Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

Miscellaneous: literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works

57Anonymous or pseudonymous works: acts permitted on assumptions as to expiry of copyright or death of author

(1)Copyright in a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work is not infringed by an act done at a time when, or in pursuance of arrangements made at a time when—

(a)it is not possible by reasonable inquiry to ascertain the identity of the author, and

(b)it is reasonable to assume—

(i)that copyright has expired, or

(ii)that the author died 50 years or more before the beginning of the calendar year in which the act is done or the arrangements are made.

(2)Subsection (1)(b)(ii) does not apply in relation to—

(a)a work in which Crown copyright subsists, or

(b)a work in which copyright originally vested in an international organisation by virtue of section 168 and in respect of which an Order under that section specifies a copyright period longer than 50 years.

(3)In relation to a work of joint authorship—

(a)the reference in subsection (1) to its being possible to ascertain the identity of the author shall be construed as a reference to its being possible to ascertain the identity of any of the authors, and

(b)the reference in subsection (1)(b)(ii) to the author having died shall be construed as a reference to all the authors having died.

58Use of notes or recordings of spoken words in certain cases

(1)Where a record of spoken words is made, in writing or otherwise, for the purpose—

(a)of reporting current events, or

(b)of broadcasting or including in a cable programme service the whole or part of the work,

it is not an infringement of any copyright in the words as a literary work to use the record or material taken from it (or to copy the record, or any such material, and use the copy) for that purpose, provided the following conditions are met.

(2)The conditions are that—

(a)the record is a direct record of the spoken words and is not taken from a previous record or from a broadcast or cable programme;

(b)the making of the record was not prohibited by the speaker and, where copyright already subsisted in the work, did not infringe copyright;

(c)the use made of the record or material taken from it is not of a kind prohibited by or on behalf of the speaker or copyright owner before the record was made; and

(d)the use is by or with the authority of a person who is lawfully in possession of the record.

59Public reading or recitation

(1)The reading or recitation in public by one person of a reasonable extract from a published literary or dramatic work does not infringe any copyright in the work if it is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgement.

(2)Copyright in a work is not infringed by the making of a sound recording, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of a reading or recitation which by virtue of subsection (1) does not infringe copyright in the work, provided that the recording, broadcast or cable programme consists mainly of material in relation to which it is not necessary to rely on that subsection.

60Abstracts of scientific or technical articles

(1)Where an article on a scientific or technical subject is published in a periodical accompanied by an abstract indicating the contents of the article, it is not an infringement of copyright in the abstract, or in the article, to copy the abstract or issue copies of it to the public.

(2)This section does not apply if or to the extent that there is a licensing scheme certified for the purposes of this section under section 143 providing for the grant of licences.

61Recordings of folksongs

(1)A sound recording of a performance of a song may be made for the purpose of including it in an archive maintained by a designated body without infringing any copyright in the words as a literary work or in the accompanying musical work, provided the conditions in subsection (2) below are met.

(2)The conditions are that—

(a)the words are unpublished and of unknown authorship at the time the recording is made,

(b)the making of the recording does not infringe any other copyright, and

(c)its making is not prohibited by any performer.

(3)Copies of a sound recording made in reliance on subsection (1) and included in an archive maintained by a designated body may, if the prescribed conditions are met, be made and supplied by the archivist without infringing copyright in the recording or the works included in it.

(4)The prescribed conditions shall include the following—

(a)that copies are only supplied to persons satisfying the archivist that they require them for purposes of research or private study and will not use them for any other purpose, and

(b)that no person is furnished with more than one copy of the same recording.

(5)In this section—

(a)“designated” means designated for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State, who shall not designate a body unless satisfied that it is not established or conducted for profit,

(b)“prescribed” means prescribed for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State, and

(c)references to the archivist include a person acting on his behalf.

(6)An order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.

62Representation of certain artistic works on public display

(1)This section applies to—

(a)buildings, and

(b)sculptures, models for buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.

(2)The copyright in such a work is not infringed by—

(a)making a graphic work representing it,

(b)making a photograph or film of it, or

(c)broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.

(3)Nor is the copyright infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of the copyright.

63Advertisement of sale of artistic work

(1)It is not an infringement of copyright in an artistic work to copy it, or to issue copies to the public, for the purpose of advertising the sale of the work.

(2)Where a copy which would otherwise be an infringing copy is made in accordance with this section but is subsequently dealt with for any other purpose, it shall be treated as an infringing copy for the purposes of that dealing, and if that dealing infringes copyright for all subsequent purposes.

For this purpose “dealt with” means sold or let for hire, offered or exposed for sale or hire, exhibited in public or distributed.

64Making of subsequent works by same artist

Where the author of an artistic work is not the copyright owner, he does not infringe the copyright by copying the work in making another artistic work, provided he does not repeat or imitate the main design of the earlier work.

65Reconstruction of buildings

Anything done for the purposes of reconstructing a building does not infringe any copyright—

(a)in the building, or

(b)in any drawings or plans in accordance with which the building was, by or with the licence of the copyright owner, constructed.