of a sum under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against him as a fine makes a statutory declaration to the effect mentioned in subsection (2) below, and

(b)that declaration is, within twenty-one days of the date on which the person making it received notice of the registration, served on the clerk of the relevant court.

(2)The statutory declaration must state either—

(a)that the person making the declaration did not know of the fixed penalty concerned or of any fixed penalty notice or notice to owner relating to that penalty until he received notice of the registration, or

(b)that he was not the owner of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence of which particulars are given in the relevant notice to owner and that he has a reasonable excuse for failing to comply with that notice, or

(c)that he gave notice requesting a hearing in respect of that offence as permitted by the relevant notice to owner before the end of the period allowed for response to that notice.

(3)In any case within subsection (2)(a) or (b) above—

(a)the relevant notice to owner,

(b)the registration, and

(c)any proceedings taken before the declaration was served for enforcing payment of the sum registered,

shall be void but without prejudice, in a case within subsection (2)(a) above, to the service of a further notice to owner under section 63 of this Act on the person making the declaration.

This subsection applies whether or not the relevant notice to owner was duly served in accordance with that section on the person making the declaration.

(4)In any case within subsection (2)(c) above—

(a)no proceedings shall be taken, after the statutory declaration is served until the end of the period of twenty-one days following the date of that declaration, for enforcing payment of the sum registered, and

(b)where before the end of that period a notice is served by or on behalf of the chief officer of police on the person making the declaration asking him to provide a new statutory statement of ownership to that chief officer of police before the end of the period of twenty-one days from the date on which the notice is served, no such proceedings shall be taken until the end of the period allowed for response to that notice.

(5)Where in any case within subsection (2)(c) above—

(a)no notice is served by or on behalf of the chief officer of police in accordance with subsection (4) above, or

(b)such a notice is so served and the person making the declaration provides a new statutory statement of ownership in accordance with the notice,

then—

(i)the registration and any proceedings taken before the declaration was served for enforcing payment of the sum registered shall be void, and

(ii)the case shall be treated after the time mentioned in subsection (6) below as if the person making the declaration had given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the alleged offence as stated in the declaration.

(6)The time referred to in subsection (5) above is—

(a)in a case within paragraph (a) of that subsection, the end of the period of twenty-one days following the date of the statutory declaration,

(b)in a case within paragraph (b) of that subsection, the time when the statement is provided.

(7)In any case where notice is served by or on behalf of the chief officer of police in accordance with subsection (4) above, he must cause the clerk of the relevant court to be notified of that fact immediately on service of the notice.

(8)References in this section to the relevant notice to owner are to the notice to owner relating to the fixed penalty concerned.

74Provisions supplementary to sections 72 and 73

(1)In any case within section 72(2)(b) or 73(2) of this Act—

(a)section 127(1) of the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (limitation of time), and

(b)section 331(1) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975 (statutory offences time limit),

shall have effect as if for the reference to the time when the offence was committed or (as the case may be) the time when the contravention occurred there were substituted a reference to the date of the statutory declaration made for the purposes of section 72(1) or, as the case may be, 73(1).

(2)Where, on the application of a person who has received notice of the registration of a sum under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against him as a fine, it appears to the relevant court (which for this purpose may be composed of a single justice) that it was not reasonable to expect him to serve, within twenty-one days of the date on which he received the notice, a statutory declaration to the effect mentioned in section 72(2) or, as the case may be, 73(2) of this Act, the court may accept service of such a declaration by that person after that period has expired.

(3)A statutory declaration accepted under subsection (2) above shall be taken to have been served as required by section 72(1) or, as the case may be, section 73(1) of this Act.

(4)For the purposes of sections 72(1) and 73(1) of this Act, a statutory declaration shall be taken to be duly served on the clerk of the relevant court if it is delivered to him, left at his office, or sent in a registered letter or by the recorded delivery service addressed to him at his office.

(5)In sections 72, 73 and this section—

(a)references to the relevant court are—

(i)in the case of a sum registered under section 71 of this Act for enforcement as a fine in a petty sessions area in England and Wales, references to any magistrates' court acting for that area, and

(ii)in the case of a sum registered under that section for enforcement as a fine by a court of summary jurisdiction in Scotland, references to that court,

(b)references to the clerk of the relevant court, where that court is a magistrates' court, are references to a clerk to the justices for the petty sessions area for which that court is acting, and

(c)references to proceedings for enforcing payment of the sum registered are references to any process issued or other proceedings taken for or in connection with enforcing payment of that sum.

(6)For the purposes of sections 72, 73 and this section, a person shall be taken to receive notice of the registration of a sum under section 71 of this Act for enforcement against him as a fine when he receives notice either of the registration as such or of any proceedings for enforcing payment of the sum registered.

(7)Nothing in the provisions of sections 72 or 73 or this section is to be read as prejudicing any rights a person may have apart from those provisions by virtue of the invalidity of any action purportedly taken in pursuance of this Part of this Act which is not in fact authorised by this Part of this Act in the circumstances of the case; and, accordingly, references in those provisions to the registration of any sum or to any other action taken under or by virtue of any provision of this Part of this Act are not to be read as implying that the registration or action was validly made or taken in accordance with that provision.

Conditional offer of fixed penalty in Scotland

75Conditional offer by procurator fiscal

(1)This section and sections 76 and 77 apply only in relation to offences committed in Scotland.

(2)Where—

(a)a procurator fiscal receives a report that a fixed penalty offence has been committed, and

(b)no fixed penalty notice in respect of the offence has been given under section 54 of this Act or fixed to a vehicle under section 62 of this Act,

he may send a notice under this section to the alleged offender.

(3)Where a procurator fiscal receives a report that—

(a)an offence under an enactment specified in column 1 of Schedule 5 to this Act has been committed, or

(b)an offence under an enactment specified in column 1 of Schedule 3 to this Act has been committed by causing or permitting a vehicle to be used by another person in contravention of any provision made or prohibition imposed by or under any enactment, or

(c)an offence of aiding, abetting, counselling, procuring or inciting the commission of—

(i)a fixed penalty offence, or

(ii)an offence referred to in this subsection,

has been committed,

he may send a notice under this section to the alleged offender.

(4)A notice under this section is referred to in this section and sections 76 and 77 as a “conditional offer”.

(5)Where the procurator fiscal issues a conditional offer, he must notify the clerk of court specified in it of its issue and its terms.

(6)A conditional offer must—

(a)give such particulars of the circumstances alleged to constitute the offence to which it relates as are necessary for giving reasonable information about the alleged offence,

(b)state the amount of the fixed penalty for that offence, and

(c)state that proceedings against the alleged offender cannot be commenced in respect of that offence until the end of the period of twenty-eight days from the date on which the conditional offer was issued or such longer period as may be specified in the conditional offer.

(7)A conditional offer must indicate that if the following conditions are fulfilled, that is—

(a)within the period of twenty-eight days from the date on which the offer was issued, or such longer period as may be specified in the offer, the alleged offender—

(i)makes payment of the fixed penalty to the clerk of court specified in the offer, and

(ii)where the offence to which the offer relates is an offence involving obligatory endorsement, at the same time delivers his licence to that clerk, and

(b)where his licence is so delivered, that clerk is satisfied on inspecting the licence that, if the alleged offender were convicted of the offence, he would not be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act,

any liability to conviction of the offence shall be discharged.

(8)The Secretary of State may by order provide for offences to become or (as the case may be) to cease to be offences in respect of which a conditional offer may be sent under subsection (3)(a) above, and may make such modifications of the provisions of this Part of this Act as appear to him to be necessary for the purpose.

(9)An offence committed by aiding, abetting, counselling, procuring or inciting the commission of an offence which is an offence involving obligatory endorsement is itself an offence involving obligatory endorsement for the purposes of this Part of this Act.

76Effect of offer and payment of penalty

(1)This section applies where a conditional offer has been sent to a person under section 75 of this Act.

(2)No proceedings shall be brought against any person for the offence to which the conditional offer relates until the procurator fiscal receives notification in accordance with subsection (5) or (6) below.

(3)Payment of the fixed penalty in pursuance of the conditional offer must be made to such clerk of court as may be specified in the offer.

(4)Where the alleged offender makes payment of the fixed penalty in accordance with subsection (3) above, no proceedings shall be brought against him for the offence to which the offer relates.

(5)Where—

(a)the alleged offender tenders payment in accordance with subsection (3) above and delivers his licence to the clerk of court specified in the conditional offer, but

(b)it appears to the clerk of court, on inspecting the licence, that he would be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act if he were convicted of the offence to which the conditional offer relates,

the clerk of court must—

(i)return the licence to the alleged offender together with the payment, and

(ii)notify the procurator fiscal who issued the conditional offer that he has complied with the preceding provisions of this subsection.

(6)Where, on the expiry of the period of twenty-eight days from the date on which the conditional offer was made or such longer period as may be specified in the offer, the conditions specified in the offer in accordance with section 75(7)(a) of this Act have not been fulfilled, the clerk of court must notify the procurator fiscal accordingly.

(7)In any proceedings a certificate that by a date specified in the certificate payment of a fixed penalty was or was not received by the clerk of court specified in the conditional offer shall, if the certificate purports to be signed by that clerk, be sufficient evidence of the facts stated.

77Endorsement where penalty paid

(1)Where—

(a)in pursuance of a conditional offer a person (referred to in this section as the “licence holder”) makes payment of the fixed penalty to the clerk of court specified in the offer and delivers his licence to the clerk, and

(b)the clerk is not required by subsection (5) of section 76 of this Act to return the licence to him and did not, before the payment was tendered, notify the procurator fiscal under subsection (6) of that section,

the clerk must thereupon endorse the relevant particulars on the licence and return it to the licence holder.

(2)Where it appears to a clerk of court that there is an error in an endorsement made by virtue of this section on a licence he may amend the endorsement so as to correct the error; and the amended endorsement shall have effect and shall be treated for all purposes as if it had been correctly made on receipt of the fixed penalty.

(3)Subject to subsection (4) below, where a cheque tendered in payment is subsequently dishonoured—

(a)any endorsement made by a clerk of court under subsection (1) above remains effective, notwithstanding that the licence holder is still liable to prosecution in respect of the alleged offence to which the endorsement relates, and

(b)the clerk of court must, upon the expiry of the period specified in the conditional offer or, if the period has expired, forthwith notify the procurator fiscal who made the offer that no payment has been made.

(4)When proceedings are brought against a licence holder after the procurator fiscal has been notified in pursuance of subsection (3)(b) above, the court—

(a)must order the removal of the fixed penalty endorsement from the licence, and

(b)may, on finding the licence holder guilty, make any competent order of endorsement or disqualification and pass any competent sentence.

(5)The reference in subsection (1) above to the relevant particulars is to—

(a)particulars of the offence, including the date when it was committed, and

(b)the number of penalty points to be attributed to the offence.

(6)The clerk of court must send notice to the Secretary of State—

(a)of any endorsement under subsection (1) above and of the particulars endorsed,

(b)of any amendment under subsection (2) above, and

(c)of any order under subsection (4)(a) above.

(7)Where a person’s licence is endorsed under this section he shall be treated for the purposes of sections 13(4), 28, 29 and 45 of this Act and of the [1974 c. 53.] Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 as if—

(a)he had been convicted of the offence,

(b)the endorsement had been made in pursuance of an order made on his conviction by a court under section 44 of this Act, and

(c)the particulars of the offence endorsed by virtue of subsection (5)(a) above were particulars of his conviction of that offence.

(8)In relation to any endorsement of a person’s licence under this section—

(a)the reference in section 45(4) of this Act to the order for endorsement, and

(b)the references in section 13(4) of this Act to any order made on a person’s conviction,

are to be read as references to the endorsement itself.

Proceedings in fixed penalty cases

78General restriction on proceedings

(1)Proceedings shall not be brought against any person for the offence to which a fixed penalty notice relates until the end of the suspended enforcement period.

(2)Proceedings shall not be brought against any person for the offence to which a fixed penalty notice relates if the fixed penalty is paid in accordance with this Part of this Act before the end of the suspended enforcement period.

79Statements by constables

(1)In any proceedings a certificate that a copy of a statement by a constable with respect to the alleged offence (referred to in this section as a “constable’s witness statement”) was included in or given with a fixed penalty notice or a notice under section 54(3) of this Act given to the accused on a date specified in the certificate shall, if the certificate purports to be signed by the constable or authorised person who gave the accused the notice, be evidence of service of a copy of that statement by delivery to the accused on that date.

(2)In any proceedings a certificate that a copy of a constable’s witness statement was included in or served with a notice to owner served on the accused in the manner and on a date specified in the certificate shall, if the certificate purports to be signed by any person employed by the police authority for the police area in which the offence to which the proceedings relate is alleged to have been committed, be evidence of service in the manner and on the date so specified both of a copy of that statement and of the notice to owner.

(3)Any address specified in any such certificate as is mentioned in subsection (2) above as being the address at which service of the notice to owner was effected shall be taken for the purposes of any proceedings in which the certificate is tendered in evidence to be the accused’s proper address, unless the contrary is proved.

(4)Where a copy of a constable’s witness statement is included in or served with a notice to owner served in any manner in which the notice is authorised to be served under this Part of this Act, the statement shall be treated as duly served for the purposes of section 9 of the [1967 c. 80.] Criminal Justice Act 1967 (proof by written statement) notwithstanding that the manner of service is not authorised by subsection (8) of that section.

(5)In relation to any proceedings in which service of a constable’s witness statement is proved by certificate under this section—

(a)that service shall be taken for the purposes of subsection (2)(c) of that section (copy of statement to be tendered in evidence to be served before hearing on other parties to the proceedings by or on behalf of the party proposing to tender it) to have been effected by or on behalf of the prosecutor, and

(b)subsection (2)(d) of that section (time for objection) shall have effect with the substitution, for the reference to seven days from the service of the copy of the statement, of a reference to seven days from the relevant date.

(6)In subsection (5)(b) above “relevant date” means—

(a)where the accused gives notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence in accordance with any provision of this Part of this Act, the date on which he gives that notice, and

(b)where a notice in respect of the offence was given to the accused under section 54(4) of this Act but no fixed penalty notice is given in respect of it, the last day for production of the notice under section 54(5) at a police station in accordance with that section.

(7)This section does not extend to Scotland.

80Certificates about payment

In any proceedings a certificate—

(a)that payment of a fixed penalty was or was not received, by a date specified in the certificate, by the fixed penalty clerk, or

(b)that a letter containing an amount sent by post in payment of a fixed penalty was marked as posted on a date so specified,

shall, if the certificate purports to be signed by the fixed penalty clerk, be evidence (and, in Scotland, sufficient evidence) of the facts stated.

81Documents signed by the accused

(1)Where—

(a)any person is charged with a fixed penalty offence, and

(b)the prosecutor produces to the court a document to which this subsection applies purporting to have been signed by the accused,

the document shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, to have been signed by the accused and shall be evidence (and, in Scotland, sufficient evidence) in the proceedings of any facts stated in it tending to show that the accused was the owner, the hirer or the driver of the vehicle concerned at a particular time.

(2)Subsection (1) above applies to any document purporting to be—

(a)a notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence charged given in accordance with a fixed penalty notice relating to that offence, or

(b)a statutory statement of any description defined in Schedule 4 to this Act or a copy of a statement of liability within the meaning of section 66 of this Act provided in response to a notice to owner.

Miscellaneous

82Accounting for fixed penalties: England and Wales

(1)In England and Wales, sums paid by way of fixed penalty for an offence shall be treated for the purposes of section 61 (application of fines and fees) of the Justices of the [1979 c. 55.] Peace Act 1979 as if they were fines imposed on summary conviction for that offence.

(2)Where, in England and Wales, a justices' clerk for a petty sessions area comprised in the area of one responsible authority (within the meaning of section 59 of that Act) discharges functions in connection with a fixed penalty for an offence alleged to have been committed in a petty sessions area comprised in the area of another such authority—

(a)that other authority must make to the first-mentioned authority such payment in connection with the discharge of those functions as may be agreed between them or, in default of such agreement, as may be determined by the Secretary of State, and

(b)any such payment between responsible authorities shall be taken into account in determining for the purposes of subsection (4) of that section the net cost to those authorities respectively of the functions referred to in subsection (1) of that section.

(3)Subsection (2) above does not apply to functions discharged in connection with a fixed penalty on or after the registration of a sum determined by reference to the penalty under section 71 of this Act.

83Powers of court where clerk deceived

(1)This section applies where—

(a)in endorsing any person’s licence under section 57 of this Act, the fixed penalty clerk is deceived as to whether endorsement under that section is excluded by section 61(2) of this Act by virtue of the fact that the licence holder would be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act if he were convicted of the offence, or

(b)in endorsing any person’s licence under section 77 of this Act the clerk of court specified in the conditional offer (within the meaning of that section) is deceived as to whether he is required by section 76(5) of this Act to return the licence without endorsing it by virtue of the fact that the licence holder would be liable to be disqualified under section 35 of this Act if he were convicted of the offence.

(2)If—

(a)the deception constituted or was due to an offence committed by the licence holder, and

(b)the licence holder is convicted of that offence,

the court by or before which he is convicted shall have the same powers and duties as it would have had if he had also been convicted by or before it of the offence of which particulars were endorsed under section 57 or, as the case may be, 77 of this Act.

84Regulations

The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision as to any matter incidental to the operation of this Part of this Act, and in particular—

(a)for prescribing any information or further information to be provided in any notice, notification, certificate or receipt under section 52(1), 54(4), 56, 59(1), 60(1), 63(2), 70(2) and (3)(b), 73(4)(b), 75(2) and (3) or 76(5) and (6) of this Act or in any official form for a statutory statement mentioned in Schedule 4 to, or a statement under section 66(2) of, this Act,

(b)for requiring any such official form to be served with any notice served under section 63 or 73(4) of this Act, and

(c)for prescribing the duties of justices' clerks or (as the case may be) clerks of courts of summary jurisdiction and the information to be supplied to them.

85Service of documents

(1)Subject to any requirement of this Part of this Act with respect to the manner in which a person may be provided with any such document, he may be provided with the following documents by post (but without prejudice to any other method of providing him with them), that is to say—

(a)any of the statutory statements mentioned in Schedule 4 to this Act, and

(b)any of the documents mentioned in section 66(2) of this Act.

(2)Where a notice requesting a hearing in respect of an offence is permitted by a fixed penalty notice or notice to owner relating to that offence to be given by post, section 7 of the [1978 c. 30.] Interpretation Act 1978 (service of documents by post) shall apply as if that notice were permitted to be so given by this Act.

(3)A notice to owner may be served on any person—

(a)by delivering it to him or by leaving it at his proper address, or

(b)by sending it to him by post,

and where the person on whom such a notice is to be served is a body corporate it is duly served if it is served on the secretary or clerk of that body.

(4)For the purposes of this Part of this Act and of section 7 of the [1978 c. 30.] Interpretation Act 1978 as it applies for the purposes of subsection (3) above the proper address of any person in relation to the service on him of a notice to owner is—

(a)in the case of the secretary or clerk of a body corporate, that of the registered or principal office of that body or the registered address of the person who is or was the registered keeper of the vehicle concerned at the time of service, and

(b)in any other case, his last known address at the time of service.

(5)In subsection (4) above, “registered address”, in relation to the registered keeper of a vehicle, means the address recorded in the record kept under the [1971 c. 10.] Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971 with respect to that vehicle as being that person’s address.

86Functions of traffic wardens

(1)An order under section 95(5) of the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 may not authorise the employment of a traffic warden to discharge any function under this Part of this Act in respect of an offence if the offence appears to the traffic warden to be an offence involving obligatory endorsement.

(2)In so far as an order under that section authorises the employment of traffic wardens for the purposes of this Part of this Act, references in this Part of this Act to a constable or, as the case may be, to a constable in uniform include a traffic warden.

87Guidance on application of Part III

The Secretary of State must issue guidance to chief officers of police for police areas in respect of the operation of this Part of this Act with the objective so far as possible of working towards uniformity.

88Procedure for regulations and orders

(1)Any power conferred by this Part of this Act on the Secretary of State to make any order or regulations shall be exercisable by statutory instrument.

(2)Before making—

(a)an order under section 51, 53 or 75 of this Act, or

(b)regulations under section 84 of this Act,

the Secretary of State must consult with such representative organisations as he thinks fit.

(3)A statutory instrument containing regulations or an order under any provision of this Part of this Act shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

(4)Regulations under this Part of this Act may—

(a)make different provision for different cases, and

(b)contain such incidental and supplemental provisions as the Secretary of State considers expedient for the purposes of the regulations.

89Interpretation

(1)In this Part of this Act—

  • “authorised person” has the meaning given by section 54(9) of this Act,

  • “chief officer of police” (except in the definition of “authorised person”) means, in relation to any fixed penalty notice or notice to owner, the chief officer of police for the police area in which the fixed penalty offence in question is alleged to have been committed,

  • “court of summary jurisdiction” has the same meaning as in section 462(1) of the [1975 c. 21.] Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1975,

  • “driver” except in section 62 of this Act means, in relation to an alleged fixed penalty offence, the person by whom, assuming the offence to have been committed, it was committed,

  • “justices' clerk” means the clerk to the justices for a petty sessions area,

  • “petty sessions area” has the same meaning as in the [1980 c. 43.] Magistrates' Courts Act 1980, and

  • “proceedings”, except in relation to proceedings for enforcing payment of a sum registered under section 71 of this Act, means criminal proceedings.

(2)In this Part of this Act—

(a)references to a notice requesting a hearing in respect of an offence are references to a notice indicating that the person giving the notice wishes to contest liability for the offence or seeks a determination by a court with respect to the appropriate punishment for the offence,

(b)references to an offence include an alleged offence, and

(c)references to the person who is or was at any time the registered keeper of a vehicle are references to the person in whose name the vehicle is or was at that time registered under the [1971 c. 10.] Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971.

90Index to Part III

The expressions listed in the left hand column below are respectively defined or (as the case may be) fall to be construed in accordance with the provisions of this Part of this Act listed in the right-hand column in relation to those expressions.

Authorised personSection 54(9)
Conditional offerSection 75(4)
Fixed penaltySection 53
Fixed penalty clerkSection 69(4)
Fixed penalty noticeSection 52
Fixed penalty offenceSection 51
Notice to ownerSections 63(2) and 66(4)
Notice requesting a hearing in respect of an offenceSection 89(2)
OffenceSection 89(2)
Official formSection 68(4)
OwnerSection 68(1)
Period allowed for response to a notice to ownerSection 63(5)
Proper address, in relation to the service of a notice to ownerSection 85(4)
Registered keeperSection 89(2)
Statutory statement of factsPart II of Schedule 4
Statutory statement of hiringPart I of Schedule 4
Statutory statement of ownershipPart I of Schedule 4
Suspended enforcement periodSection 52(3)(a)
Time of the alleged offenceSection 63(3)

Part IVMiscellaneous and General

91Penalty for breach of regulations

If a person acts in contravention of or fails to comply with—

(a)any regulations made by the Secretary of State under the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 other than regulations made under section 31, 45 or 132,

(b)any regulations made by the Secretary of State under the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984, other than regulations made under section 28, Schedule 4, Part III of Schedule 9 or Schedule 12,

and the contravention or failure to comply is not made an offence under any other provision of the Traffic Acts, he shall for each offence be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

92Application to Crown

The following provisions of this Act apply to vehicles and persons in the public service of the Crown: sections 1, 2, 3, 15, 16 and 49 and the provisions connected with the licensing of drivers.

93Application of sections 15 and 16 to persons subject to service discipline

(1)Sections 15 and 16, in their application to persons subject to service discipline, apply outside as well as within Great Britain and have effect as if—

(a)references to proceedings for an offence under any enactment included references to proceedings for the corresponding service offence,

(b)references to the court included a reference to any naval, military, or air force authority before whom the proceedings take place,

(c)references to a constable included references to a member of the provost staff, and

(d)in section 15, subsection (4) were omitted.

(2)Expressions used in this section have the same meaning as in sections 4 to 10 of the Road Traffic Act 1988.

94Proceedings in respect of offences in connection with Crown vehicles

(1)Where an offence under the Traffic Acts is alleged to have been committed in connection with a vehicle in the public service of the Crown, proceedings may be brought in respect of the offence against a person nominated for the purpose on behalf of the Crown.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, where any such offence is committed any person so nominated shall also be guilty of the offence as well as any person actually responsible for the offence (but without prejudice to proceedings against any person so responsible).

(3)Where any person is convicted of an offence by virtue of this section—

(a)no order is to be made on his conviction save an order imposing a fine,

(b)payment of any fine imposed on him in respect of that offence is not to be enforced against him, and

(c)apart from the imposition of any such fine, the conviction is to be disregarded for all purposes other than any appeal (whether by way of case stated or otherwise).

95Destination of Scottish fines

There shall be paid into the Consolidated Fund all fines imposed in respect of the following offences—

(a)offences committed in Scotland under the provisions of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 down to section 178 or regulations made under those provisions, except—

(i)offences under sections 1, 4(2), 17, 27, 31, 33, 37, 47, 67, 77, 169, 174(3) and (4) and 177, and

(ii)an offence under section 164(6) consisting of a contravention of subsection (3) or (4) of that section,

(b)offences under section 115 of the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 of which the offenders have been convicted on indictment in Scotland,

(c)offences committed in Scotland under the provisions of that Act down to the end of Part IX or regulations made under those provisions, being offences of which the offenders have been convicted otherwise than on indictment, except offences under—

(i)sections 28(3), 29(3), 47, 104(5) and (6), 105(5), 108(2) and (3),

(ii)the provisions of subsections (2) and (3) of section 108 as modified by subsections (2) and (3) of section 109, and

(iii)Schedule 12 (other than paragraph 3(5)),

(d)offences committed in Scotland under this Act.

96Meaning of “offence involving obligatory endorsement”

For the purposes of this Act, an offence involves obligatory endorsement if it is an offence under a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or an offence specified in column 1 of Part II of that Schedule and either—

(a)the word “obligatory” (without qualification) appears in column 6 (in the case of Part I) or column 3 (in the case of Part II) against the offence, or

(b)that word appears there qualified by conditions relating to the offence which are satisfied.

97Meaning of “offence involving obligatory disqualification” and “offence involving discretionary disqualification”

(1)For the purposes of this Act, an offence involves obligatory disqualification if it is an offence under a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or an offence specified in column 1 of Part II of that Schedule and either—

(a)the word “obligatory” (without qualification) appears in column 5 (in the case of Part I) or column 2 (in the case of Part II) against the offence, or

(b)that word appears there qualified by conditions or circumstances relating to the offence which are satisfied or obtain.

(2)For the purposes of this Act, an offence involves discretionary disqualification if it is an offence under a provision of the Traffic Acts specified in column 1 of Part I of Schedule 2 to this Act or an offence specified in column 1 of Part II of that Schedule and either—

(a)the word “discretionary” (without qualification) appears in column 5 (in the case of Part I) or column 2 (in the case of Part II) against the offence, or

(b)that word appears there qualified by conditions or circumstances relating to the offence which are satisfied or obtain.

98General interpretation

(1)In this Act—

  • “disqualified” means disqualified for holding or obtaining a licence and “disqualification” is to be construed accordingly,

  • “drive” has the same meaning as in the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988,

  • “licence” means a licence to drive a motor vehicle granted under Part III of that Act,

  • “provisional licence” means a licence granted by virtue of section 97(2) of that Act,

  • “the provisions connected with the licensing of drivers” means sections 7, 8, 22, 25 to 29, 31, 32, 34 to 48, 96 and 97 of this Act,

  • “road”—

    (a)

    in relation to England and Wales, means any highway and any other road to which the public has access, and includes bridges over which a road passes, and

    (b)

    in relation to Scotland, has the same meaning as in the [1984 c. 54.] Roads (Scotland) Act 1984,

  • “the Road Traffic Acts” means the [1988 c. 54.] Road Traffic Act 1988, the Road Traffic (Consequential Provisions) Act 1988 (so far as it reproduces the effect of provisions repealed by that Act) and this Act, and

  • “the Traffic Acts” means the Road Traffic Acts and the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984.

(2)Sections 185 and 186 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (meaning of “motor vehicle” and other expressions relating to vehicles) apply for the purposes of this Act as they apply for the purposes of that.

(3)In the Schedules to this Act—

  • RTRA” is used as an abbreviation for the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984, and

  • RTA” is used as an abbreviation for the Road Traffic Act 1988.

(4)Subject to any express exception, references in this Act to any Part of this Act include a reference to any Schedule to this Act so far as relating to that Part.

99Short title, commencement and extent

(1)This Act may be cited as the Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988.

(2)This Act, except so far as it may be brought into force under subsection (3) or (5) below, shall come into force at the end of the period of six months beginning with the day on which it is passed.

(3)The provisions mentioned in subsection (4) below, so far as they relate to Scotland, shall come into force on such day or days as the Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument appoint.

(4)Those provisions are—

  • section 27(4),

  • section 30, except so far as relating to sections 75 to 77, and

  • Part III, except sections 51, 52(1) to (3), 53, 62 to 78, 80, 81 and 83 to 90.

(5)Section 59 of this Act shall come into force on such day or days as the Secretary of State may by order made by statutory instrument appoint.

(6)An order under subsection (3) or (5) above may contain such transitional provisions and savings (whether or not involving the modification of any provisions contained in an Act or in subordinate legislation (within the meaning of the [1978 c. 30.] Interpretation Act 1978)) as appear to the Secretary of State necessary or expedient in connection with the provisions brought (wholly or partly) into force by the order, and different days may be appointed for different purposes.

(7)This Act, except as provided by section 93, does not extend to Northern Ireland.

SCHEDULES

Sections 1 etc.

SCHEDULE 1Offences to which sections 1, 6, 11 and 12(1) apply

1(1)Where section 1, 6, 11 or 12(1) of this Act is shown in column 3 of this Schedule against a provision of the [1988 c. 52.] Road Traffic Act 1988 specified in column 1, the section in question applies to an offence under that provision.

(2)The general nature of the offence is indicated in column 2.

2Section 6 also applies—

(a)to an offence under section 67 of this Act, and

(b)in relation to Scotland, to an offence under section 173 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (forgery, etc., of licences, test certificates, certificates of insurance and other documents and things).

3Section 11 also applies to—

(a)any offence to which section 112 of the [1984 c. 27.] Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 (information as to identity of driver or rider) applies except an offence under section 61(5) of that Act,

(b)any offence which is punishable under section 91 of this Act, and

(c)any offence against any other enactment relating to the use of vehicles on roads.

4Section 12(1) also applies to—

(a)any offence which is punishable under section 91 of this Act, and

(b)any offence against any other enactment relating to the use of vehicles on roads.

RTA section 1Causing death by reckless driving.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 2Reckless driving.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 3Careless, and inconsiderate, driving.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 4Driving or attempting to drive, or being in charge of a motor vehicle, when unfit to drive through drink or drugs.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 5Driving or attempting to drive, or being in charge of a motor vehicle, with excess alcohol in breath, blood or urine.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 6Failing to provide a specimen of breath for a breath test.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 7Failing to provide specimen for analysis or laboratory test.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 12Motor racing and speed trials.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 14Driving or riding in a motor vehicle in contravention of regulations requiring wearing of seat belts.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 15Driving motor vehicle with child not wearing seat belt.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 19Prohibition of parking of heavy commercial vehicles on verges and footways.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 22Leaving vehicles in dangerous positions.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 23Carrying passenger on motor-cycle contrary to section 23.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 24Carrying passenger on bicycle contrary to section 24.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 25Tampering with motor vehicles.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 26(1)Holding or getting onto vehicle in order to be carried.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 26(2)Holding onto vehicle in order to be towed.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 28Reckless cycling.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 29Careless, and inconsiderate, cycling.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 30Cycling when unfit through drink or drugs.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 31Unauthorised or irregular cycle racing, or trials of speed.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 33Unauthorised motor vehicle trial on footpaths or bridleways.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 34Driving motor vehicles elsewhere than on roads.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 35Failing to comply with traffic directions.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 36Failing to comply with traffic signs.Sections 1, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 42Contravention of construction and use regulations.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 47Using, etc., vehicle without required test certificate being in force.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 53Using, etc., goods vehicle without required plating certificate or goods vehicle test certificate being in force, or where Secretary of State is required by regulations under section 49 to be notified of an alteration to the vehicle or its equipment but has not been notified.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 63Using, etc., vehicle without required certificate being in force showing that it, or a part fitted to it, complies with type approval requirements applicable to it, or using, etc., certain goods vehicles for drawing trailer when plating certificate does not specify maximum laden weight for vehicle and trailer, or using, etc., goods vehicle where Secretary of State has not been but is required to be notified under section 48 of alteration to it or its equipment.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 71Driving, etc., goods vehicle in contravention of prohibition on driving it as being unfit for service or overloaded, or refusing, neglecting or otherwise failing to comply with a direction to remove a goods vehicle found overloaded.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 78Failing to comply with requirement about weighing motor vehicle or obstructing authorised person.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 87(1)Driving without a licence.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 87(2)Causing or permitting a person to drive without a licence.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 94Failure to notify the Secretary of State of onset of, or deterioration in, relevant or prospective disability.Section 6 of this Act.
RTA section 97Failing to comply with any conditions prescribed for driving under provisional licence.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 98Failing to comply with any conditions prescribed for driving under provisional licence where conditions applicable to driving under full licence.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 99Driving licence holder failing, when his particulars become incorrect, to surrender licence and give particulars.Section 6 of this Act.
RTA section 103(1)(a)Obtaining driving licence while disqualified.Section 6 of this Act.
RTA section 103(1)(b)Driving while disqualified.Sections 6, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 110(1)Driving HGV without HGV driver’s licence.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 110(2)Causing or permitting person to drive HGV without HGV driver’s licence.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 112(6)Failing to comply with conditions of HGV driver’s licence.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 112(7)Causing or permitting a person under 21 to drive HGV in contravention of conditions of HGV driver’s licence.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 143Using motor vehicle, or causing or permitting it to be used, while uninsured or unsecured against third party risks.Sections 6, 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 163Failing to stop vehicle when required by constable.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 164(6)Failing to produce driving licence to constable or to state date of birth.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 165(3)Failing to give constable certain names and addresses or to produce certificate of insurance or certain test and other like certificates.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 165(6)Supervisor of learner driver failing to give constable certain names and addresses.Section 11 of this Act.
RTA section 168Refusing to give, or giving false, name and address in case of reckless, careless or inconsiderate driving or cycling.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 170Failure by driver to stop, report accident or give information or documents.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 171Failure by owner of motor vehicle to give police information for verifying compliance with requirement of compulsory insurance or security.Sections 11 and 12(1) of this Act.
RTA section 174(1) or (6)Making false statements in connection with licences under this Act and with registration as an approved driving instructor; or making false statement or withholding material information in order to obtain the issue of insurance certificates, etc.Section 6 of this Act.
RTA section 175Issuing false documents.Section 6 of this Act.

Section 9 etc.

SCHEDULE 2Prosecution and Punishment of Offences

Part IOffences under the Traffic Acts

Offences under the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984

RTRA section 5Contravention of traffic regulation order.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 8Contravention of order regulating traffic in Greater London.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 11Contravention of experimental traffic order.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 13Contravention of experimental traffic scheme in Greater London.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 16 (1)Contravention of temporary prohibition or restriction.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 17 (4)Use of special road contrary to scheme or regulations.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed in respect of a motor vehicle otherwise than by unlawfully stopping or allowing the vehicle to remain at rest on a part of a special road on which vehicles are in certain circumstances permitted to remain at rest.Obligatory if committed as mentioned in the entry in column 5.3
RTRA section 18 (3)One-way traffic on trunk road.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 20 (5)Contravention of prohibition or restriction for roads of certain classes.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 25 (5)Contravention of pedestrian crossing regulations.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.Obligatory if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.3
RTRA section 28 (3)Not stopping at school crossing.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.Obligatory if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.3
RTRA section 29 (3)Contravention of order relating to street playground.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.Obligatory if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.2
RTRA section 30 (5)As above (Greater London).Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.Obligatory if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.2
RTRA section 35 (4)Contravention of order as to use of parking place.Summarily.
(a)

Level 3 on the standard scale in the case of an offence committed by a person in a street parking place reserved for disabled persons' vehicles or in an off-street parking place reserved for such vehicles, where that person would not have been guilty of that offence if the motor vehicle in respect of which it was committed had been a disabled person’s vehicle.

(b)

Level 2 on the standard scale in any other case.

RTRA section 35 (5)Interference with apparatus for collecting charges.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 35 (7)Plying for hire in parking place.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 43 (5)Unauthorised disclosure of information in respect of licensed parking place.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 43 (10)Failure to comply with term or conditions of licence to operate parking place.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 43 (12)Operation of public off-street parking place without licence.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 47 (1)Contraventions relating to designated parking places.Summarily.
(a)

Level 3 on the standard scale in the case of an offence committed by a person in a street parking place reserved for disabled persons' vehicles where that person would not have been guilty of that offence if the motor vehicle in respect of which it was committed had been a disabled person’s vehicle.

(b)

Level 2 in any other case.

RTRA section 47 (3)Tampering with parking meter.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 52 (1)Misuse of parking device.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 53 (5)Contravention of certain provisions of designation orders.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 53 (6)Other contraventions of designation orders.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 61 (5)Unauthorised use of loading area.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 88 (7)Contravention of minimum speed limit.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 89 (1)Exceeding speed limit.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.3
RTRA section 104 (5)Interference with notice as to immobilisation device.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 104 (6)Interference with immobilisation device.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 105 (5)Misuse of disabled person’s badge (immobilisation devices).Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 108 (2) (or that subsection as modified by section 109 (2) and (3)).Non-compliance with notice (excess charge).Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 108 (3) (or that subsection as modified by section 109 (2) and (3)).False response to notice (excess charge).Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 112 (4)Failure to give information as to identity of driver.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 115 (1)Mishandling or faking parking documents.(a) Summarily.(a) The statutory maximum.
(b) On indictment.(b) 2 years.
RTRA section 115 (2)False statement for procuring authorisation.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 116 (1)Non-delivery of suspect document or article.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 117Wrongful use of disabled person’s badge.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTRA section 129 (3)Failure to give evidence at inquiry.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.

Offences under the Road Traffic Act 1988

RTA section 1Causing death by reckless driving.On indictment.5 years.Obligatory.Obligatory.4
RTA section 2Reckless driving.(a) Summarily.(a) 6 months or the statutory maximum or both.(i) Obligatory, if committed within 3 years after a previous conviction of an offence under RTA section 1 or 2.Obligatory.(i) 4, if committed as mentioned in column (5)(i).
(ii) Discretionary, if committed otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (i) above.(ii) 10, if committed otherwise than as mentioned in column (5)(i).
(b) On indictment.(b) 2 years or a fine or both.
RTA section 3Careless, and inconsiderate, driving.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.3-9
RTA section 4(1)Driving or attempting to drive when unfit to drive through drink or drugs.Summarily.6 months or level 5 on the standard scale or both.Obligatory.Obligatory.4
RTA section 4(2)Being in charge of a motor vehicle when unfit to drive through drink or drugs.Summarily.3 months or level 4 on the standard scale or both.Discretionary.Obligatory.10
RTA section 5(1)(a)Driving or attempting to drive with excess alcohol in breath, blood or urine.Summarily.6 months or level 5 on the standard scale or both.Obligatory.Obligatory.4
RTA section 5(1)(b)Being in charge of a motor vehicle with excess alcohol in breath, blood or urine.Summarily.3 months or level 4 on the standard scale or both.Discretionary.Obligatory.10
RTA section 6Failing to provide a specimen of breath for a breath test.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.4
RTA section 7Failing to provide specimen for analysis or laboratory test.Summarily.(a) Where the specimen was required to ascertain ability to drive or proportion of alcohol at the time offender was driving or attempting to drive, 6 months or level 5 on the standard scale or both.(a) Obligatory in case mentioned in column 4(a).Obligatory.(a) 4 in case mentioned in column 4(a).
(b) In any other case, 3 months or level 4 on the standard scale or both.(b) Discretionary in any other case.(b) 10 in any other case.
RTA section 12Motor racing and speed trials on public ways.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.Obligatory.Obligatory.4
RTA section 13Other unauthorised or irregular competitions or trials on public ways.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 14Driving or riding in a motor vehicle in contravention of regulations requiring wearing of seat belts.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTA section 15(2)Driving motor vehicle with child in front not wearing seat belt.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTA section 15(4)Driving motor vehicle with child in rear not wearing seat belt.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 16Driving or riding motor cycles in contravention of regulations requiring wearing of protective headgear.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTA section 17Selling, etc., helmet not of the prescribed type as helmet for affording protection for motor cyclists.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 18(3)Contravention of regulations with respect to use of head-worn appliances on motor cycles.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTA section 18(4)Selling, etc., appliance not of prescribed type as approved for use on motor cycles.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 19Prohibition of parking of heavy commercial vehicles on verges, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 21Driving or parking on cycle track.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 22Leaving vehicles in dangerous positions.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.Obligatory if committed in respect of a motor vehicle.3
RTA section 23Carrying passenger on motor-cycle contrary to section 23.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.1
RTA section 24Carrying passenger on bicycle contrary to section 24.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 25Tampering with motor vehicles.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 26Holding or getting on to vehicle, etc., in order to be towed or carried.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 27Dogs on designated roads without being held on lead.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 28Reckless cycling.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 29Careless, and inconsiderate, cycling.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 30Cycling when unfit through drink or drugs.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 31Unauthorised or irregular cycle racing or trials of speed on public ways.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 32Contravening prohibition on persons under 14 driving electrically assisted pedal cycles.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
RTA section 33Unauthorised motor vehicle trial on footpaths or bridleways.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 34Driving motor vehicles elsewhere than on roads.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 35Failing to comply with traffic directions.SummarilyLevel 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary, if committed in respect of a motor vehicle by failure to comply with a direction of a constable or traffic warden.Obligatory if committed as described in column 5.3
RTA section 36Failing to comply with traffic signs.SummarilyLevel 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary, if committed in respect of a motor vehicle by failure to comply with an indication given by a sign specified for the purposes of this paragraph in regulations under RTA section 36.Obligatory if committed as described in column 5.3
RTA section 37Pedestrian failing to stop when directed by constable regulating traffic.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 42Contravention of construction and use regulations.Summarily.(a) Level 5 on the standard scale in the case of an offence of using, or causing or permitting the use of, a goods vehicle or a vehicle adapted to carry more than eight passengers—(a) Discretionary if committed by using, or causing or permitting the use of, any motor vehicle or trailer—Obligatory if committed as described in the entry in column 5.3
(i) so as to cause, or to be likely to cause, danger by the condition of the vehicle or its parts or accessories, the number of passengers carried by it, or the weight, distribution, packing or adjustment of its load, or(i) as described in paragraph (a)(i) or (iii) in the entry in column 4, or
(ii) in breach of a construction and use requirement (within the meaning of Part II of the Road Traffic Act 1988) as to brakes, steering-gear, tyres or any description of weight, or(ii) in breach of a construction and use requirement (within the meaning of Part II of that Act) as to brakes, steering-gear, or tyres.
(iii) for any purpose for which it is so unsuitable as to cause or to be likely to cause danger.(b) Discretionary if committed by carrying on a motor vehicle or trailer a load which, by reason of its insecurity or position, is likely to cause danger.
(b) Level 5 on the standard scale in the case of an offence of carrying on a goods vehicle a load which, by reason of its insecurity or position, is likely to cause danger.
(c) Level 4 on the standard scale in any other case.
RTA section 47Using, etc., vehicle without required test certificate being in force.Summarily.(a) Level 4 on the standard scale in the case of a vehicle adapted to carry more than eight passengers.
(b) Level 3 on the standard scale in any other case.
Regulations under RTA section 49 made by virtue of section 51(2)Contravention of requirement of regulations (which is declared by regulations to be an offence) that driver of goods vehicle being tested be present throughout test or drive, etc., vehicle as and when directed.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 53(1)Using, etc., goods vehicle without required plating certificate being in force.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 53(2)Using, etc., goods vehicle without required goods vehicle test certificate being in force.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 53(3)Using, etc., goods vehicle where Secretary of State is required by regulations under section 49 to be notified of an alteration to the vehicle or its equipment but has not been notified.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
Regulations under RTA section 61 made by virtue of subsection (4).Contravention of requirement of regulations (which is declared by regulations to be an offence) that driver of goods vehicle being tested after notifiable alteration be present throughout test and drive, etc., vehicle as and when directed.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 63(1)Using, etc., goods vehicle without required certificate being in force showing that it complies with type approval requirements applicable to it.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 63(2)Using, etc., certain goods vehicles for drawing trailer when plating certificate does not specify maximum laden weight for vehicle and trailer.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 63(3)Using, etc., goods vehicle where Secretary of State is required to be notified under section 59 of alteration to it or its equipment but has not been notified.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 64Using goods vehicle with unauthorised weights as well as authorised weights marked on it.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 65Supplying vehicle or vehicle part without required certificate being in force showing that it complies with type approval requirements applicable to it.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTA section 67Obstructing testing of vehicle by examiner on road or failing to comply with requirements of RTA section 67 or Schedule 2.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 68Obstructing inspection, etc., of goods vehicle by examiner or failing to comply with requirement to take goods vehicle for inspection.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 71Driving, etc., goods vehicle in contravention of prohibition on driving it as being unfit for service, or refusing, neglecting or otherwise failing to comply with direction to remove a goods vehicle found overloaded.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTA section 74Contravention of regulations requiring goods vehicle operator to inspect, and keep records of inspection of, goods vehicles.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 75Selling, etc., unroadworthy vehicle or trailer or altering vehicle or trailer so as to make it unroadworthy.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTA section 76(1)Fitting of defective or unsuitable vehicle parts.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTA section 76(3)Supplying defective or unsuitable vehicle parts.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 76(8)Obstructing examiner testing vehicles to ascertain whether defective or unsuitable part has been fitted, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 77Obstructing examiner testing condition of used vehicles at sale rooms, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 78Failing to comply with requirement about weighing motor vehicle or obstructing authorised person.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTA section 81Selling, etc., pedal cycle in contravention of regulations as to brakes, bells, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 83Selling, etc., wrongly made tail lamps or reflectors.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.
RTA section 87(1)Driving without a licence.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary if committed by driving a motor vehicle in a case where either no licence authorising the driving of that vehicle could have been granted to the offender or, if a provisional (but no other) licence to drive it could have been granted to him, the driving would not have complied with the conditions of the licence.Obligatory if committed as described in the entry in column 5.2
RTA section 87(2)Causing or permitting a person to drive without a licence.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 94Failure to notify Secretary of State of onset of, or deterioration in, relevant or prospective disability.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 96Driving with uncorrected defective eyesight, or refusing to submit to test of eyesight.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.2
RTA section 97Failing to comply with any conditions prescribed for driving under provisional licence.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.2
RTA section 98Failing to comply with any conditions prescribed for driving under provisional licence where conditions applicable to driving under full licence.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.2
RTA section 99Driving licence holder failing, when his particulars become incorrect, to surrender licence and give particulars.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 103(1)(a)Obtaining driving licence while disqualified.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 103(1)(b)Driving while disqualified.(a) Summarily, in England and Wales.(a) 6 months or level 5 on the standard scale or both.Discretionary.Obligatory.2 where offender was disqualified as under age,
6 where offender was disqualified by order of court.
(b) Summarily, in Scotland.(b) 6 months or the statutory maximum or both.
(c) On indictment, in Scotland.(c) 12 months or a fine or both.
RTA section 109Failing to produce to court Northern Ireland driving licence.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 110Driving, or causing or permitting person to drive, HGV without HGV driver’s licence.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 112Failing to comply with conditions of HGV driver’s licence, or causing or permitting person under 21 to drive HGV in contravention of such conditions.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
Regulations made by virtue of RTA section 117(4)Contravention of provision of regulations (which is declared by regulations to be an offence) about HGV drivers' licences.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 123(4)Giving of paid driving instruction by unregistered and unlicensed persons or their employers.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 123(6)Giving of paid instruction without there being exhibited on the motor car a certificate of registration or a licence under RTA Part V.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 135Unregistered instructor using title or displaying badge, etc., prescribed for registered instructor, or employer using such title, etc., in relation to his unregistered instructor or issuing misleading advertisement, etc.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 136Failure of instructor to surrender to Registrar certificate or licence.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 137Failing to produce certificate of registration or licence as driving instructor.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 143Using motor vehicle while uninsured or unsecured against third-party risks.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.6 - 8
RTA section 147Failing to surrender certificate of insurance or security to insurer on cancellation or to make statutory declaration of loss or destruction.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 154Failing to give information, or wilfully making a false statement, as to insurance or security when claim made.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 163Failing to stop motor vehicle or cycle when required by constable.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 164Failing to produce driving licence to constable or to state date of birth, or failing to provide the Secretary of State with evidence of date of birth, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 165Failing to give constable certain names and addresses or to produce certain documents.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 168Refusing to give, or giving false, name and address in case of reckless, careless or inconsiderate driving or cycling.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 169Pedestrian failing to give constable his name and address after failing to stop when directed by constable controlling traffic.Summarily.Level 1 on the standard scale.
RTA section 170(4)Failing to stop after accident and give particulars or report accident.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.Discretionary.Obligatory.8 - 10
RTA section 170(7)Failure by driver, in case of accident involving injury to another, to produce evidence of insurance or security or to report accident.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 171Failure by owner of motor vehicle to give police information for verifying compliance with requirement of compulsory insurance or security.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 172Failure of person keeping vehicle and others to give police information as to identity of driver, etc., in the case of certain offences.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 173Forgery, etc., of licences, test certificates, certificates of insurance and other documents and things.(a) Summarily.(a) The statutory maximum.
(b) On indictment.(b) 2 years.
RTA section 174Making certain false statements, etc., and withholding certain material information.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 175Issuing false documents.Summarily.Level 4 on the standard scale.
RTA section 177Impersonation of, or of person employed by, authorised examiner.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 178Taking, etc., in Scotland a motor vehicle without authority or, knowing that it has been so taken, driving it or allowing oneself to be carried in it without authority.(a) Summarily.(a) 3 months or the statutory maximum or both.Discretionary.Obligatory.8
(b) On indictment.(b) 12 months or a fine or both.
RTA section 180Failing to attend, give evidence or produce documents to, inquiry held by Secretary of State, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA section 181Obstructing inspection of vehicles after accident.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
RTA Schedule 1 paragraph 6Applying warranty to protective helmet or appliance in defending proceedings under RTA section 17 or 18(4) where no warranty given, or applying false warranty.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.

Offences under this Act

Section 25 of this Act.Failing to give information as to date of birth or sex to court or to provide Secretary of State with evidence of date of birth, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
Section 26 of this Act.Failing to produce driving licence to court making order for interim disqualification on committal for sentence, etc.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
Section 27 of this Act.Failing to produce licence to court for endorsement on conviction of offence involving obligatory endorsement or on committal for sentence, etc., for offence involving obligatory or discretionary disqualification when no interim disqualification ordered.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
Section 45 of this Act.Applying for or obtaining licence without giving particulars of current endorsement.Summarily.Level 3 on the standard scale.
Section 62 of this Act.Removing fixed penalty notice fixed to vehicle.Summarily.Level 2 on the standard scale.
Section 67 of this Act.False statement in response to notice to owner.Summarily.Level 5 on the standard scale.

Part IIOther offences

Manslaughter or, in Scotland, culpable homicide by the driver of a motor vehicle.Obligatory.Obligatory.4
Stealing or attempting to steal a motor vehicle.Discretionary.Obligatory.8
An offence or attempt to commit an offence in respect of a motor vehicle under section 12 of the Theft Act 1968 (taking conveyance without consent of owner etc. or, knowing it has been so taken, driving it or allowing oneself to be carried in it).Discretionary.Obligatory.8
An offence under section 25 of the Theft Act 1968 (going equipped for stealing, etc.) committed with reference to the theft or taking of motor vehicles.DiscretionaryObligatory.8

Section 51.

SCHEDULE 3Fixed Penalty Offences

Offences under the Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971 (c. 10)

Section 12(4) of the Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971.Using or keeping a vehicle on a public road without licence being exhibited in the prescribed manner.
Section 22 (1) of that Act.Driving or keeping a vehicle without required registration mark or hackney carriage sign.
Section 22 (2) of that Act.Driving or keeping a vehicle with registration mark or hackney carriage sign obscured, etc.

Offence under the Greater London Council (General Powers) Act 1974 (c. xxiv)

Section 15 of the Greater London Council (General Powers) Act 1974.Parking vehicles on footways, verges, etc.

Offence under the Highways Act 1980 (c. 66)

Section 137 of the Highways Act 1980.Obstructing a highway, but only where the offence is committed in respect of a vehicle.

Offences under the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 (c. 27)

RTRA section 5(1)Using a vehicle in contravention of a traffic regulation order outside Greater London.
RTRA section 8(1)Breach of traffic regulation order in Greater London.
RTRA section 11Breach of experimental traffic order.
RTRA section 13Breach of experimental traffic scheme regulations in Greater London.
RTRA section 16(1)Using a vehicle in contravention of temporary prohibition or restriction of traffic in case of execution of works, etc.
RTRA section 17(4)Wrongful use of special road.
RTRA section 18(3)Using a vehicle in contravention of provision for one-way traffic on trunk road.
RTRA section 20(5)Driving a vehicle in contravention of order prohibiting or restricting driving vehicles on certain classes of roads.
RTRA section 25(5)Breach of pedestrian crossing regulations, except an offence in respect of a moving motor vehicle.
RTRA section 29(3)Using a vehicle in contravention of a street playground order outside Greater London.
RTRA section 30(5)Using a vehicle in contravention of a street playground order in Greater London.
RTRA section 35(4)Breach of an order regulating the use, etc., of a parking place provided by a local authority, but only where the offence is committed in relation to a parking place provided on a road.
RTRA section 47(1)Breach of a provision of a parking place designation order and other offences committed in relation to a parking place designated by such an order, except any offence of failing to pay an excess charge within the meaning of section 46.
RTRA section 53(5)Using vehicle in contravention of any provision of a parking place designation order having effect by virtue of section 53(1)(a) (inclusion of certain traffic regulation provisions).
RTRA section 53(6)Breach of a provision of a parking place designation order having effect by virtue of section 53(1)(b) (use of any part of a road for parking without charge).
RTRA section 88(7)Driving a motor vehicle in contravention of an order imposing a minimum speed limit under section 88(1)(b).
RTRA section 89(1)Speeding offences under RTRA and other Acts.

Offences under the Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52)

RTA section 14Breach of regulations requiring wearing of seat belts.
RTA section 15(2)Breach of restriction on carrying children in the front of vehicles.
RTA section 16Breach of regulations relating to protective headgear for motor cycle drivers and passengers.
RTA section 19Parking a heavy commercial vehicle on verge or footway.
RTA section 22Leaving vehicle in dangerous position.
RTA section 23Unlawful carrying of passengers on motor cycles.
RTA section 34Driving motor vehicle elsewhere than on a road.
RTA section 35Failure to comply with traffic directions.
RTA section 36Failure to comply with traffic signs.
RTA section 42Breach of construction and use regulations; or the use on a road of a motor vehicle or trailer which does not comply with construction and use regulations.
RTA section 87(1)Driving vehicle without requisite licence.
RTA section 97Breach of provisional licence conditions.
RTA section 163Failure to stop vehicle on being so required by constable in uniform.

Section 68.

SCHEDULE 4Statutory Statements

Part IStatutory Statement of Ownership or Hiring

1(1)For the purposes of Part III of this Act, a statutory statement of ownership is a statement on an official form signed by the person providing it and stating whether he was the owner of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence and, if he was not the owner of the vehicle at that time, whether—

(a)he was never the owner, or

(b)he ceased to be the owner before, or became the owner after, that time,

and in a case within paragraph (b) above, stating, if the information is in his possession, the name and address of the person to whom, and the date on which, he disposed of the vehicle or (as the case may be) the name and address of the person from whom, and the date on which, he acquired it.

(2)An official form for a statutory statement of ownership shall—

(a)indicate that the person providing the statement in response to a notice to owner relating to an offence may give notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence in the manner specified in the form, and

(b)direct the attention of any person proposing to complete the form to the information provided in accordance with paragraph 3(3) below in any official form for a statutory statement of facts.

2(1)For the purposes of Part III of this Act, a statutory statement of hiring is a statement on an official form, signed by the person providing it, being a person by whom a statement of liability was signed, and stating—

(a)whether at the time of the alleged offence the vehicle was let to him under the hiring agreement to which the statement of liability refers, and

(b)if it was not, the date on which he returned the vehicle to the possession of the vehicle-hire firm concerned.

(2)An official form for a statutory statement of hiring shall—

(a)indicate that the person providing the statement in pursuance of a notice relating to an offence served under section 63 of this Act by virtue of section 66 of this Act may give notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence in the manner specified in the form, and

(b)direct the attention of any person proposing to complete the form to the information provided in accordance with paragraph 3(3) below in any official form for a statutory statement of facts.

(3)In sub-paragraph (1) above “statement of liability”, “hiring agreement” and “vehicle-hire firm” have the same meanings as in section 66 of this Act.

Part IIStatutory Statement of Facts

3(1)For the purposes of Part III of this Act, a statutory statement of facts is a statement on an official form, signed by the person providing it, which—

(a)states that the person providing it was not the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence, and

(b)states the name and address at the time when the statement is provided of the person who was the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence.

(2)A statutory statement of facts has effect as a notice given by the driver requesting a hearing in respect of the offence if it is signed by the person identified in the statement as the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence.

(3)An official form for a statutory statement of facts shall indicate—

(a)that if a person identified in the statement as the driver of the vehicle at the time of the alleged offence signs the statement he will be regarded as having given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence,

(b)that the person on whom the notice to owner relating to the offence is served may not give notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence on his own account if he provides a statutory statement of facts signed by a person so identified, and

(c)that if the fixed penalty is not paid before the end of the period stated in the notice to owner as the period for response to the notice, a sum determined by reference to that fixed penalty may be registered without any court hearing for enforcement as a fine against the person on whom the notice to owner is served, unless he has given notice requesting a hearing in respect of the offence,

but that, in a case within paragraph (c) above, the sum in question may not be so registered if the person on whom the notice to owner is served provides a statutory statement of facts as mentioned in paragraph (b) above until two months have elapsed from the end of the period so stated without service of a summons or, in Scotland, complaint in respect of the offence on the person identified in that statement as the driver of the vehicle.

Section 75.

SCHEDULE 5Scotland: Additional Offences Open to Conditional Offer

Offence under the Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971 (c. 10)

Section 15(2) of the Vehicles (Excise) Act 1971.Failure to surrender excise licence when required to do so by Secretary of State.

Offence under the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 (c. 27)

Section 53(6) of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984.Breach of provision of parking place designation order having effect by virtue of section 53(1)(b).

Offences under the Roads (Scotland) Act 1984 (c. 54)

Section 65(1) of the Roads (Scotland) Act 1984Conveying insecure load on drawn vehicle.
Section 65(2) of that ActPermitting child to drive drawn vehicle.
Section 95(1) of that ActDropping and failing to remove mud, etc.
Section 129(3) of that Act.Carrying projecting load.
Section 129(5) of that Act.Driving on footway, etc.
Section 129(6) of that Act.Parking motor vehicle on cycle track.

Offences under the Road Traffic Act 1988 (c. 52)

RTA section 24Unlawful carrying of passengers on bicycle.
RTA section 26Holding or getting onto a moving vehicle to be carried, or holding onto a moving vehicle to be towed.
RTA section 27Causing or permitting dog to be on designated road without a lead.
RTA section 37Failure by pedestrians to comply with directions of constable regulating vehicular traffic.
RTA section 47Using a vehicle without a valid test certificate.
Regulations made by virtue of RTA section 51(2)Failure of driver of goods vehicle to be present throughout testing of vehicle.
RTA section 53(1)Using goods vehicle without valid required plating certificate.
RTA section 53(3)Using altered goods vehicle where alteration not notified to Secretary of State under section 49.
Regulations made by virtue of RTA section 61(4)Failure of driver of vehicle to be present throughout testing of vehicle after notification of alteration.
RTA section 63Using vehicle without valid type approval certificate, or using goods vehicle to draw trailer where plating certificate does not state maximum laden weight for vehicle and trailer or using altered vehicle where alteration not notified to Secretary of State under section 59.
RTA section 64Using goods vehicle with unauthorised as well as authorised weights marked on it.
RTA section 87(2)Causing or permitting person to drive without licence.
RTA section 94(3)Failure to notify relevant or prospective disability.
RTA section 96(1)Driving with uncorrected defective eyesight.
RTA section 99(5)Driving licence holder failing, when his particulars become incorrect, to surrender licence and give particulars.
RTA section 110Driving HGV without HGV driver’s licence or causing or permitting person to drive HGV without HGV driver’s licence.
RTA section 112Failure to comply with conditions of HGV driver’s licence or employing person under 21 to drive HGV in contravention of conditions of his licence.
Regulations under RTA section 117Contravention of provisions of regulations about HGV drivers' licences which is declared by the regulations to be an offence.
RTA section 136Failure of driving instructor to surrender licence or certificate to Registrar when required.
RTA section 137Failure to produce certificate of registration or licence as driving instructor.
RTA section 147Failure to surrender certificate of insurance on cancellation or to make statutory declaration.
RTA section 164(8)Failure to furnish Secretary of State with evidence of date of birth, etc.
RTA section 165Failure to give constable certain names and addresses or to produce certificate of insurance or certain test and other like documents or failure of person supervising learner driver to give constable certain names and addresses.
RTA section 169Failure of pedestrian contravening section 37 to give name and address to constable.
RTA section 170Failure of driver in accident involving injury to another to produce evidence of insurance or report the accident.

Offence under this Act

Section 25(6) of this ActFailure to provide Secretary of State when required with evidence of date of birth.

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